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Sample records for design eye point

  1. Design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Keyi

    2015-12-01

    In this research, design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye is presented. The imaging system consists of three layers of lens arrays. In each channel, two lenses are designed to control the angular magnification and a field lens is added to improve the image quality and extend the field of view. Aspherical surfaces are introduced to improve the image quality. Ray tracing results demonstrate that the light from the same object point is focused at the same imaging point through different channels. Therefore the system has much higher energy efficiency than conventional spherical apposition compound eye.

  2. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  3. Head and eye movement as pointing modalities for eyewear computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2014-01-01

    While the new generation of eyewear computers have increased expectations of a wearable computer, providing input to these devices is still challenging. Hand-held devices, voice commands, and hand gestures have already been explored to provide input to the wearable devices. In this paper, we...... examined using head and eye movements to point on a graphical user interface of a wearable computer. The performance of users in head and eye pointing has been compared with mouse pointing as a baseline method. The result of our experiment showed that the eye pointing is significantly faster than head or...

  4. Eye tracking in user experience design

    CERN Document Server

    Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...

  5. The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar; Mohammad, Kazem

    2003-01-01

    Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs. PMID:12859794

  6. The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi Akbar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.

  7. Design, Sensing and Control of a Robotic Prosthetic Eye for Natural Eye Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, J. J.; M. Meng; Cook, A.; Liu, P. X.

    2006-01-01

    Loss of an eye is a tragedy for a person, who may suffer psychologically and physically. This paper is concerned with the design, sensing and control of a robotic prosthetic eye that moves horizontally in synchronization with the movement of the natural eye. Two generations of robotic prosthetic eye models have been developed. The first generation model uses an external infrared sensor array mounted on the frame of a pair of eyeglasses to detect the natural eye movement and to feed the contro...

  8. ATSU Point Design (gasdynamics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the basic principles outlined in the first talk ''Gas Cell Neutralizers'' will be applied to a problem of particular interest viz., the design of a ''gasdynamic free-jet'' neutralizer for the Los Alamos ATSU project. What will be presented here does not in any way represent the final gas neutralizer design for ATSU. Rather, the material presented herein should be viewed as simply a preliminary design intended to identify and gain insight into the more subtle issues that must be considered in designing this type of gas neutralizer

  9. Design of Eye Movement Interactive Interface and Example Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiang-Zong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the unceasing development of HCI (Human Computer Interaction technology, natural interactive products are valued by more and more people. The next generation of man-machine interface may use touch, hearing or vision, etc. Among them, the visual sense is the most important channel to get information, but researches are mostly focused on the measurement of eye movement or data processing. In the future, the interaction of eyes with machines will have a very wide prospect. After concluding the pluses and minuses of available eye control systems, we puts forth the design principle, system concept and the state transition model of eyes interaction from the consideration of user-centered design principle. The system simplifies the measurement process, focuses on the fast tracking, calibration and accurate eye movement identification. At the same time, we use context information to reduce interaction time and combines with keys to eliminate eye movements’ ambiguity. Based on the design scheme, we develop a system-EyeHUD(Eye Head Up Diaplay which can be applied in driving. It includes an eye preset interface, an eye control interface and a virtual vehicle scene. Before starting cars, a driver uses the eye tracker to track and calibrate eyes, then chooses an interactive function, like one blink zoom in or two blink chick. When the eye control interface is opened, the driver can use auto eye control to operate it, or choose eyes+keys way to simulate a click. The evaluation results shows: EyeHUD can successfully achieve all the default function and participants don’t need long time to understand the information provided by the interface. Compared with the eyes+keys way, the auto eye control has no obvious difference in recognition success rate.

  10. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  11. Turning points in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems

  12. Design of optical interconnects inspired in multi-aperture optics based in compound insect eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Rivera, Anel; Trevino-Palacios, Carlos G.; Renero-Carrillo, Francisco J.

    2012-06-01

    Optical interconnection at high-speed and large-capacity transmission of data has the advantage of conveying information at large bandwidths in free space with less crosstalk than electronics. We propose here the design of micro-optical devices based in the multi-aperture compound insect eyes that will transfer a signal as a freespace multichannel point-to-point interconnection. These designs are inspired in the configuration of the superposition refractive compound eye as Gabor superlens by means of the implementation of microlens arrays. In our configuration the design equations, simulations, and optical performance are shown.

  13. Heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver point designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. S.; Abbott, R. P.; Bangerter, R. O.; Barnard, J. J.; Briggs, R. J.; Callahan, D.; Celata, C. M.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, C. S.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Kwan, J. W.; Latkowski, J. F.; Lee, E. P.; Logan, B. G.; Peterson, P. F.; Rose, D.; Roy, P. K.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Seidl, P. A.; Sharp, W. M.; Welch, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper we report on two Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) driver point design studies. The Robust Point Design (RPD) was completed over a year ago, and the Modular Point Design (MPD) is still in progress. The goal of any point design study is to construct a detailed design that is self-consistent and integrated from injector to target. This has been the primary theme of both studies.

  14. Heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver point designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report on two Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) driver point design studies. The Robust Point Design (Rd) was completed over a year ago, and the Modular Point Design (MPD) is still in progress. The goal of any point design study is to construct a detailed design that is self-consistent and integrated from injector to target. This has been the primary theme of both studies

  15. Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Xiao, Jianliang; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2013-05-01

    In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. Here we present materials, mechanics and integration schemes that afford scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras with nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees). Their surfaces are densely populated by imaging elements (artificial ommatidia), which are comparable in number (180) to those of the eyes of fire ants (Solenopsis fugax) and bark beetles (Hylastes nigrinus). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors into integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Our imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes). PMID:23636401

  16. Innovativeness in design investigated by eye movements and pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUS-CHRISTIAN CARBON

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovative designs often break common visual habits by integrating more or less familiar parts into a new concept (Leder & Carbon, 2005. When design innovation is realized in an overly advanced way, the resulting designs tend to be rejected by perceivers at first glance, but seem to be favored when perceivers become more familiar with them (Carbon & Leder, 2005b. In the present study, we investigated the properties of innovative car interior designs by analyzing eye movements and the dilatation of the pupil when evaluating these designs. The analysis of eye movements indicates that innovative designs may be interpreted as more balanced in their conceptual structure. This was shown by an increased number of eye movements directed at the focus areas in car designs. Moreover, pupillometry data demonstrated that innovative designs are cognitively more demanding, thus evoking more interest. Such effects of innovativeness were particularly strong after participants had been exposed to and had elaborately dealt with the material during a phase of familiarization realized by the repeated evaluation technique.

  17. Design and manufacturing of complex optics: the dragonfly eye optic.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Sweatt, William C.; Hodges, V. Carter; Adams, David Price; Gill, David Dennis; Vasile, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The ''Design and Manufacturing of Complex Optics'' LDRD sought to develop new advanced methods for the design and manufacturing of very complex optical systems. The project team developed methods for including manufacturability into optical designs and also researched extensions of manufacturing techniques to meet the challenging needs of aspherical, 3D, multi-level lenslet arrays on non-planar surfaces. In order to confirm the applicability of the developed techniques, the team chose the Dragonfly Eye optic as a testbed. This optic has arrays of aspherical micro-lenslets on both the exterior and the interior of a 4mm diameter hemispherical shell. Manufacturing of the dragonfly eye required new methods of plunge milling aspherical optics and the development of a method to create the milling tools using focused ion beam milling. The team showed the ability to create aspherical concave milling tools which will have great significance to the optical industry. A prototype dragonfly eye exterior was created during the research, and the methods of including manufacturability in the optical design process were shown to be successful as well.

  18. The Chinese American Eye Study: Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rohit; Hsu, Chunyi; Wang, Dandan; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To summarize the study design, operational strategies and procedures of the Chinese American Eye Study (CHES), a population-based assessment of the prevalence of visual impairment, ocular disease, and visual functioning in Chinese Americans. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study, included 4,570 Chinese, 50 years and older, residing in the city of Monterey Park, California. Each eligible participant completed a detailed interview and eye examination. The interview included an assessment of demographic, behavioral, and ocular risk factors and health-related and vision-related quality of life. The eye examination included measurements of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual fields, fundus and optic disc photography, a detailed anterior and posterior segment examination, and measurements of blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and blood glucose levels. Results The objectives of the CHES are to obtain prevalence estimates of visual impairment, refractive error, diabetic retinopathy, open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, lens opacities, and age-related macular degeneration in Chinese-Americans. In addition, outcomes include effect estimates for risk factors associated with eye diseases. Lastly, CHES will investigate the genetic determinates of myopia and glaucoma. Conclusion The CHES will provide information about the prevalence and risk factors of ocular diseases in one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. PMID:24044409

  19. Retrieval of wave aberration of human eyes from actual point-spread-function data.

    OpenAIRE

    Artal, Pablo; Santamaría, J.; Bescós, J.

    1988-01-01

    The wave aberration of human eyes is retrieved from actual point-spread-function (PSF) data and the modulus of the pupil function. The PSF had been obtained previously by application of a hybrid optical-digital method developed recently. The retrieval is done by using a bidimensional Gerchberg-Saxton phase-retrieval algorithm joined to an iterative phase-unwrapping algorithm. To obtain an adequate convergence, the initial wave aberration for starting the retrieval-unwrapping algorithm is esti...

  20. Design of a new two element OSLD Badge for eye lens monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally the dose to the vicinity of the eye is received by the occupational radiation workers who handle radioisotopes or doctors who perform interventional radiographic procedures. The Eye dosimeters provide an estimate of the radiation dose to the lens of the eye. In the recent ICRP-2011 recommendations, the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 150 mSv in a year to 20 mSv in a year for all the occupational workers. To ensure that the dose limit for the eye lens does not exceed the prescribed dose limits, various eye lens dosimeters have been designed and are being used internationally. All these eye dosimeters consist of one natural LiF based thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) element sealed in a plastic holder. The design of the eye dosimeter and place of wear (near the eye) plays an important role in correct estimation of the dose to the lens of the eye. It is generally seen that the eye dosimeter when worn with the head strap on the forehead near the eye, the dose the element receives can be easily correlated to the eye dose. This paper presents the design of a new Eye lens dosimeter based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors for its possible use by the occupational workers covering the medical, industrial and nuclear facilities for assessing the Hp(3)

  1. Integrating Service Design and Eye Tracking Insight for Designing Smart TV User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ming Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a process that integrate service design method and eye tracking insight for designing a Smart TV user interface. The Service Design method, which is utilized for leading the combination of the quality function deployment (QFD and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, is used to analyze the features of three Smart TV user interface design mockups. Scientific evidences, which include the effectiveness and efficiency testing data obtained from eye tracking experiments with six participants, are provided the information for analysing the affordance of these design mockups. The results of this research demonstrate a comprehensive methodology that can be used iteratively for redesigning, redefining and evaluating of Smart TV user interfaces. It can also help to make the design of Smart TV user interfaces relate to users' behaviors and needs. So that to improve the affordance of design. Future studies may analyse the data that are derived from eye tracking experiments to improve our understanding of the spatial relationship between designed elements in a Smart TV user interface.

  2. Noncontact detection of dry eye using a custom designed infrared thermal image system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tai Yuan; Hwa, Chen Kerh; Liu, Po Hsuan; Wu, Ming Hong; Chang, David O; Su, Po Fang; Chang, Shu Wen; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2011-04-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common irritating eye disease. Current clinical diagnostic methods are invasive and uncomfortable for patients. This study developed a custom designed noncontact infrared (IR) thermal image system to measure the spatial and temporal variation of the ocular surface temperature over a 6-second eye-open period. This research defined two parameters: the temperature difference value and the compactness value to represent the temperature change and the irregularity of the temperature distribution on the tear film. Using these two parameters, this study achieved discrimination results for the dry eye and the normal eye groups; the sensitivity is 0.84, the specificity is 0.83, and the receiver operating characteristic area is 0.87. The results suggest that the custom designed IR thermal image system may be used as an effective tool for noncontact detection of dry eye. PMID:21529078

  3. Design Point for a Spheromak Compression Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; O'Bryan, John; Stuber, James; Darpa Spheromak Team

    2015-11-01

    Two principal issues for the spheromak concept remain to be addressed experimentally: formation efficiency and confinement scaling. We are therefore developing a design point for a spheromak experiment that will be heated by adiabatic compression, utilizing the CORSICA and NIMROD codes as well as analytic modeling with target parameters R_initial =0.3m, R_final =0.1m, T_initial =0.2keV, T_final =1.8keV, n_initial =1019m-3 and n_final = 1021m-3, with radial convergence of C =3. This low convergence differentiates the concept from MTF with C =10 or more, since the plasma will be held in equilibrium throughout compression. We present results from CORSICA showing the placement of coils and passive structure to ensure stability during compression, and design of the capacitor bank needed to both form the target plasma and compress it. We specify target parameters for the compression in terms of plasma beta, formation efficiency and energy confinement. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.

  4. EYE BALL HANGERAN INDIGENOUSLY DESIGNED DEVICE F OR DONOR CORNEAL EVALUATION IN ENUCLEATED EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Babu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Outcome of a corneal transplant surgery mainly depend s on the functional reserve of the cornea being transplanted. Thus Donor corneal tissue evaluation forms a vital step in assessing the viability of the graft. Cornea retrieval can be done as an in situ corneal button excision or whole globe enucleation. Studies have shown that enucleation causes less corneal damage and striae as compared to in situ Cor neo scleral button excision. 1 As soon as the eye is received at the eye bank corneal evaluation is done by corneal surgeon using slit lamp and specular microscope, and the cornea is graded, labele d and sent for storage. Before evaluation, cornea should be allowed to come to room temperature. Whole globe or corneo sclera button should not be left at room temperature for more than one hour.

  5. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts

  6. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polulyakh, Valeriy [Advanced Data Security, 1933 O' Toole Way, San Jose, CA 95131 (United States); Poutivski, Iouri [Terimber Corporation, 2456 Homewood Drive, San Jose, CA 95128, USA and Facebook Inc, 1601 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  7. Design and development of laser eye protection filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser based devices, have been operational for measurement of distances horizontally and vertically in avionics and surveillance industries. These equipments are functional on pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm, this wavelength elevate the risk of eye exposure to personnel at unexpected levels. In this paper the eye protection filters, for the wavelength 1064nm were developed with soft (ZnS) and hard (TiO2) coating materials by using thin film vacuum coating technique. The damage threshold of the filter is 0.2 J/cm2. Transmission characteristics are measured and discussed. Optical damage threshold (for eye 5 × 10−6 J/cm2) at various distances is also simulated.

  8. Design and evaluation of a public installation of an eye-gaze system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long; Yang, Shih-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluates an eye-tracking device ("I Can Speak With My Eyes") designed for a museum exhibition. An eye-tracking system is designed not only for able individuals, but also for bedridden patients or physically handicapped people who intend to use computers. With one video CCD camera and frame grabber analyzing a series of images taken of the human pupil gazing at a screen, an auto-range-finding algorithm can be used to obtain the location of the pupil in real time. The computers will produce speech according to the location of where the eyes are gazing. In essence, the participants can speak with their eyes to achieve the advantages of learning and communicating. After the system was implemented, an experimental evaluation with innovation diffusion theory was conducted to survey users' feelings regarding the system. The implications of the evaluation findings are discussed to aid further research and education. PMID:22256667

  9. Design of a Subtarsal Ultrasonic Transducer for Mild Hyperthermia Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michael B; Bujak, Matthew C; Chrin, Emmanuel; Sade, Shachar; Foster, F Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a disorder of the ocular surface that causes pain and low vision in a significant portion of the adult population. A common cause is obstructive Meibomian gland dysfunction, whereby the Meibomian glands secrete abnormal meibum with a melting point elevated by 3C-4C; hence, hyperthermia is the typical treatment. A design is proposed for an ultrasound hyperthermia device made of a transducer contained inside a contact lens with an internal air gap. The transducer heats the posterior of the tarsus, and the air gap provides an air backing to the transducer, preventing direct heating of the cornea. A prototype device was built, and hyperthermia experiments were performed on a porcine subject invivo. A therapeutic temperature rise of 5C-7C was achievable in 10-15min. The temperature of the cornea did not rise more than 2C during any of the experiments. PMID:26603735

  10. Influence of the characteristics of tear film break-up on the point spread function of an eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Licznerski, Tomasz J.

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents the complex structure of the human tear film. From the optics point of view the homogeneously distributed tear film on the corneal surface makes this diffused surface optically smooth. Every eye blink distributes a new portion of tears on the surface of the cornea or the contact lens. If the production of tears is not sufficient or their composition is inappropriate, the tear film is deteriorated and so called tear film break-up (TFBU) appears on the surface of the cornea. These local break-ups of the smooth tear film introduce disturbances in the phase of a quasiplane wavefront falling on the cornea from a far-located point source of light. Two types of the TFBUs are considered in this paper. Topography of a point one and a linear one form of the break ups are approximated by use of four different continuous functions. The modeled topography of the TFBU is used for calculation of the local variation of the wavefront phase. The Point Spread Function of the eye model is calculated by use of the Fast Fourier Transform without and with the different approximations of TFBUs. It is shown that different type of TFBU approximation influences significantly the form of the Point Spread Function of the eye.

  11. Product Adoption Design of Ergonomic Aid Utilizing Eye Tracking Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Daleke, Malin; Nilsson, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Tobii Dynavox is developing a product called Ergo, which is an ergonomic aid utilizing eyetracking technology. Its purpose is to ease physical pain related to computer work by enabling the user to navigate their computer with their eyes. With this product, Tobii Dynavox is entering anew market and addressing new customers, therefore needing a better understanding of potentialcustomer needs, behaviour and desires. The research questions investigated in the project are;What does the market of e...

  12. Dynamics and mission design near libration points

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, G; Llibre, J; Martínez, R

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the restricted three-body problem has triangular equilibrium points. These points are linearly stable for values of the mass parameter, µ , below Routh's critical value, µ 1 . It is also known that in the spatial case they are nonlinearly stable, not for all the initial conditions in a neighborhood of the equilibrium points L 4 , L 5 but for a set of relatively large measures. This follows from the celebrated Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem. In fact there are neighborhoods of computable size for which one obtains "practical stability" in the sense that the massless partic

  13. Designing a Secure Point-of-Sale System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Pedersen, Allan; Hedegaard, Anders

    This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described.......This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described....

  14. Generalized multi-point inverse airfoil design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael S.; Maughmer, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    In a rather general sense, inverse airfoil design can be taken to mean the problem of specifying a desired set of airfoil characteristics, such as the airfoil maximum thickness ratio, pitching moment, part of the velocity distribution or boundary-layer development, etc., then from this information determine the corresponding airfoil shape. This paper presents a method which approaches the design problem from this perspective. In particular, the airfoil is divided into segments along which, together with the design conditions, either the velocity distribution or boundary-layer development may be prescribed. In addition to these local desired distributions, single parameters like the airfoil thickness can be specified. The problem of finding the airfoil shape is determined by coupling an incompressible, inviscid, inverse airfoil design method with a direct integral boundary-layer analysis method and solving the resulting nonlinear equations via a multidimensional Newton iteration technique. The approach is fast and easily allows for interactive design. It is also flexible and could be adapted to solving compressible, inverse airfoil design problems.

  15. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  16. Design of point fitted insulating glass units

    OpenAIRE

    Tibolt, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Today’s building façades are not imaginable without the building material glass. Modern architects capitalise the transparency and the load carrying capacity of glass elements in the design of filigree and light-flooded structures. Priority is thereby given to the maximal transparency and the energy efficiency of the glass façade. In fact, the strategy paper “EU 2020” formulated by the European Union has an important impact on the design of glass façade and the energy efficiency will be a foc...

  17. COMS eye plaque brachytherapy dosimetric sensitivity to source photon energy and seed design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the influence of source photon energy on eye plaque brachytherapy dose distributions for a 16 mm COMS plaque filled with 103Pd, 125I, or 131Cs sources or monoenergetic photon emissions ranging from 12 keV to 100 keV. Dose distributions were similarly created for all permutations of three common brachytherapy seed designs. Within this range, sources with average energy ≤22 keV may reduce dose to the opposite eye wall by more than a factor of 2 while maintaining tolerable proximal sclera doses when prescribing to depths of 9 mm or less. Current commercially-available brachytherapy sources can exhibit up to 15% relative dosimetric sensitivity to seed design at regions within the eye. - Highlights: • Episcleral eye plaque brachytherapy utilizes low-energy photon-emitting sources. • Dose distribution sensitivity to source photon energy and seed design was examined. • Tumor dose conformity and critical structure sparing from ≤22 keV photons is preferred. • Ocular dose distributions varied by up to 15% with seed design permutations

  18. An updated point design for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.S.; Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Brown, T.; Callahan, D.A.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Pemberton, S.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Sabbi, G-L.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-11-01

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  19. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant

  20. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Yu, S S; Abbott, R P; Barnard, J J; Brown, T; Callahan, D A; Heitzenroeder, P; Latkowski, J F; Logan B G; Pemberton, S J; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Sabbi, G-L; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R

    2002-11-12

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  1. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S S; Meier, W R; Abbott, R B; Barnard, J J; Brown, t; Callahan, D A; Heitzenroeder, P; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Pemberton, S J; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Sabbi, G -L; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R

    2002-12-16

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  2. Pointing with a One-Eyed Cursor for Supervised Training in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Martin; Kraus, Martin

    Pointing in the endoscopic view of a surgical robot is a natural and effcient way for instructors to communicate with trainees in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. However, pointing in a stereo-endoscopic view can be limited by problems such as video delay, double vision, arm fatigue, an...

  3. Pointing with a One-Eyed Cursor for Supervised Training in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Martin; Kraus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pointing in the endoscopic view of a surgical robot is a natural and effcient way for instructors to communicate with trainees in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. However, pointing in a stereo-endoscopic view can be limited by problems such as video delay, double vision, arm fatigue, an...

  4. Remote control of mobile robots through human eye gaze: the design and evaluation of an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hemin Omer; Sherkat, Nasser; Lotfi, Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    Controlling mobile robots remotely requires the operator to monitor the status of the robot through some sort of feedback. Assuming a vision based feedback system is used the operator is required to closely monitor the images while navigating the robot in real time. This will engage the eyes and the hands of the operator. Since the eyes are engaged in the monitoring task anyway, their gaze can be used to navigate the robot in order to free the hands of the operator. However, the challenge here lies in developing an interaction interface that enables an intuitive distinction to be made between monitoring and commanding. This paper presents a novel means of constructing a user interface to meet this challenge. A range of solutions are constructed by augmenting the visual feedback with command regions to investigate the extent to which a user can intuitively control the robot. An experimental platform comprising a mobile robot together with cameras and eye-gaze system is constructed. The design of the system allows control of the robot, control of onboard cameras and control of the interface through eye-gaze. A number of tasks are designed to evaluate the proposed solutions. This paper presents the design considerations and the results of the evaluation. Overall it is found that the proposed solutions provide effective means of successfully navigating the robot for a range of tasks.

  5. Pointing control design for autonomous space vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.D.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the design of pointing control systems for autonomous space vehicles. The function of the pointing control system is to keep distant orbiting objects within the field-of-view of an on-board optical sensor. We outline the development of novel nonlinear control algorithms which exploit the availability of on- board sensors. Simulation results comparing the performance of the different pointing control implementations are presented.

  6. Design of a reversible single precision floating point subtractor

    OpenAIRE

    Anantha Lakshmi, AV; Sudha, GF

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Reversible logic has emerged as a major area of research due to its ability to reduce the power dissipation which is the main requirement in the low power digital circuit design. It has wide applications like low power CMOS design, Nano-technology, Digital signal processing, Communication, DNA computing and Optical computing. Floating-point operations are needed very frequently in nearly all computing disciplines, and studies have shown floating-point addition/subtraction to ...

  7. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maansi Bansal-Travers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail ‘power wall’ behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. Objective: The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1 evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2 evaluate the duration (dwell-time of these fixations, and (3 evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Methods: Data from 13 Smokers (S and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS aged 180–30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation and duration (dwell-time of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10, Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6, and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9. A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Results: Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72% fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67% or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%. In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96% indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Conclusions: Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  8. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  9. Progress and prospects for an IFE relevant FI point design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Key M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The physics issues involved in scaling from sub-ignition to high gain fast ignition are discussed. Successful point designs must collimate the electrons and minimise the standoff distance to avoid multi-megajoule ignition energies. Collimating B field configurations are identified and some initial designs are explored.

  10. Progress and prospects for an IFE relevant FI point design

    OpenAIRE

    Key M.; Amendt P.; Bellei C.; Clark D.; Cohen B; Divol L.; Ho D.; Kemp A.; Larson D.; Marinak M.; Patel P; Shay H.; Strozzi D.; Tabak M

    2013-01-01

    The physics issues involved in scaling from sub-ignition to high gain fast ignition are discussed. Successful point designs must collimate the electrons and minimise the standoff distance to avoid multi-megajoule ignition energies. Collimating B field configurations are identified and some initial designs are explored.

  11. Key points in design and construction for containment prestressing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the nuclear safety, the author briefly describes some key points that should be paid attention to in design and construction for containment prestressing system in nuclear power plants and emphasizes the importance of quality assurance during the implementation of the whole containment project (including designing, construction, as well as purchasing, transporting and storing of materials)

  12. Research of Digital Interface Layout Design based on Eye-tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects search efficiency. Based on data and results, this study constructed a matching model which is appropriate for multilevel digital interface layout and verified the fact that the task element is a significant and important aspect of layout design. A scientific experimental model of research on digital interfaces for complex systems is provided. Both data and conclusions of the eye movement experiment provide a reference for layout designs of interfaces for complex systems with different task characteristics.

  13. The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey

    CERN Document Server

    Csépány, Gergely; Vida, Krisztián; Regály, Zsolt; Mészáros, László; Oláh, Katalin; Kiss, Csaba; Döbrentei, László; Jaskó, Attila; Mező, György; Farkas, Ernő

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving $\\sim10$ sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly -- that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures -- until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometimes in the spring or summer of 2013.

  14. The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András; Csépány, Gergely; Jaskó, Attila; Schlaffer, Ferenc; Vida, Krisztián; Mező, György; Döbrentei, László; Farkas, Ernő; Kiss, Csaba; Oláh, Katalin; Regály, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving ~10 sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly -- that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures -- until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometimes in the spring or summer of 2013.

  15. Design of a reversible single precision floating point subtractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha Lakshmi, Av; Sudha, Gf

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Reversible logic has emerged as a major area of research due to its ability to reduce the power dissipation which is the main requirement in the low power digital circuit design. It has wide applications like low power CMOS design, Nano-technology, Digital signal processing, Communication, DNA computing and Optical computing. Floating-point operations are needed very frequently in nearly all computing disciplines, and studies have shown floating-point addition/subtraction to be the most used floating-point operation. However, few designs exist on efficient reversible BCD subtractors but no work on reversible floating point subtractor. In this paper, it is proposed to present an efficient reversible single precision floating-point subtractor. The proposed design requires reversible designs of an 8-bit and a 24-bit comparator unit, an 8-bit and a 24-bit subtractor, and a normalization unit. For normalization, a 24-bit Reversible Leading Zero Detector and a 24-bit reversible shift register is implemented to shift the mantissas. To realize a reversible 1-bit comparator, in this paper, two new 3x3 reversible gates are proposed The proposed reversible 1-bit comparator is better and optimized in terms of the number of reversible gates used, the number of transistor count and the number of garbage outputs. The proposed work is analysed in terms of number of reversible gates, garbage outputs, constant inputs and quantum costs. Using these modules, an efficient design of a reversible single precision floating point subtractor is proposed. Proposed circuits have been simulated using Modelsim and synthesized using Xilinx Virtex5vlx30tff665-3. The total on-chip power consumed by the proposed 32-bit reversible floating point subtractor is 0.410 W. PMID:24455466

  16. Design and Implementation of Complex Floating Point Processor Using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Pavuluri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents complete processor hardware with three arithmetic units. The first arithmetic unit canperform 32-bit integer arithmetic operations. The second unit can perform arithmetic operations such asaddition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and square root on 32-bit floating point numbers. The thirdunit can perform arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication on complex numbers.The specific advancement in this processor is the new architecture introduced for complex arithmetic unit.In general complex floating point arithmetic hardware consists of floating to fixed and fixed to floatingconversions. But using such hardware will lead to compromise between accuracy and number of bits usedto represent the fixed point equivalent of floating point numbers. The proposed architecture avoids thatcompromise and it is implemented with less number of look-up tables to save around 5500 logic gates. Thecomplex numbers are represented using a subset of IEEE754 standard floating point format, 16-bits forreal part and 16-bits for imaginary part. The floating point arithmetic unit works on 32-bit IEEE754 singleprecision numbers. The instruction set is specially designed to support integer, floating point and complexfloating point arithmetic operations. The on-chip RAM is 8kBytes and is extendable up to 64kBytes. As theprocessor is designed to implement on FPGA, the embedded block RAMs are utilized as RAM.

  17. Design of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS) (including design addendum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D.; Gismondi, T.; Hamilton, B.; Kendig, J.; Kiedrowski, J.; Vroman, A.; Wilson, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Annular Suspension and Pointing System is an experiment pointing mount designed for extremely precise 3 axis orientation of shuttle experiments. It utilizes actively controlled magnetic bearing to provide noncontacting vernier pointing and translational isolation of the experiment. The design of the system is presented and analyzed.

  18. Revised Point of Departure Design Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittje, James E.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Schnitzler, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to further refine potential point of departure nuclear thermal rocket engine designs, four proposed engine designs representing two thrust classes and utilizing two different fuel matrix types are designed and analyzed from both a neutronics and thermodynamic cycle perspective. Two of these nuclear rocket engine designs employ a tungsten and uranium dioxide cermet (ceramic-metal) fuel with a prismatic geometry based on the ANL-200 and the GE-710, while the other two designs utilize uranium-zirconium-carbide in a graphite composite fuel and a prismatic fuel element geometry developed during the Rover/NERVA Programs. Two engines are analyzed for each fuel type, a small criticality limited design and a 111 kN (25 klbf) thrust class engine design, which has been the focus of numerous manned mission studies, including NASA's Design Reference Architecture 5.0. slightly higher T/W ratios, but they required substantially more 235U.

  19. Design of an ultra-thin near-eye display with geometrical waveguide and freeform optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Xu, Chen; Song, Weitao; Jin, Guofan

    2014-08-25

    Small thickness and light weight are two important requirements for a see-through near-eye display which are achieved in this paper by using two advanced technologies: geometrical waveguide and freeform optics. A major problem associated with the geometrical waveguide is the stray light which can severely degrade the display quality. The causes and solutions to this problem are thoroughly studied. A mathematical model of the waveguide is established and a non-sequential ray tracing algorithm is developed, which enable us to carefully examine the stray light of the planar waveguide and explore a global searching method to find an optimum design with the least amount of stray light. A projection optics using freeform surfaces on a wedge shaped prism is also designed. The near-eye display integrating the projection optics and the waveguide has a field of view of 28°, an exit pupil diameter of 9.6mm and an exit pupil distance of 20mm. In our final design, the proportion of the stray light energy over the image output energy of the waveguide is reduced to 2%, the modulation transfer function values across the entire field of the eyepiece are above 0.5 at 30 line pairs/mm (lps/mm). A proof-of-concept prototype of the proposed geometrical waveguide near-eye display is developed and demonstrated. PMID:25321274

  20. Professional SharePoint 2010 Branding and User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drisgill, Randy; Sanford, Jacob J; Stubbs, Paul; Riemann, Larry

    2010-01-01

    A must have guide for creating engaging and usable SharePoint 2010 brandingWith SharePoint 2010, Microsoft has provided a more robust environment for creating collaboration and content management sites that rival any of the popular websites on the internet. Creating a branded SharePoint site involves understanding both traditional web design techniques as well as topics that are typically reserved for developers. This book bridges that gap by not only providing expert guidance for creating beautiful public facing and internal intranet sites but it also addresses the needs of those readers that

  1. Research on design multi-points performance curves of pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The centrifugal pump's performance curves are the most important chart to reveal relevance of different performance parameters. They can show pump's function comprehensively and graphically. However these curves can't be predicted and designed precisely, duo to the complicated flow inside the impeller and the incomplete way to design pump. The complete shape of performance curves can be gained only after test. With the development of industry, many applications need the pump operating well at different flow conditions. It means the pump's performance curves should pass some specific points. This is a problem to the designer who still uses the traditional way to design pumps. In this paper, the Design of experiments was applied to arrange a plan of experiments. Because the theory equations of performance curves contain many geometry factors of impeller, changing these factors have different influence on the shape of curves, the relationship between geometry factors and the performance under different operation points been attained after using variance analysis to deal with experiment data. The relevant regression models and graphs were drawn to help understand these relationships. Depending on the predicted values of geometry factors pump's impeller was redesigned, and the pump's performance been simulated for saving time and cost. Test shows that the shape of performance curves satisfy design objective, this example can be taken as a reference of pump's specific designs.

  2. Frequency of secondary cataract development in pseudophakic eyes with posterior chamber IOL of current designs in case of axial myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Sorokoletov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To evaluate a frequency of secondary cataract development in different periods of postoperative follow-up after cataract phacoemulsification depending on the degree of axial myopia and the implanted IOL design. Material and methods. A retrospective analysis of secondary cataract formation in the long-term follow-up after cataract phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation was performed in 16575 eyes out of 8722 patients with emmetropia and axial myopia. The average age of patients was 74±7 years, and the follow-up period was 5 years. The eyes with associated pathology such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy etc, were excluded from the study. Depending on the design of implanted IOL all eyes were divided into 3 groups. The first group included 5527 eyes with the implanted B-lens IOL (Hanita, Israel. The second group included 5629 eyes with the implanted Idea IOL (XCELENS, Switzerland. The third group consisted of 5419 eyes with the implanted Acrysof natural, SA60AT IOL (Alcon, USA. In every case the degree of myopia was evaluated using axial length of an eye that was measured instrumentally. The incidence of secondary cataract formation was evaluated on quantity of YAG-laser posterior capsule dissection within the 5-year follow-up after phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. Conclusion. According to our results the incidence of PCO is directly dependent on the axial length of the eye, strongly increasing in eyes with high axial myopia. The design and material of implanted IOL played an important role in PCO formation too. The eyes with the Acrysof natural, SA60AT IOL (Alcon, USA had the lowest incidence of PCO in the long-term follow-up.

  3. Design and verifications of an eye model fitted with contact lenses for wavefront measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chang, Rong-Jie; Wang, Chung-Yen; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Wang, Pei-Jen

    2015-09-01

    Contact lenses are typically measured by the wet-box method because of the high optical power resulting from the anterior central curvature of cornea, even though the back vertex power of the lenses are small. In this study, an optical measurement system based on the Shack-Hartmann wavefront principle was established to investigate the aberrations of soft contact lenses. Fitting conditions were micmicked to study the optical design of an eye model with various topographical shapes in the anterior cornea. Initially, the contact lenses were measured by the wet-box method, and then by fitting the various topographical shapes of cornea to the eye model. In addition, an optics simulation program was employed to determine the sources of errors and assess the accuracy of the system. Finally, samples of soft contact lenses with various Diopters were measured; and, both simulations and experimental results were compared for resolving the controversies of fitting contact lenses to an eye model for optical measurements. More importantly, the results show that the proposed system can be employed for study of primary aberrations in contact lenses.

  4. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijian; Han, Dongmei; Dai, Yonghui; Zhao, Lina

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP) algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM) is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of "C programming language" are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate. PMID:26448738

  5. Pointing system design for low-disturbance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing-Ross, James A.; Wilson, James F.

