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Sample records for design eye point

  1. Three-dimensional system integration for HUD placement on a new tactical airlift platform: design eye point vs. HUD eye box with accommodation and perceptual implications

    Harbour, Steven D.; Hudson, Jeffery A.; Zehner, Gregory F.

    2012-06-01

    The retrofitting of a cockpit with a Head-Up-Display (HUD) raises potential accommodation and perceptual issues for pilots that must be addressed. For maximum optical efficiency, the goal is to be able to place every pilot's eye into the HUD Eye Motion Box (EMB) given a seat adjustment range. Initially, the Eye Reference Point (ERP) of the EMB should theoretically be located on the aircraft's original cockpit Design Eye Point (DEP), but human postures vary, and HUD systems may not be optimally placed. In reality, there is a distribution of pilot eyes around the DEP (which is dominant eye dependent); therefore, this must be accounted for in order to obtain appropriate visibility of all of the symbology based on photonic characteristics of the HUD. Pilot size and postural variation need to be taken into consideration when positioning the HUD system to ensure proper vision of all HUD symbology in addition to meeting the basic physical accommodation requirements of the cockpit. The innovative process and data collection methods for maximizing accommodation and pilot perception on a new "tactical airlift" platform are discussed as well as the related neurocognitive factors and the effects of information display design on cognitive phenomena.

  2. Design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye

    Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Keyi

    2015-12-01

    In this research, design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye is presented. The imaging system consists of three layers of lens arrays. In each channel, two lenses are designed to control the angular magnification and a field lens is added to improve the image quality and extend the field of view. Aspherical surfaces are introduced to improve the image quality. Ray tracing results demonstrate that the light from the same object point is focused at the same imaging point through different channels. Therefore the system has much higher energy efficiency than conventional spherical apposition compound eye.

  3. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  4. Head and eye movement as pointing modalities for eyewear computers

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    While the new generation of eyewear computers have increased expectations of a wearable computer, providing input to these devices is still challenging. Hand-held devices, voice commands, and hand gestures have already been explored to provide input to the wearable devices. In this paper, we...... examined using head and eye movements to point on a graphical user interface of a wearable computer. The performance of users in head and eye pointing has been compared with mouse pointing as a baseline method. The result of our experiment showed that the eye pointing is significantly faster than head...

  5. Eye tracking in user experience design

    Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...

  6. Design of a computer game using an eye-tracking device for eye's activity rehabilitation

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Huan, Chia-Chin; Chan, Chao-Ning; Yeh, Mau-Shiun; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2004-07-01

    An eye mouse interface that can be used to operate a computer using the movement of the eyes is described. We developed this eye-tracking system for eye motion disability rehabilitation. When the user watches the screen of a computer, a charge-coupled device will catch images of the user's eye and transmit it to the computer. A program, based on a new cross-line tracking and stabilizing algorithm, will locate the center point of the pupil in the images. The calibration factors and energy factors are designed for coordinate mapping and blink functions. After the system transfers the coordinates of pupil center in the images to the display coordinate, it will determine the point at which the user gazed on the display, then transfer that location to the game subroutine program. We used this eye-tracking system as a joystick to play a game with an application program in a multimedia environment. The experimental results verify the feasibility and validity of this eye-game system and the rehabilitation effects for the user's visual movement.

  7. Turning points in reactor design

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems

  8. Turning points in reactor design

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  9. Design, Sensing and Control of a Robotic Prosthetic Eye for Natural Eye Movement

    J. J. Gu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of an eye is a tragedy for a person, who may suffer psychologically and physically. This paper is concerned with the design, sensing and control of a robotic prosthetic eye that moves horizontally in synchronization with the movement of the natural eye. Two generations of robotic prosthetic eye models have been developed. The first generation model uses an external infrared sensor array mounted on the frame of a pair of eyeglasses to detect the natural eye movement and to feed the control system to drive the artificial eye to move with the natural eye. The second generation model removes the impractical usage of the eye glass frame and uses the human brain EOG (electro-ocular-graph signal picked up by electrodes placed on the sides of a person's temple to carry out the same eye movement detection and control tasks as mentioned above. Theoretical issues on sensor failure detection and recovery, and signal processing techniques used in sensor data fusion, are studied using statistical methods and artificial neural network based techniques. In addition, practical control system design and implementation using micro-controllers are studied and implemented to carry out the natural eye movement detection and artificial robotic eye control tasks. Simulation and experimental studies are performed, and the results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the research project reported in this paper.

  10. Detection of characteristic eye points in non-ideal light conditions

    Wiśniewska, Joanna; Galiński, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Detection of characteristic eye points under challenging light conditions is a non-trivial task. Difficulty of this task increase even more when low resolution images are used. This article introduces an adaptive solution for detection of characteristic eye points in mentioned conditions. First, light normalization algorithm is performed. Then, face and eye detection followed by determination of eye status (namely: open or closed) is done. Finally, an adaptive method for pupil and eye corners detection is developed by comparing some existing methods. Experimental results show the outperformance of the proposed method.

  11. Virtual egocenters as a function of display geometric field of view and eye station point

    Psotka, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The accurate location of one's virtual egocenter in a geometric space is of critical importance for immersion technologies. This experiment was conducted to investigate the role of field of view (FOV) and observer station points in the perception of the location of one's egocenter (the personal viewpoint) in virtual space. Rivalrous cues to the accurate location of one's egocenter may be one factor involved in simulator sickness. Fourteen subjects viewed an animated 3D model, of the room in which they sat, binocularly, from Eye Station Points (ESP) of either 300 or 800 millimeters. The display was on a 190 by 245 mm monitor, at a resolution of 320 by 200 pixels with 256 colors. They saw four models of the room designed with four geometric field of view (FOVg) conditions of 18, 48, 86, and 140 degrees. They drew the apparent paths of the camera in the room on a bitmap of the room as seen from infinity above. Large differences in the paths of the camera were seen as a function of both FOVg and ESP. Ten of the subjects were then asked to find the position for each display that minimized camera motion. The results fit well with predictions from an equation that took the ratio of human FOV (roughly 180 degrees) to FOVg times the Geometric Eye Point (GEP) of the imager: Zero Station Point = (180/FOVg)*GEP

  12. Design of optical interconnects inspired in multi-aperture optics based in compound insect eyes

    Garza-Rivera, Anel; Trevino-Palacios, Carlos G.; Renero-Carrillo, Francisco J.

    2012-06-01

    Optical interconnection at high-speed and large-capacity transmission of data has the advantage of conveying information at large bandwidths in free space with less crosstalk than electronics. We propose here the design of micro-optical devices based in the multi-aperture compound insect eyes that will transfer a signal as a freespace multichannel point-to-point interconnection. These designs are inspired in the configuration of the superposition refractive compound eye as Gabor superlens by means of the implementation of microlens arrays. In our configuration the design equations, simulations, and optical performance are shown.

  13. The Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Point-of-Care Test in Dry Eye.

    Lanza, Nicole L; Valenzuela, Felipe; Perez, Victor L; Galor, Anat

    2016-04-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. However, the subjective symptoms of dry eye poorly correlate to the current gold standard for diagnostic tests, reflecting the need to develop better objective tests for the diagnosis of dry eye. This review considers the role of ocular surface matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in dry eye and the implications of a novel point-of-care test that measures MMP-9 levels, InflammaDry (RPS, Sarasota, FL) on choosing appropriate therapeutic treatments. PMID:26850527

  14. Dynamical Systems in Circuit Designer's Eyes

    Odyniec, M.

    2011-05-09

    Examples of nonlinear circuit design are given. Focus of the design process is on theory and engineering methods (as opposed to numerical analysis). Modeling is related to measurements It is seen that the phase plane is still very useful with proper models Harmonic balance/describing function offers powerful insight (via the combination of simulation with circuit and ODE theory). Measurement and simulation capabilities increased, especially harmonics measurements (since sinusoids are easy to generate)

  15. The Chinese American Eye Study: Design and Methods

    Varma, Rohit; Hsu, Chunyi; Wang, Dandan; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To summarize the study design, operational strategies and procedures of the Chinese American Eye Study (CHES), a population-based assessment of the prevalence of visual impairment, ocular disease, and visual functioning in Chinese Americans. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study, included 4,570 Chinese, 50 years and older, residing in the city of Monterey Park, California. Each eligible participant completed a detailed interview and eye examination. The interview included an assessment of demographic, behavioral, and ocular risk factors and health-related and vision-related quality of life. The eye examination included measurements of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual fields, fundus and optic disc photography, a detailed anterior and posterior segment examination, and measurements of blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and blood glucose levels. Results The objectives of the CHES are to obtain prevalence estimates of visual impairment, refractive error, diabetic retinopathy, open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, lens opacities, and age-related macular degeneration in Chinese-Americans. In addition, outcomes include effect estimates for risk factors associated with eye diseases. Lastly, CHES will investigate the genetic determinates of myopia and glaucoma. Conclusion The CHES will provide information about the prevalence and risk factors of ocular diseases in one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. PMID:24044409

  16. Design and development of miniature parallel robot for eye surgery.

    Sakai, Tomoya; Harada, Kanako; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ueta, Takashi; Noda, Yasuo; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    A five degree-of-freedom (DOF) miniature parallel robot has been developed to precisely and safely remove the thin internal limiting membrane in the eye ground during vitreoretinal surgery. A simulator has been developed to determine the design parameters of this robot. The developed robot's size is 85 mm × 100 mm × 240 mm, and its weight is 770 g. This robot incorporates an emergency instrument retraction function to quickly remove the instrument from the eye in case of sudden intraoperative complications such as bleeding. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the robot's performance in the master-slave configuration, and the results demonstrated that it had a tracing accuracy of 40.0 μm. PMID:25569974

  17. Retrieval of wave aberration of human eyes from actual point-spread-function data.

    Artal, Pablo; Santamaría, J.; Bescós, J.

    1988-01-01

    The wave aberration of human eyes is retrieved from actual point-spread-function (PSF) data and the modulus of the pupil function. The PSF had been obtained previously by application of a hybrid optical-digital method developed recently. The retrieval is done by using a bidimensional Gerchberg-Saxton phase-retrieval algorithm joined to an iterative phase-unwrapping algorithm. To obtain an adequate convergence, the initial wave aberration for starting the retrieval-unwrapping algorithm is esti...

  18. Design of a new two element OSLD Badge for eye lens monitoring

    Normally the dose to the vicinity of the eye is received by the occupational radiation workers who handle radioisotopes or doctors who perform interventional radiographic procedures. The Eye dosimeters provide an estimate of the radiation dose to the lens of the eye. In the recent ICRP-2011 recommendations, the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 150 mSv in a year to 20 mSv in a year for all the occupational workers. To ensure that the dose limit for the eye lens does not exceed the prescribed dose limits, various eye lens dosimeters have been designed and are being used internationally. All these eye dosimeters consist of one natural LiF based thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) element sealed in a plastic holder. The design of the eye dosimeter and place of wear (near the eye) plays an important role in correct estimation of the dose to the lens of the eye. It is generally seen that the eye dosimeter when worn with the head strap on the forehead near the eye, the dose the element receives can be easily correlated to the eye dose. This paper presents the design of a new Eye lens dosimeter based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors for its possible use by the occupational workers covering the medical, industrial and nuclear facilities for assessing the Hp(3)

  19. Integrating Service Design and Eye Tracking Insight for Designing Smart TV User Interfaces

    Sheng-Ming Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a process that integrate service design method and eye tracking insight for designing a Smart TV user interface. The Service Design method, which is utilized for leading the combination of the quality function deployment (QFD and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, is used to analyze the features of three Smart TV user interface design mockups. Scientific evidences, which include the effectiveness and efficiency testing data obtained from eye tracking experiments with six participants, are provided the information for analysing the affordance of these design mockups. The results of this research demonstrate a comprehensive methodology that can be used iteratively for redesigning, redefining and evaluating of Smart TV user interfaces. It can also help to make the design of Smart TV user interfaces relate to users' behaviors and needs. So that to improve the affordance of design. Future studies may analyse the data that are derived from eye tracking experiments to improve our understanding of the spatial relationship between designed elements in a Smart TV user interface.