    In recent years, several concepts have been generated for dynamically isolating payload platforms from the spacecraft basebody and vice versa. While a pointing system design which does not affect its base platform dynamically is desirable for many secondary or multiple mission applications, there are associated penalties and constraints which the designer must consider when selecting such a system. In this paper, various approaches for reducing reaction forces and torques inherent in the operation of gimballed payloads are examined in terms of weight, power, and performance. As a basis for system comparison, a generic pointing mission is defined to provide typical reactionless gimbal system requirements. Since current multibody simulations do not include interbody gear effects, an extension for the direct-path method of multibody dynamic analysis is developed to simulate gear reactionless drives.

  6. A superlinear interior points algorithm for engineering design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, J.; Asquier, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present a quasi-Newton interior points algorithm for nonlinear constrained optimization. It is based on a general approach consisting of the iterative solution in the primal and dual spaces of the equalities in Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. This is done in such a way to have primal and dual feasibility at each iteration, which ensures satisfaction of those optimality conditions at the limit points. This approach is very strong and efficient, since at each iteration it only requires the solution of two linear systems with the same matrix, instead of quadratic programming subproblems. It is also particularly appropriate for engineering design optimization inasmuch at each iteration a feasible design is obtained. The present algorithm uses a quasi-Newton approximation of the second derivative of the Lagrangian function in order to have superlinear asymptotic convergence. We discuss theoretical aspects of the algorithm and its computer implementation.

  7. Change-point in stochastic design regression and the bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Seijo, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the consistency of different bootstrap procedures for constructing confidence intervals (CIs) for the unique jump discontinuity (change-point) in an otherwise smooth regression function in a stochastic design setting. This problem exhibits nonstandard asymptotics and we argue that the standard bootstrap procedures in regression fail to provide valid confidence intervals for the change-point. We propose a version of smoothed bootstrap, illustrate its remarkable finite sample performance in our simulation study, and prove the consistency of the procedure. The $m$ out of $n$ bootstrap procedure is also considered and shown to be consistent. We also provide sufficient conditions for any bootstrap procedure to be consistent in this scenario.

  8. The design process seen through the eyes of a type designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    To understand how the design process works, the paper takes the outset in the work of one of the first innovating type designers: the English printer and typefounder John Baskerville (1706-1775). By comparing his way of working with a model for a contemporary design process, the paper reflects upon...

  9. Pointing and spectral assignemnt design and control for MERTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, I.; Säuberlich, T.; Lieder, M.; Rataj, M.; Driescher, H.; Helbert, J.; Hiesinger, H.

    2013-09-01

    The development of MERTIS, a miniaturized thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of ESA's cornerstone mission BepiColombo to Mercury has been completed. Qualification of the design is followed by the calibration of the instrument showing up first results of the technology used. Based on subsequent viewing of different targets including on-board calibration sources the push-broom instrument will use a 2-dimensional bolometer detector to provide spatial and spectral information. Here repetition accuracy of pointing and spectral assignment is supported by the design of instrument components under the restriction of limited resources. Additionally a concept of verification after launch and cruise phase of the mission was developed. The article describes how this has been implemented and what the results under environment testing are.

  10. Evaluating the Impact of Image Delays on the Rise of MMI-Driven Telemanipulation Applications: Hand-Eye Coordination Interference from Visual Delays during Minute Pointing Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwane Maida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Robots with high freedom of movement can be used for minute manipulation, enabling a wide range of real-world applications. However, the use of telemanipulation systems driven by man-machine interaction (MMI is currently limited to experimental trials, partly because the image delay during transmission interferes with the operator’s hand-eye coordination. This study examined how delays affect operation efficiency by pointing target size, and the degree of difficulty when performing telemanipulation operations. We conducted tests in which subjects performed pointing operations while visual delays interfered with their hand-eye coordination. Our findings show statistically that regardless of target size, delay variance of 200 ms or less hardly affects operation efficiency, and that difficulty increases for a target diameter of between 4 and 2 mm.

  11. Iodine-125 applicator designed for irradiating blood vessels growing into the cornea of the eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, E.R.; Korrubel, J.B.; Sealy, R.; Hill, J.

    1989-03-01

    The invasion of the traumatized cornea by blood vessels is a well known complication is often associated with graft rejection. Graft acceptance may be improved by the induction of endarteritis with ..beta.. radiation but the corneal stroma may be so changed by the necessary dose of radiation (commonly 4500-5000 cGy in three or four fractions) as to significantly increase the risk of sloughing (Macfaul and Bedford, 1970). To overcome this problem, the authors have designed and made an /sup 125/I eye applicator to produce an extremely narrow radiation field for treating the vascularization at the base of the cornea only. The anterior part of the cornea receives a very small dose of about 11% of that given to the base and is sufficiently large to receive a 6mm corneal transplant.

  12. Optimal Point Spread Function Design for 3D Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Yoav; Sahl, Steffen J.; Backer, Adam S.; Moerner, W. E.

    2014-09-01

    To extract from an image of a single nanoscale object maximum physical information about its position, we propose and demonstrate a framework for pupil-plane modulation for 3D imaging applications requiring precise localization, including single-particle tracking and superresolution microscopy. The method is based on maximizing the information content of the system, by formulating and solving the appropriate optimization problemfinding the pupil-plane phase pattern that would yield a point spread function (PSF) with optimal Fisher information properties. We use our method to generate and experimentally demonstrate two example PSFs: one optimized for 3D localization precision over a 3 ?m depth of field, and another with an unprecedented 5 ?m depth of field, both designed to perform under physically common conditions of high background signals.

  13. Design and implementation of a real time and train less eye state recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnavi, Mohammad; Eshghi, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Eye state recognition is one of the main stages of many image processing systems such as driver drowsiness detection system and closed-eye photo correction. Driver drowsiness is one of the main causes in the road accidents around the world. In these circumstances, a fast and accurate driver drowsiness detection system can prevent these accidents. In this article, we proposed a fast algorithm for determining the state of an eye, based on the difference between iris/pupil color and white area of the eye. In the proposed method, vertical projection is used to determine the eye state. This method is suitable for hardware implementation to be used in a fast and online drowsiness detection system. The proposed method, along with other needed preprocessing stages, is implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array chips. The results show that the proposed low-complex algorithm has sufficient speed and accuracy, to be used in real-world conditions.

  14. The Modular Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an ongoing study on modular Heavy Ion Fusion drivers. The modular driver is characterized by 10 to 20 nearly identical induction linacs, each carrying a single high current beam. In this scheme, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) can be one of the full size induction linacs. Hence, this approach offers significant advantages in terms of driver development path. For beam transport, these modules use solenoids which are capable of carrying high line charge densities, even at low energies. A new injector concept allows compression of the beam to high line densities right at the source. The final drift compression is performed in a plasma, in which the large repulsive space charge effects are neutralized. Finally, the beam is transversely compressed onto the target, using either external solenoids or current-carrying channels (in the Assisted Pinch Mode of beam propagation). We will report on progress towards a self-consistent point design from injector to target. Considerations of driver architecture, chamber environment as well as the methodology for meeting target requirements of spot size, pulse shape and symmetry will also be described. Finally, some near-term experiments to address the key scientific issues will be discussed

  15. The Modular Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an ongoing study on modular Heavy Ion Fusion drivers. The modular driver is characterized by tens (? 20) nearly identical induction linacs, each carrying a single high current beam. In this scheme, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) can be one of the full size induction linacs. Hence, this approach offers significant advantages in terms of driver development path. For beam transport, these modules use solenoids which are capable of carrying high line charge densities, even at low energies. A new injector concept allows compression of the beam to high line densities right at the source. The final drift compression is performed in a plasma, in which the large repulsive space charge effects are neutralized. Finally, the beam is transversely compressed onto the target, using either external solenoids or current-carrying channels (in the Assisted Pinch Mode of beam propagation). We will report on progress towards a self-consistent point design from injector to target. Considerations of driver architecture, chamber environment as well as the methodology for meeting target requirements of spot size, pulse shape and symmetry will also be described. Finally, some near-term experiments to address the key scientific issues will be discussed

  16. Eye design and color signaling in a stomatopod crustacean Gonodactylus smithii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, C C; Cronin, T W; Marshall, N J

    2000-08-01

    Many species of stomatopod crustaceans have multiple spectral classes of photoreceptors in their retinas. Behavioral evidence also indicates that stomatopods are capable of discriminating objects by their spectral differences alone. Most animals use only two to four different types of photoreceptors in their color vision systems, typically with broad sensitivity functions, but the stomatopods apparently include eight or more narrowband photoreceptor classes for color recognition. It is also known that stomatopods use several colored body regions in social interactions. To examine why stomatopods may be so 'concerned' with color, we measured the absorption spectra of visual pigments and intrarhabdomal filters, and the reflectance spectra from different parts of the bodies of several individuals of the gonodactyloid stomatopod species, Gonodactylus smithii. We then applied a model of multiple dichromatic channels for color encoding to examine whether the finely tuned color vision was specifically co-evolved with their complex color signals. Although the eye design of stomatopods seems suitable for detecting color signals of their own, the detection of color signals from other animals, such as reef fishes, can be enhanced as well. Color vision in G. smithii is therefore not exclusively adapted to detect its own color signals, but the spectral tuning of some photoreceptors (e.g. midband Rows 2 and 3) enhances the contrast of certain color signals to a large enough degree to make co-evolution between color vision and these rather specific color signals likely. PMID:11111137

  17. Onboard utilization of ground control points for image correction. Volume 3: Ground control point simulation software design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The software developed to simulate the ground control point navigation system is described. The Ground Control Point Simulation Program (GCPSIM) is designed as an analysis tool to predict the performance of the navigation system. The system consists of two star trackers, a global positioning system receiver, a gyro package, and a landmark tracker.

  18. A simple cassette as point-of-care diagnostic device for naked-eye colorimetric bacteria detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin; Sokullu, Esen; Ng, Andy; Braescu, Liliana; Zourob, Mohammed

    2014-01-21

    Effective pathogen detection is necessary for treatment of infectious diseases. Point of care (POC) devices have tremendously improved the global human heath. However, design criteria for sample processing POC devices for pathogen detection in limited infrastructure are challenging and can make a significant contribution to global health by providing rapid and sensitive detection of bacteria in food, water, and patient samples. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel portable POC diagnostic device that is simple to assemble for genetic detection of bacterial pathogens by isothermal DNA amplification. The device is fabricated with very low production cost, using simple methods and easy-to-access materials on a flexible ribbon polyethylene substrate. We showed that the device is capable of detection of 30 CFU mL(-1) of E. coli and 200 CFU mL(-1) of S. aureus in less than 1 hour. Through numerical simulations, we estimated that the device can be extended to high-throughput detection simultaneously performing a minimum of 36 analyses. This robust and sensitive detection device can be assembled and operated by non-specialist personnel, particularly for multiple bacterial pathogen detections in low-resource settings. PMID:24300967

  19. Teach Graphic Design Basics with PowerPoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Spotts, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    While PowerPoint is generally regarded as simply software for creating slide presentations, it includes often overlooked--but powerful--drawing tools. Because it is part of the Microsoft Office package, PowerPoint comes preloaded on many computers and thus is already available in many classrooms. Since most computers are not preloaded with good

  20. Oil-points - Designers means to evaluate sustainability of concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    investigated by means of three case studies where environmental impact is estimated using the EDIP method, the Eco-indicator 95 method, and the Oil Point method proposed by the authors. It is found that the results obtained using Oil Points are in acceptable conformity with the results obtained with more...

  1. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the GIFTS Instrument Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomkowski, Paul P.

    2003-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Instrument is the next generation spectrometer for remote sensing weather satellites. The GIFTS instrument will be used to perform scans of the Earth s atmosphere by assembling a series of field-of- views (FOV) into a larger pattern. Realization of this process is achieved by step scanning the instrument FOV in a contiguous fashion across any desired portion of the visible Earth. A 2.3 arc second pointing stability, with respect to the scanning instrument, must be maintained for the duration of the FOV scan. A star tracker producing attitude data at 100 Hz rate will be used by the autonomous pointing algorithm to precisely track target FOV s on the surface of the Earth. The main objective is to validate the pointing algorithm in the presence of spacecraft disturbances and determine acceptable disturbance limits from expected noise sources. Proof of concept validation of the pointing system algorithm is carried out with a full system simulation developed using Matlab Simulink. Models for the following components function within the full system simulation: inertial reference unit (IRU), attitude control system (ACS), reaction wheels, star tracker, and mirror controller. With the spacecraft orbital position and attitude maintained to within specified limits the pointing algorithm receives quaternion, ephemeris, and initialization data that are used to construct the required mirror pointing commands at a 100 Hz rate. This comprehensive simulation will also aid in obtaining a thorough understanding of spacecraft disturbances and other sources of pointing system errors. Parameter sensitivity studies and disturbance analysis will be used to obtain limits of operability for the GIFTS instrument. The culmination of this simulation development and analysis will be used to validate the specified performance requirements outlined for this instrument.

  2. Point-by-point written fiber-Bragg gratings and their application in complex grating designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Graham D; Williams, Robert J; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Steel, M J; Withford, Michael J

    2010-09-13

    The point-by-point technique of fabricating fibre-Bragg gratings using an ultrafast laser enables complete control of the position of each index modification that comprises the grating. By tailoring the local phase, amplitude and spacing of the grating's refractive index modulations it is possible to create gratings with complex transmission and reflection spectra. We report a series of grating structures that were realized by exploiting these flexibilities. Such structures include gratings with controlled bandwidth, and amplitude- and phase-modulated sampled (or superstructured) gratings. A model based on coupled-mode theory provides important insights into the manufacture of such gratings. Our approach offers a quick and easy method of producing complex, non-uniform grating structures in both fibres and other mono-mode waveguiding structures. PMID:20940876

  3. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  4. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  5. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.; Bang, Ole

    2012-01-01

    An increasing interest in making sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written in polymer optical fibers (POFs) has been seen recently. Mostly microstructured POFs (mPOFs) have been chosen for this purpose because they are easier to fabricate compared, for example, to step index fibers and...... design and realization of a microstructured polymer optical fiber made of PMMA for direct writing of FBGs. The fiber was designed specifically to avoid obstruction of the writing beam by air-holes. The realized fiber has been used to point-by-point write a 5 mm long fourth order FBG with a Bragg...... optical fiber, with less than 2.5 seconds needed....

  6. Single service point: it's all in the design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradigan, Pamela S; Rodman, Ruey L

    2008-01-01

    "Design thinking" principles from a leading design firm, IDEO, were key elements in the planning process for a one-desk service model, the ASK Desk, at the John A. Prior Health Sciences Library. The library administration and staff employed the methodology to enhance customer experiences, meet technology challenges, and compete in a changing education environment. The most recent renovations demonstrate how the principles were applied. The concept of "continuous design thinking" is important in the library's daily operations to serve customers most effectively. PMID:19042717

  7. Design of Farthest-Point Masks for Image Halftoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramponi G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper, we briefly presented a new halftoning algorithm called farthest-point halftoning. In the present paper, this method is analyzed in detail, and a novel dispersion measure is defined to improve the simplicity and flexibility of the result. This new stochastic screen algorithm is loosely based on Kang's dispersed-dot ordered dither halftone array construction technique used as part of his microcluster halftoning method. Our new halftoning algorithm uses pixelwise measures of dispersion based on one proposed by Kang which is here modified to be more effective. In addition, our method exploits the concept of farthest-point sampling (FPS, introduced as a progressive irregular sampling method by Eldar et al. but uses a more efficient implementation of FPS in the construction of the dot profiles. The technique we propose is compared to other state-of-the-art dither-based halftoning methods in both qualitative and quantitative manners.

  8. Design of Farthest-Point Masks for Image Halftoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, R.; Moloney, C.; Ramponi, G.

    2004-12-01

    In an earlier paper, we briefly presented a new halftoning algorithm called farthest-point halftoning. In the present paper, this method is analyzed in detail, and a novel dispersion measure is defined to improve the simplicity and flexibility of the result. This new stochastic screen algorithm is loosely based on Kang's dispersed-dot ordered dither halftone array construction technique used as part of his microcluster halftoning method. Our new halftoning algorithm uses pixelwise measures of dispersion based on one proposed by Kang which is here modified to be more effective. In addition, our method exploits the concept of farthest-point sampling (FPS), introduced as a progressive irregular sampling method by Eldar et al. but uses a more efficient implementation of FPS in the construction of the dot profiles. The technique we propose is compared to other state-of-the-art dither-based halftoning methods in both qualitative and quantitative manners.

  9. Material for Point Design (final summary of DIME material)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-25

    These slides summarize the motivation of the Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) project, the “point design” of the Polar Direct Drive (PDD) version of the NIF separated reactant capsule, the experimental requirements, technical achievements, and some useful backup material. These slides are intended to provide much basic material in one convenient location and will hopefully be of some use for subsequent experimental projects.

  10. A Design Outline for Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Faizal; M. Rafiuddin Ahmed; Young-Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the most important development stages of floating point absorber wave energy converters is presented. At a given location, the wave energy resource has to be first assessed for varying seasons. The mechanisms used to convert wave energy to usable energy vary for different wave energy conversion systems. The power output of the generator will have variations due to varying incident waves. The wave structure-interaction leads to modifications in the incident waves; thus, the powe...

  11. Design of prototype two element optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter badge for eye lens monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype two element eye lens dosimeter badge based on highly sensitive α-Al2O3: C optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) was designed and developed. The badge consists of a plastic card in which two thin α-Al2O3: C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) discs are placed. The OSLDs in the plastic card (when inserted into plastic cassette) are covered with energy compensation filters made up of 0.3 mm thick Cu and 1.35 mm thick Teflon discs positioned symmetrically on both sides of the dosimeter. The OSLD badge is useful for monitoring doses from photons and beta particles. In this paper, theoretical studies using Monte Carlo method as well as using the analytical technique have been performed to study the energy response of the bare α-Al2O3: C based disc dosimeters. These dosimeter discs have been found to exhibit over-response by a factor of ∼ 3.4 at ∼ 33 keV photon energy, whereas, beyond 80 keV photon energy, the response is nearly energy independent. Studies have also been performed to find the energy response of the α-Al2O3: C disc dosimeters under different metal filters, viz., Al, Cu, Sn etc., and under various thicknesses of Teflon. From theoretical simulations, it has been found that 0.3 mm thick Cu is sufficient to correct the over-response in lower energy region within acceptable limits. Further, Teflon disc (DuPont, USA) having thickness of 1.35 mm is found to be the optimized choice as filter for the second dosimeter disc. It is worth mentioning that the ratio of the response of the OSL disc under Teflon to that under Cu filter indicates average energy of X-ray photons and same is used to correct the over-response as well as to estimate the quantity Hp(3). Also for higher photon energy region, the readout of the dosimeter disc under Teflon filter directly measures the quantity Hp(3). Same holds true for beta particles having maximum beta energy, Emax beyond 0.7 MeV. (author)

  12. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.; Bang, Ole

    2012-04-01

    An increasing interest in making sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written in polymer optical fibers (POFs) has been seen recently. Mostly microstructured POFs (mPOFs) have been chosen for this purpose because they are easier to fabricate compared, for example, to step index fibers and because they allow to tune the guiding parameters by modifying the microstructure. Now a days the only technique used to write gratings in such fibers is the phase mask technique with UV light illumination. Despite the good results that have been obtained, a limited flexibility on the grating design and the very long times required for the writing of FBGs raise some questions about the possibility of exporting POF FBGs and the sensors based on them from the laboratory bench to the mass production market. The possibility of arbitrary design of fiber Bragg gratings and the very short time required to write the gratings make the point-by-point grating writing technique very interesting and would appear to be able to fill this technological gap. On the other end this technique is hardly applicable for microstructured fibers because of the writing beam being scattered by the air-holes. We report on the design and realization of a microstructured polymer optical fiber made of PMMA for direct writing of FBGs. The fiber was designed specifically to avoid obstruction of the writing beam by air-holes. The realized fiber has been used to point-by-point write a 5 mm long fourth order FBG with a Bragg wavelength of 1518 nm. The grating was inspected under Differential Interferometric Contrast microscope and the reflection spectrum was measured. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first FBGs written into a mPOF with the point-by-point technique and also the fastest ever written into a polymer optical fiber, with less than 2.5 seconds needed.

  13. Mobile point-of-care monitors and diagnostic device design

    CERN Document Server

    Karlen, Walter

    2014-01-01

    PrefaceEditorsContributorsSensors and SystemsInterfacing Diagnostics with Consumer ElectronicsPakorn Preechaburana, Anke Suska, and Daniel FilippiniLab on a CellphoneAhmet F. Coskun, Hongying Zhu, Onur Mudanyali, and Aydogan OzcanThe Phone OximeterChristian Leth PetersenCurrent Technology and Advances in Transepidermal Water Loss SensorsPietro Salvo, Bernardo Melai, Nicola Calisi, and Fabio Di FrancescoPortable High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging System Design and Hardware Considerations

  14. Studying nanostructured nipple arrays of moth eye facets helps to design better thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipples on the surface of moth eye facets exhibit almost perfect broadband anti-reflection properties. We have studied the facet surface micro-protuberances, known as corneal nipples, of the chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella by atomic force microscopy, and simulated the optics of the nipple arrays by three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. The influence of the dimensions and shapes of the nipples on the optics was studied. In particular, the shape of the nipples has a major influence on the anti-reflection properties. Furthermore, we transferred the structure of the almost perfect broadband anti-reflection coatings to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. The coating that imitates the moth-eye array allows for an increase of the short circuit current and conversion efficiency of more than 40%.

  15. Designing Low-Cost Cryptographic Hardware for Wired- or Wireless Point-to-Point Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Sebastian

    Science and industry consider non classical cryptographic technologies to provide alternative security solutions. They are motivated by strong restrictions as they are often present in embedded security scenarios and in application such as battery powered embedded systems and RFID devices with often severe resource limitations. We investigate the implementation of a low hardware complexity cryptosystem for lightweight (authenticated) symmetric key exchange, based on two new Tree Parity Machine Rekeying Architectures (TPMRAs). This work significantly extends and optimizes (number of gates) previously published results on TPMRAs. We evaluate characteristics of standardcell ASIC design realizations as IP-core in 0.18-CMOS technology and an implementation into a standard bus controller with security features.

  16. Design and analysis of an adaptive lens that mimics the performance of the crystalline lens in the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Iturbide-Jiménez, F.; Martínez-López, M.; Ramírez-Como, M.; Armengol-Cruz, V.; Vásquez-Báez, I.

    2014-09-01

    Tunable lenses are optical systems that have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in such areas like ophthalmology, machine vision, microscopy and laser processing. In recent years we have been working in the analysis and performance of a liquid-filled variable focal length lens, this is a lens that can modify its focal length by changing the amount of water within it. Nowadays we extend our study to a particular adaptive lens known as solid elastic lens (SEL) that it is formed by an elastic main body made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sylgard 184). In this work, we present the design, simulation and analysis of an adaptive solid elastic lens that in principle imitates the accommodation process of the crystalline lens in the human eye. For this work, we have adopted the parameters of the schematic eye model developed in 1985 by Navarro et al.; this model represents the anatomy of the eye as close as possible to reality by predicting an acceptable and accurate quantity of spherical and chromatic aberrations without any shape fitting. An opto-mechanical analysis of the accommodation process of the adaptive lens is presented, by simulating a certain amount of radial force applied onto the SEL using the finite element method with the commercial software SolidWorks®. We also present ray-trace diagrams of the simulated compression process of the adaptive lens using the commercial software OSLO®.

  17. Atomic Design of Three-Dimensional Photonic $Z_2$ Dirac and Weyl Points

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, HaiXiao; Chen, HuanYang; Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Topological nodal points such as Dirac and Weyl points in photonic spectrum offer unique abilities in manipulating light propagation. However, designing topological nodal points in photonic crystals is much more difficult than in electronic systems due to lack of the atomic picture. We propose an atomic approach for the design of three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl points via Mie resonances which can be viewed as photonic local orbits. Using connected-hollow-cylinder structure as an example we demonstrate how to design topological degeneracy points in photonic energy bands by tuning the geometric shape. We discover a new type of topological degeneracy three-dimensional photonic spectrum, the $Z_2$ Dirac points, which are monopoles of the $SU(2)$ Berry-flux protected by the parity-time symmetry. Upon breaking the inversion symmetry each Dirac point splits into a pair of Weyl points with opposite chirality. Our study provides new methodology and example for future topological photonics where monopoles and surface ...

  18. Phase transfer and point-spread function of the human eye determined by a new asymmetric double-pass method.

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Rafael; M. A. Losada

    1995-01-01

    A recent study has shown that the double-pass method provides a good estimate of the ocular modulation transfer function (MTF) but that it does not yield the phase transfer function (PTF) [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195 (1995)]. Therefore, one cannot recover the true retinal point-spread function (PSF). We present a modification of the double-pass method to overcome this problem. The key is to break the symmetry between the two passes. By using an unexpanded Gaussian input beam, we produce ...

  19. Design of a Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Regulator for a Set of Operation Points

    OpenAIRE

    Edvaldo Assunção; Rodrigo Cardim; Wallysonn A. de Souza; Teixeira, Marcelo C. M.; Máira P. A. Santim

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a new design method based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) for tracking constant signals (regulation) considering nonlinear plants described by the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models. The procedure consists in designing a single controller that stabilizes the system at operation points belonging to a certain range or region, without the need of remaking the design of the controller gains at each new chosen equilibrium point. The control system design of a magnetic levitator ill...

  20. Functional design of a local area network for the Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Schneidewind, Norman F.

    1982-01-01

    As a result of the growing demands for automated data processing at the Navy stock points and inventory control points, long range plans are being developed around the Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE) concept. This report provides a design and implementation strategy which is based on a distributed architecture for a Local Area Network (LAN)...

  1. Application of two procedures for dual-point design of transonic airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Campbell, Richard L.; Allison, Dennis O.

    1994-01-01

    Two dual-point design procedures were developed to reduce the objective function of a baseline airfoil at two design points. The first procedure to develop a redesigned airfoil used a weighted average of the shapes of two intermediate airfoils redesigned at each of the two design points. The second procedure used a weighted average of two pressure distributions obtained from an intermediate airfoil redesigned at each of the two design points. Each procedure was used to design a new airfoil with reduced wave drag at the cruise condition without increasing the wave drag or pitching moment at the climb condition. Two cycles of the airfoil shape-averaging procedure successfully designed a new airfoil that reduced the objective function and satisfied the constraints. One cycle of the target (desired) pressure-averaging procedure was used to design two new airfoils that reduced the objective function and came close to satisfying the constraints.

  2. Supersonic Aerodynamic Design Improvements of an Arrow-Wing HSCT Configuration Using Nonlinear Point Design Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Eric R.; Hager, James O.; Agrawal, Shreekant

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the supersonic nonlinear point design optimization efforts at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace under the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. The baseline for these optimization efforts has been the M2.4-7A configuration which represents an arrow-wing technology for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Optimization work on this configuration began in early 1994 and continued into 1996. Initial work focused on optimization of the wing camber and twist on a wing/body configuration and reductions of 3.5 drag counts (Euler) were realized. The next phase of the optimization effort included fuselage camber along with the wing and a drag reduction of 5.0 counts was achieved. Including the effects of the nacelles and diverters into the optimization problem became the next focus where a reduction of 6.6 counts (Euler W/B/N/D) was eventually realized. The final two phases of the effort included a large set of constraints designed to make the final optimized configuration more realistic and they were successful albeit with a loss of performance.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF EYES AND BRAIN BEHIND "ARTERMA TOOL" IN FIRST PERSON POINT OF VIEW INTERFACE OF GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Shayana Samaden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of point of view (POV in electronic games has been vastly applied and fast becoming a favorite among electronic games (EG players particularly in games of action genre like warfare games. While allowing the users to experience the character first-hand, POV has its limitations for users. One example of the problems is the difficulty to anticipate the direction an attack by the enemy from a POV blindspot. Another problem is the difficulty to prepare a strategy. Some players become “somewhat dizzy” and eventually give up the game. This paper elaborates on the development of a framework for interactive montage on EG software interface using ArTerma tools and how the ArTerma tool works in the POV interface. Therefore, to accomplish the development of ArTerma tools, (A1(DDI2E3 model is used. In (A1(DDI2E3 model usage, ADDIE model is combined with other model concept such as “DiegesisSpatiality” concept Model, Frame concept model, and Mental concept model has been employed along side an elaboration on case studies. The study hopes that the developed a new model as well as support tool can help improve future EGs.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF EYES AND BRAIN BEHIND "ARTERMA TOOL" IN FIRST PERSON POINT OF VIEW INTERFACE OF GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Shayana Samaden

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of point of view (POV in electronic games has been vastly applied and fast becoming a favorite among electronic games (EG players particularly in games of action genre like warfare games. While allowing the users to experience the character first-hand, POV has its limitations for users. One example of the problems is the difficulty to anticipate the direction an attack by the enemy from a POV blindspot. Another problem is the difficulty to prepare a strategy. Some players become “somewhat dizzy” and eventually give up the game. This paper elaborates on the development of a framework for interactive montage on EG software interface using ArTerma tools and how the ArTerma tool works in the POV interface. Therefore, to accomplish the development of ArTerma tools, (A1(DDI2E3 model is used. In (A1(DDI2E3 model usage, ADDIE model is combined with other model concept such as “Diegesis Spatiality” concept Model, Frame concept model, and Mental concept model has been employed along side an elaboration on case studies. The study hopes that the developed a new model as well as support tool can help improve future EGs.

  5. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  6. Eye Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how the eye works. The eye is a ball covered with a tough outer membrane. The covering in front is clear and curved. This curved area is the cornea, which focuses light while protecting the eye. After light passes through ...

  7. Interdisciplinary working in service design: case studies for designing touch points

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Liliana; Lockley, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The paper argues that interdisciplinary design can be successful in services design. It offers information about 2 case studies in which interdisciplinary teams address design services problems. The paper explains the design method employed in the case studies. It also identifies user design centred as the main concept that drove the design approach. It explains the meaning of user centred design, of services design and highlights the importance of interdisciplinary services design. T...

  8. End-point controller design for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator using convex optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Barratt, Craig H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results in linear controller design are used to design an end-point controller for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator. A nominal 14-state linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller was augmented with a 528-tap finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter designed using convex optimization techniques. The resulting 278-state controller produced improved end-point trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection in simulation and experimentally in real time.

  9. Designation and Control of Landing Points for Competitive Robotic Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitive robotic table tennis involves many topics such as smart ball returning strategy, precise motion control, etc. It remains a quite challenging task due to the unpredictable, uncooperative incoming ball and the requirement of a smart strategy to defeat the opponent. Designation and control of landing points is one basic aspect of ball returning strategies in competitive robotic table tennis because different landing points require the opponent to make different efforts to return the ball. In this paper, we present a method to designate desired landing points based on competitiveness level. We also propose a learning based landing point control approach to minimize the error of the actual landing points with respect to the designated landing points. The proposed methods have been verified through experiments on a humanoid table tennis robot.

  10. Innovation methods integration for safety conflicts management in design Case study : the three-point hitch

    OpenAIRE

    Ghemraoui, R.; Mathieu, L.; Tricot, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the problem of taking safety requirements into account in the agricultural equipment design thanks to the integration of innovation theories and methods. Firstly, it goes to introduce two major methods, Axiomatic Design and TRIZ, which have been applied in other transportation domains and have given successful results. Currently, Axiomatic Design is used to analyse the technical product and to point out technical problems. Based on two design axioms, Axiomatic Design is a ...

  11. A multi level system design for vigilance measurement based on head posture estimation and eyes blinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyeb, Ines; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; ben Amar, Chokri

    2015-12-01

    Driving security is an important task for human society. The major challenge in the field of accident avoidance systems is the driver vigilance monitoring. The lack of vigilance can be noticed by various ways, such as, fatigue, drowsiness and distraction. Hence, the need of a reliable driver's vigilance decrease detection system which can alert drivers before a mishap happens. In this paper, we present a novel approach for vigilance estimation based on multilevel system by combining head movement analysis and eyes blinking. We have used Viola and Jones algorithm to analyse head movement and a classification system using wavelet networks for eyelid closure measuring. The contribution of our application is classifiying the vigilance state at multi level. This is different from the binary-class (awakening or hypovigilant state) existing in most popular systems.

  12. Design and development of a ferroelectric micro photo detector for the bionic eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    Driven by no effective therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age Related Macular Degeneration, artificial vision through the development of an artificial retina that can be implanted into the human eye, is being addressed by the Bionic Eye. This dissertation focuses on the study of a photoferroelectric micro photo detector as an implantable retinal prosthesis for vision restoration in patients with above disorders. This implant uses an electrical signal to trigger the appropriate ocular cells of the vision system without resorting to wiring or electrode implantation. The research work includes fabrication of photoferroelectric thin film micro detectors, characterization of these photoferroelectric micro devices as photovoltaic cells, and Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of the photoferroelectrics and their device-neuron interface. A ferroelectric micro detector exhibiting the photovoltaic effect (PVE) directly adds electrical potential to the neuron membrane outer wall at the focal adhesion regions. The electrical potential then generates a retinal cell membrane potential deflection through a newly developed Direct-Electric-Field-Coupling (DEFC) model. This model is quite different from the traditional electric current model because instead of current directly working on the cell membrane, the PVE current is used to generate a localized high electric potential in the focal adhesion region by working together with the anisotropic high internal impedance of ferroelectric thin films. General electrodes and silicon photodetectors do not have such anisotropy and high impedance, and thus they cannot generate DEFC. This mechanism investigation is very valuable, because it clearly shows that our artificial retina works in a way that is totally different from the traditional current stimulation methods.

  13. Design and construction progress on Gentilly 2, Cordoba, Point Lepreau, and Wolsung projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentilly 2, Point Lepreau, Cordoba and Wolsung are the first 600 MW CANDU nuclear generating stations to be built. Progress in their construction and in the remaining design work for these stations is discussed. (LL)

  14. On the design of IEEE compliant floating point units and their quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Peter-Michael

    1999-01-01

    Abstract this thesis addresses the question of which are the important issues in the design of a high-speed floating-point unit (FPU) that is fully compliant with the IEEE floating-point standard 754-1985 [19]. There are a few choices that need to be made when designing an IEEE compliant FPU, among them: the internal representation of floating-point numbers, the rounding algorithms, handling of denormal results, usage of the same rounding hardware for different units (e.g. adder, multiplier, ...