  20. Design Point for a Spheromak Compression Experiment

    Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; O'Bryan, John; Stuber, James; Darpa Spheromak Team

    2015-11-01

    Two principal issues for the spheromak concept remain to be addressed experimentally: formation efficiency and confinement scaling. We are therefore developing a design point for a spheromak experiment that will be heated by adiabatic compression, utilizing the CORSICA and NIMROD codes as well as analytic modeling with target parameters R_initial =0.3m, R_final =0.1m, T_initial =0.2keV, T_final =1.8keV, n_initial =1019m-3 and n_final = 1021m-3, with radial convergence of C =3. This low convergence differentiates the concept from MTF with C =10 or more, since the plasma will be held in equilibrium throughout compression. We present results from CORSICA showing the placement of coils and passive structure to ensure stability during compression, and design of the capacitor bank needed to both form the target plasma and compress it. We specify target parameters for the compression in terms of plasma beta, formation efficiency and energy confinement. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.

  1. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    Polulyakh, Valeriy [Advanced Data Security, 1933 O' Toole Way, San Jose, CA 95131 (United States); Poutivski, Iouri [Terimber Corporation, 2456 Homewood Drive, San Jose, CA 95128, USA and Facebook Inc, 1601 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  2. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    Polulyakh, Valeriy; Poutivski, Iouri

    2014-05-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1-100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t˜30psec) and low energy (E˜200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P˜30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  3. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t∼30psec) and low energy (E∼200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P∼30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 μm. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts

  4. Intraocular lens design for treating high myopia based on individual eye model

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhaoqi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2007-02-01

    In this research, we firstly design the phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) based on individual eye model with optical design software ZEMAX. The individual PIOL is designed to correct the defocus and astigmatism, and then we compare the PIOL power calculated from the individual eye model with that from the experiential formula. Close values of PIOL power are obtained between the individual eye model and the formula, but the suggested method has more accuracy with more functions. The impact of PIOL decentration on human eye is evaluated, including rotation decentration, flat axis decentration, steep axis decentration and axial movement of PIOL, which is impossible with traditional method. To control the PIOL decentration errors, we give the limit values of PIOL decentration for the specific eye in this study.

  5. Design and development of laser eye protection filter

    Laser based devices, have been operational for measurement of distances horizontally and vertically in avionics and surveillance industries. These equipments are functional on pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm, this wavelength elevate the risk of eye exposure to personnel at unexpected levels. In this paper the eye protection filters, for the wavelength 1064nm were developed with soft (ZnS) and hard (TiO2) coating materials by using thin film vacuum coating technique. The damage threshold of the filter is 0.2 J/cm2. Transmission characteristics are measured and discussed. Optical damage threshold (for eye 5 × 10−6 J/cm2) at various distances is also simulated.

  6. Design and Kinematic Analysis of a Novel Humanoid Robot Eye Using Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Xuan-yin Wang; Yang Zhang; Xiao-jie Fu; Gui-shan Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel humanoid robot eye, which is driven by six Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAMs) and rotates with 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF). The design of the mechanism and motion type of the robot eye are inspired by that of human eyes. The model of humanoid robot eye is established as a parallel mechanism, and the inverse-kinematic problem of this flexible tendons driving parallel system is solved by the analytical geometry method. As an extension, the simulation result for saccadic movement is presented under three conditions. The design and kinematic analysis of the prototype could be a sig nificant step towards the goal of building an autonomous humanoid robot eye with the movement and especially the visual functions similar to that of human.

  7. A method to design aspheric spectacles for correction of high-order aberrations of human eye

    LI Rui; WANG ZhaoQi; LIU YongJi; MU GuoGuang

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the correction of high-order aberrations of human eye with spectacles,a design method of aspheric spectacles is proposed based on the eye's wavefront aberrations data.Regarding the eyeball and the spectacles as a whole system-the lens-eye system-the surface profiles of the spectacles are achieved by optimization procedure of lens design.Different from the conventional optometry,in which the refraction prescription is acquired with a visual chart,the design takes into account the two aspects of actual human viewing,eyeball rolling and certain distinct viewing field.The rotation angle of eyeball is set to be ±20° as wearing spectacles,and the field of view is set to be ∧7° which is especially important as watching screen display.The individual eye model is constructed as the main part of the lens-eye system.The Liou eye model is modified by sticking a thin meniscus lens to the crystalline lens.Then the defocus of the individual eye is transferred to the front surface of the meniscus lens,and the astigmatism and high-order aberrations are transferred to the front surface of the cornea.50 eyes are involved in this research,among which 36 eyes have good enough visual performance already after sphero-cylindrical correction.10 eyes have distinct improvement in vision and 4 eyes have no visual improvement by further aspheric correction.6 typical subject eyes are selected for the aberrations analysis and the spectacles design in this paper.It is shown that the validity of visual correction of aspheric lens depends on the characteristics of the eye's wavefront aberrations,and it is effective for the eye with larger astigmatism or spherical aberration.Compared with sphero-cylindrical correction only,the superiority taken by the aspheric correction is mainly on the improvement of MTF at a larger field of view.For the best aspheric correction,the MTF values increase by 18.87%,38.34%,44.36%,51.29% and 57.32% at the spatial frequencies of 40

  8. Ethical point of view in design

    Ikonen, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The thesis studies ethical problems in design, shows how to design according to ethical principles, and thus offers understanding of the concept. Products are designed according to the ethical design principles out of trash material. The topic of the thesis was chosen because of the unethical phenomena in the field of design mostly due to striving for economic growth. The problems and solutions are presented according to the stages of product life cycle from ecological, social and cultura...

  9. Designing a Secure Point-of-Sale System

    Sharp, Robin; Pedersen, Allan; Hedegaard, Anders

    This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described.......This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described....

  10. An Analysis of Eye Movement and Cognitive Load about the Editorial Design in Elementary Science Textbook

    Kim, Seong-un; Lim, Sung-man; Kim, Eun-ae; Yang, Il-ho

    2016-01-01

    This study is for the implication of editorial design in science textbooks which are designed for student-centered instruction, when the elements of the editorial design are different, we focus on how the students' eye movement and cognitive load change. For this, we produced a new book for 5th grade students in elementary school that is modified…

  11. Generalized multi-point inverse airfoil design

    Selig, Michael S.; Maughmer, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    In a rather general sense, inverse airfoil design can be taken to mean the problem of specifying a desired set of airfoil characteristics, such as the airfoil maximum thickness ratio, pitching moment, part of the velocity distribution or boundary-layer development, etc., then from this information determine the corresponding airfoil shape. This paper presents a method which approaches the design problem from this perspective. In particular, the airfoil is divided into segments along which, together with the design conditions, either the velocity distribution or boundary-layer development may be prescribed. In addition to these local desired distributions, single parameters like the airfoil thickness can be specified. The problem of finding the airfoil shape is determined by coupling an incompressible, inviscid, inverse airfoil design method with a direct integral boundary-layer analysis method and solving the resulting nonlinear equations via a multidimensional Newton iteration technique. The approach is fast and easily allows for interactive design. It is also flexible and could be adapted to solving compressible, inverse airfoil design problems.

  12. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  13. Design and DSP Implementation of Fixed-Point Systems

    Martin Coors; Holger Keding; Olaf Lüthje; Heinrich Meyr

    2002-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the FRIDGE design environment which supports the design and DSP implementation of fixed-point digital signal processing systems. We present the tool-supported transformation of signal processing algorithms coded in floating-point ANSI C to a fixed-point representation in SystemC. We introduce the novel approach to control and data flow analysis, which is necessary for the transformation. The design environment enables fast bit-true simulation by mapping the ...

  14. Design and DSP Implementation of Fixed-Point Systems

    Coors Martin; Keding Holger; Lüthje Olaf; Meyr Heinrich

    2002-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the FRIDGE design environment which supports the design and DSP implementation of fixed-point digital signal processing systems. We present the tool-supported transformation of signal processing algorithms coded in floating-point ANSI C to a fixed-point representation in SystemC. We introduce the novel approach to control and data flow analysis, which is necessary for the transformation. The design environment enables fast bit-true simulation by mapping the...

  15. MSFC Three Point Docking Mechanism design review

    Schaefer, Otto; Ambrosio, Anthony

    1992-12-01

    In the next few decades, we will be launching expensive satellites and space platforms that will require recovery for economic reasons, because of initial malfunction, servicing, repairs, or out of a concern for post lifetime debris removal. The planned availability of a Three Point Docking Mechanism (TPDM) is a positive step towards an operational satellite retrieval infrastructure. This study effort supports NASA/MSFC engineering work in developing an automated docking capability. The work was performed by the Grumman Space & Electronics Group as a concept evaluation/test for the Tumbling Satellite Retrieval Kit. Simulation of a TPDM capture was performed in Grumman's Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) using mockups of both parts (the mechanism and payload). Similar TPDM simulation activities and more extensive hardware testing was performed at NASA/MSFC in the Flight Robotics Laboratory and Space Station/Space Operations Mechanism Test Bed (6-DOF Facility).

  16. Design point selection for an ignited ITER

    The parameter choice for the ITER design is dominated by the need to achieve ignition. Different energy confinement time scalings extrapolate to different device parameters, and the final design chosen must have a reasonable chance of success under the presently favoured scalings. This study investigates the device performance over the plasma current - aspect ratio design space, using sets of simplified equations and more detailed parametric analysis codes, with a view to clarifying the acceptable parameter region. Alterations to the initial assumptions of plasma elongation, plasma safety factor and peak toroidal field, and the effect of limiting the wall load, are also investigated. The study concludes that a device with aspect ratio around 3 and plasma current about 20 MA would be an appropriate choice. Under the assumptions of the study such a device would have a major radius of about 5.8m and would require the attainment of enhancement factors around 1.5 over L-mode scaling. (author). 6 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Linking eye design with host symbiont relationships in pontoniine shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae.

    Nicola C Dobson

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is prevalent in the marine environment with many studies examining the effects of such interactions between host and symbiont. Pontoniine shrimps are a group whose ecology is characterised by symbiotic interactions. This investigation examines the gross morphology of Pontoniinae compound eyes and superficial optical parameters with reference to their symbiotic relationship or lifestyle category; free-living, ectosymbiont, endosymbiont (bivalves or endosymbiont (non-bivalves. The eye morphologies of free-living and ectosymbiotic species are very similar, yet differ from both forms of endosymbiotic species. Endosymbionts have significantly smaller and simpler eyes with larger facets and bigger interommatidial angles and eye parameters for increased sensitivity levels. However bivalve endosymbionts form an intermediary group between non-bivalve endosymbionts and ectosymbionts as a result of their more active lifestyle. The accessory eye or "nebenauge", although of uncertain function, commonly occurs in free-living Pontoniinae species but rarely in endosymbionts apart from in more primitive species. The variation in morphology reflects tensions between functional requirements and ecological pressures that have strongly influenced eye design in Pontoniinae.

  18. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Laboratory; Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Laboratory; Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Laboratory; Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Laboratory; Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Laboratory; Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Laboratory; Kumar, Akansha [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-04-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200 MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technological readiness level, licensing approach and costs.

  19. An updated point design for heavy ion fusion

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant

  20. Designing a Secure Point-of-Sale System

    Sharp, Robin; Pedersen, Allan; Hedegaard, Anders

    This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described....

  1. A 34-meter VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) point design

    Ashwill, T. D.; Berg, D. E.; Dodd, H. M.; Rumsey, M. A.; Sutherland, H. J.; Veers, P. S.

    The Wind Energy Division at Sandia National Laboratories recently completed a point design based on the 34-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) Test Bed. The 34-m Test Bed research machine incorporates several innovations that improve Darrieus technology, including increased energy production, over previous machines. The point design differs minimally from the Test Bed; but by removing research-related items, its estimated cost is substantially reduced. The point design is a first step towards a Test-Bed-based commercial machine that would be competitive with conventional sources of power in the mid-1990s.

  2. COMS eye plaque brachytherapy dosimetric sensitivity to source photon energy and seed design

    This study explores the influence of source photon energy on eye plaque brachytherapy dose distributions for a 16 mm COMS plaque filled with 103Pd, 125I, or 131Cs sources or monoenergetic photon emissions ranging from 12 keV to 100 keV. Dose distributions were similarly created for all permutations of three common brachytherapy seed designs. Within this range, sources with average energy ≤22 keV may reduce dose to the opposite eye wall by more than a factor of 2 while maintaining tolerable proximal sclera doses when prescribing to depths of 9 mm or less. Current commercially-available brachytherapy sources can exhibit up to 15% relative dosimetric sensitivity to seed design at regions within the eye. - Highlights: • Episcleral eye plaque brachytherapy utilizes low-energy photon-emitting sources. • Dose distribution sensitivity to source photon energy and seed design was examined. • Tumor dose conformity and critical structure sparing from ≤22 keV photons is preferred. • Ocular dose distributions varied by up to 15% with seed design permutations

  3. Design and Implementation of Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit

    S Ramanathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at Implementation of Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit. The real number is represented in Qn.m format where n is the number of bits to the left of the binary point and m is the number of bits to the right of the binary point. The Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit was designed using Verilog HDL. The Fixed Point Arithmetic Unit incorporates adder, multiplier and subtractor. We carried out the simulations in ModelSim and Cadence IUS, used Cadence RTL Compiler for synthesis and used Cadence SoC Encounter for physical design and targeted 180 nm Technology for ASIC implementation. From the synthesis result it is found that our design consumes 1.524 mW of power and requires area 20823.26 μm2 .

  4. Pointing with a One-Eyed Cursor for Supervised Training in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

    Kibsgaard, Martin; Kraus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pointing in the endoscopic view of a surgical robot is a natural and effcient way for instructors to communicate with trainees in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. However, pointing in a stereo-endoscopic view can be limited by problems such as video delay, double vision, arm fatigue, and......-day training units in robot- assisted minimally invasive surgery on anaesthetised pigs....

  5. Pointing with a One-Eyed Cursor for Supervised Training in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

    Kibsgaard, Martin; Kraus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pointing in the endoscopic view of a surgical robot is a natural and effcient way for instructors to communicate with trainees in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. However, pointing in a stereo-endoscopic view can be limited by problems such as video delay, double vision, arm fatigue, an...

  6. Remote control of mobile robots through human eye gaze: the design and evaluation of an interface

    Latif, Hemin Omer; Sherkat, Nasser; Lotfi, Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    Controlling mobile robots remotely requires the operator to monitor the status of the robot through some sort of feedback. Assuming a vision based feedback system is used the operator is required to closely monitor the images while navigating the robot in real time. This will engage the eyes and the hands of the operator. Since the eyes are engaged in the monitoring task anyway, their gaze can be used to navigate the robot in order to free the hands of the operator. However, the challenge here lies in developing an interaction interface that enables an intuitive distinction to be made between monitoring and commanding. This paper presents a novel means of constructing a user interface to meet this challenge. A range of solutions are constructed by augmenting the visual feedback with command regions to investigate the extent to which a user can intuitively control the robot. An experimental platform comprising a mobile robot together with cameras and eye-gaze system is constructed. The design of the system allows control of the robot, control of onboard cameras and control of the interface through eye-gaze. A number of tasks are designed to evaluate the proposed solutions. This paper presents the design considerations and the results of the evaluation. Overall it is found that the proposed solutions provide effective means of successfully navigating the robot for a range of tasks.

  7. Design of Floating Point Arithmetic Logic Unit with Universal Gate

    Shraddha N. Zanjat; Dr.S.D.Chede; Prof.B.J.Chilke

    2014-01-01

    A floating point arithmetic and logic unit design using pipelining is proposed. By using pipeline with ALU design, ALU provides a high performance. With pipelining plus parallel processing concept ALU execute multiple instructions simultaneously. Floating point ALU unit is formed by combination of arithmetic modules (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), Universal gate module. Each module is divided into sub-module. Bits selection determines which operation takes place at a partic...

  8. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  9. Design and DSP Implementation of Fixed-Point Systems

    Coors Martin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an introduction to the FRIDGE design environment which supports the design and DSP implementation of fixed-point digital signal processing systems. We present the tool-supported transformation of signal processing algorithms coded in floating-point ANSI C to a fixed-point representation in SystemC. We introduce the novel approach to control and data flow analysis, which is necessary for the transformation. The design environment enables fast bit-true simulation by mapping the fixed-point algorithm to integral data types of the host machine. A speedup by a factor of 20 to 400 can be achieved compared to C++-library-based bit-true simulation. FRIDGE also provides a direct link to DSP implementation by processor specific C code generation and advanced code optimization.

  10. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study

    Maansi Bansal-Travers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail ‘power wall’ behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. Objective: The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1 evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2 evaluate the duration (dwell-time of these fixations, and (3 evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Methods: Data from 13 Smokers (S and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS aged 180–30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation and duration (dwell-time of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10, Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6, and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9. A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Results: Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72% fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67% or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%. In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96% indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Conclusions: Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  11. Progress and prospects for an IFE relevant FI point design

    Key M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The physics issues involved in scaling from sub-ignition to high gain fast ignition are discussed. Successful point designs must collimate the electrons and minimise the standoff distance to avoid multi-megajoule ignition energies. Collimating B field configurations are identified and some initial designs are explored.

  12. Using Eye Movement to Control a Computer: A Design for a Lightweight Electro-Oculogram Electrode Array and Computer Interface

    Eduardo Iáñez; Azorin, Jose M.; Carlos Perez-Vidal

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a human-computer interface based on electro-oculography (EOG) that allows interaction with a computer using eye movement. The EOG registers the movement of the eye by measuring, through electrodes, the difference of potential between the cornea and the retina. A new pair of EOG glasses have been designed to improve the user's comfort and to remove the manual procedure of placing the EOG electrodes around the user's eye. The interface, which includes the EOG electrodes, us...

  13. Design and Implementation of Complex Floating Point Processor Using FPGA

    Murali Krishna Pavuluri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents complete processor hardware wit h three arithmetic units. The first arithmetic unit can perform 32-bit integer arithmetic operations. The s econd unit can perform arithmetic operations such a s addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, an d square root on 32-bit floating point numbers. The third unit can perform arithmetic operations such as addi tion, subtraction, multiplication on complex number s. The specific advancement in this processor is the n ew architecture introduced for complex arithmetic u nit. In general complex floating point arithmetic hardwa re consists of floating to fixed and fixed to float ing conversions. But using such hardware will lead to c ompromise between accuracy and number of bits used to represent the fixed point equivalent of floating point numbers. The proposed architecture avoids th at compromise and it is implemented with less number o f look-up tables to save around 5500 logic gates. T he complex numbers are represented using a subset of I EEE754 standard floating point format, 16-bits for real part and 16-bits for imaginary part. The float ing point arithmetic unit works on 32-bit IEEE754 s ingle precision numbers. The instruction set is specially designed to support integer, floating point and co mplex floating point arithmetic operations. The on-chip R AM is 8kBytes and is extendable up to 64kBytes. As the processor is designed to implement on FPGA, the emb edded block RAMs are utilized as RAM.

  14. Revised Point of Departure Design Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Fittje, James E.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Schnitzler, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to further refine potential point of departure nuclear thermal rocket engine designs, four proposed engine designs representing two thrust classes and utilizing two different fuel matrix types are designed and analyzed from both a neutronics and thermodynamic cycle perspective. Two of these nuclear rocket engine designs employ a tungsten and uranium dioxide cermet (ceramic-metal) fuel with a prismatic geometry based on the ANL-200 and the GE-710, while the other two designs utilize uranium-zirconium-carbide in a graphite composite fuel and a prismatic fuel element geometry developed during the Rover/NERVA Programs. Two engines are analyzed for each fuel type, a small criticality limited design and a 111 kN (25 klbf) thrust class engine design, which has been the focus of numerous manned mission studies, including NASA's Design Reference Architecture 5.0. slightly higher T/W ratios, but they required substantially more 235U.

  15. Research of Digital Interface Layout Design based on Eye-tracking

    Shao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects’ search efficiency. Based on data and results, this study constructed a matching model which is appropriate for multilevel digital interface layout and verified the fact that the task element is a significant and important aspect of layout design. A scientific experimental model of research on digital interfaces for complex systems is provided. Both data and conclusions of the eye movement experiment provide a reference for layout designs of interfaces for complex systems with different task characteristics.

  16. The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey

    Csépány, Gergely; Vida, Krisztián; Regály, Zsolt; Mészáros, László; Oláh, Katalin; Kiss, Csaba; Döbrentei, László; Jaskó, Attila; Mező, György; Farkas, Ernő

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving $\\sim10$ sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly -- that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures -- until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometimes in the spring or summer of 2013.

  17. The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey

    Pál, András; Csépány, Gergely; Jaskó, Attila; Schlaffer, Ferenc; Vida, Krisztián; Mező, György; Döbrentei, László; Farkas, Ernő; Kiss, Csaba; Oláh, Katalin; Regály, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving ~10 sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly -- that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures -- until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometimes in the spring or summer of 2013.

  18. Change-point in stochastic design regression and the bootstrap

    Seijo, Emilio; Sen, Bodhisattva

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the consistency of different bootstrap procedures for constructing confidence intervals (CIs) for the unique jump discontinuity (change-point) in an otherwise smooth regression function in a stochastic design setting. This problem exhibits nonstandard asymptotics and we argue that the standard bootstrap procedures in regression fail to provide valid confidence intervals for the change-point. We propose a version of smoothed bootstrap, illustrate its remarkable finite sa...

  19. ASIC Design of Floating-Point FFT Processor

    陈禾; 赵忠武

    2004-01-01

    An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design of a 1024 points floating-point fast Fourier transform(FFT) processor is presented. It can satisfy the requirement of high accuracy FFT result in related fields. Several novel design techniques for floating-point adder and multiplier are introduced in detail to enhance the speed of the system. At the same time, the power consumption is decreased. The hardware area is effectively reduced as an improved butterfly processor is developed. There is a substantial increase in the performance of the design since a pipelined architecture is adopted, and very large scale integrated (VLSI) is easy to realize due to the regularity. A result of validation using field programmable gate array (FPGA) is shown at the end. When the system clock is set to 50 MHz, 204.8 μs is needed to complete the operation of FFT computation.