  15. COMPU-EYE: a high resolution computational compound eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Jang, Hwanchol; Park, Sangjun; Song, Young Min; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-02-01

    In nature, the compound eyes of arthropods have evolved towards a wide field of view (FOV), infinite depth of field and fast motion detection. However, compound eyes have inferior resolution when compared with the camera-type eyes of vertebrates, owing to inherent structural constraints such as the optical performance and the number of ommatidia. For resolution improvements, in this paper, we propose COMPUtational compound EYE (COMPU-EYE), a new design that increases acceptance angles and uses a modern digital signal processing (DSP) technique. We demonstrate that the proposed COMPU-EYE provides at least a four-fold improvement in resolution. PMID:26906778

  16. WE-A-17A-12: The Influence of Eye Plaque Design On Dose Distributions and Dose- Volume Histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of slot design of the model EP917 plaque on dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Methods: The dimensions and orientation of the slots in EP917 plaques were measured. In the MCNP5 radiation simulation geometry, dose distributions on orthogonal planes and DVHs for a tumor and sclera were generated for comparisons. 27 slot designs and 13 plaques were evaluated and compared with the published literature and the Plaque Simulator clinical treatment planning system. Results: The dosimetric effect of the gold backing composition and mass density was < 3%. Slot depth, width, and length changed the central axis (CAX) dose distributions by < 1% per 0.1 mm in design variation. Seed shifts in the slot towards the eye and shifts of the 125 I-coated Ag rod within the capsule had the greatest impact on CAX dose distribution, increasing by 14%, 9%, 4%, and 2.5% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm, respectively, from the inner sclera. Along the CAX, dose from the full plaque geometry using the measured slot design was 3.4% 2.3% higher than the manufacturer-provided geometry. D10 for the simulated tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera for the measured plaque was also higher, but 9%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. In comparison to the measured plaque design, a theoretical plaque having narrow and deep slots delivered 30%, 37%, and 62% lower D10 doses to the tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera, respectively. CAX doses at ?1, 0, 1, and 2 mm were also lower by a factor of 2.6, 1.4, 1.23, and 1.13, respectively. Conclusion: The study identified substantial sensitivity of the EP917 plaque dose distributions to slot design. However, it did not identify substantial dosimetric variations based on radionuclide choice (125I, 103Pd, or 131Cs). COMS plaques provided lower scleral doses with similar tumor dose coverage

  17. Shielding of the Final Focusing System in the Robust Point Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) recently initiated an effort to reach an updated, self-consistent, integrated point design for a thick-liquid inertial fusion energy power plant. We call this design the Robust Point Design. As part of this effort, the shielding design of the final focusing system has been evaluated, in an iterative fashion, with other elements of the design. The present work reports on the status of the shielding design from the perspectives of superconductor/insulator radiation lifetimes, recirculating power needed to counter nuclear heating, and neutron activation, which affects both system maintainability and waste management. Models used herein include the last three focusing magnets, and a full, three-dimensional model for the target chamber. Analyses have been performed for 9-by-9 beam arrays, with a total of 120 beams (60 per side). Results and directions for future work are presented

  18. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) for adults at risk for glaucoma: study rationale and design

    OpenAIRE

    Owsley, Cynthia; Rhodes, Lindsay A.; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T.; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Wiley, Demond M.; LaRussa, Frank; Box, Dan; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E.; Girkin, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary open angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive eye disease that is the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma progresses more rapidly and appears about 10 years earlier in African Americans as compared to whites. African Americans are also less likely to receive comprehensive eye care when glaucoma could be detected before irreversible blindness. Screening and follow-up protocols for managing glaucoma recommended by eye-care professional organizations a...

  19. Multi-point Adjoint-Based Design of Tilt-Rotors in a Noninertial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William T.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Acree, Cecil W.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of tilt-rotor systems requires the consideration of performance at multiple design points. In the current study, an adjoint-based optimization of a tilt-rotor blade is considered. The optimization seeks to simultaneously maximize the rotorcraft figure of merit in hover and the propulsive efficiency in airplane-mode for a tilt-rotor system. The design is subject to minimum thrust constraints imposed at each design point. The rotor flowfields at each design point are cast as steady-state problems in a noninertial reference frame. Geometric design variables used in the study to control blade shape include: thickness, camber, twist, and taper represented by as many as 123 separate design variables. Performance weighting of each operational mode is considered in the formulation of the composite objective function, and a build up of increasing geometric degrees of freedom is used to isolate the impact of selected design variables. In all cases considered, the resulting designs successfully increase both the hover figure of merit and the airplane-mode propulsive efficiency for a rotor designed with classical techniques.

  20. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward; cosmetic surgery, if the eyelids are opened too widely. Frequently ... disease when the eye protrudes forward or after cosmetic surgery if the eyelids are opened too widely, dry ...

  1. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  2. Reliability of impingement sampling designs: An example from the Indian Point station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 4-year data base (1976-1979) of daily fish impingement counts at the Indian Point electric power station on the Hudson River was used to compare the precision and reliability of three random-sampling designs: (1) simple random, (2) seasonally stratified, and (3) empirically stratified. The precision of daily impingement estimates improved logarithmically for each design as more days in the year were sampled. Simple random sampling was the least, and empirically stratified sampling was the most precise design, and the difference in precision between the two stratified designs was small. Computer-simulated sampling was used to estimate the reliability of the two stratified-random-sampling designs. A seasonally stratified sampling design was selected as the most appropriate reduced-sampling program for Indian Point station because: (1) reasonably precise and reliable impingement estimates were obtained using this design for all species combined and for eight common Hudson River fish by sampling only 30% of the days in a year (110 d); and (2) seasonal strata may be more precise and reliable than empirical strata if future changes in annual impingement patterns occur. The seasonally stratified design applied to the 1976-1983 Indian Point impingement data showed that selection of sampling dates based on daily species-specific impingement variability gave results that were more precise, but not more consistently reliable, than sampling allocations based on the variability of all fish species combined. 14 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  3. Designation and Control of Landing Points for Competitive Robotic Table Tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiaopeng; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Xuechao; Yu, Zhangguo; Duo, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    Competitive robotic table tennis involves many topics such as smart ball returning strategy, precise motion control, etc. It remains a quite challenging task due to the unpredictable, uncooperative incoming ball and the requirement of a smart strategy to defeat the opponent. Designation and control of landing points is one basic aspect of ball returning strategies in competitive robotic table tennis because different landing points require the opponent to make different efforts to return the ...

  4. Fuzzy Controller Design Using FPGA for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Basil M. Hamed; Mohammed S. El-Moghany

    2012-01-01

    The cell has optimum operating point to be able to get maximum power. To obtain Maximum Power from photovoltaic array, photovoltaic power system usually requires Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller. This paper provides a small power photovoltaic control system based on fuzzy control with FPGA technology design and implementation for MPPT. The system composed of photovoltaic module, buck converter and the fuzzy logic controller implemented on FPGA for controlling on/off time of MOSF...

  5. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas G, D., E-mail: dcardena@cenam.mx [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76246 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylinder-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.9992±0.0004 in the 8 μm to 14 μm wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have and expanded uncertainty of 54 m K, with a coverage factor k = 2. (Author)

  6. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Crdenas-Garca.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set [...] of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM's transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylindro-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.9992 0.0004 in the 8 ?m to 14 ?m wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have an expanded uncertainty of 54 mK, with a coverage factor k = 2.

  7. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylinder-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.99920.0004 in the 8 ?m to 14 ?m wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have and expanded uncertainty of 54 m K, with a coverage factor k = 2. (Author)

  8. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cárdenas-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM’s transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylindro-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0:9992§0:0004 in the 8 ¹m to 14 ¹m wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have an expanded uncertainty of 54 mK, with a coverage factor k = 2.

  9. OGAMA (Open Gaze and Mouse Analyzer): open-source software designed to analyze eye and mouse movements in slideshow study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosskühler, Adrian; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2008-11-01

    In the present article, a new software is introduced that allows the recording and analyzing of eye- and mouse-tracking data from slideshow-based experiments in parallel. The Open Gaze and Mouse Analyzer (OGAMA) is written in C#.NET and has been released as an open-source project. Its main features include slideshow design, the recording of gaze and mouse data, database-driven preprocessing and filtering of gaze and mouse data, the creation of attention maps, areas-of-interest definition, and replay. Eyetracking and/or presentation soft- and hardware recordings in ASCII format can be imported. Data output is provided that can be used directly with different statistical software packages. Because it is open source, one can easily adapt it to suit one's needs. PMID:19001407

  10. Designing forward with an eye to the past: Morphogenesis of the lower Yuba River

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. Allan

    2015-12-01

    The early geomorphic evolution of the lower Yuba River (LYR), northern California, up to 1906 is reconstructed using cartographic, documentary, topographic, and stratigraphic evidence. The importance of early river mining is identified along with rates and patterns of floodplain aggradation and channel incision at the turn of the 20th century. The LYR is a classic example of anthropogeomorphic transformation of a river by episodic hydraulic mining sedimentation. This was followed by channelization, damming, dredging, and other engineering works to redirect, contain, and stabilize channels. These geomorphic changes and engineering controls continue to govern channel and floodplain form and process, control the trajectory of river responses, and constrain flood control, water quality, and aquatic ecosystem management options. Returning a river system to a prior condition should not be the primary goal of river rehabilitation projects, especially if hydrologic inputs have substantially changed. Reconstructing former conditions may be impractical and unsustainable under modern circumstances. Instead, fluvial systems should be designed and managed for present inputs and processes while anticipating future conditions. Rapid changes in land use and climate that generate changes in runoff and sediment loadings are likely to generate morphological instability, and these changes should be considered in the design and management of fluvial systems. The past geomorphic evolution of fluvial systems should also be considered in design and management decisions to recognize trajectories and suppressed tendencies. Recognition of trends and system vulnerabilities may avoid potential blunders, such as removing critical stabilizing works. Complex causalities may be difficult to reconstruct from geomorphic form alone, however, due to process-form dynamics. Detailed research on the geomorphic and engineering history of a river is essential, therefore, if substantial changes and morphologic instabilities have occurred.

  11. An integrated mechanical design concept for the final focusingregion for the HIF point design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Barnard, J.J.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Chun,J.; Schmidt, J.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Abbott, R.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Pemberton, S.J.; Rose, D.V.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-11-21

    A design study was undertaken to develop a ''first cut'' integrated mechanical design concept of the final focusing region for a conceptual IFE power plant that considers the major issues which must be addressed in an integrated driver and chamber system. The conceptual design in this study requires a total of 120 beamlines located in two conical arrays attached on the sides of the target chamber 180 degrees apart. Each beamline consists of four large-aperture superconducting quadrupole magnets and a dipole magnet. The major interface issues include radiation shielding and thermal insulation of the superconducting magnets; reaction of electromagnetic loads between the quadrupoles; alignment of the magnets; isolation of the vacuum regions in the target chamber from the beamline, and assembly and maintenance.

  12. Unbalanced and Minimal Point Equivalent Estimation Second-Order Split-Plot Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Peter A.; Kowalski, Scott M.; Vining, G. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Restricting the randomization of hard-to-change factors in industrial experiments is often performed by employing a split-plot design structure. From an economic perspective, these designs minimize the experimental cost by reducing the number of resets of the hard-to- change factors. In this paper, unbalanced designs are considered for cases where the subplots are relatively expensive and the experimental apparatus accommodates an unequal number of runs per whole-plot. We provide construction methods for unbalanced second-order split- plot designs that possess the equivalence estimation optimality property, providing best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters; independent of the variance components. Unbalanced versions of the central composite and Box-Behnken designs are developed. For cases where the subplot cost approaches the whole-plot cost, minimal point designs are proposed and illustrated with a split-plot Notz design.

  13. Design and Implementation of an IoT Access Point for Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yung Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Network communication and micro-electro-mechanical embedded technologies have attracted much attention in recent years. Through these technologies, the capabilities of sensing, identification, and communication can be embedded in various smart devices. These smart devices can automatically connect to the Internet and form an intelligent network called Internet of Things (IoT. However, these devices are embedded with different wireless communication interfaces such as Wi-Fi and ZigBee. This paper presents the design and implementation of an IoT access point that supports functionalities of coordination of various wireless transmission protocols. Based on the existing Wi-Fi access point, we have embedded a ZigBee module and implemented ZigBee and UPnP protocols into the designed IoT access point, which supports ZigBee communication capabilities over the Internet.

  14. Design Considerations for Miniaturized Control Moment Gyroscopes for Rapid Retargeting and Precision Pointing of Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design as well as characterization of a practical control moment gyroscope (CMG) based attitude control system (ACS) for small satellites in the 15-20 kilogram mass range performing rapid retargeting and precision pointing maneuvers. The paper focuses on the approach taken in the design of miniaturized CMGs while considering the constraints imposed by the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as well as the size of the satellite. It is shown that a hybrid mode is more suitable for COTS based moment exchange actuators; a mode that uses the torque amplification of CMGs for rapid retargeting and direct torque capabilities of the flywheel motors for precision pointing. A simulation is provided to demonstrate on-orbit slew and pointing performance.

  15. Fuzzy Controller Design Using FPGA for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil M Hamed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cell has optimum operating point to be able to get maximum power. To obtain Maximum Power from photovoltaic array, photovoltaic power system usually requires Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller. This paper provides a small power photovoltaic control system based on fuzzy control with FPGA technology design and implementation for MPPT. The system composed of photovoltaic module, buck converter and the fuzzy logic controller implemented on FPGA for controlling on/off time of MOSFET switch of a buck converter. The proposed maximum power point tracking controller for photovoltaic system is tested using model designed by Matlab/Simulink program with graphical user interface (GUI for entering the parameters of any array model using information from its datasheet, Simulation and experimental results show that performance of the fuzzy controller with FPGA in a maximum power tracking of a photovoltaic array can be made use of in several photovoltaic products and obtain satisfied result.

  16. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on design and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The policy is to replicate the Sizewell ''B'' PWR design. The Hinkley Point ''C'' design is described indicating where changes in the Sizewell ''B'' design have been made to accommodate site differences. These are associated with the civil engineering construction and some of the electrical systems and do not affect the safety case. External hazards differ from site to site and the effect on the safety case of those specific to Hinkley Point are examined. The Chernobyl accident and the assessment of the United Kingdom PWR which was carried out subsequently are reviewed. The assessment indicated that no changes in the Sizewell ''B'' design and safety case were called for as a result of this accident; accident management developments are also reviewed, however. The CEGB's approach to minimizing occupational radiation doses is described. (UK)

  17. How do design features influence consumer attention when looking for nutritional information on food labels? Results from an eye-tracking study on pan bread labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Lucía; Vidal, Leticia; Sapolinski, Alejandra; Giménez, Ana; Maiche, Alejandro; Ares, Gastón

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate consumer visual processing of food labels when evaluating the salt content of pan bread labels and to study the influence of label design and nutritional labelling format on consumer attention. A total of 16 pan bread labels, designed according to a full factorial design, were presented to 52 participants, who were asked to decide whether the sodium content of each label was medium or low, while their eye movements were recorded using an eye tracker. Results showed that most participants looked at nutrition labels and the traffic light system to conclude on the salt content of the labels. However, the average percentage of participants who looked at the actual sodium content was much lower. Nutrition information format affected participants' processing of nutrition information. Among other effects, the inclusion of the traffic light system increased participants' attention towards some kind of nutrition information and facilitated its processing, but not its understanding. PMID:23301795

  18. Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR): sensitivity study and design-point determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique, magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the viewpoint of low-field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. A comprehensive system model is developed and described for a steady-state, compact RFP reactor (CRFPR). This model is used to select a unique cost-optimized design point that will be used for a conceptual engineering design. The cost-optimized CRFPR design presented herein would operate with system power densities and mass utilizations that are comparable to fission power plants and are an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion power. The sensitivity of the base-case design point to changes in plasma transport, profiles, beta, blanket thickness, normal vs superconducting coils, and fuel cycle (DT vs DD) is examined. The RFP approach is found to yield a point design for a high-power-density reactor that is surprisingly resilient to changes in key, but relatively unknown, physics and systems parameters

  19. The ARIES-I high-field-tokamak reactor: Design-point determination and parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-institutional ARIES study has examined the physics, technology, safety, and economic issues associated with the conceptual design of a tokamak magnetic-fusion reactor. The ARIES-I variant envisions a DT-fueled device based on advanced superconducting coil, blanket, and power-conversion technologies and a modest extrapolation of existing tokamak physics. A comprehensive systems and trade study has been conducted as an integral and ongoing part of the reactor assessment in order to identify an acceptable design point to be subjected to detailed analysis and integration as well as to characterize the ARIES-I operating space. Results of parametric studies leading to the identification of such a design point are presented. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. BELLA: a multi-point dynamics code for safety-informed design of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A multi-point dynamics code for simulation of LMFRs transients was developed. • The lumped-parameter simulator can predict primary system’s average temperatures. • The ability to model natural circulation allows for safety-informed design. • The benchmark with respect to SAS4A/SASSYS-1 shows satisfactory accuracy. - Abstract: In this paper, the multi-point dynamics code BELLA and its benchmarking with respect to SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is described for a small fast reactor cooled with natural convection of lead (ELECTRA). It is shown that BELLA is capable of reproducing the magnitude of mass-flow, reactivity, power and temperature excursions during design extension conditions with an accuracy better than 10%. Hence, the BELLA code can be used for safety-informed design and stability analyses of fast reactor systems, permitting to isolate essential phenomena and trends of significance for their safety assessment

  1. On Isotropic Sets of Points in the Plane. Application to the Design of Robot Archirectures

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Various performance indices are used for the design of serial manipulators. One method of optimization relies on the condition number of the Jacobian matrix. The minimization of the condition number leads, under certain conditions, to isotropic configurations, for which the roundoff-error amplification is lowest. In this paper, the isotropy conditions, introduced elsewhere, are the motivation behind the introduction of isotropic sets of points. By connecting together these points, we define families of isotropic manipulators. This paper is devoted to planar manipulators, the concepts being currently extended to their spatial counterparts. Furthermore, only manipulators with revolute joints are considered here.

  2. Web Design for Multiple Platforms in Microsoft SharePoint 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Claug, Erik

    2013-01-01

    As mobile devices become more common when surfing the web there is an increasing demand of making web sites adjusted to other devices than computers. One common platform on the web is Microsoft SharePoint. In this report I look into one method of how to develop web sites that work on multiple devices in Microsoft SharePoint. I will be looking into different techniques as separate web sites compared to responsive web design. By exploring the approach of mobile first I try to find a working sol...

  3. Using eye-tracking methodology in consumer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialkova, S.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim

    Eye-tracking methodology will soon be mature enough to become a standard tool in consumer science. The workshop will begin with a short overview of the perceptual and attention processes that can be measured by eye-tracking. The available hardware and software will be compared, and typical...... experimental designs will be discussed that can be recommended for eye-tracking studies in consumer science. The application potential will then be demonstrated in four case presentations, focusing on different product categories (from dairy products to alcoholic beverages), measurement contexts (laboratory...... versus point of purchase) and study goals (appearance studies, package design, identification of food choice motives). Furthermore, the presentations will discuss how different components of attention can be distinguished based on eye-tracking data (stimulus-driven versus task-driven processes) and how...

  4. Inverse design of third-order Dirac exceptional points in photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zin; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel inverse-design method that enables brute-force discovery of photonic crystal (PhC) structures with complex spectral degeneracies. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate PhCs exhibiting third-order Dirac points formed by the \\emph{accidental} degeneracy of modes of monopolar, dipolar, and quadrupolar nature. We show that under suitable conditions, these modes can coalesce and form a third-order exceptional point (EP3), leading to diverging Petermann factors. We show that the spontaneous emission (SE) rate of emitters at such EP3s, related to the local density of states, can be enhanced by a factor of 8 in purely lossy (passive) structures, with larger enhancements $\\sim \\sqrt{n^3}$ possible at exceptional points of higher order $n$ or in materials with gain.

  5. At-sea test system point design for a one-third scale cold water pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, W.H. (ed.)

    1979-12-01

    One step in the development of the technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing of a fiberglass reinforced plastic nominal 10-foot diameter pipe. A design procedure and criteria for developing test hardware by scaling down a 30-foot diameter OTEC 10/40 MW Pilot Plant CWP design are presented. An example point design for the pipe, instrumentation to be used during the at-sea tests, and methods for selecting the support platform and mooring are described. The design considered starts with a scale model of a larger prototype, and then is modified to address the problems of fabrication and of survivability and handling during the 1/3rd scale model tests.

  6. The Design Of Speech-Control Power Point Presentation Tool Using Arm7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Vishnu Kumar, Dr.T.JayaChandra Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper was mainly exploring the important tool for many people who were exchanging knowledge especially proceeding power-point presentation as one auxiliary tool. The lecturer’s most proper position should be between the audience and screen of power-point and this location is far away the mouse or keyboard and also if he want go for particular slide using mouse or keyboard is long process, so if we have designed one facility with wireless control and could be controlled with speech-recognition function so that users need not rush between the screen and computer and also he can easily go for particular slide. Today some identical products with RF [1] and push function on the power-point pen that needs users to pre-learn the functions and those usage often caused errors especially in the dark environment, so in this paper we combined WSN ZigBee modules [2] with speech-recognition function and ARM7 based LPC2148 microcontroller to design the creative product, so to called “Hi-TEC ZigBee remotecontroller of Power-Point presentation”.

  7. Multi-point inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a practical method for the design of an infinite cascade in incompressible flow. The method is based on conformal mapping, and as a result it allows for multi-point design. The cascade blade to be determined is divided into a desired number of segments. Over each segment, the velocity distribution is prescribed together with an inlet or outlet flow angle at which this velocity distribution is to be achieved. In this way multi-point design requirements can be met. It is necessary to satisfy several conditions that arise to guarantee compatibility with the inlet and outlet flow as well as closure of the cascade blade. Satisfaction of these conditions does not necessarily result in a cascade with all the desired characteristics. For example, the cascade blades may be bulbous or crossed. Through Newton iteration, however, the desired characteristics may be prescribed by allowing for the adjustment of the design parameters that define the mathematical problem through conformal mapping. Several examples will be illustrated to demonstrate the capability of the method. It will be shown that the method is limited to the design of cascades with solidities of up to one.

  8. Development of an Open Rotor Cycle Model in NPSS Using a Multi-Design Point Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Subsonic Fixed Wing Project are focused on developing concepts and technologies which may enable dramatic reductions to the environmental impact of future generation subsonic aircraft (Refs. 1 and 2). The open rotor concept (also referred to as the Unducted Fan or advanced turboprop) may allow the achievement of this objective by reducing engine emissions and fuel consumption. To evaluate its potential impact, an open rotor cycle modeling capability is needed. This paper presents the initial development of an open rotor cycle model in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) computer program which can then be used to evaluate the potential benefit of this engine. The development of this open rotor model necessitated addressing two modeling needs within NPSS. First, a method for evaluating the performance of counter-rotating propellers was needed. Therefore, a new counter-rotating propeller NPSS component was created. This component uses propeller performance maps developed from historic counter-rotating propeller experiments to determine the thrust delivered and power required. Second, several methods for modeling a counter-rotating power turbine within NPSS were explored. These techniques used several combinations of turbine components within NPSS to provide the necessary power to the propellers. Ultimately, a single turbine component with a conventional turbine map was selected. Using these modeling enhancements, an open rotor cycle model was developed in NPSS using a multi-design point approach. The multi-design point (MDP) approach improves the engine cycle analysis process by making it easier to properly size the engine to meet a variety of thrust targets throughout the flight envelope. A number of design points are considered including an aerodynamic design point, sea-level static, takeoff and top of climb. The development of this MDP model was also enabled by the selection of a simple power management scheme which schedules propeller blade angles with the freestream Mach number. Finally, sample open rotor performance results and areas for further model improvements are presented.

  9. Radar Precoder Design for Spectral Coexistence with Coordinated Multi-point (CoMP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahal, Jasmin A.; Khawar, Awais; Abdelhadi, Ahmed; Clancy, T. Charles

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the design of precoders for a MIMO radar spectrally coexistent with a MIMO cellular network. We focus on a coordinated multi-point (CoMP) system where a cluster of base stations (BSs) coordinate their transmissions to the intended user. The radar operates in two modes, interference-mitigation mode when it avoids interference with the CoMP system and cooperation mode when it exchanges information with it. Using either the conventional Switched Null Space Projection (SNSP) or...

  10. Design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalon, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The design and development of a laminated glass-plastic Fresnel lens for point focus photovoltaic systems use is described. The objective of this development was to examine the feasibility of producing lenses with a cost effectiveness superior to that of lenses made by casting of acrylic. The procedure used in executing this development, the method used in cost effectiveness evaluation, results obtained and recommendations for further work are presented.

  11. Project Review on Implementation of Responsive Web Design on SharePoint 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kosova-Alija, Mirlinda

    2015-01-01

    Häme University of Applied Sciences has undergone a major web renewal project: all degree programmes and different departmental subsites were migrated or rebuilt by implementing responsive web design onto a Share-Point 2013 platform. The aim of the HAMK website is to provide current and correct information in a clear and accessible format at the same time providing the best possible user experience. The purpose of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive preview on the process of implem...

  12. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  13. Star Tracker Based ATP System Conceptual Design and Pointing Accuracy Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfiz, Gerardo G.; Lee, Shinhak

    2006-01-01

    A star tracker based beaconless (a.k.a. non-cooperative beacon) acquisition, tracking and pointing concept for precisely pointing an optical communication beam is presented as an innovative approach to extend the range of high bandwidth (> 100 Mbps) deep space optical communication links throughout the solar system and to remove the need for a ground based high power laser as a beacon source. The basic approach for executing the ATP functions involves the use of stars as the reference sources from which the attitude knowledge is obtained and combined with high bandwidth gyroscopes for propagating the pointing knowledge to the beam pointing mechanism. Details of the conceptual design are presented including selection of an orthogonal telescope configuration and the introduction of an optical metering scheme to reduce misalignment error. Also, estimates are presented that demonstrate that aiming of the communications beam to the Earth based receive terminal can be achieved with a total system pointing accuracy of better than 850 nanoradians (3 sigma) from anywhere in the solar system.

  14. Principles for the design and calibration of radiation protection dosemeters for operational and protection quantities for eye lens dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work package two of the ORAMED project-Collaborative Project (2008-2011) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme-is devoted to the study of the eye lens dosimetry. A first approach is to implement the use of Hp(3) by providing new sets of conversion coefficients and well suited calibration and type test procedures. This approach is presented in other papers in the proceedings of this conference. Taking into account that the eye lens is an organ close to the surface of the body, another approach would be to directly estimate the absorbed dose to the eye lens, Dlens,est through a special calibration procedure although this quantity is not directly measurable. This paper is a methodological paper that tries to identify the critical aspects of a dosimetry in terms of Dlens. (authors)

  15. Design and development of a point focus concentrated PV module operating above 100 suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, S.; Ho, F.; Khemthong, S.

    The present objective was to design, develop, fabricate and performance-test a highly efficient and cost-effective concentrated photovoltaic module which can operate above 100-suns concentration, which can be mass produced, and is reliable, with minimum maintenance. A point-focus module design was chosen, operating at 120 suns using a molded acrylic Fresnel lens and passive cooling. Four modules were built and tested, and a manufacturing cost analysis was made. The module and components were designed for future high volume production with the use of automated equipment in mind. The module consisted of a lightweight module body fabricated from aluminum sheet stock, a lens parquet assembly, and a 15 high efficiency solar cell-heat sink assembly, connected in series to produce 55 W under normal operating conditions.

  16. Design Parameters Analysis of Point Absorber WEC via an evolutionary-algorithm-based Dimensioning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Blanco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy conversion has an essential difference from other renewable energies since the dependence between the devices design and the energy resource is stronger. Dimensioning is therefore considered a key stage when a design project of Wave Energy Converters (WEC is undertaken. Location, WEC concept, Power Take-Off (PTO type, control strategy and hydrodynamic resonance considerations are some of the critical aspects to take into account to achieve a good performance. The paper proposes an automatic dimensioning methodology to be accomplished at the initial design project stages and the following elements are described to carry out the study: an optimization design algorithm, its objective functions and restrictions, a PTO model, as well as a procedure to evaluate the WEC energy production. After that, a parametric analysis is included considering different combinations of the key parameters previously introduced. A variety of study cases are analysed from the point of view of energy production for different design-parameters and all of them are compared with a reference case. Finally, a discussion is presented based on the results obtained, and some recommendations to face the WEC design stage are given.

  17. Eye Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PROTECT MY EYES FROM CHEMICAL SPLASHES AND FLYING OBJECTS? A variety of goggles, safety glasses with side ... welding masks with filtering lenses. Mail order and Internet–based safety suppliers are also an option. National ...

  18. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A A ... flushing the eye first. Black Eyes and Blunt Injuries A black eye is often a minor injury. ...

  19. Observer-based design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gradient based approach for the design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems is presented. In this approach, Lyapunov exponents are used to select the controller gain. In the case of unknown or time varying chaotic plants, the Lyapunov exponents may vary during the plant operation. In this paper, an effective adaptive strategy is used for online identification of Lyapunov exponents and adaptive control of nonlinear chaotic plants. Also, a nonlinear observer for estimation of the states is proposed. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology

  20. Observer-based design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaki-Sedigh, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Sayyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati Street, Tehran 16314 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: sedigh@kntu.ac.ir; Yazdanpanah-Goharrizi, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Sayyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati Street, Tehran 16314 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: yazdanpanah@ee.kntu.ac.ir

    2006-09-15

    A gradient based approach for the design of set-point tracking adaptive controllers for nonlinear chaotic systems is presented. In this approach, Lyapunov exponents are used to select the controller gain. In the case of unknown or time varying chaotic plants, the Lyapunov exponents may vary during the plant operation. In this paper, an effective adaptive strategy is used for online identification of Lyapunov exponents and adaptive control of nonlinear chaotic plants. Also, a nonlinear observer for estimation of the states is proposed. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  1. Design of Neutral-Point Voltage Controller of a Three-level NPC Inverter with Small DC-Link Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, S.

    2013-01-01

    A Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) three-level inverter with small dc-link capacitors is presented in this paper. The inverter requires zero average neutral-point current for stable neutral-point voltage. The small dc-link capacitors may not maintain capacitor voltage balance, even with zero neutral......-point current. This may happen due to nonlinearities present in the circuit. This requires a fast control of the neutral-point voltage. A simple carrier based modulation strategy which allows modeling of the neutral-point voltage dynamics as a continuous function of power drawn from the inverter is proposed....... This continuous model shows that the neutral-point current is proportional to the power drawn from the inverter, and it enables the use of well established classical control theory for the neutral-point voltage controller design. A simple PI (proportional integral) controller is designed for the...

  2. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  3. Space power system design and development from an economic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power system offers a feasible, but unproven, long-range energy alternative. While the basic physics of these systems is understood, many developments are necessary in order to reduce the system cost to the point of being cost-competitive with alternative energy sources. Thus, a substantial technology advancement and verification program, plus test and demonstration satellite programs are necessary before a full-scale satellite can be designed and built. It is important to properly identify those elements of the technology that should be subject to development efforts, the goals of the corresponding development programs and the appropriate funding levels and schedules. Systems studies and designs play a major role in rationally formulating a development program. This paper uses an economic approach to place these studies into a framework for formulating a viable satellite solar power system development plan.

  4. Landing instrument packages on regolith in micro gravity: point designs for passive, self-righting landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2012-12-01

    A small asteroid is likely to be the target of the next human exploration mission. Undoubtedly, a robotic mission will precede, whose main objective will be to characterize the target; this would have to include deployment of sensory instruments on the surface. The surface properties of small bodies are largely unknown, and this makes it essential to have detailed models for package deployment. We evaluate low cost, low risk, lander designs by considering 'pods' that have no moving parts, no guidance or thrust, that are designed to be thrown to the surface from the orbiting spacecraft. The design goal is to "encourage" the pods to land upright regardless of surface properties. With no need for guidance or articulation, these pods can be made and deployed to the surface at low cost and low risk. The challenge, of course, is to design the pods to land right-side-up, consistently, in a low gravity environment. In such an environment a body may experience cohesive forces comparable to its weight. These forces will effectively modify the physical parameters controlling a mechanical system, primarily the coefficients of friction and restitution. To make things worse, gravity will not always be pointing "down", as the presence of mass concentrations will tilt the gravity acceleration vector in unpredictable directions. We consider three point designs: (1) a weighted ellipsoidal shape, the bottom several times as dense as the top, analogous to the children's toy; (2) a pod with one side elastic and the other side inelastic; and (3) a combination of both weight distribution and material properties. We have used a discrete element model based on NVIDIA's PhysX library to design a simulation software suitable for modeling astrophysical rubble (Movshovitz, Asphaug and Korycansky, submitted). We then deploy different pod designs onto a numerical regolith testbed. Initial studies are very promising, although to date we have not included forces such as cohesion, and the effect of much smaller grain sizes than can be resolved in our simulations. We study the effect of bulk density, the velocity of deployment, and the effects of a tumbling or spinning deployment to the comet or asteroid surface. We are able to model the utility of internal actuators (vibrators, thumpers) that can rearrange or pods on the surface, or serve to embed them into a bed of loose soil. The size of the pods we are studying is ~30 cm average diameter. The key variables are shape, density distribution, and elastic properties, modeled by a coefficient of restitution. Our models benefit from asynchronous, parallel execution of the gravity module on a GPU, while the rigid-body dynamics module executes on a multi-threaded CPU for maximum performance.

  5. A New Font, Specifically Designed for Peripheral Vision, Improves Peripheral Letter and Word Recognition, but Not Eye-Mediated Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading speed is dramatically reduced when readers cannot use their central vision. This is because low visual acuity and crowding negatively impact letter recognition in the periphery. In this study, we designed a new font (referred to as the Eido font) in order to reduce inter-letter similarity and consequently to increase peripheral letter recognition performance. We tested this font by running five experiments that compared the Eido font with the standard Courier font. Letter spacing and x-height were identical for the two monospaced fonts. Six normally-sighted subjects used exclusively their peripheral vision to run two aloud reading tasks (with eye movements), a letter recognition task (without eye movements), a word recognition task (without eye movements) and a lexical decision task. Results show that reading speed was not significantly different between the Eido and the Courier font when subjects had to read single sentences with a round simulated gaze-contingent central scotoma (10° diameter). In contrast, Eido significantly decreased perceptual errors in peripheral crowded letter recognition (-30% errors on average for letters briefly presented at 6° eccentricity) and in peripheral word recognition (-32% errors on average for words briefly presented at 6° eccentricity). PMID:27074013

  6. Design Heuristics for Mapping Floating-Point Scientific Computational Kernels onto High Performance Reconfigurable Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L. Rice

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing need to develop efficient high-speed computational kernels, researchers have been looking at various acceleration technologies. One approach is to use field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs in conjunction with general purpose processors to form what are known as high performance reconfigurable computers (HPRCs. HPRCs have already been shown to work well for both fixed-point and integer calculations. Floating-point calculations are a different matter; obtaining speedups has been somewhat elusive. This article, after introducing the three primary HPRC development flows, takes a detailed look at the three ps, which addresses the crucial relationship among performance, pipelining, and parallelism. It also examines the FPGA design boundary, which addresses some of the heuristics that allow developers to determine which application modules can be mapped onto the FPGAs. These ideas are illustrated by way of a simple floating-point application that is mapped onto a contemporary HPRC. This article expands upon earlier work by including details on how to map customized intellectual property cores into an HPRC environment via a hybrid development flow.

  7. The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey: Design and X-ray Point Source Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Nicholas J; Guarcello, Mario G; Aldcroft, Tom L; Kashyap, Vinay L; Damiani, Francesco; DePasquale, Joe; Fruscione, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The Cygnus OB2 association is the largest concentration of young and massive stars within 2 kpc of the Sun, including an estimated 65 O-type stars and hundreds of OB stars. The Chandra Cygnus OB2 Legacy Survey is a large imaging program undertaken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The survey has imaged the central 0.5 deg^2 of the Cyg OB2 association with an effective exposure of 120ks and an outer 0.35 deg^2 area with an exposure of 60ks. Here we describe the survey design and observations, the data reduction and source detection, and present a catalog of 8,000 X-ray point sources. The survey design employs a grid of 36 heavily (~50%) overlapping pointings, a method that overcomes Chandra's low off-axis sensitivity and produces a highly uniform exposure over the inner 0.5 deg^2. The full X-ray catalog is described here and is made available online.

  8. Alternative design of inductive pointing device for oral interface for computers and wheelchairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontis, Eugen R; Andreasen Struijk, Lotte N S

    2012-01-01

    An inductive pointing device was designed and implemented successfully in a tongue controlled oral interface. Sensors were manufactured as an assembly of multilayer coils in the printed circuit board technology on two pads. The sensor pads were encapsulated together with electronics and battery in a mouthpiece, placed in the upper palate of the oral cavity. The PCB technology allowed surface activation of one or more sensors by gliding over the surface of the coils assembly of a small cylindrical unit attached to the tongue. The model consisted of 8 sensors and allowed real time proportional control of both speed and direction similar to a joystick. However, the size of the oral cavity, the number and geometry of the coil loops and characteristics of the activation unit impose limits in designing the sensors and call for an alternative layout design. Two alternative sensor designs are proposed in this paper, aiming to reduce the size of the sensor pad by one third, extending the target group, including children, and increasing the easiness of wear of the oral interface. PMID:23366638

  9. Constrained LQR Design Using Interior-Point Arc-Search Method for Convex Quadratic Programming with Box Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yaguang

    2013-01-01

    Although the classical LQR design method has been very successful in real world engineering designs, in some cases, the classical design method needs modifications because of the saturation in actuators. This modified problem is sometimes called the constrained LQR design. For discrete systems, the constrained LQR design problem is equivalent to a convex quadratic programming problem with box constraints. We will show that the interior-point method is very efficient for this problem because a...

  10. Performance comparison of liquid metal and gas cooled ATW system point designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) program in the U.S., preliminary design studies have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to define and compare candidate Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems. The studies at ANL have focused primarily on the transmutation blanket component of the overall system. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), sodium, and gas cooled systems are among the blanket technology options currently under consideration. This paper summarizes the results from neutronics trade studies performed at ANL. Core designs have been developed for LBE and sodium cooled 840 MWt fast spectrum accelerator driven systems employing re-cycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses have been performed for a helium-cooled 600 MWt hybrid thermal and fast spectrum system proposed by General Atomics (GA), which is operated in the critical mode for three cycles and in a subcritical accelerator driven mode for a subsequent single cycle. For these three point designs, isotopic inventories, consumption rates, and annual burnup rates are compared. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic (TRU) isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation are also compared on a consistent basis. (author)

  11. An eye for inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

  12. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  13. A typical pointed observation in IRAS designed to fit into a 15 minute window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Gregorich, D.

    1993-01-01

    A typical pointed observation in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was designed to fit into a 15 minute window. Observing constraints, however, did not always permit targets from the scientific program to be observed on exactly 15 minute centers and a few months into the mission it was realized that the automatic scheduling program left times when no observations were being made. In order to use this potentially wasted observing time, a mode of pointed observations, the 'filler' mode, with shorter observation duration was initiated. Locations were picked on an arbitrary grid, spaced relatively uniformly in ecliptic coordinates, and the telescope was pointed to one of these sites whenever a gap potentially occurred. One of us (GXN) was the coordinator of this effort (the FL sub-group). There are a total of 22 FL fields, 13 of which have more than 50 component observations. These 13 fields cover about 30 square degrees. It was proposed to concentrate on one filler field, FL29, a field with 53 coverages which thus had among the deepest coverage of those observed in this mode. This field was also observed extensively at various non-infrared wavelengths by a variety of techniques. Because the IRAS observations of FL29 were made at the limits of the survey sensitivity and at different twist angles it was necessary to make significant technical advances in the methods used in the processing and analyzing the data. In particular, if normal IRAS coaddition procedures were used, the noise resulting from coaddition of the multiple frames did not decrease in the manner expected once significantly different twist angles were included in the coaddition. The technical effort needed to reduce the observations of FL29 was completed and now the noise behavior is understood and well behaved. The reduction of the field FL29 observations is done.

  14. Interaction point feedback design and integrated simulations to stabilize the CLIC final focus

    CERN Document Server

    Balik, G; Deleglise, G; Jeremie, A; Pacquet, L; Badel, A; Caron, B; Le Breton, R; Latina, A; Pfingstner, J; Schulte, D; Snuverink, J

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerator has strong precision requirements on the offset position between the beams. Sensitive to ground motion (GM), the beam needs to be stabilized to unprecedented requirements. Different Beam Based Feedback (BBF) algorithms such as Orbit Feedback (OFB) and Interaction Point Feedback (IPFB) have been designed. This paper focuses on the IPFB control which could be added to the CLIC baseline. IPFB control has been tested for different GM models in presence of noises or disturbances and it uses digital linear control with an adaptive loop. The simulations demonstrate that it is possible to achieve the required performances and quantify the maximum allowed noise level. This amount of admitted noises and disturbances is given in terms of an equivalent disturbance on the position of the magnet that controls the beam offset. Due to the limited sampling frequency of the process, the control loop is in a very small bandwidth. The study shows that these disturbances have to be l...

  15. Design of the Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter for Assaluyeh Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nazari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research explained in this paper was carried out to analyze and design a point absorber waveenergy convertor for Assaluyeh coastal on Persian Gulf. The geographical conditions of this region have some local short waves which may be ideal to use this type of energy convertor. According to the collecting of wave data and using an optimized buoy, it is concluded that the adjustments on damping and natural frequency have more effect on average heave displacement. Therefore, by changing the shape of flat buoy to conical cylindrical, the drag coefficient that has direct effect on the damping of the buoy could be reduced. Regarding the length to diameter ratio of 1.7 for the selected buoy, changing its shape from flat cylinder to conical cylinder causes the drag coefficient to decrease by 50 %, which is followed by 20% increase in average amplitude of heave motion from

  16. Global Machine Design and Double X-point Equilibrium Configurations for Ignitor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A.; Parodi, B.; Coppi, B.

    2008-11-01

    The detailed design of the Ignitor machine has been carried out by considering extended limiter plasma configurations that are up-down symmetric and whose outer magnetic surfaces follow closely the cavity of the toroidal magnet over most of the vertical cross section. This provision minimizes the out-of- plane forces produced by the plasma current and acting on the toroidal magnet. When, instead, the adopted plasma equilibrium configuration is of the double X-point type the out-of-plane forces increase, and a complete structural analysis to take this increase into account becomes appropriate. The reference maximum plasma current Ip, in order to maintain an acceptable magnetic safety factor, is reduced from 11 MA in the extended limiter to 9 MA in the double X-point configuration while the magnetic field on axis (R01.32 m) is maintained at BT13 T. The reduced scenario involving Ip6 MA and BT9 T does not present a problem. Both 3D and 2D drawings of each individual machine component are produced using the Dassault Systems CATIA-V software. After their integration into a single 3D CATIA model of the Core (Load Assembly), the electro-fluidic and fluidic lines which supply electrical currents and helium cooling gas to the coils are included and mechanically connected to the main machine components.^*Sponsored in part by ENEA of Italy and by the U.S. D.O.E.

  17. Googly Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  18. "Delineamento duplo central composto com 29 pontos" Double central composite design with 29 points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Conagin

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available O delineamento duplo central composto com 29 pontos representa uma extenso do delineamento central composto e foi desenvolvido para o estudo de trs fatores em mais de trs nveis. Essencialmente, consta de dois fatoriais 2 (nveis 1 e B, de duas estrelas (nveis a e 2alfa e de um ponto no centro do delineamento. mostrada a origem do delineamento, o tipo no ortogonal, completamente casualizado, o tipo ortogonal completamente casualizado e o ortogonal divisvel em dois blocos. No primeiro deles, seriam estudados trs fatores em cinco nveis (-2, -1,-0, + 1 e +2; no segundo, trs fatores em nove nveis (-3,02; -2,00; -1,51; -1,00; 0,00; + 1,00; +1,51; +2,00 e +3.02 e, no terceiro, trs fatores nos nove nveis seguintes (-7,262; -4,391; -3,631; -1,000; 0,000; +1,000; +3,631; +4,391 e +7,262. apresentado tambm um exemplo do ltimo delineamento. com sua anlise respectiva. De acordo com o critrio de Box & Wilson (2, esse ltimo delineamento mais eficiente que o fatorial 3 x 3 x 3 divisvel em blocos de nove. Os trs delineamentos podem ser empregados em programas de adubao visando ao estudo de macronutrientes com vistas recomendao das doses timas de fertilizantes que possibilitem a maximizao do lucro obtido e, ainda, em outras reas da pesquisa cientfica em que se deseja a avaliao da superfcie de resposta, o estudo dos seus pontos extremos, etc.The double central composite design with 29 points rcpresents an extension of the central composite design and was developed for the study of three factors in more than three levels. Essentially it is composed of two 2 factorials (levels 1 and B, of two stars (levels alpha and 2alpha and of one central point. In the present paper the origin of the design, the double central composite completely randomized not orthogonal in 5 levels (-2, -1, 0, +1 and +2, the completely randomized design, orthogonal, in nine levels (-3.02; -2.00; -1.51; -1.00; 0.00; + 1.00; +1.51; +2.00; +3.02 and the orthogonal design divided in two blocks (levels -7.262; -4.391; -3.631; -1.000; 0.000; +1.000; +3.631; +4.391 and +7.262 are shown. One example of the late design is presented with its correspondent analysis. According with Box and Wilson criterion, this last design is more efficient than the 3 x 3 x 3 factorial. They can be used in fertilizer programs aiming the most efficient economical recommendation of dosages and in other areas of scientific research in which we want to evaluate the surface response equations and its extremum properties looking at the maximum response.

  19. Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Ryerson, T. B.; Peischl, J.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic point and area source CO2 plume measurements: Implications for spaceborne CO2 sensor design A. Andrews, T. Ryerson, J. Peischl, D. Parrish, M. Trainer, P. Tans An extensive dataset of CO2 concentrations including enhancements in point and area source plumes is available from in situ measurements collected using the NOAA P-3 and NCAR Electra research aircraft during seven major field projects from 1999 through 2010. Research flights sampled emission plumes from coal-, oil-, and natural gas-fired electric utility power plants, industrial facilities, and urban areas. Plume sampling often included horizontal transects at several altitudes and multiple distances downwind. CO2 data from crosswind transects upwind and downwind, coupled with ancillary measurements of co-emitted nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, along with plume location, and wind speed and direction permit unambiguous attribution and quantification of atmospheric plumes from individual sources. Certain point sources were revisited on multiple flights over the course of 1-2 month long field projects and on successive field projects spanning several years. Sampling occurred primarily in the summertime, daytime continental boundary layer, with some plume studies performed after dark and in the spring, fall, and winter seasons. The data provide rigorously calibrated, measurement-based constraints on the expected range of atmospheric CO2 plume enhancements that can be used to assess satellite sensor concepts. Crosswind near-field (~5 km) transects in the summer daytime mixed-layer downwind of the strongest point sources were characterized by peak plume CO2 mixing ratio enhancements >100 ppm above background for the 100-m spatial averages reported from the moving aircraft. On many flights, the aircraft tracked such emissions plumes beyond 150 km downwind, or up to 10 hours of transport time, until plume enhancements were indistinguishable from background variability in CO2. Conversely, summertime CO2 enhancements in the daytime mixed layer immediately above and downwind of urban areas rarely exceeded 10 ppm and became indistinguishable from the background within ~50 km downwind, or ~1-2 hours of transport time. We use a Gaussian plume model, constrained by the airborne data, to construct three-dimensional CO2 fields that can be sampled with idealized vertical weighting functions and realistic footprints and ground-tracks corresponding to a variety of existing and planned satellite sensors. These CO2 fields are used to explore to what extent and under what conditions anthropogenic CO2 emission rates can be reliably inferred from synthetic satellite observations.

  20. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Brasolin, Franco; The ATLAS collaboration; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 period (LS1), that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) Project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 virtual machines (VMs) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 22000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 Project; operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities. The design aspects a...

  1. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS simulation in Point1 project.

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    During the LHC long shutdown period (LS1), that started in 2013, the simulation in Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage in an opportunistic way of the trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) farm of the ATLAS experiment. The farm provides more than 1500 computer nodes, and they are particularly suitable for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2500 virtual machines (VM) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 20000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a thorough review of the design, the results and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project operating a large scale Openstack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive GRID sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities within the ATLAS collaboration. The particular design ...

  2. Novel four-point-probe design and nanorobotic dual endeffector strategy for electrical characterization of as-grown SWCNT bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, V; Fatikow, S; Sardan Sukas, zlem; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Bggild, Peter; Occhipinti, L G

    2010-01-01

    chemical vapor deposition. A new design of microstructured four-point-probes is proposed and fabricated allowing for direct contacting of vertically aligned bundles of SWCNTs. A nanorobotic setup is upgraded into a dual endeffector system to achieve good electrical contact between four-point-probe and...

  3. 46 CFR 153.488 - Design and equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment for tanks carrying high melting point NLSs: Category B. Unless waived under § 153.491, for a ship... a Category B NLS with a melting point of 15 °C or more, the cargo tank must have— (a) An arrangement... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and equipment for tanks carrying high...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Eye M.D. Espaol Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Causes ... Minutes of Reading Aug 12, 2014 Leer en Espaol: Qu Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Eye ...

  5. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Eye M.D. Academy Store Eye ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Eye M.D. Academy Store Eye ...

  7. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  8. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  9. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  10. Planning proton therapy of the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a program for planning treatments of the eye with charged particle beams. Many of its features apply to treatment planning programs in general. These include the three-dimensional definition of the tumor volume and of normal structures, the possibility of delivering the treatment beam from any direction in space, the provision of arbitrary viewpoints including a ''beam's eye'' point of view, the design and fabrication of the field shaping aperture, the specification of the necessary beam quality (range and modulation), the calculation and display of isodose contours on any plane in space and on relevant surfaces, the identification of the extent to which normal structures are included or excluded from the beam, and the stimulation of the desired alignment film with which patient alignment can be verified

  11. Eye-tracking Film Music

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, M.; Stumpf, S

    2014-01-01

    Film music scholars, composers, directors and audiences have always implicitly believed that music can help determine the focus of an audience’s visual attention, but researchers have not as yet been able to prove this empirically. Eye-tracking research—the process of measuring either the point of gaze or the motion of the eyes—has grown exponentially in recent years. This paper reports on a foundational, empirical eye-tracking study that examined the effects of contextual musical attributes ...

  12. A Note on Eye Movement

    CERN Document Server

    Bolina, O; Bolina, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    In a simplified fashion, the motion of the eyeball in its orbit consists of rotations around a fixed point. Therefore, this motion can be described in terms of the Euler's angles of rigid body dynamics. However, there is a physiological constraint in the motion of the eye which reduces to two its degrees of freedom. This paper reviews the basic features of the kinematics of the eye and the laws governing its motion.

  13. An experimental study on a training support system utilizing trainee's eye gaze point and think aloud protocol for diagnosing nuclear power plant anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental system has been developed for aiming at supporting the simulator training of diagnosis nuclear power plant anomaly, where an expert provides the instructions to a trainee by his/her own educational and experienced point of view. This system has several characteristics as follows: (1) the expert can provide the instruction through the local area network or the Internet, (2) the training task is the detection of the primary cause of plant anomaly, which is not including the plant operation but requires only thinking, and (3) the system can automatically detects the trainee's view-point and think aloud protocols and provide these two types of information to the expert in real time for supporting his/her instruction. A laboratory experiment using this system was conducted, where an expert, who had really engaged in plant operation as a chief operator, was employed as the instructor for novice students. As the result of analyzing the experimental data, it was found that the two types of information, trainee's viewpoints and his verbal protocols, have some potential of effectiveness for supporting the instructor to estimate the trainees diagnostic thinking process and provide the instruction. (author)

  14. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrero, S.; Batraneanu, S. M.; Brasolin, F.; Contescu, C.; Fazio, D.; Di Girolamo, A.; Lee, C. J.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Sedov, A.; Twomey, M. S.; Wang, F.; Zaytsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LSI) period, that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High-Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 Virtual Machines (VMs) each with 8 CPU cores, for a total of up to 22000 parallel jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project, operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 33 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.1 billion Monte Carlo events. The design aspects are presented: the virtualization platform exploited by Sim@P1 avoids interferences with TDAQ operations and it guarantees the security and the usability of the ATLAS private network. The cloud mechanism allows the separation of the needed support on both infrastructural (hardware, virtualization layer) and logical (Grid site support) levels. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of such a large system during the upcoming LHC Run 2 period: simple, reliable, and efficient tools are needed to quickly switch from Sim@P1 to TDAQ mode and back, to exploit the resources when they are not used for the data acquisition, even for short periods. The evolution of the central OpenStack infrastructure is described, as it was upgraded from Folsom to the Icehouse release, including the scalability issues addressed.

  15. A stochastic point rainfall model of design storms based on 2-copula and dimensionless hyetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandì, Giuseppina; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    In this study a stochastic model to derive synthetic design storms at a point is presented. Generated rainfall events are totally stochastic but with characteristics in terms of shape, duration and average intensity have to satisfy the parameters derived by statistical analyses of the available historic records. The main advantage of this kind of approach is its applicability when few years of sub-hourly rainfall records, not necessary continuous, are available. The events are derived on the basis of a fixed inter-event time, and selected if their average intensity is bigger than a critical fixed one. In order to characterize the shape, dimensionless events are considered. The probability function to describe the hyetograph shape chosen in this study is the Beta cumulative distribution. Storm duration and average intensity of the observed events are modelled separately by fitting several probability distribution and selecting the best one using several statistical criteria. Finally, their correlation is modelled using the Frank Copula. In order to test the methodology, two sites placed in Sicily, Italy, were sub-hourly rainfall data were available, have been analyzed. The considered raingauges stations are: Monreale, placed in North-West part of Sicily, and Palazzolo Acreide, placed in South-East part of Sicily, where 10 minutes recorded rainfall data were available. The good performance of the model has been tested by comparing the statistics of the simulated events with those of the measured data, and the obtained results confirm the effectiveness of the methodology.

  16. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...

  17. Evaluation of Corneal Deformation Analyzed with Scheimpflug Based Device in Healthy Eyes and Diseased Ones

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Lanza; Michela Cennamo; Stefania Iaccarino; Carlo Irregolare; Miguel Rechichi; Mario Bifani; Ugo Antonello Gironi Carnevale

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between corneal biomechanical and morphological data in healthy eyes, eyes that underwent myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), keratoconus affected eyes, and keratoconus affected eyes that underwent corneal collagen crosslinking (CCC). Complete clinical eye examination of all eyes was followed by tomographic (Pentacam, Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) and biomechanical (Corvis ST, Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) evaluation. Differences among Corvis ...

  18. Robust Brain-Machine Interface Design Using Optimal Feedback Control Modeling and Adaptive Point Process Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanechi, Maryam M; Orsborn, Amy L; Carmena, Jose M

    2016-04-01

    Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain's behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user's motor intention during CLDA-a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to parameter initialization. Finally, the architecture extended control to tasks beyond those used for CLDA training. These results have significant implications towards the development of clinically-viable neuroprosthetics. PMID:27035820

  19. Formation of the hurricane eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigh, Jonathan L.

    This dissertation consists of three distinct studies which investigate aspects of eye formation. The first study reviews eye phenomenon in a variety of vortices ranging from simple vortices to the menagerie of geophysical vortices, emphasizing similarities and differences to the eyes formed in hurricanes. The hurricane eye is found to be a paradoxical structure imposed by conservation of angular momentum and the boundaries of the vortex. A comprehensive definition for hurricane eye formation is proposed and various eye formation mechanisms are summarized. The next study presents a simple theoretical argument to isolate the conditions under which a tropical cyclone can rapidly develop a warm-core thermal structure and subsequently approach a steady state. The theoretical argument is based on the balanced vortex model and, in particular, on the associated transverse circulation equation and the geopotential tendency equation. The transverse circulation and the temperature tendency in a tropical vortex depend not only on the diabatic forcing, but also on the spatial distributions of the static stability, the baroclinity, and the inertial stability. The vortex response to diabatic heating depends critically on whether the heating occurs in the low inertial stability region outside the radius of maximum wind or in the high inertial stability region inside the radius of maximum wind. This result suggests that rapid intensification is favored for storms which have at least some of the eyewall convection inside the radius of maximum wind. The development of an eye partially removes diabatic heating from the high inertial stability region of the storm center, yet rapid intensification may continue if the eyewall heating continues to become more efficient. As the warm core matures and static stability increases over the inner core, conditions there become less favorable for deep upright convection and the storm tends to approach a steady state. The final study characterizes the kinematic and thermodynamic changes that occur before, during, and after the initial eye formations of a broad set of Atlantic tropical cyclones. To obtain the requisite structure and intensity parameters, a new data set has been synthesized from the Vortex Data Messages transmitted by routine aircraft reconnaissance from 1989--2008. Intensity ranges are determined for the times when the eye/eyewall structure first appears in aircraft radar and infrared satellite imagery. The mean intensity at which an eye is first observed in both aircraft or satellite imagery is found to be 58 kt, somewhat lower than reported in previous studies. Changes about the time of eye formation are examined for intensity, the radius of maximum winds, the minimum Rossby radius of deformation, eye temperature and dew point temperature depression. Storms are found to intensify most rapidly near the time of eye formation, especially when a persistent eye is observed in infrared satellite imagery. Many storms which are forming eyes are found to undergo a substantial and rapid contraction in the radius of maximum winds during the 24-h period before the eye is observed; once the eye is present, this contraction slows or ceases. Strong warming at lower levels (850 or 700 hPa) of the eye is not observed to correlate well with the time in which the eye is first observed. Finally, observations suggest that the dynamical heating efficiency of the resulting eyewall increases even as the physical scale of the efficient heating region decreases. This allows the storm to continue intensifying even though the total inner core diabatic heating may decrease. The answer to why some storms fail to form eyes may shed light on whether eye formation is a stochastic process involving constructive and destructive mesoscale interactions---or whether it is a manifold attractor of the system sometimes stymied by an unfavorable environment.

  20. Design and Implementation of Numerical Linear Algebra Algorithms on Fixed Point DSPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Frantz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical linear algebra algorithms use the inherent elegance of matrix formulations and are usually implemented using C/C++ floating point representation. The system implementation is faced with practical constraints because these algorithms usually need to run in real time on fixed point digital signal processors (DSPs to reduce total hardware costs. Converting the simulation model to fixed point arithmetic and then porting it to a target DSP device is a difficult and time-consuming process. In this paper, we analyze the conversion process. We transformed selected linear algebra algorithms from floating point to fixed point arithmetic, and compared real-time requirements and performance between the fixed point DSP and floating point DSP algorithm implementations. We also introduce an advanced code optimization and an implementation by DSP-specific, fixed point C code generation. By using the techniques described in the paper, speed can be increased by a factor of up to 10 compared to floating point emulation on fixed point hardware.

  1. Cosmetics for the eye area after cosmetic surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden-West, N

    1999-01-01

    Cosmetic enhancement of the eye area after esthetic surgery allows the patient to get back into the mainstream of life faster. It also improves their psychic state by blocking out discoloration, helping to disguise incision scars and artistically coloring the face to enhance the results of the surgery. The patients automatically feel better, when they look better. After a surgical procedure, there are temporary and permanent structural changes that appear with blepharoplasty and laser surgery. Although these surgeries will take away loose skin, puffy fat deposits and wrinkles, they do not change the bone structure or eye placement. Before starting a makeup application, analyzation of the eyes for their structural features help the artist know the value of colors to be used. The measuring points of the brow along with the importance of framing the eye will also be discussed. Once the brows and the eyes have been analyzed, the artist needs to take into consideration the personality of the patient. This helps the artist decide on the colors, value, intensity and design which will be applied to the patient. Before eye makeup can be applied, the use of primers, concealers and/or camouflage creams will be used to block out any discoloration in the eye area. We will look at concerns in formulation of products that will go around the eyes after surgery. The application of cosmetic products should be used as an accessory. Women have a variety of dress styles: casual, business or evening. The style of makeup application should work in conjunction with what they are wearing and how they are feeling at the time. Just as there are many facets to a woman, there are various styles of application to fit her personality. PMID:10393519

  2. The individual virtual eye

    OpenAIRE

    Einighammer, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The individual virtual eye is a computer model of a human eye with respect to the optical properties. Established schematic eyes, as Gullstrand’s model eye, are intended to represent properties of an average eye based on averaged population measurements. In contrast, the individual virtual eye is based on measurements of an individual person. Therefore the geometry of the eye is important, including axial length and topographic measurements of the anterior corneal surface. All optical compone...

  3. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  4. NGNP Point Design - Results of the Initial Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulic Assessments During FY-03, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald; James W. Sterbentz; Robert L. Sant; P. Bayless; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; W. K. Terry

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary preconceptual designs for two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), one for a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and one for a pebble bed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs are to meet three basic requirements: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The two efforts are discussed separately below. The analytical results presented in this report are very promising, however, we wish to caution the reader that future, more detailed, design work will be needed to provide final answers to a number of key questions including the allowable power level, the inlet temperature, the power density, the optimum fuel form, and others. The point design work presented in this report provides a starting point for other evaluations, and directions for the detailed design, but not final answers.

  5. Design and Development of Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Eye Safe Laser Operating at 20 Hz without Forced Air Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Bhardwaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the design and development of an electro-optically Q-switched diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with intracavity optical parametric oscillator, generating ~ 5 ns laser pulses of ~8 mJ energy at eye safe wavelength of 1534 nm. A Z-shaped laser resonator has been designed with porro prism end reflector in Q-switch arm containing RTP Q-Switch and a suitably oriented waveplate. The gain arm consists of a 3 x 72 mm Nd: YAG laser rod, pumped from one side by 3 x 5 bar laser diode array stack emitting total optical peak power of 740 W at 804 nm at 38 C. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs have been employed to maintain the optimum temperature of laser diode arrays and the combined heat load from the pump chamber and TECs is distributed over the system base plate with embedded heat pipes. Such cooling mechanism has eliminated the requirement of fins and fans in the laser system. Eye safe radiation is out-coupled through intra cavity KTA OPO (5 x 5 x 20 mm3 placed in the gain arm. Laser was operated at 20 Hz for several duty cycles of 10 min on and 10 min off and output energy remained stable within 0.5 mJ without any forced air/liquid cooling.Defence Science Journal, 2013,63(6, pp.599-605,DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5759

  6. Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ae-Ran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition. Methods/Design A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang, ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance. Discussion The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.

  7. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... catch problems early if you get regular eye exams. ... diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years by an eye ... problems with your vision. Many can do screening exams for damage from diabetes. Once you have eye ...

  8. Representations of sensory experiences in the early phases of architectural design: there is more than meets the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Elsen, Catherine; Heylighen, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In response to questions about designers’ visual way of knowing and working, this article explores how sensory experience is conveyed during the early phases of architectural design. By processing 985 graphic components issued from a three-month ethnographic observation inside an architecture firm, and proposing an original methodology for their analysis, we identify and analyse graphic expressions of sensory-related design intentions. Multi-sensory dimensions of experiencing an architectural...

  9. A CAREM reactor's design evaluation from the nuclear security point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to define the adequate rules for CAREM reactor security systems design and processes which aim to assure verification of the CALIN regulations 'Radiological Criteria' in relation to accidents concerning CAREM reactor design. (Author)

  10. Effect of the sampling design of ground control points on the geometric correction of remotely sensed imagery

    OpenAIRE

    J. Wang(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing); Ge, Y.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Zhou, C.; Brus, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The acquirement of ground control points (GCPs) is a basic and important step in the geometric correction of remotely sensed imagery. In particular, the spatial distribution of GCPs may affect the accuracy and quality of image correction. In this paper, both a simulation experiment and actual-image analyses are carried out to investigate the effect of the sampling design for selecting GCPs on the geometric correction of remotely sensed imagery. Sampling designs compared are simple random samp...

  11. Backtracking to Policy Design (Un retour au point de conception de la politique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhinney, Hanne B.

    The diverse literature on policy design and policy instruments is reviewed in this paper, which also addresses such issues as the definition of a policy design perspective, the categorization and variables of policy instruments, and improvement of the design process. The first part presents a general discussion of the perspective of policy

  12. Direct design of freeform surfaces and freeform imaging systems with a point-by-point three-dimensional construction-iteration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tong; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Jin, Guofan

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, we proposed a general direct design method for three-dimensional freeform surfaces and freeform imaging systems based on a construction-iteration process. In the preliminary surfaces-construction process, the coordinates as well as the surface normals of the data points on the multiple freeform surfaces can be calculated directly considering the rays of multiple fields and different pupil coordinates. Then, an iterative process is employed to significantly improve the image quality or achieve a better mapping relationship of the light rays. Three iteration types which are normal iteration, negative feedback and successive approximation are given. The proposed construction-iteration method is applied in the design of an easy aligned, low F-number off-axis three-mirror system. The primary and tertiary mirrors can be fabricated on a single substrate and form a single element in the final system. The secondary mirror is simply a plane mirror. With this configuration, the alignment difficulty of a freeform system can be greatly reduced. After the preliminary surfaces-construction stage, the freeform surfaces in the optical system can be generated directly from an initial planar system. Then, with the iterative process, the average RMS spot diameter decreased by 75.4% compared with the system before iterations, and the maximum absolute distortion decreased by 94.2%. After further optimization with optical design software, good image quality which is closed to diffraction-limited is achieved. PMID:25969065

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology ... Eye Risk Dry Eye Diagnosis Dry Eye Treatment What Is ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Cortisone Shot and Dry Eye Aug 30, 2015 ... Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2016 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery ...

  16. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Eye M.D. Espaol LASIK LASIK Laser Eye Surgery Questions to Ask ... Anti-reflective Coating Feb 27, 2015 Leer en Espaol: LASIKCiruga Ocular con Lser Find an Eye ...

  17. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms Amblyopia: Who is at risk for lazy eye? Amblyopia: What Is the Cause ...

  18. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms Amblyopia: Who is at risk for lazy eye? Amblyopia: What Is the Cause ...

  19. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms Amblyopia: Who is at risk for lazy eye? Amblyopia: What Is the Cause ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  1. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf; Halskov, Kim

    This paper proposes a series of techniques for improving the precision of optical fiducial tracking on tangible tabletops. The motivation is to enable convincing interactive projection mapping on tangibles on the table, which requires a high precision tracking of the location of tangibles. We...... propose a new fiducial design optimized for GPU based tracking, a technique for calibrating light that allows for computation on a greyscale image rather than a binarized black and white image, an automated technique for compensating for optical distortions in the camera lenses, and a tracking algorithm...... implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  2. MCNP-REN - A Monte Carlo Tool for Neutron Detector Design Without Using the Point Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhold, M.E.; Baker, M.C.

    1999-07-25

    The development of neutron detectors makes extensive use of the predictions of detector response through the use of Monte Carlo techniques in conjunction with the point reactor model. Unfortunately, the point reactor model fails to accurately predict detector response in common applications. For this reason, the general Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) was modified to simulate the pulse streams that would be generated by a neutron detector and normally analyzed by a shift register. This modified code, MCNP - Random Exponentially Distributed Neutron Source (MCNP-REN), along with the Time Analysis Program (TAP) predict neutron detector response without using the point reactor model, making it unnecessary for the user to decide whether or not the assumptions of the point model are met for their application. MCNP-REN is capable of simulating standard neutron coincidence counting as well as neutron multiplicity counting. Measurements of MOX fresh fuel made using the Underwater Coincidence Counter (UWCC) as well as measurements of HEU reactor fuel using the active neutron Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) are compared with calculations. The method used in MCNP-REN is demonstrated to be fundamentally sound and shown to eliminate the need to use the point model for detector performance predictions.

  3. MCNP-REN - A Monte Carlo Tool for Neutron Detector Design Without Using the Point Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of neutron detectors makes extensive use of the predictions of detector response through the use of Monte Carlo techniques in conjunction with the point reactor model. Unfortunately, the point reactor model fails to accurately predict detector response in common applications. For this reason, the general Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) was modified to simulate the pulse streams that would be generated by a neutron detector and normally analyzed by a shift register. This modified code, MCNP - Random Exponentially Distributed Neutron Source (MCNP-REN), along with the Time Analysis Program (TAP) predict neutron detector response without using the point reactor model, making it unnecessary for the user to decide whether or not the assumptions of the point model are met for their application. MCNP-REN is capable of simulating standard neutron coincidence counting as well as neutron multiplicity counting. Measurements of MOX fresh fuel made using the Underwater Coincidence Counter (UWCC) as well as measurements of HEU reactor fuel using the active neutron Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) are compared with calculations. The method used in MCNP-REN is demonstrated to be fundamentally sound and shown to eliminate the need to use the point model for detector performance predictions

  4. The design of multi-point temperature and humidity measurement system based on ZigBee technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the need of humiture real-time monitoring in warehousing management and Geological nuclear instruments, the design adopts ZigBee wireless communications, uses c8051f320 as the core, combines the digital temperature and humidity sensor SHT10, takes OLED as the display interface and at last it designed one multi-point temperature and humidity measurement system. It has the advantages such as low power consumption, small size and easy to operate ect. It introduced the system constitution, work principle, selection of hardware and design of software. (authors)

  5. Design of piping fixed points in the thorium high-temperature reactor (THTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boundary conditions of fixed-point construction in the pipelines of the THTR, Hamm-Uentrop, are discussed. Particular regard was paid to the loads on the headers and their supports. For the case of transverse fracture, the loads on the supports and on the header were determined using a single-mass resonator model. Three different points of rupture were assumed. For the case of longitudinal fracture, the calculation of support loads and header loads is explained, and the support loads and maximum bending moments are presented in a diagram as a function of time. (orig.)

  6. The ARIES-III D-3He tokamak reactor: Design-point determination and parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-institutional ARIES study has generated a conceptual design of another tokamak fusion reactor in a series that varies the assumed advances in technology and physics. The ARIES-3 design uses a D-3He fuel cycle and requires advances in technology and physics for economical attractiveness. The optimal design was characterized through systems analyses for eventual conceptual engineering design. Results from the systems analysis are summarized, and a comparison with the high-field, D-T fueled ARIES-1 is included. 11 refs., 5 figs

  7. More than meets the eye: Using cognitive work analysis to identify design requirements for future rail level crossing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Mulvihill, Christine M; Cornelissen, Miranda; Walker, Guy H; Young, Kristie L; Stevens, Nicholas; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    An increasing intensity of operations means that the longstanding safety issue of rail level crossings is likely to become worse in the transport systems of the future. It has been suggested that the failure to prevent collisions may be, in part, due to a lack of systems thinking during design, crash analysis, and countermeasure development. This paper presents a systems analysis of current active rail level crossing systems in Victoria, Australia that was undertaken to identify design requirements to improve safety in future rail level crossing environments. Cognitive work analysis was used to analyse rail level crossing systems using data derived from a range of activities. Overall the analysis identified a range of instances where modification or redesign in line with systems thinking could potentially improve behaviour and safety. A notable finding is that there are opportunities for redesign outside of the physical rail level crossing infrastructure, including improved data systems, in-vehicle warnings and modifications to design processes, standards and guidelines. The implications for future rail level crossing systems are discussed. PMID:26143077

  8. Space tug point design study. Volume 3: Design definition. Part 1: Propulsion and mechanical, avionics, thermal control and electrical power subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration and performance of a space tug. Details of the space tug systems are presented to include: (1) propulsion systems, (2) avionics, (3) thermal control, and (4) electric power subsystems. The data generated include engineering drawings, schematics, subsystem operation, and component description. Various options investigated and the rational for the point design selection are analyzed.

  9. Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2013-01-01

    research project Kids n’Tweens Lifestyle. The scope of collaborating was to design the content for DOKK1, the new Mediaspace center in Aarhus, where design students took offset from the children’s world in a creative workshop as inspiration for the final design proposals. The task was carried out in...... the use of space and design. The workshop also showed that the “third place” is achieved today in existing places around the city, such as in shops and banks. Therefore, several of the solutions showed that there is need to create a residence that can accommodate the versatility and give space for...... user participation. The workshop was facilitated by Kids n’Tweens Lifestyle, as part of method development when engaging children in the design process. 8 groups were formed and a range of creative methods was tested. The methods varied from: Model making, lego prototyping, mood boards...