  20. Professional SharePoint 2010 Branding and User Interface Design

    Drisgill, Randy; Sanford, Jacob J; Stubbs, Paul; Riemann, Larry

    2010-01-01

    A must have guide for creating engaging and usable SharePoint 2010 brandingWith SharePoint 2010, Microsoft has provided a more robust environment for creating collaboration and content management sites that rival any of the popular websites on the internet. Creating a branded SharePoint site involves understanding both traditional web design techniques as well as topics that are typically reserved for developers. This book bridges that gap by not only providing expert guidance for creating beautiful public facing and internal intranet sites but it also addresses the needs of those readers that

  1. Oil-points - Designers means to evaluate sustainability of concepts

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    1998-01-01

    Designers have an essential influence on product design and are therefore one target group for environmental evaluation methods. This implies, that such evaluation methods have to meet designers requirements. Evaluation of sustainability of products is often done using formal Life Cycle Assessment...... investigated by means of three case studies where environmental impact is estimated using the EDIP method, the Eco-indicator 95 method, and the Oil Point method proposed by the authors. It is found that the results obtained using Oil Points are in acceptable conformity with the results obtained with more...... (LCA) methods. The different LCA based methodologies consider different environmental exchanges and are often rather complex.In this context, the authors raise the question, whether a simplified LCA method which is only based on energy considerations can be used as a tool for quick overviews. This is...

  2. Online Guidance Law of Missile Using Multiple Design Point Method

    Yamaoka, Seiji; Ueno, Seiya

    This paper deals with design procedure of online guidance law for future missiles that are required to have agile maneuverability. For the purpose, the authors propose to mount high power side-thrusters on a missile. The guidance law for such missiles is discussed from a point of view of optimal control theory in this paper. Minimum time problem is solved for the approximated system. It is derived that bang-bang control is optimal input from the necessary conditions of optimal solution. Feedback guidance without iterative calculation is useful for actual systems. Multiple design point method is applied to design feedback gains and feedforward inputs of the guidance law. The numerical results show the good performance of the proposed guidance law.

  3. Research on design multi-points performance curves of pump

    The centrifugal pump's performance curves are the most important chart to reveal relevance of different performance parameters. They can show pump's function comprehensively and graphically. However these curves can't be predicted and designed precisely, duo to the complicated flow inside the impeller and the incomplete way to design pump. The complete shape of performance curves can be gained only after test. With the development of industry, many applications need the pump operating well at different flow conditions. It means the pump's performance curves should pass some specific points. This is a problem to the designer who still uses the traditional way to design pumps. In this paper, the Design of experiments was applied to arrange a plan of experiments. Because the theory equations of performance curves contain many geometry factors of impeller, changing these factors have different influence on the shape of curves, the relationship between geometry factors and the performance under different operation points been attained after using variance analysis to deal with experiment data. The relevant regression models and graphs were drawn to help understand these relationships. Depending on the predicted values of geometry factors pump's impeller was redesigned, and the pump's performance been simulated for saving time and cost. Test shows that the shape of performance curves satisfy design objective, this example can be taken as a reference of pump's specific designs.

  4. Frequency of secondary cataract development in pseudophakic eyes with posterior chamber IOL of current designs in case of axial myopia

    G.V. Sorokoletov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To evaluate a frequency of secondary cataract development in different periods of postoperative follow-up after cataract phacoemulsification depending on the degree of axial myopia and the implanted IOL design. Material and methods. A retrospective analysis of secondary cataract formation in the long-term follow-up after cataract phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation was performed in 16575 eyes out of 8722 patients with emmetropia and axial myopia. The average age of patients was 74±7 years, and the follow-up period was 5 years. The eyes with associated pathology such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy etc, were excluded from the study. Depending on the design of implanted IOL all eyes were divided into 3 groups. The first group included 5527 eyes with the implanted B-lens IOL (Hanita, Israel. The second group included 5629 eyes with the implanted Idea IOL (XCELENS, Switzerland. The third group consisted of 5419 eyes with the implanted Acrysof natural, SA60AT IOL (Alcon, USA. In every case the degree of myopia was evaluated using axial length of an eye that was measured instrumentally. The incidence of secondary cataract formation was evaluated on quantity of YAG-laser posterior capsule dissection within the 5-year follow-up after phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. Conclusion. According to our results the incidence of PCO is directly dependent on the axial length of the eye, strongly increasing in eyes with high axial myopia. The design and material of implanted IOL played an important role in PCO formation too. The eyes with the Acrysof natural, SA60AT IOL (Alcon, USA had the lowest incidence of PCO in the long-term follow-up.

  5. The effect of human image in B2C website design: an eye-tracking study

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    On B2C shopping websites, effective visual designs can bring about consumers' positive emotional experience. From this perspective, this article developed a research model to explore the impact of human image as a visual element on consumers' online shopping emotions and subsequent attitudes towards websites. This study conducted an eye-tracking experiment to collect both eye movement data and questionnaire data to test the research model. Questionnaire data analysis showed that product pictures combined with human image induced positive emotions among participants, thus promoting their attitudes towards online shopping websites. Specifically, product pictures with human image first produced higher levels of image appeal and perceived social presence, thus stimulating higher levels of enjoyment and subsequent positive attitudes towards the websites. Moreover, a moderating effect of product type was demonstrated on the relationship between the presence of human image and the level of image appeal. Specifically, human image significantly increased the level of image appeal when integrated in entertainment product pictures while this relationship was not significant in terms of utilitarian products. Eye-tracking data analysis further supported these results and provided plausible explanations. The presence of human image significantly increased the pupil size of participants regardless of product types. For entertainment products, participants paid more attention to product pictures integrated with human image whereas for utilitarian products more attention was paid to functional information of products than to product pictures no matter whether or not integrated with human image.

  6. Design and verifications of an eye model fitted with contact lenses for wavefront measurement systems

    Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chang, Rong-Jie; Wang, Chung-Yen; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Wang, Pei-Jen

    2015-09-01

    Contact lenses are typically measured by the wet-box method because of the high optical power resulting from the anterior central curvature of cornea, even though the back vertex power of the lenses are small. In this study, an optical measurement system based on the Shack-Hartmann wavefront principle was established to investigate the aberrations of soft contact lenses. Fitting conditions were micmicked to study the optical design of an eye model with various topographical shapes in the anterior cornea. Initially, the contact lenses were measured by the wet-box method, and then by fitting the various topographical shapes of cornea to the eye model. In addition, an optics simulation program was employed to determine the sources of errors and assess the accuracy of the system. Finally, samples of soft contact lenses with various Diopters were measured; and, both simulations and experimental results were compared for resolving the controversies of fitting contact lenses to an eye model for optical measurements. More importantly, the results show that the proposed system can be employed for study of primary aberrations in contact lenses.

  7. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs.

    Chen, Haijian; Han, Dongmei; Dai, Yonghui; Zhao, Lina

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP) algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM) is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of "C programming language" are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate. PMID:26448738

  8. Reconfigurable point-of-care systems designed with interoperability standards.

    Warren, Steve; Yao, Jianchu; Schmitz, Ryan; Lebak, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Interoperability standards, if properly applied to medical system design, have the potential to decrease the cost of point-of-care monitoring systems while better matching systems to patient needs. This paper presents a brief editorial overview of future monitoring environments, followed by a short listing of smart-home and wearable-device efforts. This is followed by a summary of recent efforts in the Medical Component Design Laboratory at Kansas State University to address interoperability issues in point-of-care systems by incorporating the Bluetooth Host Controller Interface, the IEEE 1073 Medical Information Bus, and Health Level 7 (HL7) into a monitoring system that hosts wearable or nearby wireless devices. This wireless demonstration system includes a wearable electrocardiogram, wearable pulse oximeter, wearable data logger, weight scale, and LabVIEW base station. Data are exchanged between local and remote MySQL databases using the HL7 standard for medical information exchange. PMID:17270979

  9. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs

    Haijian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of “C programming language” are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate.

  10. EYE BALL HANGER”–AN INDIGENOUSLY DESIGNED DEVICE F OR DONOR CORNEAL EVALUATION IN ENUCLEATED EYES

    Sudhir Babu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Outcome of a corneal transplant surgery mainly depend s on the functional reserve of the cornea being transplanted. Thus Donor corneal tissue evaluation forms a vital step in assessing the viability of the graft. Cornea retrieval can be done as an in situ corneal button excision or whole globe enucleation. Studies have shown that enucleation causes less corneal damage and striae as compared to in situ Cor neo scleral button excision. 1 As soon as the eye is received at the eye bank corneal evaluation is done by corneal surgeon using slit lamp and specular microscope, and the cornea is graded, labele d and sent for storage. Before evaluation, cornea should be allowed to come to room temperature. Whole globe or corneo sclera button should not be left at room temperature for more than one hour.

  11. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

    Dandona Rakhi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and

  12. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

    Dandona Rakhi; Dandona Lalit; Naduvilath Thomas; Nanda Ashok; McCarty Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The desig...

  13. Change-point in stochastic design regression and the bootstrap

    Seijo, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the consistency of different bootstrap procedures for constructing confidence intervals (CIs) for the unique jump discontinuity (change-point) in an otherwise smooth regression function in a stochastic design setting. This problem exhibits nonstandard asymptotics and we argue that the standard bootstrap procedures in regression fail to provide valid confidence intervals for the change-point. We propose a version of smoothed bootstrap, illustrate its remarkable finite sample performance in our simulation study, and prove the consistency of the procedure. The $m$ out of $n$ bootstrap procedure is also considered and shown to be consistent. We also provide sufficient conditions for any bootstrap procedure to be consistent in this scenario.

  14. Pointing and spectral assignemnt design and control for MERTIS

    Walter, I.; Säuberlich, T.; Lieder, M.; Rataj, M.; Driescher, H.; Helbert, J.; Hiesinger, H.

    2013-09-01

    The development of MERTIS, a miniaturized thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of ESA's cornerstone mission BepiColombo to Mercury has been completed. Qualification of the design is followed by the calibration of the instrument showing up first results of the technology used. Based on subsequent viewing of different targets including on-board calibration sources the push-broom instrument will use a 2-dimensional bolometer detector to provide spatial and spectral information. Here repetition accuracy of pointing and spectral assignment is supported by the design of instrument components under the restriction of limited resources. Additionally a concept of verification after launch and cruise phase of the mission was developed. The article describes how this has been implemented and what the results under environment testing are.

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Image Delays on the Rise of MMI-Driven Telemanipulation Applications: Hand-Eye Coordination Interference from Visual Delays during Minute Pointing Operations

    Iwane Maida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Robots with high freedom of movement can be used for minute manipulation, enabling a wide range of real-world applications. However, the use of telemanipulation systems driven by man-machine interaction (MMI is currently limited to experimental trials, partly because the image delay during transmission interferes with the operator’s hand-eye coordination. This study examined how delays affect operation efficiency by pointing target size, and the degree of difficulty when performing telemanipulation operations. We conducted tests in which subjects performed pointing operations while visual delays interfered with their hand-eye coordination. Our findings show statistically that regardless of target size, delay variance of 200 ms or less hardly affects operation efficiency, and that difficulty increases for a target diameter of between 4 and 2 mm.

  16. Adaptive Pointing Design and Evaluation of a Precision Enhancing Technique for Absolute Pointing Devices

    König, Werner A.; Gerken, Jens; Dierdorf, Stefan; Reiterer, Harald

    2009-01-01

    We present Adaptive Pointing, a novel approach to addressing the common problem of accuracy when using absolute pointing devices for distant interaction. First, we discuss extensively some related work concerning the problem-domain of pointing accuracy when using absolute or relative pointing devices. As a result, we introduce a novel classification scheme to more clearly discriminate between different approaches. Second, the Adaptive Pointing technique is presented and described in detail. ...

  17. Design of an eye-in-hand sensing and servo control framework for harvesting robotics in dense vegetation

    Barth, Ruud; Hemming, Jochen; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    A modular software framework design that allows flexible implementation of eye-in-hand sensing and motion control for agricultural robotics in dense vegetation is reported. Harvesting robots in cultivars with dense vegetation require multiple viewpoints and on-line trajectory adjustments in order

  18. The Modular Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    We report on an ongoing study on modular Heavy Ion Fusion drivers. The modular driver is characterized by tens (∼ 20) nearly identical induction linacs, each carrying a single high current beam. In this scheme, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) can be one of the full size induction linacs. Hence, this approach offers significant advantages in terms of driver development path. For beam transport, these modules use solenoids which are capable of carrying high line charge densities, even at low energies. A new injector concept allows compression of the beam to high line densities right at the source. The final drift compression is performed in a plasma, in which the large repulsive space charge effects are neutralized. Finally, the beam is transversely compressed onto the target, using either external solenoids or current-carrying channels (in the Assisted Pinch Mode of beam propagation). We will report on progress towards a self-consistent point design from injector to target. Considerations of driver architecture, chamber environment as well as the methodology for meeting target requirements of spot size, pulse shape and symmetry will also be described. Finally, some near-term experiments to address the key scientific issues will be discussed

  19. Design and implementation of a real time and train less eye state recognition system

    Dehnavi, Mohammad; Eshghi, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Eye state recognition is one of the main stages of many image processing systems such as driver drowsiness detection system and closed-eye photo correction. Driver drowsiness is one of the main causes in the road accidents around the world. In these circumstances, a fast and accurate driver drowsiness detection system can prevent these accidents. In this article, we proposed a fast algorithm for determining the state of an eye, based on the difference between iris/pupil color and white area of the eye. In the proposed method, vertical projection is used to determine the eye state. This method is suitable for hardware implementation to be used in a fast and online drowsiness detection system. The proposed method, along with other needed preprocessing stages, is implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array chips. The results show that the proposed low-complex algorithm has sufficient speed and accuracy, to be used in real-world conditions.

  20. Onboard utilization of ground control points for image correction. Volume 3: Ground control point simulation software design

    1981-01-01

    The software developed to simulate the ground control point navigation system is described. The Ground Control Point Simulation Program (GCPSIM) is designed as an analysis tool to predict the performance of the navigation system. The system consists of two star trackers, a global positioning system receiver, a gyro package, and a landmark tracker.

  1. Teach Graphic Design Basics with PowerPoint

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Spotts, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    While PowerPoint is generally regarded as simply software for creating slide presentations, it includes often overlooked--but powerful--drawing tools. Because it is part of the Microsoft Office package, PowerPoint comes preloaded on many computers and thus is already available in many classrooms. Since most computers are not preloaded with good…

  2. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias; Town, Graham E.;

    2012-01-01

    An increasing interest in making sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written in polymer optical fibers (POFs) has been seen recently. Mostly microstructured POFs (mPOFs) have been chosen for this purpose because they are easier to fabricate compared, for example, to step index fibers and...... write the gratings make the point-by-point grating writing technique very interesting and would appear to be able to fill this technological gap. On the other end this technique is hardly applicable for microstructured fibers because of the writing beam being scattered by the air-holes. We report on the...... design and realization of a microstructured polymer optical fiber made of PMMA for direct writing of FBGs. The fiber was designed specifically to avoid obstruction of the writing beam by air-holes. The realized fiber has been used to point-by-point write a 5 mm long fourth order FBG with a Bragg...

  3. Design of a System for Vision Screening and Follow-up Eye Care for Children in Milwaukee Public Schools

    Murphy, Kathleen; Wu, Min; Steber, Dale; Cisler, Ron A.

    2005-01-01

    Vision problems affect many school age children, while only few of children are adequately screened for vision problems. The design of an information system supporting vision screening and follow-up eye care for Milwaukee Public Schools is discussed in this paper, which includes wireless data collection and web-based data management. The implementation of the system is ongoing. The information system will provide service to approximately 5,000 students annually in 30 urban e...

  4. Frequency of secondary cataract development in pseudophakic eyes with posterior chamber IOL of current designs in case of axial myopia

    G. V. Sorokoletov; V.K. Zuyev; E. R. Tumanyan; A.N. Bessarabov; V.N. Vescikova

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose. To evaluate a frequency of secondary cataract development in different periods of postoperative follow-up after cataract phacoemulsification depending on the degree of axial myopia and the implanted IOL design. Material and methods. A retrospective analysis of secondary cataract formation in the long-term follow-up after cataract phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation was performed in 16575 eyes out of 8722 patients with emmetropia ...

  5. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  6. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  7. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  8. Design of object surveillance system based on enhanced fish-eye lens

    Jianhui Wu; Kuntao Yang; Qiaolian Xiang; Nanyang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the object surveillance system based on the enhanced fish-eye lens and the high speed digital signal processor (DSP). The improved fish-eye lens images an ellipse picture on the charge-coupled device (CCD) surface, which increases both the utilization rate of the 4:3 rectangular CCD and the imaging resolution, and remains the view angle of 183°. The algorithm of auto-adapted renewal background subtraction (ARBS) is also explored to extract the object from the monitoring image. The experimental result shows that the ARBS algorithm has high anti-jamming ability and high resolution, leading to excellent object detecting ability from the enhanced elliptical fish-eye image under varies en-vironments. This system has potential applications in different security monitoring fields due to its wide monitoring space, simple structure, working stability, and reliability.

  9. Eye pain

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  10. Eye redness

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  11. Design of Farthest-Point Masks for Image Halftoning

    Ramponi G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper, we briefly presented a new halftoning algorithm called farthest-point halftoning. In the present paper, this method is analyzed in detail, and a novel dispersion measure is defined to improve the simplicity and flexibility of the result. This new stochastic screen algorithm is loosely based on Kang's dispersed-dot ordered dither halftone array construction technique used as part of his microcluster halftoning method. Our new halftoning algorithm uses pixelwise measures of dispersion based on one proposed by Kang which is here modified to be more effective. In addition, our method exploits the concept of farthest-point sampling (FPS, introduced as a progressive irregular sampling method by Eldar et al. but uses a more efficient implementation of FPS in the construction of the dot profiles. The technique we propose is compared to other state-of-the-art dither-based halftoning methods in both qualitative and quantitative manners.

  12. Material for Point Design (final summary of DIME material)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-25

    These slides summarize the motivation of the Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) project, the “point design” of the Polar Direct Drive (PDD) version of the NIF separated reactant capsule, the experimental requirements, technical achievements, and some useful backup material. These slides are intended to provide much basic material in one convenient location and will hopefully be of some use for subsequent experimental projects.

  13. Space tug point design study. Volume 1: Summary

    1972-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a space tug are discussed. The primary objective of the study is to verify the performance capability of a baseline design to deliver and retrieve payloads between 100 nautical miles, 28.5 degrees inclination, and geosynchronous. The space tug is ground based, reusable for 20 mission cycles, and is shuttled to and from low earth orbit by an earth orbital shuttle (EOS) with a 65,000 pound payload capability. It is shown that the baseline concept can meet the target performance goals. The design analysis encompassed: (1) definition of the vehicle primary structure, (2) thermal control, (3) meteoroid protection, (4) propulsion and mechanical subsystems, and (5) avionics including power generation and distribution.

  14. Design of prototype two element optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter badge for eye lens monitoring

    A prototype two element eye lens dosimeter badge based on highly sensitive α-Al2O3: C optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) was designed and developed. The badge consists of a plastic card in which two thin α-Al2O3: C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) discs are placed. The OSLDs in the plastic card (when inserted into plastic cassette) are covered with energy compensation filters made up of 0.3 mm thick Cu and 1.35 mm thick Teflon discs positioned symmetrically on both sides of the dosimeter. The OSLD badge is useful for monitoring doses from photons and beta particles. In this paper, theoretical studies using Monte Carlo method as well as using the analytical technique have been performed to study the energy response of the bare α-Al2O3: C based disc dosimeters. These dosimeter discs have been found to exhibit over-response by a factor of ∼ 3.4 at ∼ 33 keV photon energy, whereas, beyond 80 keV photon energy, the response is nearly energy independent. Studies have also been performed to find the energy response of the α-Al2O3: C disc dosimeters under different metal filters, viz., Al, Cu, Sn etc., and under various thicknesses of Teflon. From theoretical simulations, it has been found that 0.3 mm thick Cu is sufficient to correct the over-response in lower energy region within acceptable limits. Further, Teflon disc (DuPont, USA) having thickness of 1.35 mm is found to be the optimized choice as filter for the second dosimeter disc. It is worth mentioning that the ratio of the response of the OSL disc under Teflon to that under Cu filter indicates average energy of X-ray photons and same is used to correct the over-response as well as to estimate the quantity Hp(3). Also for higher photon energy region, the readout of the dosimeter disc under Teflon filter directly measures the quantity Hp(3). Same holds true for beta particles having maximum beta energy, Emax beyond 0.7 MeV. (author)

  15. Mobile point-of-care monitors and diagnostic device design

    Karlen, Walter

    2014-01-01

    PrefaceEditorsContributorsSensors and SystemsInterfacing Diagnostics with Consumer ElectronicsPakorn Preechaburana, Anke Suska, and Daniel FilippiniLab on a CellphoneAhmet F. Coskun, Hongying Zhu, Onur Mudanyali, and Aydogan OzcanThe Phone OximeterChristian Leth PetersenCurrent Technology and Advances in Transepidermal Water Loss SensorsPietro Salvo, Bernardo Melai, Nicola Calisi, and Fabio Di FrancescoPortable High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging System Design and Hardware Considerations

  16. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs

    Haijian Chen; Dongmei Han; Yonghui Dai; Lina Zhao

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course ...

  17. Studying nanostructured nipple arrays of moth eye facets helps to design better thin film solar cells

    Nipples on the surface of moth eye facets exhibit almost perfect broadband anti-reflection properties. We have studied the facet surface micro-protuberances, known as corneal nipples, of the chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella by atomic force microscopy, and simulated the optics of the nipple arrays by three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. The influence of the dimensions and shapes of the nipples on the optics was studied. In particular, the shape of the nipples has a major influence on the anti-reflection properties. Furthermore, we transferred the structure of the almost perfect broadband anti-reflection coatings to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. The coating that imitates the moth-eye array allows for an increase of the short circuit current and conversion efficiency of more than 40%.

  18. Design and analysis of an adaptive lens that mimics the performance of the crystalline lens in the human eye

    Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Iturbide-Jiménez, F.; Martínez-López, M.; Ramírez-Como, M.; Armengol-Cruz, V.; Vásquez-Báez, I.