  10. Numerical investigation of the cavitational behaviour into a storage pump at off design operating points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a new method for the analysis of the cavitational behaviour of hydraulic turbomachines. This new method allows determining the coefficient of the cavitation inception and the cavitation sensitivity of the turbomachines. We apply this method to study the cavitational behaviour of a large storage pump. By plotting in semi-logarithmic coordinates the vapour volume versus the cavitation coefficient, we show that all numerical data collapse in an exponential manner. This storage pump is located in a power plant and operating without the presence of the developed cavitation is vital. We investigate the behaviour of the pump from the cavitational point of view while the pump is operating for variable discharge. A distribution of the vapour volume upon the blade of the impeller is presented for all the four operating points. It can be seen how the volume of vapour evolves from one operating point to another. In order to study the influence of the cavitation phenomena upon the pump, the evolution of the pumping head against the cavitation coefficient is presented. That will show how the pumping head drops while the cavitation coefficient decreases. From analysing the data obtained from the numerical simulation it results that the cavitation phenomena is present for all the investigated operating points. By analysis of the slope of the curve describing the evolution of the vapour volume against the cavitation coefficient we determine the cavitation sensitivity of the pump for each operating point. It is showed that the cavitation sensitivity of the investigated storage pump increases while the flow rate decreases.

  11. Numerical investigation of the cavitational behaviour into a storage pump at off design operating points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuparu, A; Susan-Resiga, R; Anton, L E [Department of Hydraulic Machinery, Politehnica University of Timisoara, Bd. Mihai Viteazu 1, Timisoara, 300222 (Romania); Muntean, S, E-mail: astuparu@mh.mec.upt.r [Centre of Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy-Timisoara Branch, Bd. Mihai Viteazu 24, Timisoara, 300223 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    The paper presents a new method for the analysis of the cavitational behaviour of hydraulic turbomachines. This new method allows determining the coefficient of the cavitation inception and the cavitation sensitivity of the turbomachines. We apply this method to study the cavitational behaviour of a large storage pump. By plotting in semi-logarithmic coordinates the vapour volume versus the cavitation coefficient, we show that all numerical data collapse in an exponential manner. This storage pump is located in a power plant and operating without the presence of the developed cavitation is vital. We investigate the behaviour of the pump from the cavitational point of view while the pump is operating for variable discharge. A distribution of the vapour volume upon the blade of the impeller is presented for all the four operating points. It can be seen how the volume of vapour evolves from one operating point to another. In order to study the influence of the cavitation phenomena upon the pump, the evolution of the pumping head against the cavitation coefficient is presented. That will show how the pumping head drops while the cavitation coefficient decreases. From analysing the data obtained from the numerical simulation it results that the cavitation phenomena is present for all the investigated operating points. By analysis of the slope of the curve describing the evolution of the vapour volume against the cavitation coefficient we determine the cavitation sensitivity of the pump for each operating point. It is showed that the cavitation sensitivity of the investigated storage pump increases while the flow rate decreases.

  12. Eye care in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasankar S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Patients in intensive care units have impaired ocular protective mechanisms, resulting in a high risk of developing eye complications. Various eye care protocols are being used, but none is proven to be absolutely effective. Aims: To compare the efficacy of using a combination of ocular lubricants and securing tape over the eyelids (Open chamber method, with use of swimming goggles and regular moistening of eyelids with gauze soaked in sterile water (Closed chamber method, to prevent corneal epithelial breakdown in the sedated and semiconscious intensive care adult patient. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical study was performed. Patients with Glasgow coma scale score of £ 10/15, admitted into the Medical ICU of a large teaching hospital, over a four month duration, were studied. Materials and Methods: Patients were examined daily by an Ophthalmologist, using a portable slit lamp and the patient′s corneas were tested daily using 1% Fluorescein drops. Standard grading scales were used to record eyelid position and corneal and conjunctival changes. Statistical analysis used: Quantitative variables were described in terms of their relative frequencies in proportions. Null hypothesis was applied to derive the statistical significance of the observed variations in both the treatment groups. Chi-square test for relationships was used to assess the effect of specific variables on the development of keratopathy. Results: Sixty one patients (122 eyes in the open chamber group and 63 (126 eyes in the closed chamber group, were analyzed. Incomplete lid closure was seen in 74 eyes (30%. Exposure keratopathy was noticed in 39 eyes (32% in open chamber group and ten (8% in closed chamber group and was more severe in the former group. There was no difference in the incidence of conjunctival oedema in both groups. Incomplete lid closure and use of muscle relaxants, were significant risk factors for developing keratopathy. Conclusions: Use of swimming goggles and regular moistening of eyelids with gauze soaked in sterile water providing a moisture chamber, is more effective than using a combination of ocular lubricants and securing tape over the eyelids, in preventing corneal epithelial breakdown in sedated and semiconscious intensive care unit patients.

  13. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  14. Design of a Wireless EEG System for Point-of-Care Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wenyan; Bai, Yicheng; Sun, Mingui; Sclabassi, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to develop a wireless EEG system to provide critical point-of-care information about brain electrical activity. A novel dry electrode, which can be installed rapidly, is used to acquire EEG from the scalp. A wireless data link between the electrode and a data port (i.e., a smartphone) is established based on the Bluetooth technology. A prototype of this system has been implemented and its performance in acquiring EEG has been evaluated.

  15. Design and Evaluation of Cell Phone Pointing Interface for Robot Control

    OpenAIRE

    Saso Koceski; Natasa Koceska; Ivica Kocev

    2012-01-01

    In this work a pointing interface based on human gestures using a mobile phone accelerometer for interaction with robots is proposed. Through this interface the user can sketch stroke gestures on a computer screen using the cell phone accelerometer to make a selection and instruct a robot to perform a task. Selection, cancelation and movement, as well as some additional commands such as stop, pause and resume are supported. All the projected gestures are processed using known image analysis a...

  16. Design Parameters Analysis of Point Absorber WEC via an evolutionary-algorithm-based Dimensioning Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Blanco; Pablo Moreno-Torres; Marcos Lafoz; Dionisio Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Wave energy conversion has an essential difference from other renewable energies since the dependence between the devices design and the energy resource is stronger. Dimensioning is therefore considered a key stage when a design project of Wave Energy Converters (WEC) is undertaken. Location, WEC concept, Power Take-Off (PTO) type, control strategy and hydrodynamic resonance considerations are some of the critical aspects to take into account to achieve a good performance. The paper proposes ...

  17. The use of experimental design to find the operating maximum power point of PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear nature. In this paper, the development of a PEM Fuel Cells mathematical model based on the Design of Experiment methodology is described. The Design of Experiment provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a mathematical model for the studied multivariable system with only a few experiments. The obtained results can be used for optimization and control of the PEM Fuel Cells systems

  18. The use of experimental design to find the operating maximum power point of PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cr?ciunescu, Aurelian; P?tularu, Lauren?iu; Ciumbulea, Gloria; Olteanu, Valentin; Pitorac, Cristina; Drugan, Elena [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independen?ei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear nature. In this paper, the development of a PEM Fuel Cells mathematical model based on the Design of Experiment methodology is described. The Design of Experiment provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a mathematical model for the studied multivariable system with only a few experiments. The obtained results can be used for optimization and control of the PEM Fuel Cells systems.

  19. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant - Insights Gained from the INEEL Point Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-08-01

    This paper provides the results of an assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Insights gained regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the two designs are also discussed. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two major modifications of the current Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) design were needed to obtain a prismatic block design with a 1000 C outlet temperature: reducing the bypass flow and better controlling the inlet coolant flow distribution to the core. The total power that could be obtained for different core heights without exceeding a peak transient fuel temperature of 1600 C during a high or low-pressure conduction cooldown event was calculated. With a coolant inlet temperature of 490 C and 10% nominal core bypass flow, it is estimated that the peak power for a 10-block high core is 686 MWt, for a 12-block high core is 786 MWt, and for a 14-block core is about 889 MWt. The core neutronics calculations showed that the NGNP will exhibit strongly negative Doppler and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity over the burnup cycle. In the event of rapid loss of the helium gas, there is negligible core reactivity change. However, water or steam ingress into the core coolant channels can produce a relatively large reactivity effect. Two versions of an annular pebble-bed NGNP have also been developed, a 300 and a 600 MWt module. From this work we learned how to design passively safe pebble bed reactors that produce more than 600 MWt. We also found a way to improve both the fuel utilization and safety by modifying the pebble design (by adjusting the fuel zone radius in the pebble to optimize the fuel-to-moderator ratio). We also learned how to perform design optimization calculations by using a genetic algorithm that automatically selects a sequence of design parameter sets to meet specified fitness criteria increasingly well. In the pebble-bed NGNP design work, we use the genetic algorithm to direct the INEELs PEBBED code to perform hundreds of code runs in less than a day to find optimized design configurations. And finally, we learned how to calculate cross sections more accurately for pebble bed reactors, and we identified research needs for the further refinement of the cross section calculations.

  20. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... by the Numbers — Infographic Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ...

  1. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  2. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to i...

  3. A multi-point inverse airfoil design method based on conformal mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael S.; Maughmer, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    An exact method of multipoint inverse airfoil design for incompressible flow is presented. Multipoint design is handled by dividing the airfoil into a number of desired segments. For each segment the velocity distribution is prescribed together with an angle of attack at which the prescribed velocity distribution is to be achieved. In this manner, multipoint design objectives can be taken into account in the initial specification of the velocity distribution. In order for the multipoint inverse airfoil design problem to be well posed, three integral constraints and several conditions arise which must be satisfied. Further restrictions are imposed if the airfoil is to have a specified pitching moment, thickness ratio, or other constraints. The system of equations is solved partly as a linear system and partly through multidimensional Newton iteration. Since the velocity distribution is prescribed about the circle in the angular coordinate, specification of the velocity in terms of arc length is handled through the multidimensional Newton iteration as well. The current formulation sets the stage for a more general multipoint inverse airfoil design method in which it will be possible to specify the velocity distribution, some boundary-layer development, or the surface geometry along a segment.

  4. Precise and efficient siRNA design: a key point in competent gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhr, E; Zare, F; Teimoori-Toolabi, L

    2016-04-01

    RNA interference-related strategies have become appealing methods in various fields of research. Exact sequence design of these small molecules is an essential step in the silencing procedure. Numerous researchers have tried to define some algorithms in order to increase the chance of short interfering RNA's (siRNA's) success. In recent decades, online designing software has aimed at promoting the quality of siRNA designing based on the most cited algorithms. According to our previous experiments, a combination of different criteria would be helpful. That is, siRNAs suggested by a combination of tools seem to be more efficient. Furthermore, different factors such as distance of target region to transcription start site, nucleotide composition, absence of off-target effects and secondary structures in the target site and siRNA and the presence of asymmetry and energy valley within the siRNA will increase the efficiency of siRNAs. Despite application of different online tools and fulfilling the criteria, there is no guarantee for designing an effective siRNA. However, meticulous designing of siRNAs according to the suggested algorithms and scoring systems and using different siRNAs for targeting the same gene would lead to improved silencing outcome. In this review, we focus on common algorithms and online software, and introduce a new scoring system used in our experiments. PMID:26987292

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Eye M.D. Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Eye M.D. Espaol Dry ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Help Itchy Eyes Aug 18, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  8. Lasik eye surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering on the front of the eye). It is ... After you have surgery, an eye shield or patch will be placed over the eye. It will protect the flap and help prevent ...

  9. Eating for Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  10. Rational design of a novel azoimine appended maleonitrile-based Salen chemosensor for rapid naked-eye detection of copper(II) ion in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Khatereh; Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Arab, Vajihe

    2015-12-01

    Achieving specific selectivity and high sensitivity for the colorimetric recognition of copper(II) ions in aqueous media over a complex background of potentially competing metal ions is inherently challenging in sensor development. Thus, a novel azo-azomethine receptor (L) based on the combination of 2-amino-3-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylamino)maleonitrile and azo-coupled salicylaldehyde scaffold has been designed and synthesized for the naked-eye and rapid detection of Cu(2+) ion at trace level in a wide pH range. Accordingly, the devised chemosensor distinguished Cu(2+) from other metal ions by distinct color change from light yellow to light brown without any expensive equipment. The binding stoichiometry between Cu(2+) and L has been investigated using Job's plot and MALDI-TOF mass analysis. Remarkably, the current sensor can detect Cu(2+) ions even at 1.07 ?M level, which is lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible level (30 ?M) in drinking water. Furthermore, sensor L was successfully utilized in the preparation of test strips for the detection of copper(II) ions from aqueous environment. PMID:26184468

  11. Design point characteristics of a 500 - 2500 watt isotope-Brayton power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to investigate the potential performance characteristics of an isotope-Brayton space power system at electric power levels from 500 to 2500 W. Utilization of the Pu 238 heat source, or capsule, being developed for the Multi-Hundred Watt Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator was assumed. A single-loop system design concept was selected. The design concept and results of first-order tradeoff studies of the effects of major system parameters on system performance are presented. Results of the study indicate the potential for high system efficiency and high specific power over the entire power range.

  12. Experience Feedback of Current LWR on the Design and Operation of Advanced LWR, under the Safety Analysis Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current LWR are operating with an excellent safety record. It is foreseen that they will be progressively replaced by more advanced designs (Generation III, III+, and IV). This paper reviews the role of the safety analysis, both in steady and transient state, in the flexible yet safe operation of the nuclear power plants. Several aspects such as licensing, technological progress, efficiency, public opinion and environmental consideration, and generation replacement, are considered form a broad perspective. Besides, deficiencies, learned lessons and design and operation aspects that could be improved in the new reactor fleet, under the perspective of safety analysis, are also considered from the engineering point of view and experience. (author)

  13. Starting points and objectives for a design study of a radioactive waste repository to be mined in a salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In close cooperation with Prof.Ir. P.Th. Velzeboer, Professor in Mining of the University of Technology in Delft, a design study has been made of a radioactive waste repository to be mined in a medium size salt dome. This article focuses on the starting points and objectives that formed the basis of this design study. The prime objective was a high degree of radiological and of conventional safety during the construction and operation of the disposal mine and a long-term isolation of the buried radionuclides once the facility was closed down and sealed. (Auth.)

  14. Design of a four-point bend test for ultra-low cycle fatigue of pipelines under inelastic bending

    OpenAIRE

    Muylaert, T.; De Waele, W.

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis is situated in the research domain dealing with the ductile failure of pipelines under extreme loading conditions. It is part of an umbrella research aiming to develop innovative experimental and computational methodologies to simulate fracture of steel structural elements under ultra-low cycle fatigue. The focus of this study is on steel pipeline applications. The objective of this thesis is to design a large-scale four-point bend test setup to cyclically bend pipes. The f...

  15. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR concept, and it will demonstrate key operational features of that design. The FHR DR will be closely scaled to the SmAHTR concept in power and flows, so any technologies demonstrated will be directly applicable to a reactor concept of that size. The FHR DR is not a commercial prototype design, but rather a DR that serves a cost and risk mitigation function for a later commercial prototype. It is expected to have a limited operational lifetime compared to a commercial plant. It is designed to be a low-cost reactor compared to more mature advanced prototype DRs. A primary reason to build the FHR DR is to learn about salt reactor technologies and demonstrate solutions to remaining technical gaps.

  16. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  17. Mechanical design considerations for a 3m class fast pointing telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M.; Bortoletto, F.; Bonoli, C.; de Caprio, V.; Spanó, P.; Covino, S.; Molinari, E.; Vitali, F.; Zannoni, M.; Chincarini, G.

    2010-07-01

    A number of scientific observations take advantage of the use of robotic, fast pointing telescopes; in particular, fast reacting small telescopes were especially useful for gamma ray burst follow-up which now require better performances and greater telescope size. However, increasing telescope size could imply some limitations in terms of operability and technological solutions. In order to select the best telescope configuration it is necessary to take into account mechanical set up, pointing strategy, wind effects and the resulting effective costs. This paper will investigate and compare the characteristics of traditional alt-az and alt-alt telescope configurations considering also an innovative alt-alt set up to be developed as an alternative to the mainstream layout of present medium class telescopes. In the alt-alt case the system exploits the heritage of larger telescope projects like LBT, coupled with a more traditional fork mounted to match the alt-alt kinematics, so obtaining a more stable machine and minimizing the blind spot limitation.

  18. Advanced engineering design as practiced today from the view point of the CERN Industrial Liaison Officer

    OpenAIRE

    Barone, Michele

    2012-01-01

    After an introduction about CERN, a brief description of the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) it is reviewed. Pros and cons of a few advanced engineering design cases are taken in consideration together with the involvement of the European Industry. The conclusion is that the LHC project has been an important driving force for Innovation in European Industry.

  19. The Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) Sensors for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J. B.; Mauk, B. H.; Baker, D. N.; Carranza, P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Craft, J.; Crain, W. R.; Crew, A.; Dotan, Y.; Fennell, J. F.; Friedel, R. H.; Friesen, L. M.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; Ibscher, C.; Jaynes, A.; Katz, N.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A. Y.; Mabry, D. M.; Nguyen, T.; Pancratz, C.; Redding, M.; Reeves, G. D.; Smith, S.; Spence, H. E.; Westlake, J.

    2015-06-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of five particles and fields investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. This mission consists of four satellites operating in close proximity in elliptical, low-inclination orbits, and is focused upon the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) investigation aboard the four MMS spacecraft consists of two instrument designs, the EIS (Energetic Ion Spectrometer) and the FEEPS (Fly's Eye Electron Proton Spectrometer). This present paper describes FEEPS from an instrument physics and engineering point of view, and provides some test and calibration data to facilitate effective analysis and use of the flight data for scientific purposes. A FEEPS consists of six Heads, each composed of two Eyes. Each eye is a particle telescope with a single silicon detector; there are nine electron eyes and three ion eyes per FEEPS. The energy coverage is from 25 keV to 650 keV for electrons and 45 keV to 650 keV for ions. Each eye has sixteen energy channels, the spacing of which can be modified by command. The fields of view and pointing of each eye are designed to provide a broad, instantaneous field of view for the twelve eyes per FEEPS. There are two FEEPS per MMS spacecraft mounted such that the pair along with the single EIS provide more than 3?-sr instantaneous solid-angle coverage and complete coverage in the equatorial region. A twenty-second spacecraft rotation period is divided into sixty-four sectors to provide detailed temporal and spatial sampling. Data are acquired in three modes: Burst Mode, the primary science mode; Fast Survey Mode; and Slow Survey Mode.

  20. Pointing is 'special'

    OpenAIRE

    Loevenbruck, Hélène; Dohen, Marion; Vilain, Coriandre,

    2009-01-01

    Deixis, or pointing, is the ability to draw the viewer/listener's attention to an object, a person, a direction or an event. Pointing is involved at different stages of human communication development, in multiple modalities: first with the eyes, then with the finger, then with intonation and finally with syntax. It is ubiquitous and probably universal in human interactions. The 'special' role of index-finger pointing in language acquisition suggests that all pointing modalities may share a c...

  1. Design and Evaluation of Cell Phone Pointing Interface for Robot Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saso Koceski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work a pointing interface based on human gestures using a mobile phone accelerometer for interaction with robots is proposed. Through this interface the user can sketch stroke gestures on a computer screen using the cell phone accelerometer to make a selection and instruct a robot to perform a task. Selection, cancelation and movement, as well as some additional commands such as stop, pause and resume are supported. All the projected gestures are processed using known image analysis algorithms providing instantaneous position and path information. The proposed interface is experimentally evaluated and the results show that it is efficient, natural, robust and easy to use. It also provides asynchronous robot control with minimum operator effort and engagement.

  2. On the number of support points of maximin and Bayesian optimal designs

    OpenAIRE

    Braess, Dietrich; Dette, Holger

    2007-01-01

    We consider maximin and Bayesian $D$-optimal designs for nonlinear regression models. The maximin criterion requires the specification of a region for the nonlinear parameters in the model, while the Bayesian optimality criterion assumes that a prior for these parameters is available. On interval parameter spaces, it was observed empirically by many authors that an increase of uncertainty in the prior information (i.e., a larger range for the parameter space in the maximin criterion or a larg...

  3. Robot design from a neuro-ethological point of view. Shinkei kodogaku kara mita robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimozawa, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. of Applied Electricity)

    1991-11-01

    The science concerning the method of obtaining the desirable information by adjusting the controllable quantity based on the measurement of the uncontrollable quantity is called cybernetics. The cybernetics is the most ideal image of the robot. The instinct of animals is supported by the nervous system. The science which deals with the nervous system of animals as a function of its instinct is called the neuro-ethology. In this sense, the neuro-ethology is identical to the cybernetics. The fundamental basis of robot design the design of the robot is therefore the neuro-ethology. The treatment of the dependent information about space and time in the auditory nervous system of animals was reviewed. The petuliarity of the auditory system, auditory as an interferometry, and the evolution of the auditory system was explained by taking the sonner system in bats as a prototype of the auditory system of animal. For further explanation of auditory system, the correspondence to the phonetic recognition of Homo-sapiens was also reviewed. It is important for design of the robot to investigate the mechanism to extract informations of the auditory nervous system in animals including Homo-sapiens. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hessen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement.

  5. Focusing criterion implementation for a biocular eye

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla González, Pau

    2015-01-01

    We report the design and implementation of an easy to carry out focusing algorithm for a biocular eye simulator whose eyes consist in a doublet lens (Edmund Optics 32315, F=40 mm, f#=3.2) nominally focused at infinity and a CMOS sensor (IDS UI-1242LE- NIR) with 5.3 µm pixel size that plays the role of the retina. The aim of the present work is to find the best focus position for each of the eyes of the biocular eye simulator when trial lenses of different power (C.I.O.M. 103/T TRAY) are position...

  6. Contribution to the design of a micro-programmed floating point arithmetical operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended for a presentation of the implementation of an arithmetical operator. Fast microprocessor together with microprogramming techniques were used for development. For clarity, this report is shared in three parts following the different steps of design and development. The first part relates the preliminary study stage, setting down the outlines of the project: tentative data, choice of components and architecture of operator. The second part is devoted to the development step. It deals with implementation aid systems and computation algorithms for arithmetical functions. Results and conclusions are the subject of the third part. (author)

  7. Finite element and node point generation computer programs used for the design of toroidal field coils in tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.A.

    1975-06-01

    The structural analysis of toroidal field coils in Tokamak fusion machines can be performed with the finite element method. This technique has been employed for design evaluations of toroidal field coils on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The application of the finite element method can be simplified with computer programs that are used to generate the input data for the finite element code. There are three areas of data input where significant automation can be provided by supplementary computer codes. These concern the definition of geometry by a node point mesh, the definition of the finite elements from the geometric node points, and the definition of the node point force/displacement boundary conditions. The node point forces in a model of a toroidal field coil are computed from the vector cross product of the coil current and the magnetic field. The computer programs named PDXNODE and ELEMENT are described. The program PDXNODE generates the geometric node points of a finite element model for a toroidal field coil. The program ELEMENT defines the finite elements of the model from the node points and from material property considerations. The program descriptions include input requirements, the output, the program logic, the methods of generating complex geometries with multiple runs, computational time and computer compatibility. The output format of PDXNODE and ELEMENT make them compatible with PDXFORC and two general purpose finite element computer codes: (ANSYS) the Engineering Analysis System written by the Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., and (WECAN) the Westinghouse Electric Computer Analysis general purpose finite element program. The Fortran listings of PDXNODE and ELEMENT are provided.

  8. Finite element and node point generation computer programs used for the design of toroidal field coils in tokamak fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural analysis of toroidal field coils in Tokamak fusion machines can be performed with the finite element method. This technique has been employed for design evaluations of toroidal field coils on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The application of the finite element method can be simplified with computer programs that are used to generate the input data for the finite element code. There are three areas of data input where significant automation can be provided by supplementary computer codes. These concern the definition of geometry by a node point mesh, the definition of the finite elements from the geometric node points, and the definition of the node point force/displacement boundary conditions. The node point forces in a model of a toroidal field coil are computed from the vector cross product of the coil current and the magnetic field. The computer programs named PDXNODE and ELEMENT are described. The program PDXNODE generates the geometric node points of a finite element model for a toroidal field coil. The program ELEMENT defines the finite elements of the model from the node points and from material property considerations. The program descriptions include input requirements, the output, the program logic, the methods of generating complex geometries with multiple runs, computational time and computer compatibility. The output format of PDXNODE and ELEMENT make them compatible with PDXFORC and two general purpose finite element computer codes: (ANSYS) the Engineering Analysis System written by the Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., and (WECAN) the Westinghouse Electric Computer Analysis general purpose finite element program. The Fortran listings of PDXNODE and ELEMENT are provided

  9. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  10. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  11. Chapter 2. Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocular scintigraphy can now be carried out with several tracers: 131I diiodofluorescein and sup(99m)Tc, hypervascularisation indicators; 131I iodinated chloroquine, melanoma selective. The detector used is an Anger scintillation camera coupled to a multiparameter analysis chain or a computer. The ''pin-hole'' type collimator, which has a stenopaeic opening in front of each eye, is adaptable to any inter-pupil distance. The very simple scintigraphic procedure is described. The results, taken from two statistical studies on 198 and 80 patients respectively, concern the main types of eye disease encountered: malignant melanic tumours, other tumours, metastases, choroiditis, idiopathic detachments of the retina etc... The interpretation of the scintigrams and the problems involved are considered. Finally the main indications of the method are defined with emphasis on the possibilities of double scintigraphy, diiodofluorescein only showing up the hypervascularisation often associated with the tumour whereas iodinated chloroquine, when the result is positive, points to the presence of a malignant melanoma

  12. Recent Advances in Optimal Design of Structures from a Reliability Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Structural optimisation and structural reliability theory are considered. Both of these areas have developed during the last two decades from being of purely theoretical interest to areas useful in practical design. The main elements of structural reliability theory are described in the second...... Baker[4] and Madsen et al.[5]. Next a heuristic method, the so-called ß-unzipping method[6] is mentioned. This method can be used to estimate the reliability of a structural system if some modelling assumptions are fulfilled. In the third section some elements of structural optimisation theory are...... described. A reliability-based structural optimisation problem is formulated. The formulation is a natural extension of the commonly used formulations in deterministic, classical structural optimisation. Some methods for solving the reliability-based optimisation problem are mentioned[7, 8, 9, 10]. In the...

  13. A reactor-scale point design of cone-guided implosion for Fast Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Hideo; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Sakagami, Hitoshi

    2011-10-01

    The formation of high-areal-density core plasma in cone-guided non-spherical implosion is required for Fast Ignition. Although many experiments have been conducted successfully at ILE and LLE using existing lasers facilities, difficulties are inherent in designing larger scale size implosion for reactors, where energy of implosion lasers will be about a MJ. One of the significant problems is high pressure at hot-spot region, if implosion is scaled up simply in similarity rule. This high pressure leads fatal break at the tip of the cone which should be located near the center of the implosion. In this work, optimization of low isentrope and high areal density implosion is attempted using 2-D radiation hydrodynamic code. This work is partially supported by JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)(22540511).

  14. Lenses matching of compound eye for target positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Zheng, Yan Pei; Wang, Keyi

    2012-10-01

    Compound eye, as a new imaging method with multi-lens for a large field of view, could complete target positioning and detection fastly, especially at close range. Therefore it could be applicated in the fields of military and medical treatment and aviation with vast market potential and development prospect. Yet the compound eye imaging method designed use three layer construction of multiple lens array arranged in a curved surface and refractive lens and imaging sensor of CMOS. In order to simplify process structure and increase the imaging area of every sub-eye, the imaging area of every eye is coved with the whole CMOS. Therefore, for several imaging point of one target, the corresponding lens of every imaging point is unkonown, and thus to identify. So an algorithm was put forward. Firstly, according to the Regular Geometry relationship of several adjacent lenses, data organization of seven lenses with a main lens was built. Subsequently, by the data organization, when one target was caught by several unknown lenses, we search every combined type of the received lenses. And for every combined type, two lenses were selected to combine and were used to calculate one three-dimensional (3D) coordinate of the target. If the 3D coordinates are same to the some combine type of the lenses numbers, in theory, the lenses and the imaging points are matched. So according to error of the 3D coordinates is calculated by the different seven lenses numbers combines, the unknown lenses could be distinguished. The experimental results show that the presented algorithm is feasible and can complete matching task for imaging points and corresponding lenses.

  15. Initial Scaling Studies and Conceptual Thermal Fluids Experiments for the Prismatic NGNP Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial high temperature gas reactor scaling studies and conceptual experiment design for gas flow and heat transfer. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/ATHENA/RELAP5-3D calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses are being applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant forced convection with slight transverse property variation. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple buoyant jets into a confined density-stratified crossflow -- with obstructions. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second experiment will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets as they mix in flowing through the array of posts in a lower plenum en route to the single exit duct. Initial conceptual designs for such experiments are described.

  16. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, and friends about diabetic eye disease. This module includes descriptive audio and ...

  17. LASIK eye surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASIK is eye surgery that permanently changes the shape of the cornea (the clear covering on the ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information ...

  19. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Eye M.D. Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & ...

  20. Diabetes - eye care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dilated eye exam. This is called digital retinal photography. Your eye doctor may ask you to come ... doctor if: You cannot see well in dim light. You have blind spots. You have double vision ( ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD Mar. 01, 2014 When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye, making the ... the eye smooth and clear. Without this tear film, good vision would not be possible. Sometimes people ...

  4. Diabetes and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes (tonometry) Checking the structures inside your eyes (slit lamp exam) Checking and photographing your retinas (fluorescein ... dim light. You have blind spots. You have double vision (you see two things when there is ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Eye M.D. Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Eye M. ...

  8. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, Todd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Willey, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms which make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses 4 stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  9. How flies clean their eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eyelids, cleanses the eye and washes away foreign particles or irritants. The inner layer consists of mucus produced by the conjunctiva. Mucus allows the watery layer to spread evenly over the surface of the eye and helps the eye remain ...

  11. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention News Ask an Eye M.D. Espaol Smoking and Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke or quitting if you ... can make in your long-term eye health. Smoking even in your teens or twenties when your ...

  12. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  13. Feasibility study of BWR-type reduced-moderation water reactor core design in thermal-hydraulic view point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual design study has been performed at JAERI on advanced water-cooled reactors, namely reduced-moderation water reactors (RMWRs) which install plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel attaining the high conversion ratio around 1.0 and the negative void reactivity coefficient. The feasibility of three BWR-type RMWR cores have been investigated in the view points of thermal-hydraulics. All of these have tight lattice pitch fuel bundles for high conversion ratios. For confirming the feasibility of these core concepts, the transient thermal-hydraulic analysis code TRAC-BF1 was used in the study. Steady-state nominal operating conditions and flow reduction transient conditions were analyzed. In the analysis, only the core region was focused and the calculation conditions were controlled by boundary conditions based on the safety analysis of current BWRs, due that the coolant system design is underway. The calculated results showed that all of these concepts could be feasible in the thermal-hydraulic view points. (author)

  14. (abstract) The Design of a Benign Fail-safe Mechanism Using a Low-melting-point Metal Alloy Coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Richard S.

    1995-01-01

    Because the alpha proton X ray spectrometer (APXS) sensor head on the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, is placed on Martian soil by the deployment mechanism (ADM), the rover would be crippled if the actuator fails when the mechanism is in its deployed position, as rover ground clearance is then reduced to zero. This paper describes the unique fail-safe mounted on the ADM, especially the use of a low-temperature-melting alloy as a coupler device. The final form of the design is a low-melting-point metal pellet coupler, made from Cerrobend, in parallel with a Negator spring pack. In its solid state, the metal rigidly connects the driver (the actuator) and the driven part (the mechanism). When commanded, a strip heater wrapped around the coupler melts the metal pellet (at 60(deg)C), allowing the driven part to turn independent of the driver. The Negator spring retracts the mechanism to its fully stowed position. This concept meets all the design criteria, and provides an added benefit. When the metal hardens the coupler once again rigidly connects the actuator and the mechanism. The concept presented here can easily be applied to other applications. Anywhere release devices are needed, low-melting-point couplers can be considered. The issues to be concerned with are thermal isolation, proper setting of the parts before actuation, and possible outgassing concerns. However, when these issues are overcome, the resulting release mechanism can promise to be the most light, simple, power conserving alternative available.

  15. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  16. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocate Contact Us Close Medicare Benefits & Your Eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk for ... a copy of the Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes fact sheet. Related links: Health Insurance and Your Eyes Site Map Your Sight ...

  17. Diamond Eye: a distributed architecture for image data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael C.; Fowlkes, Charless; Roden, Joe; Stechert, Andre; Mukhtar, Saleem

    1999-02-01

    Diamond Eye is a distributed software architecture, which enables users (scientists) to analyze large image collections by interacting with one or more custom data mining servers via a Java applet interface. Each server is coupled with an object-oriented database and a computational engine, such as a network of high-performance workstations. The database provides persistent storage and supports querying of the 'mined' information. The computational engine provides parallel execution of expensive image processing, object recognition, and query-by-content operations. Key benefits of the Diamond Eye architecture are: (1) the design promotes trial evaluation of advanced data mining and machine learning techniques by potential new users (all that is required is to point a web browser to the appropriate URL), (2) software infrastructure that is common across a range of science mining applications is factored out and reused, and (3) the system facilitates closer collaborations between algorithm developers and domain experts.

  18. School eye health appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priorities in the delivery of school based eye care.

  19. Artificial eye for in vitro experiments of laser light interaction with aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Clarence P.; Noojin, Gary D.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    1997-01-01

    An artificial eye has been designed and assembled that mimics the focusing geometry of the living eye. The artificial eye's focusing characteristics are measured and compared with those of the in vivo system. The artificial eye is used to measure several nonlinear optical phenomena that may have an impact on the laser damage thresholds of the retina produced by ultrashort laser pulses. We chose a focal length of 17 mm to simulate the rhesus monkey eye, with a visual cone angle of 8.4 deg for a 2.5-mm diameter laser beam input. The measured focal point image diameter was 5.6 plus or minus 1 micrometer, which was 1.5 times the calculated diffraction-limited image diameter. This focusing system had the best M2 of all the systems evaluated. We used the artificial eye to measure the threshold for laser- induced breakdown, stimulated Brillouin scattering, super- continuum generation, and pulse temporal broadening due to group velocity dispersion.

  20. Training the Eyes for Competition: Fighting Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Darrell; Bradford, Vincent

    1989-01-01

    Fencers should be taught to discipline their eyes to focus on the opponent's hand. The rationale for this strategy as well as drills to develop "hand watching" skills are presented in this article. (IAH)

  1. Design a Filter to Detect and Remove Vegetation from Ultra-Cam Aerial Images' Point Cloud to Produce Automatically Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayati, H.; Veissy, M.; Rahimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Digital elevation model is one of the most important spatial information for displaying bare earth. Because of existing objects on the ground, manual editing is unavoidable. Aerial images' point clouds produced by advanced matching methods are good resources for generating DEM. In this paper, the purpose is design a filter for detect and eliminate vegetation from point clouds. For this purpose, point clouds' texture is used for finding vegetation. Texture of point clouds is segmented by Otsu method. In the next step, segmented image is added to raster of elevation and vegetation elevation is detected. Results is showing that point clouds' texture is a good data for filtering vegetation and generating DEM automatically.

  2. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Delgado, Mikaela C.; Henriksen, Sarah T.; Nielsen, Mette M.; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE......-score ranged from −1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and...

  3. Investigation of the SQUBIC phase mask design for depth-invariant widefield microscopy point-spread function engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblas, Ana; King, Sharon V.; Patwary, Nurmohammed; Saavedra, Genaro; Martínez-Corral, Manuel; Preza, Chrysanthe

    2014-03-01

    Point-spread function engineering (PSF), achieved by placing a phase mask at the pupil plane of the imaging lens to encode the wavefront emerging from an imaging system, can be employed to reduce the impact of spherical aberration (SA) in 3D microscopy. In a previous study, the effect of SA on a confocal scanning microscope using a squared cubic phase mask (SQUBIC) was investigated using computer simulations. Here the effect of the SQUBIC design parameter on the insensitivity of the engineered PSF to SA is investigated using a metric based on the second-order moment of the axial variability of the PSF. We show that it is possible to find the optimum SQUBIC for the insensitization to SA.