    2014-09-01

    Tunable lenses are optical systems that have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in such areas like ophthalmology, machine vision, microscopy and laser processing. In recent years we have been working in the analysis and performance of a liquid-filled variable focal length lens, this is a lens that can modify its focal length by changing the amount of water within it. Nowadays we extend our study to a particular adaptive lens known as solid elastic lens (SEL) that it is formed by an elastic main body made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sylgard 184). In this work, we present the design, simulation and analysis of an adaptive solid elastic lens that in principle imitates the accommodation process of the crystalline lens in the human eye. For this work, we have adopted the parameters of the schematic eye model developed in 1985 by Navarro et al.; this model represents the anatomy of the eye as close as possible to reality by predicting an acceptable and accurate quantity of spherical and chromatic aberrations without any shape fitting. An opto-mechanical analysis of the accommodation process of the adaptive lens is presented, by simulating a certain amount of radial force applied onto the SEL using the finite element method with the commercial software SolidWorks®. We also present ray-trace diagrams of the simulated compression process of the adaptive lens using the commercial software OSLO®.

  19. Phase transfer and point-spread function of the human eye determined by a new asymmetric double-pass method.

    Navarro, Rafael; M. A. Losada

    1995-01-01

    A recent study has shown that the double-pass method provides a good estimate of the ocular modulation transfer function (MTF) but that it does not yield the phase transfer function (PTF) [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 195 (1995)]. Therefore, one cannot recover the true retinal point-spread function (PSF). We present a modification of the double-pass method to overcome this problem. The key is to break the symmetry between the two passes. By using an unexpanded Gaussian input beam, we produce ...

  20. Research of Digital Interface Layout Design based on Eye-tracking

    Shao Jiang; Xue Chengqi; Wang Fang; Wang Haiyan; Tang Wencheng; Chen Mo; Kang Mingwu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects’ ...

  1. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PANORAMIC MAPS DESIGN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY BASED ON MOBILE EYE-TRACKING

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to so...

  2. 眼睛运动模型的设计%Design of eye movement model

    陈瑞森

    2012-01-01

    At present, the implementation scheme of biological pattern recognition system can be classified into two categories which are related to eye movements. In this paper, based on the cellular neural networks (CNN). the center of gravity (COG) search algorithm based on Euclidean distance as well as the random selection with distance weighting (RSDW) model, a model of eye movements is proposed. The feature of the eye movement trajectory map of this model has a good consistency with the feature obtained from eye tracking experiment. Also this model can be used as an important part of the information acquisition module of biological pattern recognition system.%现阶段,生物模式识别系统主要有两种实现方案,且这些方案的实现都与眼睛的运动有关,因此这里利用细胞神经网络(CNN),基于欧氏距离的质心(COG)搜索算法以及距离权重选择模型(RSDW)的思想建立了一个眼睛运动模型.该模型输出的眼睛运动轨迹图特性与实际仪器测试的眼睛运动轨迹图特性具有较好的一致性,同时该模型能直接作为生物模式识别系统中信息获取模块的重要组成部分.

  3. Pointing Control System Design and Performance Evaluation for TPF Coronagraph

    Liu, Kuo-Chia; Blaurock, Carl; Mosier, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) program aims to detect and characterize extra-solar Earth-like planets. The coronagraph telescope is one of the four mission concepts being studied. In order to reject the star flux and detect the planet flux in the visible light range, the coronagraph telescope must achieve a rejection ratio on the order of a billion to one. Dynamic jitter, introduced by environmental and on-board mechanical disturbances, degrades the optical performance, as characterized primarily by contrast ratio. The feasibility of using passive vibration isolation combined with active attitude and line-of- sight control systems to stabilize the spacecraft and the optical components to the requisite level is being studied. The telescope is also required to slew between targets. The slew mode control law must be designed to balance the need for efficient large-angle maneuvers while simultaneously avoiding the excitation of flexible modes in order to minimize settling time.

  4. Eye Cancer

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  5. Eye Wear

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  6. Eye Injuries

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  7. Designation and Control of Landing Points for Competitive Robotic Table Tennis

    Jing Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitive robotic table tennis involves many topics such as smart ball returning strategy, precise motion control, etc. It remains a quite challenging task due to the unpredictable, uncooperative incoming ball and the requirement of a smart strategy to defeat the opponent. Designation and control of landing points is one basic aspect of ball returning strategies in competitive robotic table tennis because different landing points require the opponent to make different efforts to return the ball. In this paper, we present a method to designate desired landing points based on competitiveness level. We also propose a learning based landing point control approach to minimize the error of the actual landing points with respect to the designated landing points. The proposed methods have been verified through experiments on a humanoid table tennis robot.

  8. Innovation methods integration for safety conflicts management in design Case study : the three-point hitch

    Ghemraoui, R.; Mathieu, L.; Tricot, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the problem of taking safety requirements into account in the agricultural equipment design thanks to the integration of innovation theories and methods. Firstly, it goes to introduce two major methods, Axiomatic Design and TRIZ, which have been applied in other transportation domains and have given successful results. Currently, Axiomatic Design is used to analyse the technical product and to point out technical problems. Based on two design axioms, Axiomatic Design is a ...

  9. 教学设计锚点的内涵及生成%On the Instructional Design Anchor Points Study: The Growth Point of Teaching Design

    金建生

    2011-01-01

    Instructional design anchor points are using educational tools or approaches that can be studied to generate design guideline principles. The significance to study it relies on its capacity of producing new principles on instructional design and useful for the combination of instructional theories and practice. It is also the new growth points on instructional theory study. The effective research on instructional design anchor points needs us to describe the anchor points clearly, build clear concept framework, make complicated thought and have the practical attitude to reform and apply.%教学设计锚点是指在教学实际中使用,能够创生设计指导原则的各种教学工具和方法,作为一种新的设计原则,其对实现教学理论和教学实践的结合是有益的,也能成为教学设计研究的理论创生点。有效的教学设计锚点研究需要我们进行错点的描述、概念框架的构建和复杂性思考,还需要有改进和应用这一设计原则的现实态度。

  10. Optimal design of river nutrient monitoring points based on an export coefficient model

    Do, Huu Tuan; Lo, Shang-Lien; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Thi, Lan Anh Phan; Shang, Wei-Ting

    2011-08-01

    SummaryNutrient concentration is an important factor in identifying the quality of water sources and the likelihood of eutrophication. A nutrient monitoring network is an important information source that provides data on the nutrient pollution status of rivers. Export coefficient models have been widely used to study non-point source pollution. However, there has been little discussion about applying non-point source pollution and export coefficient modeling to design sampling points for monitoring. In this study, a new procedure providing a comprehensive solution was proposed to design nutrient monitoring points, from identifying pollution sources to designing sampling points and frequencies. Application of this procedure to design nutrient monitoring points upstream from the Feitsui reservoirs, Taipei, Taiwan, indicated that agriculture occupied only 7.24% of the area, but it released 45,795 kg/yr, or 41%, of the total nutrient load from non-point sources. Additionally, the optimization conditions defined four sampling points as well as the frequency of sampling at those points in the study area.

  11. A multi level system design for vigilance measurement based on head posture estimation and eyes blinking

    Teyeb, Ines; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; ben Amar, Chokri

    2015-12-01

    Driving security is an important task for human society. The major challenge in the field of accident avoidance systems is the driver vigilance monitoring. The lack of vigilance can be noticed by various ways, such as, fatigue, drowsiness and distraction. Hence, the need of a reliable driver's vigilance decrease detection system which can alert drivers before a mishap happens. In this paper, we present a novel approach for vigilance estimation based on multilevel system by combining head movement analysis and eyes blinking. We have used Viola and Jones algorithm to analyse head movement and a classification system using wavelet networks for eyelid closure measuring. The contribution of our application is classifiying the vigilance state at multi level. This is different from the binary-class (awakening or hypovigilant state) existing in most popular systems.

  12. Design and development of a ferroelectric micro photo detector for the bionic eye

    Song, Yang

    Driven by no effective therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa and Age Related Macular Degeneration, artificial vision through the development of an artificial retina that can be implanted into the human eye, is being addressed by the Bionic Eye. This dissertation focuses on the study of a photoferroelectric micro photo detector as an implantable retinal prosthesis for vision restoration in patients with above disorders. This implant uses an electrical signal to trigger the appropriate ocular cells of the vision system without resorting to wiring or electrode implantation. The research work includes fabrication of photoferroelectric thin film micro detectors, characterization of these photoferroelectric micro devices as photovoltaic cells, and Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling of the photoferroelectrics and their device-neuron interface. A ferroelectric micro detector exhibiting the photovoltaic effect (PVE) directly adds electrical potential to the neuron membrane outer wall at the focal adhesion regions. The electrical potential then generates a retinal cell membrane potential deflection through a newly developed Direct-Electric-Field-Coupling (DEFC) model. This model is quite different from the traditional electric current model because instead of current directly working on the cell membrane, the PVE current is used to generate a localized high electric potential in the focal adhesion region by working together with the anisotropic high internal impedance of ferroelectric thin films. General electrodes and silicon photodetectors do not have such anisotropy and high impedance, and thus they cannot generate DEFC. This mechanism investigation is very valuable, because it clearly shows that our artificial retina works in a way that is totally different from the traditional current stimulation methods.

  13. Interdisciplinary working in service design: case studies for designing touch points

    Rodriguez, Liliana; Lockley, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The paper argues that interdisciplinary design can be successful in services design. It offers information about 2 case studies in which interdisciplinary teams address design services problems. The paper explains the design method employed in the case studies. It also identifies “user design centred” as the main concept that drove the design approach. It explains the meaning of “user centred design”, of “services design” and highlights the importance of “interdisciplinary services design”. T...

  14. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  15. Conditions for perfect focusing multiple point sources with the SMS design method

    Benítez, P.; Miñano, Juan C.; Nikolic, Milena; Liu, Jiayao; Infante, Jose; Duerr, Fabian

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how it is possible to sharply image multiple object points. The Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) design method has usually been presented as a method to couple N wave-front pairs with N surfaces, but recent findings show that when using N surfaces, we can obtain M image points when NSMS method, from its basics, to imaging two object points through one surface, the transition from two to three objet points obtained by increasing the parallelism, and getting to the designs of six surfaces imaging up to eight object points. These designs are limited with the condition that the surfaces cannot be placed at the aperture stop. In the process of maximizing the object points to sharp image, we try to exhaust the degrees of freedom of aspherics and free-forms. We conjecture that maximal SMS designs are very close to a good solution, hence using them as a starting point for the optimization will lead us faster to a final optical system. We suggest here different optimization strategies which combined with the SMS method are proven to give the best solution. Through the example of imaging with the high aspect ratio, we compare the results obtained optimizing the rotational lens and using a combination of SMS method and optimization, showing that the second approach is giving significantly smaller value of overall RMS spot diameter.

  16. Next-generation concurrent engineering: developing models to complement point designs

    Morse, Elizabeth; Leavens, Tracy; Cohanim, Babak; Harmon, Corey; Mahr, Eric; Lewis, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering Design (CED) teams have made routine the rapid development of point designs for space missions. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X is now evolving into a 'next-generation CED; in addition to a point design, the Team develops a model of the local trade space. The process is a balance between the power of a model developing tools and the creativity of humal experts, enabling the development of a variety of trade models for any space mission. This paper reviews the modeling method and its practical implementation in the ED environment. Example results illustrate the benefit of this approach.