  4. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  5. Hardware description ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP as designed in a remotely controlled digital CW Doppler radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R.E.; Robinson, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave Doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployed, and remotely controlled. The heart of this system is a DSP/control board using Analog Devices ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor. Two 18-bit audio A/D converters provide digital input to the DSP/controller board for near real time target detection. Program memory for the DSP is dual ported with an Intel 87C51 microcontroller allowing DSP code to be up-loaded or down-loaded from a central controlling computer. The 87C51 provides overall system control for the remote radar and includes a time-of-day/day-of-year real time clock, system identification (ID) switches, and input/output (I/O) expansion by an Intel 82C55 I/O expander. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Virtual CT endoscopy ''cruising eye view''. Development and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a virtual CT endoscopy, designated as 'Cruising Eye View (CEV)', generated from spiral volumetric CT data and reconstructed using a new three-dimensional image reconstruction technique. Using this new method, we reconstructed the inner image of patients with aortic dissection (2 cases) and arteriosclerosis obliterance (3 cases). The view point and view direction could be set arbitrarily in the vessel, so that the site, configuration, and/or degree of the intravascular abnormalities were recognized at first glance. Virtual CT endoscopy with CEV method is a promising, non-invasive strategy for achieving the inner image of diverse aorto-arterial pathologies. (author)

  7. Dynamic eye model for adaptive optics testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Enrique J; Artal, Pablo

    2007-10-01

    An artificial dynamic eye model is proposed. The prototype enabled us to introduce temporal variations in defocus and spherical aberration, resembling those typically found in the human eye. The eye model consisted of a meniscus lens together with a modal liquid crystal lens with controllable focus. A diffuser placed at a fixed distance from the lenses acted as the artificial retina. Developed software allowed the user to precisely control the dynamic generation of aberrations. In addition, different refractive errors could simultaneously be emulated by varying the distance between the components of the model. The artificial eye was first used as a dynamic generator of both spherical aberration and defocus, imitating the behavior of a real eye. The artificial eye was implemented in an adaptive optics system designed for the human eye. The system incorporated an electrostatic deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. Results with and without real time closed-loop aberration correction were obtained. The use of the dynamic artificial eye could be quite useful for testing and evaluating adaptive optics instruments for ophthalmic applications. PMID:17906726

  8. Shielding design of an underground experimental area at point 5 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing projected values of the circulating beam intensity in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and decreasing limits to radiation exposure, taken with the increasing non-acceptance of unjustified and un-optimised radiation exposures, have led to the need to re-assess the shielding between the ECX and ECA5 underground experimental areas of the SPS. Twenty years ago, these experimental areas at SPS-Point 5 housed the UA1 experiment, where Carlo Rubbia and his team verified the existence of W and Z bosons. The study reported here describes such a re-assessment based on simulations using the multi-purpose FLUKA radiation transport code. This study concludes that while the main shield which is made of concrete blocks and is 4.8 m thick satisfactorily meets the current design limits even at the highest intensities presently planned for the SPS, dose rates calculated for liaison areas on both sides of the main shield significantly exceed the design limits. Possible ways of improving the shielding situation are discussed. (authors)

  9. Service design: a review of methods and techniques inthe point of view of service operations management area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Torres Jnior

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As in many developing countries, the service sector in Brazil is responsible for generating income and employment for a significant portion of the population. Due to this economic relevance, service organizations are faced with an increasingly demanding and competitive market. This demand greater innovation and business planning. Despite this, the process of service development remains a relatively unexplored subject in the literature. Several issues regarding the planning and management remain without clear ideas or propositions that guide their appropriate treatment. The result of this situation, the methods and techniques that help design the services are not properly disseminated. These are scattered through the literature of operations management services. Given this framework, the light of a review of the literature and concerning the elements that compose the service project according to the works of Machuca, Zamora-Gonzalez and Aguilar-Escobar (2007 and Edvardsson (1997, the present work points and examine the methods and techniques suggested by many authors and works on the area of Service Operations. It was found that the knowledge about the methods and techniques is diffuse. This knowledge is concentrated on the design process and determining the location of services.

  10. AWARENESS AND WILLINGNESS OF EYE DONATION AMONG ATTENDANTS OF PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    OpenAIRE

    Sharath R; Sujatha; Pandu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: In India it is estimated that there are approximately 6.8 million people who have vision less than 6/60 in atleast one eye due to corneal disease: the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation, pledging their eyes and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients in rural Karnataka. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - s ectional study design . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: ...

  11. Improvements in packages comprising eye baths and eye lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new packaged assembly comprising an eye bath and eye lotion is described. The eye bath is shaped for application to the eye; it has a rim portion formed so as to provide a smooth skin-contacting surface and is sealed to a lid at a position removed from the skin-contacting area. The eye bath is formed in a sterile condition and aseptically filled to an appropriate level with eye lotion by a blow moulding process. The eye bath and its contents are sterilised after sealing by radioactive sterilsation. This packaged assembly is an improvement over previous eye bath assemblies in that it allows the eye bath to be used in a sterile form. It is also more comfortable and convenient to use than other sterile forms of eye treatment such as eye drops or jets of eye wash. Furthermore, bathing the eye provides a more prolonged treatment. (U.K.)

  12. Investigation of non-quarter wave design on multilayer optical thin film coatings from a heat transfer point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Mustafa; Sert, Cneyt; Okutucu, Tuba .

    2013-11-01

    In this study multilayer thin film optical coatings, which are indispensable parts of optical systems are investigated from a heat transfer point of view. Laser irradiation induced temperature distribution on a multilayer coating stack is obtained by discretizing the heat diffusion equation using the finite volume method. In order to obtain mathematical representation of the energy flow and Electric Field Intensity (EFI) through the stack, Maxwell equations are solved by using the commercial software MacLeod. Laser energy, which is absorbed by the multilayer stack in terms of heat, is calculated as a function of space and time by using the computed EFI, coating materials' optical properties and Gaussian laser beam parameters. Computed heat load is used in the finite volume solver ANSYS FLUENT through a user defined function. Temperature distribution on a 19 layer HR multilayer coating stack irradiated by 1064 nm laser beam are obtained for both quarter wave and non-quarter wave designed configurations. Results of numerical simulations show that maximum temperature rise is seen in the first high index layer for quarter wave design (QWD). In addition to that, high temperatures are also seen in film/film interfaces, which is associated to both EFI distribution on the stack and wide differences in material properties between high and low index film layers. Non-quarter wave design (NQWD) is seen to be successful in decreasing temperatures at high index layers and at film/film interfaces. But it also changes the EFI distribution inside the multilayer stack, increasing absorbed laser energy and resulting in higher temperatures at modified low index layers.

  13. The questionably dry eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, I A; Seal, D. V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the recognition of the dry eye when the clinical diagnosis is in doubt and other external eye diseases may be present. Papillary conjunctivitis is common to the dry eye as well as other pathological conditions and confuses the diagnosis. We have correlated the factors involved in the assessment for dryness. We have shown that particulate matter in the unstained tear film is associated with low tear lysozyme concentration. Tear flow and tear lysozyme are not necess...

  14. EYE BASED CONTROL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Shrunkhala Satish Wankhede, Ms. S. A. Chhabria

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an individual human computer interface system using eye motion tracking is introduced. Traditionally human computer interface uses mouse, keyboard as an input device. However, the proposed vision-based virtual interface controls system work on various eye movements such as eye blinking. The planned virtual multimodal interface system provides vision-based mechanism, to convey between human and computer system, instead of conventional human computer interaction through mouse and...

  15. Teamwork for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development (HRD – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  16. Teamwork for eye care

    OpenAIRE

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  17. How to perform irrigation of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to understand the importance of performing irrigation immediately following chemical injury to the eye, and outlines the most effective technique. It is essential that irrigation of the eye is understood and performed correctly. ? Chemical injury to the eye is an ophthalmic emergency. It presents a serious risk to the patient's vision and may cause blindness. ? The length of time the chemical remains in contact with the eye determines the severity of the injury. ? Immediate irrigation of the eye is essential to minimise preventable loss of vision. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you would ensure immediate irrigation following chemical injury to the eye in your clinical area. 2. How you know when you have irrigated the eye for long enough, if you have previously performed this procedure, and how reading this article might influence your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26838655

  18. Improving eye care in the primary health care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M de Wet

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing primary health care in South Africa is the delivery of quality eye care to all South Africans. In this regard the role of the primary health care worker, as the first point of contact, is crucial. This paper reports on the problems primary health care workers experience in providing quality eye care in Region B of the Free State. Problems identified by those involved in the study include the cumbersome referral system, the unavailability of appropriate medicine at clinics, the insufficient knowledge of primary health care workers regarding eye conditions and the lack of communication between the various eye care service providers. Suggestions to address the problems identified included more in-service training of primary health care workers regarding eye conditions, liaison with NGO’s providing eye care, decentralisation of services and the establishment of an eye care committee in the region.

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Academy Publications ...

  3. Poverty and Eye Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Jaggernath; Lene verland; Prasidh Ramson; Vilas Kovai; Ving Fai Chan; Naidoo, Kovin S.

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and eye health, including vision disability from vision impairment and blindness, are believed to be interrelated. The relationship between poverty and eye health can be interpreted as being two-fold, in the sense that poverty may be a cause of poor eye health and poor eye health may lead to or deepen poverty. Evidence shows that the burden of vision impairment is high in poor people and vision impairment and poverty are linked to each other. However the empirical evidence to answer t...

  4. Evaluation of Human Emotion from Eye Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Raudonis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to develop an emotion recognition system that analysis the motion trajectory of the eye and gives the response on appraisal emotion. The emotion recognition solution is based on the data gathering using head mounted eye tracking device. The participants of experimental investigation were provided with a visual stimulus (PowerPoint slides and the emotional feedback was determined by the combination of eye tracking device and emotion recognition software. The stimulus was divided in four groups by the emotion that should be triggered in the human, i.e., neutral, disgust, exhilaration and excited. Some initial experiments and the data on the recognition accuracy of the emotion from eye motion trajectory are provided along with the description of implemented algorithms.

  5. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a heuristic strategy that leads to 'socially optimal' solutions, yielding a maximum number of contention-free cells being scheduled. A novel mixed digital-analog circuit has been designed to implement the MUCS core functionality. The MUCS circuit maps the cell scheduling computation to the capacitor charging and discharging procedures that are conducted fully in parallel. The design has a uniform circuit structure, low interconnect counts, and low chip I/O counts. Using 2 ?m CMOS technology, the design operates on a 100 MHz clock and finds a near-optimal solution within a linear processing time. The circuit has been verified at the transistor level by HSPICE simulation. During this research, a five-port IQ-based optoelectronic iPOINT ATM switch has been developed and demonstrated. It has been fully functional with an aggregate throughput of 800 Mb/s. The second-generation IQ-based switch is currently under development. Equipped with iiQueue modules and MUCS module, the new switch system will deliver a multi-gigabit aggregate throughput, eliminate HOL blocking, provide per-VC QoS, and achieve near-100% link bandwidth utilization. Complete documentation of input modules and trunk module for the existing testbed, and complete documentation of 3DQ, iiQueue, and MUCS for the second-generation testbed are given in this dissertation.

  6. Designing and evaluating sports footwear from the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and wearers - an analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research work are: a to analyse the sports footwear, giving emphasis to its development, technical criteria and making, the opinion of the sportperson as an important element in parameter definition for the manufacturing and aspects concerning problems of the feet; b to verify the tecnical evolution the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and researches; c identify the criteria adopted by wearers in their choice and evaluation. Data information was obtained from literature and bibliographical research (On-line systems, Comut, Sibradid and Internet in Portuguese, English and French. Through content analysis technique the following information was obtained: a concern on the design and manufacture of the sports footwear goes back to 19th century. Sports footwear has been moulded according to the charactectistics of type of sports, taking into consideration the rules of the games, the suggestion of specilists, the examination of the footwear and the type of injuries endured; b evaluation is an old practice, going back to the time of the footwear’s design and manufacturing. In a set of tests the first criterion was always the prevention of lesions. Five and ten criteria were adopted in 1977 and in 1980, respectively. Durability was included, enhancing consumerism; c for a host of reason the Brazilian consumer is a good of the footwear. This fact is indicative of his/her education as a consumer; d definition of parameters is urgent. They are an integral part of laws on quality control and production and propaganda material for the consumer’s orientation.

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety Tips Sep 25, ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

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  10. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  11. PlantEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Kjærsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University.......Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University....

  12. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Eye M.D. Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health ...

  13. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or chemical burns Previous eye surgery A rare autoimmune disorder in which the glands that produce tears are destroyed ( Sjögren's syndrome )

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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  15. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special contact lens will be placed on your eye. The lens contains mirrors that help the doctor aim the laser. You will be instructed to look straight ahead or at a target light with your other eye. A laser will be focused on the bleeding ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings ...

  17. Optimization of point sources on thin films using a statistical design approach. Application to 60Co sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive point sources prepared by depositing weighed drops on thin membranes are commonly used in ionizing radiation metrology for 47πβ-γ coincidence counting or for low energy electrons spectrometry. The present study deals with the preparation of good quality sources having high detection yields. Some influential parameters on the source quality are studied using 60Co as radioactive tracer. An approach based on experimental statistical designs has been chosen. This approach allows us to obtain reliable results with a number of experiences lower than in the case of a systematic approach. Homogeneous 60Co sources with high metrological qualifies (Rβ> 96 %) can be prepared using a direct deposit of ∼ 5 mg drops of 60Co solution ([Co] = 12 μg/g), [HCl] = 0,5 mol/I) and dried at 60 deg C. The support of the radioactive spot is constituted with a gold coated (130 μg/cm2 of Au) Vyns films (thickness 45 μg/cm2) on which a pad (diameter = 7 - 8 mm) of polystyrene microspheres (Estapor K-007) is prepared by an electro-spraying technique under 7,5 kV during 10 minutes. The alcoholic solution used for the electro-spraying step has the following chemical composition [Estapor K-007] 2.5 10-2 wt % and [Tween 20] = 2.7 10-2 wt %. (authors)

  18. Design of set-point weighting PI? + D? controller for vertical magnetic flux controller in Damavand tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, H; Fatehi, A

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a simple method is presented for tuning weighted PI(?) + D(?) controller parameters based on the pole placement controller of pseudo-second-order fractional systems. One of the advantages of this controller is capability of reducing the disturbance effects and improving response to input, simultaneously. In the following sections, the performance of this controller is evaluated experimentally to control the vertical magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak. For this work, at first a fractional order model is identified using output-error technique in time domain. For various practical experiments, having desired time responses for magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak, is vital. To approach this, at first the desired closed loop reference models are obtained based on generalized characteristic ratio assignment method in fractional order systems. After that, for the identified model, a set-point weighting PI(?) + D(?) controller is designed and simulated. Finally, this controller is implemented on digital signal processor control system of the plant to fast/slow control of magnetic flux. The practical results show appropriate performance of this controller. PMID:25554294

  19. Design of set-point weighting PIλ + Dμ controller for vertical magnetic flux controller in Damavand tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a simple method is presented for tuning weighted PIλ + Dμ controller parameters based on the pole placement controller of pseudo-second-order fractional systems. One of the advantages of this controller is capability of reducing the disturbance effects and improving response to input, simultaneously. In the following sections, the performance of this controller is evaluated experimentally to control the vertical magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak. For this work, at first a fractional order model is identified using output-error technique in time domain. For various practical experiments, having desired time responses for magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak, is vital. To approach this, at first the desired closed loop reference models are obtained based on generalized characteristic ratio assignment method in fractional order systems. After that, for the identified model, a set-point weighting PIλ + Dμ controller is designed and simulated. Finally, this controller is implemented on digital signal processor control system of the plant to fast/slow control of magnetic flux. The practical results show appropriate performance of this controller

  20. Optimization of the 3-Point Bending Failure of Anodized Aluminum Formed in Tartaric/Sulphuric Acid Using Doehlert Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, W.; Feki, M.; De-Petris Wery, M.; Ayedi, H. F.

    2015-02-01

    The bending failure of anodized aluminum in tartaric/sulphuric acid bath was modeled using Doehlert design. Bath temperature, anodic current density, sulphuric acid, and tartaric acid concentrations were retained as variables. Thickness measurements and 3-point bending experiments were conducted. The deflection at failure ( D f) and the maximum load ( F m) of each sample were, then, deducted from the corresponding flexural responses. The treatment of experimental results has established mathematical models of second degree reflecting the relation of cause and effect between the factors and the studied properties. The optimum path study of thickness, deflection at failure, and maximum load, showed that the three optima were opposite. Multicriteria optimization using the desirability function was achieved in order to maximize simultaneously the three responses. The optimum conditions were: C tar = 18.2 g L-1, T = 17.3 °C, J = 2.37 A dm-2, C sul = 191 g L-1, while the estimated response values were e = 57.7 µm, D f = 5.6 mm, and F m = 835 N. Using the established models, a mathematical correlation was found between deflection at failure and thickness of the anodic oxide layer. Before bending tests, aluminum oxide layer was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. After tests, the morphology and the composition of the anodic oxide layer were inspected by SEM, optical microscopy, and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy.

  1. Eye State Detection Using Image Processing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of driver fatigue is a significant factor in driver assistance system. Recent statistics shows that annually 1,550 deaths and 71,000 injuries are attributed to fatigue related accidents. Because of the hazard that drowsiness present on the road, methods need to be developed for counteracting its affects. The focus may be placed on designing a system that will accurately monitor the open or closed state of the driver's eyes. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for determining the state of an eye, based on the mean and standard deviation of eye image. In the proposed algorithm, Skin segmentation and Lab transform is used to detect face and Eye. To know the state of eye, mean and standard deviation of eye area is determined. It is found from a result that if mean is >0.2 and standard deviation is <0.02 then the state of the eye is open otherwise closed. This method is tested on face database from M/s. Audio Visual Technologies Group (GTAV and also a new database is created in-house for the testing purpose. The overall success rate of the algorithm is 89.5%

  2. Eye Tracking Studies of Normative and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Canan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of eye tracking measures (saccades, smooth-pursuit eye movements, fixations during scene and face perception, and pupillary dilation) to study typical and clinical populations of children and adolescents and evaluates the use of these measures. The studies are evaluated with a focus on points that may be of general…

  3. Eye-based head gestures for interaction in the car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    In this paper we suggest using a new method for head gesture recognition in the automotive context. This method involves using only the eye tracker for measuring the head movements through the eye movements when the gaze point is fixed. It allows for identifying a wide range of head gestures that...

  4. Measurement of radiotherapy superficial X-ray dose under eye shields with radiochromic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Price, Sian; Bailey, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Accurate measurement and knowledge of dose delivered under eye shield during superficial X-ray radiotherapy is required for patient peripheral dose assessment. Critical structures can include the cornea, lens and retina. Measurement of dose under eye shields has been historically performed with Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD's) due to their small size and design. Restrictions include the energy dependence and the fact that they only provide a point dose assessment. This note investigates the use of a low energy dependence radiochromic thin film for measurement of dose under eye shields in a phantom and compares results to theoretical calculation of dose. Results have shown a good match between predicted and experimentally measured results at the centre of an eye shield irradiated with 50kVp and 150kVp beams. The added advantage of radiochromic film compared to TLD measurements is the two dimensional dose map which is recorded for the assessment of dose providing not only an assessment at the site of the cornea, lens and retina in a phantom but in other areas as well. Radiochromic film has been found to accurately measure dose under eye shield in phantom treatments. PMID:18162428

  5. Practical evaluation of an interior point three-D filter line search method using engineering design problems

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Fernandes, Edite Manuela da G. P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a primal-dual interior point method for nonlinear optimization that relies on a line search filter strategy to allow convergence from poor starting points. The filter technique has already been adapted to interior point methods in different ways. Our filter relies on three components. Each entry in the filter includes the feasibility measure, the centrality measure and the barrier objective function value as the optimality measure. Numerical experiments carried...

  6. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Marcella, James A. (Rochester, MN); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  7. Dry eye: diagnosis and current treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paul D; Collum, Louis M T

    2004-07-01

    One in four patients attending ophthalmic clinics report symptoms of dry eye, making it one of the most common complaints seen by ophthalmologists. Aqueous-layer deficiency is the most common form of dry eye and is frequently caused by decreased secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Evaporative dry eye is often secondary to meibomian gland disease and results in a defective lipid layer. Tear replacement or preservation using artificial tears and/or punctal occlusion are the mainstay of treatment. Newer forms of therapy were designed to modify the underlying disease process. These include the use of topical cyclosporin A, autologous serum, and sodium hyaluronate drops, which suppress underlying inflammation, provide growth factors, and prevent the onset of squamous metaplasia in ocular surface epithelium. Hormonal therapy might have a role in the future of dry eye therapy. PMID:15175147

  8. Eye Tracking Technique for Product Information Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoksoo

    This paper is about the study of the design of the product information provision system using eye tracking, which helps users in deciding over purchase of the product, with a system to provide product information that the user needs by tracking eye gaze of the user via Smart phone. The system provides the user with information of the product that attracts the user's eye, by means of users' eye tracking, user information confirmation using face recognition and user's preference for product. Therefore, once it is determined that the user requires a product, the server sends the product information stored in the product information database to the user's Smart phone to provide information the user requires. The customer, provided with product information in real time, can purchase the product that he/she wants efficiently, and avoid excessive consumption with accurate product information.

  9. Eye dosimetry and protective eye wear for interventional clinicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses to the eyes of interventional clinicians can exceed 20 mSv. Various protective devices can afford protection to the eyes with the final barrier being protective eye wear. The protection provided by lead glasses is difficult to quantify, and the majority of dosimeters are not designed to be worn under lead glasses. This study has measured dose reduction factors (DRFs) equal to the ratio of the dose with no protection, divided by that when lead glasses are worn. Glasses have been tested in X-ray fields using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate the patient and clinician. DRFs for X-rays incident from the front vary from 5.2 to 7.6, while values for orientations reminiscent of clinical practice are between 1.4 and 5.2. Results suggest that a DRF of two is a conservative factor that could be applied to personal dosimeter measurements to account for the dose reduction provided by most types of lead glasses. (authors)

  10. Reevaluation of the AAPM TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters for an 125I seed, and the influence of eye plaque design on dose distributions and dose-volume histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Prakash

    The TG-43 dosimetry parameters of the Advantage(TM) 125I model IAI-125A brachytherapy seed were studied. An investigation using modern MCNP radiation transport code with updated cross-section libraries was performed. Twelve different simulation conditions were studied for a single seed by varying the coating thickness, mass density, photon energy spectrum and cross-section library. The dose rate was found to be 6.3% lower at 1 cm in comparison to published results. New TG-43 dosimetry parameters are proposed. The dose distribution for a brachytherapy eye plaque, model EP917, was investigated, including the effects of collimation from high-Z slots. Dose distributions for 26 slot designs were determined using Monte Carlo methods and compared between the published literature, a clinical treatment planning system, and physical measurements. The dosimetric effect of the composition and mass density of the gold backing was shown to be less than 3%. Slot depth, width, and length changed the central axis (CAX) dose distributions by manufacturer and 2.2%+/-2.3% higher than Plaque Simulator(TM) (PS) treatment planning software (version 5.7.6). The D10 for the simulated tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera for the measured slot plaque to manufacturer provided slot design was 9%, 10%, and 19% higher, respectively. In comparison to the measured plaque design, a theoretical plaque having narrow and deep slots delivered 30%, 37%, and 62% lower D 10 doses to the tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera, respectively. CAX doses at --1, 0, 1, and 2 mm were also lower by a factor of 2.6, 1.72, 1.50, and 1.39, respectively. The study identified substantial sensitivity of the EP917 plaque dose distributions to slot design. KEYWORDS: Monte Carlo methods, dosimetry, 125I, TG-43, eye plaque brachytherapy.

  11. Identification of design features to enhance utilization and acceptance of systems for Internet-based decision support at the point of care.

    OpenAIRE

    Gadd, C. S.; Baskaran, P; Lobach, D F

    1998-01-01

    Extensive utilization of point-of-care decision support systems will be largely dependent on the development of user interaction capabilities that make them effective clinical tools in patient care settings. This research identified critical design features of point-of-care decision support systems that are preferred by physicians, through a multi-method formative evaluation of an evolving prototype of an Internet-based clinical decision support system. Clinicians used four versions of the sy...

  12. Perceptions of eye health in schools in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Methods Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9–12 years old attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Results Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". Conclusion We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren.

  13. Eye and orbital cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases of the eye and orbital contents which can be treated by radiation therapy are relatively uncommon. They include benign diseases such as pterygium, orbital pseudo-tumor, and Graves' exophthalmos. Malignant diseases in adults include orbital and choroidal metastases, lacrimal gland tumors, carcinoma of the bulbar conjunctiva, orbital lymphomas and melanomas. Pediatric malignancies include retinoblastomas, optic nerve gliomas, and orbital rhabdomyosarcomas. Orbital irradiation may result in a variety of normal eye and orbital tissues responses. Those responses may occur when irradiating the eye or orbital diseases listed above or non-orbital primary tumors, such as nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors

  14. Beyond Jeopardy and Lectures: Using "Microsoft PowerPoint" as a Game Design Tool to Teach Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael; Toker, Sacip

    2011-01-01

    To date, research involving homemade PowerPoint games as an instructional tool has not shown statistically significant gains in student performance. This paper examines the results of a study comparing the performance of students in a high school chemistry course who created homemade PowerPoint games as a test review with the students who used a…

  15. Protection of the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limit of radiation exposure for eye lens is going to decrease dramatically from 150 to 20 mSv as a transposition into the French law of a CIPR (International Commission for Radiation Protection) directive. Sanitary studies have shown that radiologists are more likely by a factor of 3.8 to get eye lens opacities than the rest of the population. The wearing of protective glasses is recommended and in order to get a better monitoring of the radiation dose new dosimeters have been designed, they can be worn on the glass frame of directly stuck on the skin near the eyes. A study has shown that veterinary surgeons that are accustomed to stay near animals to keep them quiet during radiological exams are prone to receive high doses as well as physicians that use hypnosis to decrease the level of anxiety of their patients during radiological exams. Radiation exposure of radiologists can be mitigated through: the use of protective shields and equipment and the optimization of the dose delivered to the patient. (A.C.)

  16. Dose effects of gamma radiation sterilization on antibiotic eye ointment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects of Co-60 gamma rays on some eye ointment base such as plastibase, cetyl alcohol, liquid paraffin, vaselin album, adeps lanae and tetracycline eye ointment in plastibase were examined by physico-chemical determinations. Parameters observed were color changes, pH, melting point, viscosity, iodine value, acid value and TLC, uv-spectrophotometric examination. Microbiological examinations were carried out to determine the degree of initial contamination of unirradiated eye ointment. Radiation dose used were radiation sterilization doses of 2 and 4 Mrad and storage time was 3 and 6 months. The results showed that the iodine value of tetracycline eye ointment in plastibase and eye ointment bases such as plastibase, vaselin album, liquid paraffin, cetyl alcohol, adeps lanae, changed significantly. Viscosity examination showed non-significant results, except for vaselin album and liquid paraffin irradiated at 4 Mrad. Microbiological examinations showed that some unirradiated eye ointment were contaminated by a few kinds of microbes. (author)

  17. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  18. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye View complete NEI image albums ... the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | USA.gov ...

  19. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an upper respiratory tract infection, cold, or sore throat. Bacterial conjunctivitis is caused by infection of the eye with bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, or Haemophilus . It is a common reason ...

  20. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). You will often see the terms ... possible involvement in TSC. **This publication from the Tuberous Sclerosis is intended to provide basic information about tuberous ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  2. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disorder causing overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism—see page Hyperthyroidism ). Bulging eyes are not the same as prominent ... or pain Whether the person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as inability to tolerate heat, increased sweating, ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related The link between seasonal allergens and ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  5. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  6. Eye banking: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullapalli N Rao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the work of eye banks, institutions responsible for collecting (harvesting and processing donor corneas, and for distributing them to trained corneal graft surgeons.

  7. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... else. Age, sex, ethnicity, and race play no role in who becomes infected with pink eye. Failure ... policy. The material on this site is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center American Academy of Ophthalmology 2016 Our Sites EyeWiki ...

  10. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center American Academy of Ophthalmology 2016 Our Sites EyeWiki ...

  11. Eye muscle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of cross-eye; Resection and recession; Strabismus repair; Extraocular muscle surgery ... have to any medicines, latex, tape, soaps or skin cleaners During the days before the surgery: About ...

  12. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in lost productivity, medical treatment and worker compensation . These injuries range ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related The link between seasonal allergens and dry ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  14. What Is Eye Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissues are called orbital cancers. Adnexal structures Adnexal (accessory) structures include the eyelids and tear glands. Cancers ... common cancers that spread to the eye are breast and lung cancers . Most often these cancers spread ...

  15. Red or uncomfortable eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, C.; Hurwitz, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A red, uncomfortable eye may be accompanied by other symptoms such as blurred, decreased, or double vision, haloes, photophobia, pain or discharge. 2. A careful history and brief systematic examination will sort out most problems. 3. Examine eyelids, the conjunctivae and corneas. Checking visual acuity is often important. 4. The most common underlying causes can usually be managed within general practice, though a few patients will require urgent eye assessment, or routine referral to opht...

  16. Eye care in ICU

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasankar S; Jasper S; Simon S.; Jacob P; John George; Raju R

    2006-01-01

    Context: Patients in intensive care units have impaired ocular protective mechanisms, resulting in a high risk of developing eye complications. Various eye care protocols are being used, but none is proven to be absolutely effective. Aims: To compare the efficacy of using a combination of ocular lubricants and securing tape over the eyelids (Open chamber method), with use of swimming goggles and regular moistening of eyelids with gauze soaked in sterile water (Closed chamber method), to pr...

  17. Photodamage to the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the important developments from June 1986 to June 1987 in the field of photodamage to the eye. Topics covered include ocular ultraviolet radiation dose, photodamage to the lens including changes in structural proteins and enzymes, photodamage to the retina including damage in continuous light and the role of photodamage in retinal diseases, photodamage in other ocular structures, synergistic and additive effects in photodamage, clinical photodamage and finally protective eye wear. (U.K.)

  18. Eye Problems in Radiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Tahmasebi; Morteza Joorabian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, technologic advances (including the"nintroduction of MDCT) coupled with an increasing"nnumber of unfilled radiology positions have led to an"nincreasing workload for radiologists. In fact radiologists"nworking under a heavy workload potentially face"na range of health issues, including musculoskeletal"ninjuries, eye strain and other problems. Eye strain is"na well-recognized consequence of computer overuse"nand it may be a particular is...

  19. Ophthalmologist in Patients’ Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrijević Derk, Biljana; Kovač Đapić, Nataša; Milinković, Branko; Lacmanović Lončar, Valentina; Mijić, Vesna

    2005-01-01

    It seems that patient's knowledge about ophthalmologist's work is very insufficient, especially about what type of examination should be undertaken for refraction condition during the »simple« eye check-up and which serious systemic diseases could be discovered thorough eye examinations. The aim of the study was to determine patients' knowledge about ophthalmologist examinations during the check-up for refraction condition, knowledge about differences between ophthalmologists and ...

  20. What Causes Eye Pain?

    OpenAIRE

    Belmonte, C.; Acosta, M.C.; Merayo Lloves, Jesús; Gallar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Eye pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience including sensory-discriminative, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components and supported by distinct, interconnected peripheral and central nervous system elements. Normal or physiological pain results of the stimulation by noxious stimuli of sensory axons of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the eye. These are functionally heterogeneous. Mechano-nociceptors are only excited by noxious mechanical forces. Polymodal no...

  1. Development of a design probe to reveal customer touch points in the sale of mass customised products.

    OpenAIRE

    Herd, Kate; Bardill, Andrew; Karamanoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    As mass customisation (MC) increases in both popularity and accessibility, it raises questions as to the nature and notion of the customer co-design experience; what is a co-design experience, and how can this be best designed for? This paper posits that by its very nature, a co-design experience consists of activities that relate to the co-design of the product via the product configurator (physical store, online store etc), but also that a co-design experience is broader than that, compri...

  2. The analysis of visual variables for use in the cartographic design of point symbols for mobile Augmented Reality applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halik, Łukasz

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present deliberations was to systematise our knowledge of static visual variables used to create cartographic symbols, and also to analyse the possibility of their utilisation in the Augmented Reality (AR) applications on smartphone-type mobile devices. This was accomplished by combining the visual variables listed over the years by different researchers. Research approach was to determine the level of usefulness of particular characteristics of visual variables such as selective, associative, quantitative and order. An attempt was made to provide an overview of static visual variables and to describe the AR system which is a new paradigm of the user interface. Changing the approach to the presentation of point objects is caused by applying different perspective in the observation of objects (egocentric view) than it is done on traditional analogue maps (geocentric view). Presented topics will refer to the fast-developing field of cartography, namely mobile cartography. Particular emphasis will be put on smartphone-type mobile devices and their applicability in the process of designing cartographic symbols. Celem artykułu było usystematyzowanie wiedzy na temat statycznych zmiennych wizualnych, które sa kluczowymi składnikami budujacymi sygnatury kartograficzne. Podjeto próbe zestawienia zmiennych wizualnych wyodrebnionych przez kartografów na przestrzeni ostatnich piecdziesieciu lat, zaczynajac od klasyfikacji przedstawionej przez J. Bertin’a. Dokonano analizy stopnia uzytecznosci poszczególnych zmiennych graficznych w aspekcie ich wykorzystania w projektowaniu znaków punktowych dla mobilnych aplikacji tworzonych w technologii Rzeczywistosci Rozszerzonej (Augmented Reality). Zmienne poddano analizie pod wzgledem czterech charakterystyk: selektywnosci, skojarzeniowosci, odzwierciedlenia ilosci oraz porzadku. W artykule zwrócono uwage na odmienne zastosowanie perspektywy pomiedzy tradycyjnymi analogowymi mapami (geocentrycznosc) a aplikacjami tworzonymi w technologii Rozszerzonej Rzeczywistosci (egocentrycznosc). Tresci prezentowane w pracy dotycza szybko rozwijajacej sie gałezi kartografii - kartografii mobilnej. Dodatkowy nacisk połozony został na próbe implementacji załozen projektowania punktowych znaków kartograficznych na urzadzenia mobilne typu smartphone.

  3. Overcoming Presbyopia by Manipulating the Eyes' Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleznyak, Leonard A.

    Presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation, is a visual condition affecting all adults over the age of 45 years. In presbyopia, individuals lose the ability to focus on nearby objects, due to a lifelong growth and stiffening of the eye's crystalline lens. This leads to poor near visual performance and affects patients' quality of life. The objective of this thesis is aimed towards the correction of presbyopia and can be divided into four aims. First, we examined the characteristics and limitations of currently available strategies for the correction of presbyopia. A natural-view wavefront sensor was used to objectively measure the accommodative ability of patients implanted with an accommodative intraocular lens (IOL). Although these patients had little accommodative ability based on changes in power, pupil miosis and higher order aberrations led to an improvement in through-focus retinal image quality in some cases. To quantify the through-focus retinal image quality of accommodative and multifocal IOLs directly, an adaptive optics (AO) IOL metrology system was developed. Using this system, the impact of corneal aberrations in regard to presbyopia-correcting IOLs was assessed, providing an objective measure of through-focus retinal image quality and practical guidelines for patient selection. To improve upon existing multifocal designs, we investigated retinal image quality metrics for the prediction of through-focus visual performance. The preferred metric was based on the fidelity of an image convolved with an aberrated point spread function. Using this metric, we investigated the potential of higher order aberrations and pupil amplitude apodization to increase the depth of focus of the presbyopic eye. Thirdly, we investigated modified monovision, a novel binocular approach to presbyopia correction using a binocular AO vision simulator. In modified monovision, different magnitudes of defocus and spherical aberration are introduced to each eye, thereby taking advantage of the binocular visual system. Several experiments using the binocular AO vision simulator found modified monovision led to significant improvements in through-focus visual performance, binocular summation and stereoacuity, as compared to traditional monovision. Finally, we addressed neural factors, affecting visual performance in modified monovision, such as ocular dominance and neural plasticity. We found that pairing modified monovision with a vision training regimen may further improve visual performance beyond the limits set by optics via neural plasticity. This opens the door to an exciting new avenue of vision correction to accompany optical interventions. The research presented in this thesis offers important guidelines for the clinical and scientific communities. Furthermore, the techniques described herein may be applied to other fields of ophthalmology, such as childhood myopia progression.

  4. AN INNER STRUGGLE: UNDER WESTERN EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Yağlıdere

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes. Key Words: Alienation, psychology, unconscious, betrayal.

  5. AN INNER STRUGGLE: UNDER WESTERN EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Yağlıdere

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes.

  6. Eye color as an indicator of behavior: revisiting Worthy and Scott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Vicky L; Nicolas, Cindy L; Abramson, Charles I

    2008-06-01

    Phenotypic eye color has been suggested as an indicator of genetic predisposition toward certain behaviors both in humans and in animals. Previous research has yielded mixed results. Phototaxic and ethological behaviors were examined in 14 different strains of Drosophila melanogaster. No significant correlation between phenotypic eye coloration and behavior was found, although significant genotypical behavioral differences were noted even among subjects with similar eye colors. An analysis of cellular defects associated with eye color in D. melanogaster pointed to significant behavioral differences among cell-defect groups, indicating that the cell defect which causes eye color, rather than eye color itself, may serve as a crude indicator of behavior. PMID:18763448

  7. The Dynamic Evolutionary History of Pancrustacean Eyes and Opsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Miriam J; Oakley, Todd H

    2015-11-01

    Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus Crustacea) display an enormous diversity of eye designs, including multiple types of compound eyes and single-chambered eyes, often with color vision and/or polarization vision. Although the eyes of some pancrustaceans are well-studied, there is still much to learn about the evolutionary paths to this amazing visual diversity. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of eyes and opsins across the principle groups of Pancrustacea. First, we review the distribution of lateral and median eyes, which are found in all major pancrustacean clades (Oligostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida). At the same time, each of those three clades has taxa that lack lateral and/or median eyes. We then compile data on the expression of visual r-opsins (rhabdomeric opsins) in lateral and median eyes across Pancrustacea and find no evidence for ancient opsin clades expressed in only one type of eye. Instead, opsin clades with eye-specific expression are products of recent gene duplications, indicating a dynamic past, during which opsins often changed expression from one type of eye to another. We also investigate the evolutionary history of peropsins and r-opsins, which are both known to be expressed in eyes of arthropods. By searching published transcriptomes, we discover for the first time crustacean peropsins and suggest that previously reported odonate opsins may also be peropsins. Finally, from analyzing a reconciled, phylogenetic tree of arthropod r-opsins, we infer that the ancestral pancrustacean had four visual opsin genes, which we call LW2, MW1, MW2, and SW. These are the progenitors of opsin clades that later were variously duplicated or lost during pancrustacean evolution. Together, our results reveal a particularly dynamic history, with losses of eyes, duplication and loss of opsin genes, and changes in opsin expression between types of eyes. PMID:26319405

  8. Unique designs, errors and strategies in the Five-Point Test: The contribution of age, phonemic fluency and visuospatial abilities in Italian children aged 6-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stievano, Paolo; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Performances on the Five-Point Test of 161 Italian children aged 6 to 11years were investigated, along with phonemic fluency, visual-motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, visuospatial memory, and fluid intelligence. Five-Point Test accuracy was significantly related to phonemic fluency and visual-motor integration, while phonemic fluency was linked to motor coordination. The two fluency measures increased linearly with age, but the developmental progression of Five-Point Test accuracy was less influenced by age. Different age effects were also found on the relationship between fluid intelligence and the two fluency measures. The inspection of qualitative aspects of Five-Point Test performance (errors and strategies) suggested that strategy usage enhanced both productivity and accuracy in children; age-related changes were observed in the relationship between the number of errors and the total number of designs produced. PMID:25495262

  9. Safety demands to be met by advanced reactor designs, as seen from the operator's point of niew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One possible approach to achieving optimized reactor designs is taken by France and Germany, which agreed to cooperate in order to find a new optimum in safety engineering and design, which is not to be achieved by simply merging the known data, but rather by cooperative work for establishing on advanced design concept for enhanced reactor safety. The knowhow and experience available in France and Germany is expected to be a valuable source in this process. (orig./DG)

  10. Effect of Education Sessions of a Structured School Eye Screening Programme on Indian Schoolteachers' Knowledge and Responsibility for Children's Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummalapalli, Rohit; Williams, Jachin D.; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Salchow, Daniel J.; Forster, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of education sessions on Indian schoolteacher awareness of childhood eye health issues, responsibility for children's eye health, and successful participation in a teacher-led eye screening health intervention programme in primary schools aimed at addressing avoidable childhood blindness in India. Design:…

  11. [A royal eye lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    The 67-year old danish King Christian IV commanded one of the battle ships called "Trefoldigheden" ("Trinity") in a confrontation with the Swedish navy at Kolberger Heide july 1.st 1644. He himself was injured when a Swedish canon ball hit the dolphin (the handle of the canon) and both exploded. A large number of metal fragments were spread over the deck and 2 noble men standing beside the king were mortally injured. Christian's lesions were in his right face, forehead and eye and he lost his vision on this eye. It has been suggested that this was due to a later infection with shrinking of the eye. The King however claimed that nothing was to observe on the eye ball. The King lived until 1648. No paintings exist from the period 1644-48 that reveals his right eye. The author has found a medal portrait of the king from 1645 made by Johan Blum showing a dilated pupil on the right site and some eksophtalmus leading to the conclusion that a direct lesion of the optic nerve either caused by a metal piece or a retro-bulbar haematoma was responsible for the permanent loss of vision. The dilated pupil was caused by a Marcus Gunn phenomena or paradox pupil reaction which the king could not observe himself when he looked in his mirror. PMID:18350698

  12. Game Design and Homemade PowerPoint Games: An Examination of the Justifications and a Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research on educational games often focuses on the benefits that playing games has on student achievement. However, there is a growing body of research examining the benefits of having students design games rather than play them. Problems with game design as an instructional tool include the additional instruction on the programming language

  13. Game Design and Homemade PowerPoint Games: An Examination of the Justifications and a Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research on educational games often focuses on the benefits that playing games has on student achievement. However, there is a growing body of research examining the benefits of having students design games rather than play them. Problems with game design as an instructional tool include the additional instruction on the programming language…

  14. Development of an Interactive Anatomical Three-Dimensional Eye Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K.; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a…

  15. Status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in European hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A questionnaire was developed by the members of WG12 of EURADOS in order to establish an overview of the current status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in hospitals. The questionnaire was sent to medical physicists and radiation protection officers in hospitals across Europe. Specific topics were addressed in the questionnaire such as: knowledge of the proposed eye lens dose limit; monitoring and dosimetry issues; training and radiation protection measures. The results of the survey highlighted that the new eye lens dose limit can be exceeded in interventional radiology procedures and that eye lens protection is crucial. Personnel should be properly trained in how to use protective equipment in order to keep eye lens doses as low as reasonably achievable. Finally, the results also highlighted the need to improve the design of eye dosemeters in order to ensure satisfactory use by workers. (paper)

  16. Status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in European hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ginjaume, Merce; O'Connor, Una; Kopec, Renata; Sans Merce, Marta

    2014-12-01

    A questionnaire was developed by the members of WG12 of EURADOS in order to establish an overview of the current status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in hospitals. The questionnaire was sent to medical physicists and radiation protection officers in hospitals across Europe. Specific topics were addressed in the questionnaire such as: knowledge of the proposed eye lens dose limit; monitoring and dosimetry issues; training and radiation protection measures. The results of the survey highlighted that the new eye lens dose limit can be exceeded in interventional radiology procedures and that eye lens protection is crucial. Personnel should be properly trained in how to use protective equipment in order to keep eye lens doses as low as reasonably achievable. Finally, the results also highlighted the need to improve the design of eye dosemeters in order to ensure satisfactory use by workers. PMID:25222935

  17. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena; La Cour, Morten; Klemp, Kristian; Kvetny, Jan; Erngaard, Ditte; Moldow, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    , Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where......PURPOSE: To examine the frequency and causes of visual impairment (VI) in a select population of Danish adults. METHODS: A total of 3843 adults aged 20-94 years from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) were included in the population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmological study...... report a relatively low frequency of VI among Danish adults over 59 years of age compared with that observed 10-15 years ago, which is both consistent with other recent Scandinavian studies and reflective of our relatively healthy and mobile population sample....

  18. Eye Vision Testing System and Eyewear Using Micromachines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel A. Riza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed is a novel eye vision testing system based on micromachines that uses micro-optic, micromechanic, and microelectronic technologies. The micromachines include a programmable micro-optic lens and aperture control devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF, optical wireless communication and control links, and energy harvesting and storage devices with remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. The portable lightweight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under testing, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. A basic eye vision test system is built in the laboratory for near-sighted (myopic vision spherical lens refractive error correction. Refractive error corrections from zero up to −5.0 Diopters and −2.0 Diopters are experimentally demonstrated using the Electronic-Lens (E-Lens and aperture control methods, respectively. The proposed portable eye vision test system is suited for children’s eye tests and developing world eye centers where technical expertise may be limited. Design of a novel low-cost human vision corrective eyewear is also presented based on the proposed aperture control concept. Given its simplistic and economical design, significant impact can be created for humans with vision problems in the under-developed world.

  19. Organizing design activities associated with Instrumentation and Control system upgrading at an operating WWER type nuclear power plant: General Designer's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some problems that the company Energoprojekt as the General Designer encountered when setting up the basic design for replacement of the Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems in the nuclear power plants at Mochovce in Slovakia and Temelin in the Czech Republic are highlighted. The possibility of making use of the experience when organizing other design activities associated with I and C system replacement is discussed. Although the two NPPs are undergoing I and C system replacement prior to their commissioning, the company can benefit from the experience when organizing design activities for I and C system replacement at operating WWERs as well

  20. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... are robust to the inclusion of an extensive set of climate and geography controls. Moreover, using a global data set on economic activity for all terrestrial grid cells we show that the link between UVB-R and economic development survives the inclusion of country fixed effect....

  1. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-02-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical principles underlying the method for eccentric photorefraction and describe how students can perform it using current digital cameras. Our purpose is not to diagnose refractive errors reliably, but to use devices popular among young people that, in combination with an important ophthalmic context, may be successful in improving students' interest for learning optical concepts.

  2. Hand-Eye Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Horaud, Radu; Dornaika, Fadi

    1994-01-01

    Whenever a sensor is mounted on a robot hand, it is important to know the relationship between the sensor and the hand. The problem of determining this relationship is referred to as the hand-eye calibration problem. Hand-eye calibration is impor tant in at least two types of tasks: (1) map sensor centered measurements into the robot workspace frame and (2) tasks allowing the robot to precisely move the sensor. In the past some solutions were proposed, particularly in the case of the sensor b...

  3. Automatic system for 3D reconstruction of the chick eye based on digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Genest, Reno; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Choh, Vivian; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of anatomical specimens is very complex and accurate 3D reconstruction is important for morphological studies, finite element analysis (FEA) and rapid prototyping. Although magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and laser scanners can be used for reconstructing biological structures, the cost of the equipment is fairly high and specialised technicians are required to operate the equipment, making such approaches limiting in terms of accessibility. In this paper, a novel automatic system for 3D surface reconstruction of the chick eye from digital photographs of a serially sectioned specimen is presented as a potential cost-effective and practical alternative. The system is designed to allow for automatic detection of the external surface of the chick eye. Automatic alignment of the photographs is performed using a combination of coloured markers and an algorithm based on complex phase order likelihood that is robust to noise and illumination variations. Automatic segmentation of the external boundaries of the eye from the aligned photographs is performed using a novel level-set segmentation approach based on a complex phase order energy functional. The extracted boundaries are sampled to construct a 3D point cloud, and a combination of Delaunay triangulation and subdivision surfaces is employed to construct the final triangular mesh. Experimental results using digital photographs of the chick eye show that the proposed system is capable of producing accurate 3D reconstructions of the external surface of the eye. The 3D model geometry is similar to a real chick eye and could be used for morphological studies and FEA. PMID:21181572

  4. The genetics of eye colours in an Italian population measured with an objective method for eye colour quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, C.; Andersen, J.D.; Johansen, P.; Harder, Stine; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Børsting, C.; Morling, N.

    2013-01-01

    Brown and blue eye colours are primarily explained by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) HERC2 rs12913832. However, the genetics of eye colours that appear to be neither blue nor brown are not well understood. In this study, 230 unrelated Italian individuals were typed for 32 SNP loci in...... pigmentary genes. High resolution digital images of the participants’ eyes were taken and the iris region was successfully extracted with the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT) from 218 of the 230 (95%) images. The software counted the numbers of blue and brown pixels in...... the iris region and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colours quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from _1 to 1 (brown to blue). We investigated the association of the PIE-scores extracted from the eye images with the genotypes of the 32 pigmentary SNPs. We...

  5. Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?

    OpenAIRE

    Hbner, NO; Flea, S; Haak, J.; Wilke, F.; Hbner, C.; Dahms, C; Hoffmann, W.; Kramer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible ...

  6. Design, Construction and Testing of a Voltage-based Maximum Power Point Tracker (VMPPT) for Small Satellite Power Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Masoum, Mohammad; Dehbonei, Hooman

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that at maximum power, the Photovoltaic (PV) voltage varies nonlinearily with temperature and isolation level, but is directly proportional to the PV cell open circuit voltage. The proportionality voltage-factor is fixed for a given PV generator regardless of temperature, isolation and panel configuration, but depends on cell material and manufacturing. This remarkable property is used to achieve temperature and insolation independent maximum power point tracking of satellite's so...

  7. The software design of multi-branch, multi-point remote monitoring system for temperature measurement based on MSP430 and DS18B20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper present that the system can acquire the remote temperature measurement data of 40 monitoring points, through the RS-232 serial port and the Intranet. System's hardware is consist of TI's MSP430F149 mixed-signal processor and UA7000A network module. Using digital temperature sensor DS18B20, the structure is simple and easy to expand, the sensors directly send out the temperature data, MSP430F149 has the advantage of ultra-low-power and high degree of integration. Using msp430F149, the multi-branch multi-point temperature measurement system is powerful, simple structure, high reliability, strong anti-interference capability. The client software is user-friendly and easy to use, it is designed in Microsoft Visual C+ +6.0 environment. The monitoring system is able to complete a total of 4 branches of the 40-point temperature measurements in real-time remote monitoring. (authors)

  8. CurvACE : A miniature curved artificial compound eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stphane Viollet

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  9. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    optical devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse...

  10. Through the creator's eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi

    adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (b) accessing the subjective experience of the participant through a confrontation interview based on the...

  11. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  12. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  13. Designing and evaluation of the teaching quality assessment form from the point of view of the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences students - 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran, Aziz; Zibaei, Mohammed; Mirkaimi, Kamal; Shahnazi, Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Education is basically one of the Universities’ and faculties’ leading missions and duties; its promoted quality will also lead to an elevated educational quality in the University. Teacher assessment can be mentioned as essential for the success of the quality promotion process. This article deals with the designing and evaluation of a teaching quality evaluation form for teachers, from the Lorestan University of Medical Science students’ point of view. Methods: A two-stage, cr...

  14. Design and fabrication of a miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector for the determination of acidity of some fruit juice

    OpenAIRE

    Prinya Masawat

    2008-01-01

    A miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector was designed and fabricated for the determination of acidity of some Thai citrus fruit juices collected in the northern area of Thailand. The method was based on on-line potentiometric titration of the acid contents with sodium hydroxide. Conditions such as volume of fruit juice sample, volume and concentration of potassium chloride used as supporting electrolyte and flow rate of titrant were optimize...

  15. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  16. Gaze estimation for off-angle iris recognition based on the biometric eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Barstow, Del; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Thompson, Joseph; Bolme, David; Boehnen, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ORNL biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  17. Optical eye simulator for laser dazzle events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, João M P; Freitas, José; Williamson, Craig A

    2016-03-20

    An optical simulator of the human eye and its application to laser dazzle events are presented. The simulator combines optical design software (ZEMAX) with a scientific programming language (MATLAB) and allows the user to implement and analyze a dazzle scenario using practical, real-world parameters. Contrary to conventional analytical glare analysis, this work uses ray tracing and the scattering model and parameters for each optical element of the eye. The theoretical background of each such element is presented in relation to the model. The overall simulator's calibration, validation, and performance analysis are achieved by comparison with a simpler model based uponCIE disability glare data. Results demonstrate that this kind of advanced optical eye simulation can be used to represent laser dazzle and has the potential to extend the range of applicability of analytical models. PMID:27140558

  18. Design of turn-around-point long-period gratings in a photonic crystal fiber for refractometry of gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 6 (2013), s. 16-24. ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11030; GA MŠk(CZ) LF11001 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber design * Photonic crystal fiber * Microstructured optical fiber Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2013

  19. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  20. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Braccini, Stephanie N.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a vid...

  1. The Challenge of Being Small: Compound Eye Miniaturization in Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Fischer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the numerous studies on insect compound eyes within the last 100 years, the number of investigations specifically dealing with the eyes of species of small body size is near to negligible. Based on theoretical optical examinations it had been predicted that an unlimited reduction in the size of a compound eye, especially if the latter was of the superposition type, was not possible; a suggestion that begged the question as to how the tiniest insects might then deal with the postulated restrictions. To demonstrate that optical and structural modifications are indeed widespread, a detailed study of eye miniaturizations involving tiny lepidopteran species (2-6 mm to determine limiting factors and specific adaptations seemed timely and interesting. With one exception, all of the subsequently investigated species revealed eye structures for which a clear morphological division into apposition and superposition eyes was not feasible. Thus the need arose to describe and discuss some intermediate types of eye. It appears that due to functional morphological constraints as a consequence of miniaturization, an evolutionary transformation from superposition to apposition optics has occurred at least once within the Microlepidoptera. As an example for this evolutionary scenario we discuss in detail the unique eye design discovered in Phyllonorycter medicaginella (Gerasimov, 1930 and then consider more generally functional and morphological limiting factors that impacted on compound eye miniaturization.

  2. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  3. What is Diabetic Eye Disease?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Announcer: Diabetic retinopathy is not the only eye disease that may affect people with diabetes. Others include cataract -- a condition in which the lens of the eye becomes clouded, interfering with ... of these diabetic eye diseases can be treated and treated with success.

  4. Integration of Defocus by Dual Power Fresnel Lenses Inhibits Myopia in the Mammalian Eye

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Sally A.; Tse, Dennis Y.; Bowrey, Hannah E.; Leotta, Amelia J.; Lam, Carly S.; Wildsoet, Christine F.; To, Chi-ho

    2014-01-01

    When dual optical defocus in a Fresnel-type lens is imposed on a mammalian eye, the eye integrates the defocus to guide its refractive development and eye growth. Myopia can be inhibited by incorporating positive or plano power with negative power, suggesting such lens designs may control myopia progression in humans.

  5. Robust stability analysis and dynamic gain-scheduled controller design for point time-delay systems with parametrical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Sen, M.

    2008-08-01

    This paper discusses linear fractional representations (LFR) of parameter-dependent nonlinear systems with real-rational nonlinearities and point-delayed dynamics. Sufficient conditions for robust global asymptotic stability independent of the delays and the existence of a robust stabilizing gain-scheduled dynamic controller are investigated via linear matrix inequalities. Such inequalities are obtained from the values of the time-derivatives of appropriate Lyapunov functions at all the vertices of the polytope which contains the parametrized uncertainties. The synthesized stabilizing controller consists of an interpolation being performed with the stabilizing controllers at the set of vertices of a certain polytope where the nonlinear-rational parametrization belongs to. Some extensions are also given concerning robust global asymptotic stability dependent of the delays. Numerical examples corroborate the usefulness of the proposed formalism and its applicability to practical related problems.

  6. Point Aconi Power Plant; Design considerations for scale-up of a fluidized-bed combustion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamachek, D.F.; Lunardini, A.L. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (US))

    1992-01-01

    On September 12, 1989, Mitsui and Co. was awarded a turnkey power plant project by Nova Scotia Power Corporation (NSPC). The contract is for a coal-fired power plant capable of producing 201-MW gross output at 5% overpressure. This trendsetting unit includes a circulating fluidized-bed boiler (CFB) with reheat, which will be the largest CFB when it enters service in May 1993. This paper discusses the Point Aconi Power Plant. An eventual total of three units is planned for the 120-acre greenfield site. Delivery of coal and limestone to the site will be by trucks. Provisions have been made for the future addition of a coal conveyor from the mine, which is located one mile form the plant. Ash will be trucked offsite to a disposal area across the road from the site.

  7. Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hübner, N.-O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions.

  8. Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S; Haak, J; Wilke, F; Hübner, C; Dahms, C; Hoffmann, W; Kramer, A

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions. PMID:22242105

  9. A rigorous analysis using optimal transport theory for a two-reflector design problem with a point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the following geometric optics problem: construct a system of two reflectors which transforms a spherical wavefront generated by a point source into a beam of parallel rays. This beam has a prescribed intensity distribution. We give a rigorous analysis of this problem. The reflectors we construct are (parts of) the boundaries of convex sets. We prove existence of solutions for a large class of input data and give a uniqueness result. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time that a rigorous mathematical analysis of this problem is given. The approach is based on optimal transportation theory. It yields a practical algorithm for finding the reflectors. Namely, the problem is equivalent to a constrained linear optimization problem

  10. On the number of support points of maximin and Bayesian D-optimal designs in nonlinear regression models

    OpenAIRE

    Braess, Dietrich; Dette, Holger

    2004-01-01

    We consider maximin and Bayesian D -optimal designs for nonlinear regression models. The maximin criterion requires the specification of a region for the nonlinear parameters in the model, while the Bayesian optimality criterion assumes that a prior distribution for these parameters is available. It was observed empirically by many authors that an increase of uncertainty in the prior information (i.e. a larger range for the parameter space in the maximin criterion or a larger variance of the ...

  11. What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... su oculista What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? Listen You may think your eyes are healthy, ... eye care professional for a comprehensive dilated eye exam is the only way to really be sure. ...

  12. Design and Realization of Integrated Management System for Data Interoperability between Point-of-Care Testing Equipment and Hospital Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Sang; Heo, Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to design an integrated data management system based on the POCT1-A2, LIS2-A, LIS2-A2, and HL7 standard to ensure data interoperability between mobile equipment, such as point-of-care testing equipment and the existing hospital data system, its efficiency was also evaluated. Methods The method of this study was intended to design and realize a data management system which would provide a solution for the problems that occur when point-of-care testing equipment is introduced to existing hospital data, after classifying such problems into connectivity, integration, and interoperability. This study also checked if the data management system plays a sufficient role as a bridge between the point-of-care testing equipment and the hospital information system through connection persistence and reliability testing, as well as data integration and interoperability testing. Results In comparison with the existing system, the data management system facilitated integration by improving the result receiving time, improving the collection rate, and by enabling the integration of disparate types of data into a single system. And it was found out that we can solve the problems related to connectivity, integration and interoperability through generating the message in standardized types. Conclusions It is expected that the proposed data management system, which is designed to improve the integration point-of-care testing equipment with existing systems, will establish a solid foundation on which better medical service may be provided by hospitals by improving the quality of patient service. PMID:24175121

  13. Comparison of eye shields in radiotherapeutic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Both MeV electrons and kV photons are used in the treatment of superficial cancers. The advantages and disadvantages for each of these modalities have been widely reported in the literature (See for example [1-2]). Of particular note in the literature is the use of lead and tungsten eye shields to protect ocular structures during radiotherapy. An investigation addressing issues raised in the literature that are relevant to the Wellington Cancer Centre method of treatment of lesions near the eye shall be summarised. Various small sized fields were irradiated to determine depth dose and profile curves in a water phantom shielded by various commercially available eye shields. Transmission factors relevant to critical ocular structures and particle distribution theories are used to further elucidate the comparison between the use of MeV electrons and kV photons in the treatment of superficial cancers. Superficial X-rays from a Pantak Therapax unit SXT 150 model of HVL 4.90mm Al were used for the lead eye shield measurements and electrons from a Varian Clinac 2100C nominal energies 6MeV and 9MeV (Rp 3.00cm and 4.34cm respectively) were used for the tungsten eye shield measurements. For the photon measurements circular applicators of 3cm, 4cm and 5cm diameter were used and for the electrons standard 6x6cm and 10x 10cm applicators were used, with no custom inserts. A Scanditronix RFA-300 water phantom and Scanditronix RFAplus version 5.3 software application were used to collect and collate all data. The eye shields were the Radiation Products Design Inc. medium lead eye shield (item 934-014) and the MED-TEC tungsten eye shields MT-T-45 M and MT-T-45 S. It is demonstrated that electron fields have appreciably greater scatter into the area directly under the eye shields than the photon fields. Similarly at the region of dmax for the electron fields the relative dose is appreciably greater than the photon fields at similar depth. The relative merits for electron and photon treatments are discussed with respect to the investigations findings and reference to the literature. When comparing electrons and photons it is usually the definite range of electrons within tissue that recommends electron treatments. However, one should weigh this consideration against some of the salient features of a well-constructed superficial photon treatment, for example the effective blocking of kilovoltage photons by lead and the sharp edges of the kilovoltage photon fields. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  14. Methodological problems in eye disease epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, F

    1983-01-01

    The recent burst of activity in eye disease epidemiology, occasioned by increases in the number of ophthalmologists with training in epidemiology and of epidemiologists interested in eye diseases, makes this an appropriate time for taking stock of methodological problems in this field. In this review, based largely on the author's personal encounter with five large epidemiologic studies (2, 7, 19, 30, 39) of the four major chronic eye diseases (senile cataract, senile macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma), the following methodological areas are discussed: quality assurance; disease definitions and classifications; reproducibility of observations; visual acuity and visual field tests; needed technologic advances; study design of case-control studies and clinical trials; and data analysis (shall we count subjects or eyes?). The chief weakness of blindness registers has been inadequate evaluation of the extent of underregistration and of the variability of underregistration according to socioeconomic and racial subgroups. The Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES), conducted by the United States Public Health Service, is a potentially valuable source of descriptive and analytic epidemiologic information on eye diseases. It is an examination of a large probability sample of the US population and includes various histories, clinical and laboratory examinations, and a nutrition interview. In the early 1970s, HANES included eye examinations, but these were curtailed because of inability to get ophthalmologists as examiners. In future HANES studies, efforts should be made to minimize the involvement of ophthalmologists in the eye examinations and to increase the use of nonophthalmologists (e.g., optometrists, technicians) and instruments (e.g., cameras, densitometers, automated perimeters). The validity and reliability of any new procedures will need to be determined. Studies may need to be limited to certain major eye diseases and conditions. Population glaucoma surveys have tended to omit partially or entirely the time-consuming visual field test. Yet, without this test, the diagnostic examination for glaucoma is incomplete. The automated perimeter, with which visual fields can be more quickly measured, promises to be an important screening tool for glaucoma prevalence and case-finding surveys. It should be field-tested for epidemiologic use. The absence of standardized disease definitions, without which comparisons between studies are uncertain, has been a handicap to epidemiologic research in eye disease. A first constructive step toward the development of disease definitions would be the development of disease classifications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6357822

  15. Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a good image of a sharp object may be achieved ...

  16. Highly integrated near-to-eye display and gaze tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvenpää, Toni; Äyräs, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a Near-to-Eye Display (NED) technology based on diffractive optics. Thin and highly transparent plastic light guides enable a light-weight and ergonomic see-through NED design. We have previously reported of a compact NED with an integrated gaze tracker. Eye gaze tracker can detect the user's focus point in the displayed image. We have now made advances to further increase the level of integration as well as to enable the optical see-through. Originally, three separate light guides were used: two for the display (red, green/blue) and one for infrared light of the gaze tracker. To reduce weight and the system complexity, a shared light guide is now used for transmitting red (~630 nm, display) and infrared (~850 nm, gaze tracker) wavelengths. In addition, shared output gratings are used for outcoupling the light. Light guide plates have been characterized by measuring their modulation transfer functions. Measurements show that the deterioration of the NED's resolution, caused by the light guides, is reduced with improved manufacturing techniques. Also, it has been verified that the additional gratings for infrared (light in-coupling and expansion areas) do not have a notable effect on the display resolution.

  17. Equivalence is in the Eye of the Beholder

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich, Yuri; Huggins, James K.

    1998-01-01

    In a recent provocative paper, Lamport points out "the insubstantiality of processes" by proving the equivalence of two different decompositions of the same intuitive algorithm by means of temporal formulas. We point out that the correct equivalence of algorithms is itself in the eye of the beholder. We discuss a number of related issues and, in particular, whether algorithms can be proved equivalent directly.

  18. Variable stars magnitudes estimations exploiting the eye physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2011-01-01

    The physiology of the dark adaption process of the eye is revisited from an astronomical point of view. A new method for the magnitude estimation of a star is presented. It is based upon the timing of the physiological cycle of the rhodopsin during the eye dark adaption process. The limits of the application of the method are discussed. This method is suitable for bright stars as Betelgeuse, Antares or Delta Scorpii or stars at the limiting magnitude observed with a telescope.

  19. An informatics system for exploring eye movements in reading

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Siliang

    2011-01-01

    Eye tracking techniques have been widely used in many research areas including cognitive science, psychology, human-computer interaction, marketing research, medical research etc. Many computer programs have emerged to help these researchers to design experiments, present visual stimuli and process the large quantity of numerical data produced by the eye tracker. However, most applications, especially commercial products, are designed for a particular tracking device and ten...

  20. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  1. Modelling and design of a capacitive touch sensor for urinary tract infection detection at the point-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ctia; Dong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Due to great use of touchscreens in mobile telephones and other electronic devices, there has been great evolution in this technology. Its wide applicability makes the touch sensor technology suitable for detection of specific components in urine, responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI). Integration of a touch sensor in a disposable probe tip to be used in UTI detection represents a powerful tool to develop new point-of-care testing (POCT) devices. The simplified structure of an electrodes array touch screen was simulated using the software COMSOL Multiphysics to prove that capacitive based touch screens can be used for detection of UTI. Besides we assumed presence of E.coli, one of the major causes of UTI urine. Results show that global capacitance increases if an E.coli sphere is present near the active electrodes, remaining approximately constant when further apart electrodes are excited. The output simulated voltage varies according to the capacitance value, decreasing when the capacitance is increased. PMID:25571114

  2. Eye and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Gotovac, Marta; KAŠTELAN, SNJEŽANA; LUKENDA, ADRIAN

    2013-01-01

    Hormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic, vascular and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can affect the function of the eye. These changes are commonly transient, but in some cases they may be permanent and have consequences even after childbirth. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological or pathological and can be associated with the development of new ocular pathology or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. The most common physiological changes are alterati...

  3. Eye in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Achyut N Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic, vascular and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can affect the function of the eye. These changes are commonly transient, but in some cases they may be permanent and have consequences even after childbirth. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological or pathological and can be associated with the development of new ocular pathology or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. The most common physiological changes are alterations...

  4. Dry Eye Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  5. Effect of differing PowerPoint slide design on multiple-choice test scores for assessment of knowledge and retention in a theriogenology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2014-01-01

    Third-year veterinary students in a required theriogenology diagnostics course were allowed to self-select attendance at a lecture in either the evening or the next morning. One group was presented with PowerPoint slides in a traditional format (T group), and the other group was presented with PowerPoint slides in the assertion-evidence format (A-E group), which uses a single sentence and a highly relevant graphic on each slide to ensure attention is drawn to the most important points in the presentation. Students took a multiple-choice pre-test, attended lecture, and then completed a take-home assignment. All students then completed an online multiple-choice post-test and, one month later, a different online multiple-choice test to evaluate retention. Groups did not differ on pre-test, assignment, or post-test scores, and both groups showed significant gains from pre-test to post-test and from pre-test to retention test. However, the T group showed significant decline from post-test to retention test, while the A-E group did not. Short-term differences between slide designs were most likely unaffected due to required coursework immediately after lecture, but retention of material was superior with the assertion-evidence slide design. PMID:25000882

  6. In vitro eye corrosion study of agrochemicals on isolated chicken eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, I; Budai, P; Szab, R; Lehel, J

    2013-01-01

    Agrochemicals must undergo numberless toxicological tests before marketing. The eye irritation test is part of this test packet. Nowadays, OECD 405 can be used to classify the irritation potential of substances, the base of the OECD 405 guideline is the Draize test, which is one of the most criticized in vivo methods because of the injuries of the test animals and subjective nature of the test in recording the results. Therefore, several in vitro tests have been developed to replace totally or partly the in vivo eye irritation testing. The isolated chicken eye test method (OECD 438), which was used, is one of these alternative methods. Five different agrochemicals were examined in the following way: All test compounds were applied in a single dose onto the cornea of isolated chicken eyes in order to potentially classify the test compounds as ocular corrosive and/or severe irritant. The damages caused by the test substances were assessed by the determination of corneal swelling, opacity, fluorescein retention and morphological effects. These parameters were evaluated pre-treatment and starting at approximately 30, 75, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after the post-treatment rinse. The endpoints evaluated were corneal opacity, swelling, fluorescein retention and morphological effects. All of the endpoints, with the exception of fluorescein retention (which was determined only at pre-treatment and 30 minutes after test substance exposure) were determined at each of the above time points. Positive and negative controls were used and they showed the expected results in each study. In these in vitro eye corrosives and severe irritants studies, using the Isolated Chicken Eye model with five different products, no ocular corrosion or severe irritation potential were observed. These results correspond to the available information about the tested agrochemicals, so these studies with isolated chicken eye are considered to be successful. PMID:25145239

  7. Colorful butterfly eyes: regionalization and sexual dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Arikawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are amongst the most colorful animals. Having a strong association with flowers, most of them appear to possess color vision. Earlier studies on the Japanese yellow swallowtail, Papilio xuthus (Papilionidae demonstrated that the eyes are equipped with UV, violet, blue, green, red and broad-band receptors, with each ommatidium housing nine photoreceptor cells in one of three fixed combinations. This makes the Papilio compound eye a rather complex patchwork of three spectrally distinct ommatidia types. However, the eye organization is not identical among butterflies; it appears to be almost species-specific. To extract the features that are essential for color vision in general, an extensive comparative approach is required. We thus focused on species of Papilionidae and Pieridae, in which we analysed opsins, photoreceptor spectral sensitivities, and ommatidial structure. We found multiple long wavelength opsins due to gene duplication in species from four major papilionid tribes (Parnassiinae, Leptocircini, Troidini, Papilionini. In Pieridae, we found three middle wavelength opsins in the subfamily Coliadinae, two in Pierinae, and only one in Dismorphinae. Coexpression of multiple opsins in single photoreceptors, tuning of photoreceptor spectral sensitivities by pigment filtering, and sexual dimorphism were found to be highly variable between species, and therefore may reflect particular ecological niches. On the other hand, features basically shared by all tested species include: the existence of three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia, irregularly distributed within the eye; two short and six long wavelength receptors embedded in each ommatidium; and dorso-ventral specialization. These reflect the basic design of butterfly eyes and maybe crucial for color vision in general. In this talk, I will introduce some examples of these remarkable features of butterfly eyes, with special attention to regionalization and sexual dimorphism.

  8. The Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) Sensors for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J. B.; Mauk, B. H.; Baker, D. N.; Carranza, P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Craft, J.; Crain, W. R.; Crew, A.; Dotan, Y.; Fennell, J. F.; Friedel, R. H.; Friesen, L. M.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; Ibscher, C.; Jaynes, A.; Katz, N.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A. Y.; Mabry, D. M.; Nguyen, T.; Pancratz, C.; Redding, M.; Reeves, G. D.; Smith, S.; Spence, H. E.; Westlake, J.