  17. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor: Design-point determination and parametric studies

    The multi-institutional TITAN study has examined the physics, technology, safety, and economics issues associated with the operation of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) magnetic fusion reactor at high power density. A comprehensive system and trade study have been conducted as an integral and ongoing part of the reactor assessment. Attractive design points emerging from these parametric studies are subjected to more detailed analysis and design integration, the results of which are used to refine the parametric systems model. The design points and tradeoffs for two TITAN/RFP reactor embodiments are discussed. 14 refs

  18. WE-A-17A-12: The Influence of Eye Plaque Design On Dose Distributions and Dose- Volume Histograms

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of slot design of the model EP917 plaque on dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Methods: The dimensions and orientation of the slots in EP917 plaques were measured. In the MCNP5 radiation simulation geometry, dose distributions on orthogonal planes and DVHs for a tumor and sclera were generated for comparisons. 27 slot designs and 13 plaques were evaluated and compared with the published literature and the Plaque Simulator clinical treatment planning system. Results: The dosimetric effect of the gold backing composition and mass density was < 3%. Slot depth, width, and length changed the central axis (CAX) dose distributions by < 1% per 0.1 mm in design variation. Seed shifts in the slot towards the eye and shifts of the 125 I-coated Ag rod within the capsule had the greatest impact on CAX dose distribution, increasing by 14%, 9%, 4%, and 2.5% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm, respectively, from the inner sclera. Along the CAX, dose from the full plaque geometry using the measured slot design was 3.4% ± 2.3% higher than the manufacturer-provided geometry. D10 for the simulated tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera for the measured plaque was also higher, but 9%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. In comparison to the measured plaque design, a theoretical plaque having narrow and deep slots delivered 30%, 37%, and 62% lower D10 doses to the tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera, respectively. CAX doses at −1, 0, 1, and 2 mm were also lower by a factor of 2.6, 1.4, 1.23, and 1.13, respectively. Conclusion: The study identified substantial sensitivity of the EP917 plaque dose distributions to slot design. However, it did not identify substantial dosimetric variations based on radionuclide choice (125I, 103Pd, or 131Cs). COMS plaques provided lower scleral doses with similar tumor dose coverage

  19. Design of Eye-Controlled Mouse Based on Eye Tracking Technology%基于视线追踪的眼控鼠标设计

    朱麒文; 闫隆鑫; 张若兰; 张帅; 杨兰兰

    2016-01-01

    以Visual Studio为平台,OpenCV计算机视觉库为基础,辅助以单片机、传感器、无线传输模块等自主研发了一套头戴式视线追踪系统,完成瞳孔提取、视线追踪定位、眨眼检测等功能,实现眼球替代鼠标完成对电脑的指令。创新性地提出了椭圆拟合与积分投影去噪法等方法,以消除头部微小移动对定位带来的影响,使系统具有高的精确度和良好的实用价值。%With the platform of Visual Studio,the basis of OpenCV computer vision library and the assistance of a MCU,sensors and wireless transmission modules,a head-mounted eye tracking system is built. The system accom⁃plished pupil extraction,eye tracking positioning,blinking detection and other functions which enabled eyes instead of mouse to complete computer instructions. Innovative methods have been presented:integral projection denoising, capturing the pupil center through ellipse fitting algorithm,etc. This series of methods eliminates the influence of slight movement of the head on positioning accuracy,endowing the system with high accuracy and practicality.

  20. Multi-point Adjoint-Based Design of Tilt-Rotors in a Noninertial Reference Frame

    Jones, William T.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Acree, Cecil W.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of tilt-rotor systems requires the consideration of performance at multiple design points. In the current study, an adjoint-based optimization of a tilt-rotor blade is considered. The optimization seeks to simultaneously maximize the rotorcraft figure of merit in hover and the propulsive efficiency in airplane-mode for a tilt-rotor system. The design is subject to minimum thrust constraints imposed at each design point. The rotor flowfields at each design point are cast as steady-state problems in a noninertial reference frame. Geometric design variables used in the study to control blade shape include: thickness, camber, twist, and taper represented by as many as 123 separate design variables. Performance weighting of each operational mode is considered in the formulation of the composite objective function, and a build up of increasing geometric degrees of freedom is used to isolate the impact of selected design variables. In all cases considered, the resulting designs successfully increase both the hover figure of merit and the airplane-mode propulsive efficiency for a rotor designed with classical techniques.

  1. Eye Anatomy

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  2. Dry Eye

    ... in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward; cosmetic surgery, if the eyelids are opened too widely. Frequently ... disease when the eye protrudes forward or after cosmetic surgery if the eyelids are opened too widely, dry ...

  3. Black Eye

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  4. Designation and Control of Landing Points for Competitive Robotic Table Tennis

    Jing Li; Xiaopeng Chen; Qiang Huang; Xuechao Chen; Zhangguo Yu; Yingxian Duo

    2015-01-01

    Competitive robotic table tennis involves many topics such as smart ball returning strategy, precise motion control, etc. It remains a quite challenging task due to the unpredictable, uncooperative incoming ball and the requirement of a smart strategy to defeat the opponent. Designation and control of landing points is one basic aspect of ball returning strategies in competitive robotic table tennis because different landing points require the opponent to make different efforts to return the ...

  5. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, ...

  6. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    Cardenas G, D., E-mail: dcardena@cenam.mx [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76246 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylinder-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.9992±0.0004 in the 8 μm to 14 μm wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have and expanded uncertainty of 54 m K, with a coverage factor k = 2. (Author)

  7. Eye floaters

    ... eyes are not on the surface of your eyes, but inside them. These floaters are bits of cell debris that drift around ... is the layer in the back of the eye.) If you notice a sudden increase in floaters or if you see floaters along with flashes ...

  8. Microwave holographic antenna array design by using psychophysical properties of eye

    Titar, V. P.; Bogdanova, T. V.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave holographic systems use antenna arrays with elements distributed uniformly in the plane of receiving aperture. Such distribution provides decreasing the redundancy of registered holographic information, while the quality of images remains high (side lobes are suppressed). Design principles are proposed of microwave quasiperiodic holographic arrays, which can be synthesized by various space-time methods using the psychophysical properties of the human vision. Besides of the redundanc...

  9. Unbalanced and Minimal Point Equivalent Estimation Second-Order Split-Plot Designs

    Parker, Peter A.; Kowalski, Scott M.; Vining, G. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Restricting the randomization of hard-to-change factors in industrial experiments is often performed by employing a split-plot design structure. From an economic perspective, these designs minimize the experimental cost by reducing the number of resets of the hard-to- change factors. In this paper, unbalanced designs are considered for cases where the subplots are relatively expensive and the experimental apparatus accommodates an unequal number of runs per whole-plot. We provide construction methods for unbalanced second-order split- plot designs that possess the equivalence estimation optimality property, providing best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters; independent of the variance components. Unbalanced versions of the central composite and Box-Behnken designs are developed. For cases where the subplot cost approaches the whole-plot cost, minimal point designs are proposed and illustrated with a split-plot Notz design.

  10. OGAMA (Open Gaze and Mouse Analyzer): open-source software designed to analyze eye and mouse movements in slideshow study designs.

    Vosskühler, Adrian; Nordmeier, Volkhard; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2008-11-01

    In the present article, a new software is introduced that allows the recording and analyzing of eye- and mouse-tracking data from slideshow-based experiments in parallel. The Open Gaze and Mouse Analyzer (OGAMA) is written in C#.NET and has been released as an open-source project. Its main features include slideshow design, the recording of gaze and mouse data, database-driven preprocessing and filtering of gaze and mouse data, the creation of attention maps, areas-of-interest definition, and replay. Eyetracking and/or presentation soft- and hardware recordings in ASCII format can be imported. Data output is provided that can be used directly with different statistical software packages. Because it is open source, one can easily adapt it to suit one's needs. PMID:19001407

  11. Relative eye size in elasmobranchs.

    Lisney, Thomas J; Collin, Shaun P

    2007-01-01

    Variation in relative eye size was investigated in a sample of 46 species of elasmobranch, 32 species of sharks and 14 species of batoids (skates and rays). To get a measure of eye size relative to body size, eye axial diameter was scaled with body mass using least-squares linear regression, using both raw species data, where species are treated as independent data points, and phylogenetically independent contrasts. Residual values calculated for each species, using the regression equations describing these scaling relationships, were then used as a measure of relative eye size. Relative and absolute eye size varies considerably in elasmobranchs, although sharks have significantly relatively larger eyes than batoids. The sharks with the relatively largest eyes are oceanic species; either pelagic sharks that move between the epipelagic (0-200 m) and 'upper' mesopelagic (200-600 m) zones, or benthic and benthopelagic species that live in the mesopelagic (200-1,000 m) and, to a lesser extent, bathypelagic (1,000-4,000 m) zones. The elasmobranchs with the relatively smallest eyes tend to be coastal, often benthic, batoids and sharks. Active benthopelagic and pelagic species, which prey on active, mobile prey also have relatively larger eyes than more sluggish, benthic elasmobranchs that feed on more sedentary prey such as benthic invertebrates. A significant positive correlation was found between absolute eye size and relative eye size, but some very large sharks, such as Carcharodon carcharias have absolutely large eyes, but have relatively small eyes in relation to body mass. PMID:17314474

  12. Designing forward with an eye to the past: Morphogenesis of the lower Yuba River

    James, L. Allan

    2015-12-01

    The early geomorphic evolution of the lower Yuba River (LYR), northern California, up to 1906 is reconstructed using cartographic, documentary, topographic, and stratigraphic evidence. The importance of early river mining is identified along with rates and patterns of floodplain aggradation and channel incision at the turn of the 20th century. The LYR is a classic example of anthropogeomorphic transformation of a river by episodic hydraulic mining sedimentation. This was followed by channelization, damming, dredging, and other engineering works to redirect, contain, and stabilize channels. These geomorphic changes and engineering controls continue to govern channel and floodplain form and process, control the trajectory of river responses, and constrain flood control, water quality, and aquatic ecosystem management options. Returning a river system to a prior condition should not be the primary goal of river rehabilitation projects, especially if hydrologic inputs have substantially changed. Reconstructing former conditions may be impractical and unsustainable under modern circumstances. Instead, fluvial systems should be designed and managed for present inputs and processes while anticipating future conditions. Rapid changes in land use and climate that generate changes in runoff and sediment loadings are likely to generate morphological instability, and these changes should be considered in the design and management of fluvial systems. The past geomorphic evolution of fluvial systems should also be considered in design and management decisions to recognize trajectories and suppressed tendencies. Recognition of trends and system vulnerabilities may avoid potential blunders, such as removing critical stabilizing works. Complex causalities may be difficult to reconstruct from geomorphic form alone, however, due to process-form dynamics. Detailed research on the geomorphic and engineering history of a river is essential, therefore, if substantial changes and

  13. 改进的单特征点机器人手眼自标定方法%Improved Self-Calibration Method to Hand-Eye Relation of Robot Based on a Single Feature Point

    洪磊; 嵇保健; 王玉国; 凌超

    2016-01-01

    For the shortcoming that the excessive number of robot movement is required during the hand-eye calibration, an improved self-calibration method to hand-eye relation of robot based on a single fea-ture point was proposed. The decoupling operation for hand-eye relation matrix was introduced, and also the hand-eye rotation matrix and translation vector were calibrated respectively. In the calibration process, the feature point position is not necessary to be calculated, but and the manipulator end effector is needed also to perform more than five times translational motions and two times rotation motions. Cali-bration experiment and error analysis verify that the method can meet the demand for industrial robot hand-eye vision measurement.%针对手眼标定过程要求机器人运动次数过多的缺点,提出了一种改进的单特征点手眼自标定方法.引入手眼关系矩阵的解耦运算,分别标定手眼旋转矩阵和平移向量.运算过程无需计算特征点位置,操作过程仅需机器人末端有5次以上平移运动和2次以上旋转运动.实验与误差分析结果表明,所提方法满足工业机器人手眼视觉测量的需求.