    2016-03-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of five particles and fields investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. This mission consists of four satellites operating in close proximity in elliptical, low-inclination orbits, and is focused upon the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) investigation aboard the four MMS spacecraft consists of two instrument designs, the EIS (Energetic Ion Spectrometer) and the FEEPS (Fly's Eye Electron Proton Spectrometer). This present paper describes FEEPS from an instrument physics and engineering point of view, and provides some test and calibration data to facilitate effective analysis and use of the flight data for scientific purposes.

  9. Designing a Minimum Data Set for Breast Cancer: a Starting Point for Breast Cancer Registration in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RN Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the high incidence of deaths from breast cancer, high cost of treatment and limited resources, the need to formulate and implement effective programs in reducing the burden of disease is obvious. Care, control and creation of cancer information system having an infrastructure from collection of minimum data sets (MDS are the top priorities of research in Iran’s Ministry of Health.Methods: This is an applied descriptive research with comparative approach implemented in 2010. MDS for breast cancer on selected countries were searched and reviewed and proposed model based on the country’s need was designed. Research data were implemented in 2 stages; assessment of MDS on selected countries and the validation of the proposed model through several meetings that has been carried out by the Undersecretary for Research and Technology and several oncologists and pathologists.Results: The MDS is composed of 11 parameters in the form of fields in closed structured arrangements with consideration to coding responses. These parameters include: hospital data, demography, referral, physical examination and investigation, diagnostic information, pathology, treatment, palliative care, completion of primary treatment, clinical trials and follow-up. This form is available for use in the cancer registry database.Conclusion: MDS provides an opportunity to strengthen communication between performed researches and research results for the improvement of programs, policies and strategies and provides positive effect on equality in the health system. Although the stages of creating the MDS for breast cancer has been successful, but many challenges has been met until its completion.

  10. Does eye tremor provide the hyperacuity phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to a study of the role of the fluctuations that the eye is subject to, from the point of view of noise-enhanced processing. To this end, a basic model of the retina is considered, namely a regular sampler subject to space and time fluctuations that model the random sampling and the involuntary eye tremor respectively. The filtering that can be done by the photoreceptor is also taken into account and the study focuses on a stochastic model of a natural scene. To quantify the effect of the noise, a coefficient of correlation between the signal acquired by a given photoreceptor and a given point of the scene that the eye is looking at is considered. It is shown both for academic examples and for a more realistic case that the fluctuations which affect the retina can induce noise-enhanced processing effects. The observed effect is then interpreted as a stochastic control of the retina via the random tremor

  11. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading experienced by the unprotected eye after 0.2 ms of impact of blast wave, for lower as well as higher charge mass. The present model provides fundamental insights of flow and pressure fields in the ocular region, which helps to explain the effectiveness of the eye armor. Since the measurements of these fields are not trivial, the computational model aids in better understanding of development of PBI. PMID:25828209

  12. Development of an eye tracking medical headlamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk Won Ko; Se Dong Min; Ji Yeon Lee; Yeji Na; Sangjoon Lee

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates a medical headlamp which is designed to adjust LED light automatically on the X axis and Y axis plane as determined a surgeon during a surgery. The needs of surgeons are determined through a CMOS camera which detects the movement of the eye. The system is composed of a mechanical actuator and an electrical control center. The LED lamp actuator (502421 mm(3)) was designed to be as small as possible. The actuator can be easily attached onto typical goggles and incurs no burden during long-term use due to its light weight of 40g. To determine the movement of the eye, a limited embedded CPU was designed while considering memory, the process speed, simplicity and accuracy. The designed system was tested by exercises such as moving the eye in a zigzag direction and in random up, down, left, and right directions with adjustments for different lightings. Each was tested 100 times (total 1500), showing satisfactory results with 98.72% accuracy. PMID:26737375

  13. Evaluating the usefulness of Eye Tracking in Game-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Kiili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of educational game design is to develop solutions that please as many players as possible, but are still educationally effective. How learning happens in games is methodologically very challenging to point out and thus it is usually avoided. In this paper we tackle this challenge with eye tracking method. The aim of this research is to study the meaning of cognitive feedback in educational games and evaluate the usefulness of eye tracking method in game based learning research and game design. Based on perceptual data we evaluated the playing behavior of 43 Finnish and Austrian children aged from 7 to 16. Four different games were used as test-beds. The results indicated that players’ perception patterns varied a lot and some players even missed relevant information during playing. The results showed that extraneous elements should be eliminated from the game world in order to avoid incidental processing in crucial moments. Animated content easily grasps player’s attention, which may disturb learning activities. Especially low performers and inattentive players have difficulties in distinguishing important and irrelevant content and tend to stick to salient elements no matter of their importance for a task. However, it is not reasonable to exclude all extraneous elements because it decreases engagement and immersion. Thus, balancing of extraneous and crucial elements is essential. Overall, the results showed that eye tracking can provide important information from game based learning process and game designs. However, we have to be careful when interpreting the perceptual data, because we cannot be sure if the player understands everything that he or she is paying attention to. Thus, eye tracking should be complemented with offline methods like retrospective interview that was successfully used in this research.

  14. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina; Klemp, Kristian; Erngaard, Ditte; la Cour, Morten; Hesgaard, Helena

    2015-01-01

    older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two......PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years and...

  15. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallett, Michael Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  16. [Eye and the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voide, Nathalie; Kaeser, Pierre-François; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2015-12-16

    The eyes are exposed to multiple environmental factors, which affect visual development, comfort, and visual health. While overexposure to sunlight can cause ocular surface and retinal pathologies, insufficient exposure to daylight could significantly contribute to myopia progression. New artificial lights, namely LED, have a higher risk of retinal phototoxicity, and could alter ocular circadian rhythm. The significant increase of prevalence of ocular allergies could be caused by the proliferation of environmental polluting substances, like tobacco smoke, fuel combustion by-products, or phtalates, which are found in many types of plastics. Finally, some dietary supplements could play a protective role in certain types of ocular pathologies, namely retinal pathologies. PMID:26852551

  17. Joint design of kT-points trajectories and RF pulses under explicit SAR and power constraints in the large flip angle regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Vincent; Luong, Michel; Amadon, Alexis; Boulant, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    In Magnetic Resonance Imaging at ultra-high field, kT-points radiofrequency pulses combined with parallel transmission are a promising technique to mitigate the B1 field inhomogeneity in 3D imaging applications. The optimization of the corresponding k-space trajectory for its slice-selective counterpart, i.e. the spokes method, has been shown in various studies to be very valuable but also dependent on the hardware and specific absorption rate constraints. Due to the larger number of degrees of freedom than for spokes excitations, joint design techniques based on the fine discretization (gridding) of the parameter space become hardly tractable for kT-points pulses. In this article, we thus investigate the simultaneous optimization of the 3D blipped k-space trajectory and of the kT-points RF pulses, using a magnitude least squares cost-function, with explicit constraints and in the large flip angle regime. A second-order active-set algorithm is employed due to its demonstrated success and robustness in similar problems. An analysis of global optimality and of the structure of the returned trajectories is proposed. The improvement provided by the k-space trajectory optimization is validated experimentally by measuring the flip angle on a spherical water phantom at 7T and via Quantum Process Tomography.

  18. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product. PMID:15332359

  19. Eye State Detection Using Image Processing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayalaxmi; D.Elizabeth Rani

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of driver fatigue is a significant factor in driver assistance system. Recent statistics shows that annually 1,550 deaths and 71,000 injuries are attributed to fatigue related accidents. Because of the hazard that drowsiness present on the road, methods need to be developed for counteracting its affects. The focus may be placed on designing a system that will accurately monitor the open or closed state of the driver's eyes. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for determining...

  20. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsieh, Jui-Wei; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background As designated points of entry (PoEs) play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005). This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA) and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK) by applying a new, practicable model. Design An IHR PoE program was initiated for implementing the IHR core capacities at designated PoEs. The main methods of this program were 1) identifying the designated PoEs according to the pre-determined criteria, 2) identifying the competent authority for each health measure, 3) building a close collaborative relationship between stakeholders from the central and PoE level, 4) designing three stages of systematic assessment using the assessment tool published by the World Health Organization (WHO), and 5) undertaking action plans targeting the gaps identified by the assessments. Results Results of the self-assessment, preliminary external assessment, and follow-up external assessment revealed a continuous progressive trend at the TIA (86, 91, and 100%, respectively), and at the PoK (77, 97, and 99.9%, respectively). The results of the follow-up external assessment indicated that both these designated PoEs already conformed to the IHR requirements. These achievements were highly associated with strong collaboration, continuous empowerment, efficient resource integration, and sustained commitments. Conclusions Considering that many countries had requested for an extension on the deadline to fulfill the IHR 2005 core capacity requirements, Taiwan's experiences can be a source of learning for countries striving to fully implement these requirements. Further, in order to broaden the scope of public health protection into promoting global security, Taiwan will keep its commitments on multisectoral cooperation, human resource capacity building, and maintaining routine and emergency capacities. PMID:25037903

  1. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As designated points of entry (PoEs play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005. This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK by applying a new, practicable model. Design: An IHR PoE program was initiated for implementing the IHR core capacities at designated PoEs. The main methods of this program were 1 identifying the designated PoEs according to the pre-determined criteria, 2 identifying the competent authority for each health measure, 3 building a close collaborative relationship between stakeholders from the central and PoE level, 4 designing three stages of systematic assessment using the assessment tool published by the World Health Organization (WHO, and 5 undertaking action plans targeting the gaps identified by the assessments. Results: Results of the self-assessment, preliminary external assessment, and follow-up external assessment revealed a continuous progressive trend at the TIA (86, 91, and 100%, respectively, and at the PoK (77, 97, and 99.9%, respectively. The results of the follow-up external assessment indicated that both these designated PoEs already conformed to the IHR requirements. These achievements were highly associated with strong collaboration, continuous empowerment, efficient resource integration, and sustained commitments. Conclusions: Considering that many countries had requested for an extension on the deadline to fulfill the IHR 2005 core capacity requirements, Taiwan's experiences can be a source of learning for countries striving to fully implement these requirements. Further, in order to broaden the scope of public health protection into promoting global security, Taiwan will keep its commitments on multisectoral cooperation, human resource capacity building, and maintaining routine and emergency capacities.

  2. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close to...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  3. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... on the interaction object while interacting. This method has been implemented on a head-mounted eye tracker for detecting a set of predefined head gestures. The accuracy of the gesture classifier is evaluated and verified for gaze-based interaction in applications intended for both large public...

  4. Interocular Difference of Peripheral Refraction in Anisomyopic Eyes of Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhong; He, Ji C.; Chen, Yunyun; Xu, Jingjing; Wu, Haoran; Wang, Feifu; Lu, Fan; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Refraction in the peripheral visual field is believed to play an important role in the development of myopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in peripheral refraction among anisomyopia, isomyopia, and isoemmetropia for schoolchildren. Methods Thirty-eight anisomyopic children were recruited and divided into two groups: (1) both eyes were myopic (anisomyopic group, AM group) and (2) one eye was myopic and the contralateral eye was emmetropic (emmetropic anisomyopic group, EAM group). As controls, 45 isomyopic and isoemmetropic children were also recruited with age and central spherical equivalent (SE) matched to those of the AM and EAM groups. The controls were divided into three groups: (1) intermediate myopia group (SE matched to the more myopic eye of AM group), (2) low myopia group (SE matched to the less myopic eye of AM group and the more myopic eye of EAM group), and (3) emmetropia group (SE matched to the less myopic eye of EAM group). Peripheral refraction at 7 points across the central ±30° on the horizontal visual field with a 10° interval was measured with an autorefractor. Axial length (AL), corneal curvature (CC), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were also determined by using the Zeiss IOL-Master. Results The relative peripheral spherical equivalent [RPR(M)] and relative peripheral spherical value [RPR(S)] of the more myopic eye was shifted more hyperopically than the contralateral eye in both the AM and the EAM groups (both p<0.0001). The RPR(M, S) of the less myopic eyes in the AM and EAM groups showed a relatively flat trend across the visual field and were not significantly different from the emmetropia group. The RPR(M, S) of less myopic eyes in the AM group were shifted less hyperopically than in the isomyopic low myopia group and the more myopic eye of the EAM group [RPR(M), p = 0.007; RPR(S), p = 0.001], although the central SEs of the three groups were not significantly different from each other. However, RPR(M, S) of the more myopic eyes were not different from the corresponding isomyopic groups. There was also no significant difference in the relative peripheral astigmatism [RPR(J0, J45)] between the more and the less myopic eyes in either the AM or the EAM group. Conclusion Refraction of anisomyopia differs between the two eyes not only at the central visual field but also at the off-axis periphery. The relative peripheral refraction of the more myopic eye of anisomyopia was shifted hyperopically, as occurs in isomyopia with similar central subjective SE values. Less myopic eyes were much less hyperopically shifted in relative peripheral refraction than the corresponding isomyopic eyes, but are comparable to emmetropic eyes. This emmetropia-like relative peripheral refraction in less myopic eyes might be a factor responsible for slowing down the progression of myopia. PMID:26881745

  5. Eye in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic, vascular and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can affect the function of the eye. These changes are commonly transient, but in some cases they may be permanent and have consequences even after childbirth. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological or pathological and can be associated with the development of new ocular pathology or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. The most common physiological changes are alterations of corneal sensitivity and thickness, decreased tolerance to contact lenses, decreased intraocular pressure, hemeralopia and refractive errors. Possible posterior segment changes include worsening of diabetic retinopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy, increased risk of peripheral vitreochorioretinal dystrophies and retinal detachment. Thus, it should be kept in mind that the presence of any ocular symptoms in a pregnant woman requires ophthalmologic examination and further management. Knowledge of these ocular changes can help to differentiate the physiological changes from ocular manifestation of systemic disease and diseases pertaining to the eye in a pregnant woman. This article explains the effects of ocular changes in pregnancy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 16-20

  6. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test as an alternative test method for serious eye damage/eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spler, Felix; Kray, Oya; Kray, Stefan; Panfil, Claudia; Schrage, Norbert F

    2015-07-01

    Ocular irritation testing is a common requirement for the classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals (substances and mixtures). The in vivo Draize rabbit eye test (OECD Test Guideline 405) is considered to be the regulatory reference method for the classification of chemicals according to their potential to induce eye injury. In the Draize test, chemicals are applied to rabbit eyes in vivo, and changes are monitored over time. If no damage is observed, the chemical is not categorised. Otherwise, the classification depends on the severity and reversibility of the damage. Alternative test methods have to be designed to match the classifications from the in vivo reference method. However, observation of damage reversibility is usually not possible in vitro. Within the present study, a new organotypic method based on rabbit corneas obtained from food production is demonstrated to close this gap. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) retains the full biochemical activity of the corneal epithelium, epithelial stem cells and endothelium. This permits the in-depth analysis of ocular chemical trauma beyond that achievable by using established in vitro methods. In particular, the EVEIT is the first test to permit the direct monitoring of recovery of all corneal layers after damage. To develop a prediction model for the EVEIT that is comparable to the GHS system, 37 reference chemicals were analysed. The experimental data were used to derive a three-level potency ranking of eye irritation and corrosion that best fits the GHS categorisation. In vivo data available in the literature were used for comparison. When compared with GHS classification predictions, the overall accuracy of the three-level potency ranking was 78%. The classification of chemicals as irritating versus non-irritating resulted in 96% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 95% accuracy. PMID:26256395

  7. A novel gaze estimation system with one calibration point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Arantxa; Cabeza, Rafael

    2008-08-01

    The design of robust and high-performance gaze-tracking systems is one of the most important objectives of the eye-tracking community. In general, a subject calibration procedure is needed to learn system parameters and be able to estimate the gaze direction accurately. In this paper, we attempt to determine if subject calibration can be eliminated. A geometric analysis of a gaze-tracking system is conducted to determine user calibration requirements. The eye model used considers the offset between optical and visual axes, the refraction of the cornea, and Donder's law. This paper demonstrates the minimal number of cameras, light sources, and user calibration points needed to solve for gaze estimation. The underlying geometric model is based on glint positions and pupil ellipse in the image, and the minimal hardware needed for this model is one camera and multiple light-emitting diodes. This paper proves that subject calibration is compulsory for correct gaze estimation and proposes a model based on a single point for subject calibration. The experiments carried out show that, although two glints and one calibration point are sufficient to perform gaze estimation (error approximately 1 degree), using more light sources and calibration points can result in lower average errors. PMID:18632402

  8. A self-calibrating, camera-based eye tracker for the recording of rodent eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavideZoccolan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of neurophysiology and vision science relies on careful measurement of a human or animal subject’s gaze direction. Video-based eye trackers have emerged as an especially popular option for gaze tracking, because they are easy to use and are completely non-invasive. However, video eye trackers typically require a calibration procedure in which the subject must look at a series of points at known gaze angles. While it is possible to rely on innate orienting behaviors for calibration in some nonhuman species, other species, such as rodents, do not reliably saccade to visual targets, making this form of calibration impossible. To overcome this problem, we developed a fully-automated infrared video eye-tracking system that is able to quickly and accurately calibrate itself without requiring cooperation from the subject. This technique relies on the optical geometry of the cornea and uses computer controlled motorized stages to rapidly estimate the geometry of the eye relative to the camera. The accuracy and precision of our system was carefully measured using an artificial eye, and its capability to monitor the gaze of rodents was verified by tracking spontaneous saccades and evoked oculomotor reflexes in head-fixed rats (in both cases, we obtained measurements that are consistent with those found in the literature. Overall, given its fully-automated nature and its intrinsic robustness against operator errors, we believe that our eye-tracking system enhances the utility of existing approaches to gaze-tracking in rodents and represents a valid tool for rodent vision studies.

  9. Evidence for a functional subdivision of Premotor Ear-Eye Field (Area 8B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lanzilotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Supplementary Eye Field (SEF and the Frontal Eye Field (FEF have been described as participating in gaze shift control. Recent evidence suggests, however, that other areas of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex also influence gaze shift. Herein, we have investigated electrically evoked ear- and eye movements from the Premotor Ear-Eye Field, or PEEF (area 8B of macaque monkeys. We stimulated PEEF during spontaneous condition (outside the task performance and during the execution of a visual fixation task (VFT. In the first case, we functionally identified two regions within the PEEF: a core and a belt. In the core region, stimulation elicited forward ear movements; regarding the evoked eye movements, in some penetrations, stimulation elicited contraversive fixed-vectors with a mean amplitude of 5.14; while in other penetrations, we observed prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15 in respect to the primary eye position. On the contrary, in the belt region, stimulation elicited backward ear movements; regarding the eye movements, in some penetrations stimulation elicited prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15 in respect to the primary eye position, while in the lateral edge of the investigated region, stimulation elicited contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell beyond 15 in respect to the primary eye position. Stimulation during VFT either did not elicit eye movements or evoked saccades of only a few degrees. Finally, even though no head rotation movements were observed during the stimulation period, we viewed a relationship between the duration of stimulation and the neck forces exerted by the monkeys head. We propose an updated vision of the PEEF composed of two functional regions, core and belt, which may be involved in integrating auditory and visual information important to the programming of gaze orienting movements.

  10. A bionic eye actuated by ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Li, Yuxiu; He, Qingsong; Song, Linlin; Dai, Zhendong

    2011-04-01

    This research was conducted with the aim of developing an energy-efficient, noiseless, movable bionic eye for use in bionic toys. This novel bionic eye is actuated by an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator. The overall size of the eye was 39 mm in length, 45 mm in width, and 45 mm in thickness. The experimental results revealed such a bionic eye design is feasible. This type of bionic eye is appropriate for use in toys and robots to increase their visual impact.

  11. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Contact ... Contact Lenses Proper Care of Contact Lenses Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Devin ...

  12. A novel semiblind signal extraction approach for the removal of eye-blink artifact from EEGs

    OpenAIRE

    Saied Sanei; Jonathon A. Chambers; Hesse, Christian W.; Mohseni, Hamid R.; Kianoush Nazarpour

    2008-01-01

    A novel blind signal extraction (BSE) scheme for the removal of eye-blink artifact from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is proposed. In this method, in order to remove the artifact, the source extraction algorithm is provided with an estimation of the column of the mixing matrix corresponding to the point source eye-blink artifact. The eye-blink source is first extracted and then cleaned, artifact-removed EEGs are subsequently reconstructed by a deflation method. The a priori knowledge, na...

  13. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  14. Oxidative stress and its downstream signaling in aging eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinazo-Durán, María Dolores; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto; García-Medina, Jose Javier; Zanón-Moreno, Vicente; Nucci, Carlo; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Martínez-Castillo, Sebastián; Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; López-Gálvez, Maria Isabel; Galarreta, David J; Díaz-Llópis, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress (OS) and its biomarkers are the biochemical end point of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ability of the antioxidant (AOX) biological systems to fight against oxidative injury. Objective We reviewed the role of OS and its downstream signaling in aging eyes. Methods A search of the literature and current knowledge on the physiological and pathological mechanisms of OS were revisited in relation to the eyes and the aging process. Most prevalent ocular diseases have been analyzed herein in relation to OS and nutraceutic supplements, such as dry-eye disorders, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. Results Clinical, biochemical, and molecular data from anterior and posterior eye segment diseases point to OS as the common pathogenic mechanism in the majority of these ocular disorders, many of which are pathologies causing visual impairment, blindness, and subsequent loss of life quality. Studies with nutraceutic supplements in aging eye-related pathologies have also been reviewed. Conclusion OS, nutritional status, and nutraceutic supplements have to be considered within the standards of care of older ophthalmologic patients. OS biomarkers and surrogate end points may help in managing the aging population with ocular diseases. PMID:24748782

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  16. Optical design of inhomogeneous media to perfectly focus scalar wave fields

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    A method to design isotropic inhomogeneous refractive index distribution is presented, in which the scalar wave field solutions propagate exactly on an eikonal function (i.e., remaining constant on the Geometrical Optics wavefronts). This method is applied to the design of ¿dipole lenses¿, which perfectly focus a scalar wave field emitted from a point source onto a point absorber, in both two and three dimensions. Also, the Maxwell fish-eye lens in two and three dimensions analyzed.

  17. Awareness and perception regarding eye donation in students of a nursing college in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Corneal diseases constitute a significant cause of visual impairment and blindness in the developing world. The number of corneal transplants done is far less than the actual requirement in India. This is largely due to the inadequate number of corneas collected. Well-informed nursing students could be expected to influence eye donation rates. Aims: To assess the awareness and perception of 188 first- and second-year nursing students towards eye donation in Bangalore. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study design. Materials and Methods: A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info software package, Version 6.04. Results: The majority (96.8% of students knew that eyes can be donated after death but only 38.2% knew that the ideal time of donation was within 6 hours of death. Most participants (85.1% were either willing or had already donated their eyes. Nobility in the act of eye donation was the main motivational force for eye donation according to 85.6% of students. Perceived reasons for not pledging eyes by the students were: the unacceptable idea of separating the eyes from the body (67.9%, lack of awareness (42.8%, objection by family members (28.5%, and unsuitability to donate because of health problem (10.7%. Conclusion: This study revealed that nursing students were well aware of eye donations and most of them were inclined to sign-up for eye donation. The perceived reasons for not donating eyes need to be considered while creating awareness about eye donation in the community. The nursing students could be actively involved as volunteers in eye donation campaigns and they can act as counsellors for eye donors. They can also contribute by participating in creating awareness and motivating people to become eye donors.

  18. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements: fix...

  19. Community Eye Health MSc dissertations

    OpenAIRE

    Daksha Patel

    2007-01-01

    All MSc students at the International Centre for Eye Health (ICEH) carry out a dissertation project as part of the Community Eye Health MSc course. Most of the dissertations are excellent pieces of original and valuable research work, sometimes the first of their kind in their authors’ country or region.

  20. Community Eye Health MSc dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All MSc students at the International Centre for Eye Health (ICEH carry out a dissertation project as part of the Community Eye Health MSc course. Most of the dissertations are excellent pieces of original and valuable research work, sometimes the first of their kind in their authors’ country or region.

  1. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  2. Pregnancy and the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursal Melda Yenerel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant changes in all systems of the body. Although most of them are physiological, they may also lead to pathological consequences. The resulting pathological changes may occur for the first time or existing diseases affected by pregnancy can become more serious or change course. Diseases specific only to pregnancy may arise. Like all systems of the body, the visual system is also affected by pregnancy, developing a wide range of physiological and pathological changes. Knowing the ocular physiological changes and diagnosing eye diseases that may develop during pregnancy, and preventing and treating these diseases is crucial to ensure the baby’s healthy development. Therefore, we have reviewed the conditions that an ophthalmologist should recognize, follow-up, and pay attention to during treatment and summarized them under the topic “pregnancy and the eye”. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 213-219

  3. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  4. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method......The paper was presented in the panel “Tending the tensions in co-creation: A critical, reflexive approach to co-creative methods” at the 32nd IHSCR. This paper highlights different forms of tension involved in facilitating creative processes and argues that tension is a necessity for change and...... constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  5. Gray Eye Traffic Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Butalia #1, Durgesh Maru*2, Kuldeep Baheti*3, Avais Mohammad*4, Ankit Bagdiya*5

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gray Eye Traffic Surveillance (GETS is a system based on image processing technology and database processing for the purpose of Traffic Surveillance. This system is built specifically for India, where standard fonts and scripts for the number plates are rarely followed and corruption is a menace.This paper attempts to present a system to automate the entire process of traffic surveillance and curb corruption at the same time. A two way approach of developing a desktop and a web based mobile application is proposed. The desktop based application uses image processing technology to recognize the license number from image of vehicles captured by surveillance cameras and maintain a track log. The web based mobile application can be used by authorized traffic police to file complaints. The general public can log into this application to view their log and file complaints in case of any discrepancies. Different database schemas are used for various purpose like authentication, crime details, tracking system.

  6. Design optimization of an intensity-interrogated long-period fibre grating film sensor operating near the phase-matching turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensity interrogation of a sensitive-film-coated long-period fibre grating (LPFG) operating near the phase-matching turning point (PMTP) is fully investigated. The coated LPFG is designed to operate near the PMTP and a little off resonance by properly selecting the film and grating parameters; the variation of the film refractive index induced by the interaction between the sensitive film and the surrounding medium leads to the change of coupling strength with a fixed resonant wavelength. Based on the coupled-mode theory and a four-layer model, the phase-matching property and the influence of film optical parameters on the turning points are investigated. Furthermore, the determination of the range of a little off resonance is discussed. By analysing the dependence of sensitivity on the film parameters (film refractive index n3 and thickness h3) and the grating structural parameters (grating period Λ, length L and average index modulation σ), the optimum parameters for high sensitivity are obtained. The simulation results show that the resolution of film refractive index is available in the order of 10−7 which is comparable to that of the wavelength-interrogated LPFG sensor based on dual-peak resonance, but an expensive optical spectrum analyser can be excluded from the measuring system. (paper)

  7. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...... cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  8. Limitation and further development of seismic PSA in the view points of design human error and failure of safety-related logical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the limitation and its further development of Seismic PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) in the view point of human error in structural design and construction process, and also logical failure of safety-related computers, instrumentation systems, logical mechanics such as pilot-operated safety valves under seismic events. Shibata, one of the authors, has been collecting the data on damages of industrial facilities due to past destructive earthquakes since 1964, and he concluded that both logical problems were also significant factors for Seismic PSA as well as the factors which had been discussed such as local seismicity, response fluctuation, and fragility curve. The authors recognized this fact through the cooperative study on Seismic PSA as an activity of the Subcommittee on Seismic Risk Study, to which the authors belong, in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). This paper consists of three parts. The first part deals with the summary of the JAERI's work and their issues. The second and third parts deal with human error which will be expected in structural design process and logical failure of logical systems

  9. Binocular eye tracking with the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S B; Sheehy, C K; Roorda, A

    2016-01-01

    The development of high magnification retinal imaging has brought with it the ability to track eye motion with a precision of less than an arc minute. Previously these systems have provided only monocular records. Here we describe a modification to the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (Sheehy et al., 2012) that splits the optical path in a way that slows the left and right retinas to be scanned almost simultaneously by a single system. A mirror placed at a retinal conjugate point redirects half of each horizontal scan line to the fellow eye. The collected video is a split image with left and right retinas appearing side by side in each frame. Analysis of the retinal motion in the recorded video provides an eye movement trace with very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results are presented from scans of subjects with normal ocular motility that fixated steadily on a green laser dot. The retinas were scanned at 4 eccentricity with a 2 square field. Eye position was extracted offline from recorded videos with an FFT based image analysis program written in Matlab. The noise level of the tracking was estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.5arcmin SD for three subjects. In the binocular recordings, the left eye/right eye difference was 1-2arcmin SD for vertical motion and 10-15arcmin SD for horizontal motion, in agreement with published values from other tracking techniques. PMID:25676884

  10. Monitoring of eye lens doses in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainly due to the ICRP recommendation to decrease the exposure limit for eye lenses, the eye lens dosimetry has to be reconsidered. This paper gives an overview of the issues raised after this recommendation; that is to say, the choice and definition of the operational quantity to be monitored, the type testing and calibration of dosimeters aimed at measuring eyes lens 'doses', the design of existing eye lens dosimeters and their wearing conditions. Finally, a criterion to choose between a direct measurement of the personal dose equivalent at three millimeters depth, Hp(3), with a dedicated dosimeter, and an indirect evaluation of Hp(3) through whole-body monitoring is presented. (authors)

  11. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bingjie Wang; Naidu, Rajeev K.; Renyuan Chu; Jinhui Dai; Xiaomei Qu; Hao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months ...

  12. Instrument quickly transposes ground reference target to eye level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B. E.; Van Deventer, E. L.

    1966-01-01

    Optical alignment of equipment is facilitated by a traverse target with a string suspending a plumb bob to transpose the ground level point to eye level operation. This instrument appreciably decreases the time required from the present method but achieves the same degree of precision.

  13. Not just a red eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniat, Valerie; Andrew, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented to the Eye Casualty department with a 10-day history of worsening pain and redness in her right eye, associated with progressively reduced vision. History revealed that the patient had recently completed a course of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Anterior examination of the right eye revealed a vascularised iris mass causing pupillary distortion, intraocular inflammation and raised intraocular pressure. She was diagnosed with a right iris metastasis secondary to breast cancer. Ocular management consisted of topical steroids and intraocular pressure-lowering agents, which improved her ocular symptoms. She subsequently received primary radiotherapy, which has successfully reduced the size of the tumour. PMID:24700045

  14. [Eye Myiasis - a Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeck, A; N?m?ansk, J; Doleil, Z; Makov, R; Maek, P

    2015-09-01

    The authors describe a case of 47 years old patient who came to the department of ophthalmology with eye discomfort, ear bleeding and itching of both legs. The diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis was made after an eye examination. Manual extraction of maggots from upper and lower fornix of the left eye was performed and symptomatic therapy was given. The patient was sent to otolaryngology and dermatology departments and MRI. The maggots were also found in both external auditory meatus and between the toes. MRI excluded affection of the deeper structures of the head. Improvement of the local condition was observed since the first follow-up visit. PMID:26782730

  15. Single eye or camera with depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2012-10-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by a short photoconducting lossi lightguide section at each pixel. The eye or camera lens selects the object point who's range is to be determined at the pixel. Light arriving at an image point trough a convex lens adds constructively only if it comes from the object point that is in focus at this pixel.. Light waves from all other object points cancel. Thus the lightguide at this pixel receives light from one object point only. This light signal has a phase component proportional to the range. The light intensity modes and thus the photocurrent in the lightguides shift in response to the phase of the incoming light. Contacts along the length of the lightguide collect the photocurrent signal containing the range information. Applications of this camera include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. An interesting application is as part of a crude teleportation system consisting of this camera and a three dimensional printer at a remote location.

  16. An eye for an eye. A simplified model for teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaro, N R; Maxwell, D P

    1995-06-01

    We developed an easily constructed, inexpensive eye model that consists of a Styrofoam head carved out to house a slide holder, a wide-angle, clinical photographic fundus slide, a plastic face, and an anatomically correct eye. The model can be used by students and residents to learn direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, and laser photocoagulation. This model gives students and residents a realistic learning experience without inconveniencing or endangering patients. PMID:7786227

  17. Design of free-space optical interconnects using two Gabor superlenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Rivera, Anel; Renero-Carrillo, Francisco-Javier; Trevino-Palacios, Carlos-G.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a novel design of micro-optical devices based on multi-aperture compound insect eyes, which transfer a point-to-point multichannel free space signal combined with a diffraction grating. The system is inspired in the refractive superposition compound eyes configuration known as Gabor superlens (GSL) using microlens arrays. A switching function and wave division multiplexing are achieved by introducing a diffraction grating placed in the global focus of the system. The source characteristics, either coherent or incoherent, influence the device performance.

  18. RPE Cell and Sheet Properties in Normal and Diseased Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Alia; Bhatia, Shagun K; Mazzitello, Karina I; Chrenek, Micah A; Zhang, Qing; Boatright, Jeffrey H; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Jiang, Yi; Nickerson, John M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) morphology found spatial differences in density: a high density of cells in the macula, decreasing peripherally. Because the RPE sheet is not perfectly regular, we anticipate that there will be differences between conditions and when and where damage is most likely to begin. The purpose of this study is to establish relationships among RPE morphometrics in age, cell location, and disease of normal human and AMD eyes that highlight irregularities reflecting damage. Cadaveric eyes from 11 normal and 3 age-related macular degeneration (AMD) human donors ranging from 29 to 82 years of age were used. Borders of RPE cells were identified with phalloidin. RPE segmentation and analysis were conducted with CellProfiler. Exploration of spatial point patterns was conducted using the "spatstat" package of R. In the normal human eye, with increasing age, cell size increased, and cells lost their regular hexagonal shape. Cell density was higher in the macula versus periphery. AMD resulted in greater variability in size and shape of the RPE cell. Spatial point analysis revealed an ordered distribution of cells in normal and high spatial disorder in AMD eyes. Morphometrics of the RPE cell readily discriminate among young vs. old and normal vs. diseased in the human eye. The normal RPE sheet is organized in a regular array of cells, but AMD exhibited strong spatial irregularity. These findings reflect on the robust recovery of the RPE sheet after wounding and the circumstances under which it cannot recover. PMID:26427486

  19. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, its the best way to ...

  20. Eye hazards of environmental lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1950s and 1960s it became clear that the nuclear fireball and lasers could cause thermal retinal injury; at that time, the reference of Verhoeff, Bell, and Walker was often cited to argue that solar eclipse blindness (solar retinitis) was also a thermal retinal injury. It was not until 1975 that it became clear that a photochemical mechanism for retinal injury was possible for lengthy exposures in the primate or human eye. The potential for photochemical injury of the retina suggests the possibilities of delayed effects, and a considerable research effort has been underway over the last decade to study the implications for retinal degradation by intense light. The lens can undergo changes leading to cataract following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although acute UVR injury of the cornea (photokeratitis) has been recognized since the early part of this century, the link between UVR and cataract has long been a point of controversy. Today, most scientists studying optical radiation hazards conclude that UVR is a causative factor in some forms of cataract. Differences of opinion arise as to the exact wavelength range that is effective (i.e., UVA: 315-400 nm and/or UVB: 280-315 nm). Pitts and colleagues have shown that only a very narrow band of UVR wavelengths between 295 and 320 nm appear to be effective in causing acute cataract in experimental animals. Epidemiological studies of cataract incidence appear to show that UVR is a causative factor, despite the fact that at least one investigator had concluded that high ambient temperature was a more likely causative factor than UVR. This author has recently completed a study of UVR exposures in the outdoor environment that would support the epidemiologic studies of UVR induction of cataract