  14. Investigating How A Fashion Retailer’s Website Design Affects Users’ Responses Across A Fifty Year Age Span Through The Use Of Eye Tracking Technology

    Boardman, Rosy

    2016-01-01

    As online fashion retailing has grown immensely over the last fifteen years, retailers’ website designs have had to evolve to meet customers’ increasing demands, needs and expectations in order to attract and retain them. The purpose of this thesis is to provide a greater understanding of how different ages of consumers respond to retailers’ holistic website designs through the use of eye tracking technology. Insights gained from this research will enable retailers to enhance their website de...

  15. Comparative outcomes of manual small incision cataract surgery and phacoemulsification performed by ophthalmology trainees in a tertiary eye care hospital in India: a retrospective cohort design

    Khanna, Rohit C; Kaza, Srivalli; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Virender S Sangwan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcomes of manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) and phacoemulsification performed by ophthalmology trainees. Design Retrospective cohort design. Setting Tertiary eye care centre. Participants A total of 1029 subjects underwent cataract surgeries with MSICS technique or phacoemulsification by trainees during one quarter (July–September 2007). Only 484 (47%) subjects were males. Surgeries which were primarily large incision extracapsular or intracapsular cata...

  16. Design Considerations for Miniaturized Control Moment Gyroscopes for Rapid Retargeting and Precision Pointing of Small Satellites

    Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design as well as characterization of a practical control moment gyroscope (CMG) based attitude control system (ACS) for small satellites in the 15-20 kilogram mass range performing rapid retargeting and precision pointing maneuvers. The paper focuses on the approach taken in the design of miniaturized CMGs while considering the constraints imposed by the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as well as the size of the satellite. It is shown that a hybrid mode is more suitable for COTS based moment exchange actuators; a mode that uses the torque amplification of CMGs for rapid retargeting and direct torque capabilities of the flywheel motors for precision pointing. A simulation is provided to demonstrate on-orbit slew and pointing performance.

  17. Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS) system design and analysis. [for gimbaled experiment platforms

    Frew, A. M.; Eisenhut, D. F.; Farrenkopf, R. L.; Gates, R. F.; Iwens, R. P.; Kirby, D. K.; Mann, R. J.; Spencer, D. J.; Tsou, H. S.; Zaremba, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The precision pointing control system (PPCS) is an integrated system for precision attitude determination and orientation of gimbaled experiment platforms. The PPCS concept configures the system to perform orientation of up to six independent gimbaled experiment platforms to design goal accuracy of 0.001 degrees, and to operate in conjunction with a three-axis stabilized earth-oriented spacecraft in orbits ranging from low altitude (200-2500 n.m., sun synchronous) to 24 hour geosynchronous, with a design goal life of 3 to 5 years. The system comprises two complementary functions: (1) attitude determination where the attitude of a defined set of body-fixed reference axes is determined relative to a known set of reference axes fixed in inertial space; and (2) pointing control where gimbal orientation is controlled, open-loop (without use of payload error/feedback) with respect to a defined set of body-fixed reference axes to produce pointing to a desired target.

  18. Design and Implementation of an IoT Access Point for Smart Home

    Chih-Yung Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Network communication and micro-electro-mechanical embedded technologies have attracted much attention in recent years. Through these technologies, the capabilities of sensing, identification, and communication can be embedded in various smart devices. These smart devices can automatically connect to the Internet and form an intelligent network called Internet of Things (IoT. However, these devices are embedded with different wireless communication interfaces such as Wi-Fi and ZigBee. This paper presents the design and implementation of an IoT access point that supports functionalities of coordination of various wireless transmission protocols. Based on the existing Wi-Fi access point, we have embedded a ZigBee module and implemented ZigBee and UPnP protocols into the designed IoT access point, which supports ZigBee communication capabilities over the Internet.

  19. Fuzzy Controller Design Using FPGA for Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Basil M Hamed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cell has optimum operating point to be able to get maximum power. To obtain Maximum Power from photovoltaic array, photovoltaic power system usually requires Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller. This paper provides a small power photovoltaic control system based on fuzzy control with FPGA technology design and implementation for MPPT. The system composed of photovoltaic module, buck converter and the fuzzy logic controller implemented on FPGA for controlling on/off time of MOSFET switch of a buck converter. The proposed maximum power point tracking controller for photovoltaic system is tested using model designed by Matlab/Simulink program with graphical user interface (GUI for entering the parameters of any array model using information from its datasheet, Simulation and experimental results show that performance of the fuzzy controller with FPGA in a maximum power tracking of a photovoltaic array can be made use of in several photovoltaic products and obtain satisfied result.

  20. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on design and safety

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The policy is to replicate the Sizewell ''B'' PWR design. The Hinkley Point ''C'' design is described indicating where changes in the Sizewell ''B'' design have been made to accommodate site differences. These are associated with the civil engineering construction and some of the electrical systems and do not affect the safety case. External hazards differ from site to site and the effect on the safety case of those specific to Hinkley Point are examined. The Chernobyl accident and the assessment of the United Kingdom PWR which was carried out subsequently are reviewed. The assessment indicated that no changes in the Sizewell ''B'' design and safety case were called for as a result of this accident; accident management developments are also reviewed, however. The CEGB's approach to minimizing occupational radiation doses is described. (UK)

  1. Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR): sensitivity study and design-point determination

    If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique, magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the viewpoint of low-field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. A comprehensive system model is developed and described for a steady-state, compact RFP reactor (CRFPR). This model is used to select a unique cost-optimized design point that will be used for a conceptual engineering design. The cost-optimized CRFPR design presented herein would operate with system power densities and mass utilizations that are comparable to fission power plants and are an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion power. The sensitivity of the base-case design point to changes in plasma transport, profiles, beta, blanket thickness, normal vs superconducting coils, and fuel cycle (DT vs DD) is examined. The RFP approach is found to yield a point design for a high-power-density reactor that is surprisingly resilient to changes in key, but relatively unknown, physics and systems parameters

  2. How do design features influence consumer attention when looking for nutritional information on food labels? Results from an eye-tracking study on pan bread labels.

    Antúnez, Lucía; Vidal, Leticia; Sapolinski, Alejandra; Giménez, Ana; Maiche, Alejandro; Ares, Gastón

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate consumer visual processing of food labels when evaluating the salt content of pan bread labels and to study the influence of label design and nutritional labelling format on consumer attention. A total of 16 pan bread labels, designed according to a full factorial design, were presented to 52 participants, who were asked to decide whether the sodium content of each label was medium or low, while their eye movements were recorded using an eye tracker. Results showed that most participants looked at nutrition labels and the traffic light system to conclude on the salt content of the labels. However, the average percentage of participants who looked at the actual sodium content was much lower. Nutrition information format affected participants' processing of nutrition information. Among other effects, the inclusion of the traffic light system increased participants' attention towards some kind of nutrition information and facilitated its processing, but not its understanding. PMID:23301795

  3. Web Design for Multiple Platforms in Microsoft SharePoint 2013

    Claug, Erik

    2013-01-01

    As mobile devices become more common when surfing the web there is an increasing demand of making web sites adjusted to other devices than computers. One common platform on the web is Microsoft SharePoint. In this report I look into one method of how to develop web sites that work on multiple devices in Microsoft SharePoint. I will be looking into different techniques as separate web sites compared to responsive web design. By exploring the approach of mobile first I try to find a working sol...

  4. Preventing Eye Injuries

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  5. Inverse design of third-order Dirac exceptional points in photonic crystals

    Lin, Zin; Lončar, Marko; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel inverse-design method that enables brute-force discovery of photonic crystal (PhC) structures with complex spectral degeneracies. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate PhCs exhibiting third-order Dirac points formed by the \\emph{accidental} degeneracy of modes of monopolar, dipolar, and quadrupolar nature. We show that under suitable conditions, these modes can coalesce and form a third-order exceptional point (EP3), leading to diverging Petermann factors. We show that the spontaneous emission (SE) rate of emitters at such EP3s, related to the local density of states, can be enhanced by a factor of 8 in purely lossy (passive) structures, with larger enhancements $\\sim \\sqrt{n^3}$ possible at exceptional points of higher order $n$ or in materials with gain.

  6. At-sea test system point design for a one-third scale cold water pipe

    Sutherland, W.H. (ed.)

    1979-12-01

    One step in the development of the technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing of a fiberglass reinforced plastic nominal 10-foot diameter pipe. A design procedure and criteria for developing test hardware by scaling down a 30-foot diameter OTEC 10/40 MW Pilot Plant CWP design are presented. An example point design for the pipe, instrumentation to be used during the at-sea tests, and methods for selecting the support platform and mooring are described. The design considered starts with a scale model of a larger prototype, and then is modified to address the problems of fabrication and of survivability and handling during the 1/3rd scale model tests.

  7. Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2013-01-01

    fun for families in the library? • How can play help to promote interaction and communication? The students worked with the space in Dokk1 as the “third place”, which is identified by Oldenburg (1999) as “great good places”, being public places on neutral ground where people can gather and interact......Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view By Aviaja Borup Lynggaard & Birgitte Geert Jensen This poster presents a design case of collaborative innovation between design students from Aarhus School of Architecture and pupils from the public school, Samsøgades School in Aarhus, facilitated by the...... the use of space and design. The workshop also showed that the “third place” is achieved today in existing places around the city, such as in shops and banks. Therefore, several of the solutions showed that there is need to create a residence that can accommodate the versatility and give space for...

  8. Mixed-flow vertical tubular hydraulic turbine: determination of proper design duty point

    Bergant, Anton; Höfler, Edvard; Širok, Brane

    2015-01-01

    A new vertical single-regulated mixed-flow turbine with conical guide apparatus and without spiral casing is presented in this paper. Runner blades are fixed to the hub and runner band and resemble to the Francis type runner of extremely high specific speed. Due to lack of information and guidelines for the design of a new turbine, a theoretical model was developed in order to determinate the design duty point, i.e. to determine the optimum narrow operation range of the turbine. It is not nec...

  9. Design and development of a laminated Fresnel lens for point-focus PV systems. Phase II

    Hodge, R.C.

    1982-12-01

    A laminated glass-plastic lens parquet using injection molded point focus Fresnel lenses is described. The second phase of a program aimed at investigating the cost effectiveness of a glass-plastic concentrator lens assembly is reported. The first phase dealt with the development of a first generation lens design, the selection of the preferred glass coverplate and glass-to-lens adhesive and initial injection molding lens molding trials. The second phase has dealt with the development of an improved lens design, a full size parquet lamination process, and a second group of injection molding lens molding trials.

  10. Multi-point inverse design of an infinite cascade of airfoils

    Selig, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a practical method for the design of an infinite cascade in incompressible flow. The method is based on conformal mapping, and as a result it allows for multi-point design. The cascade blade to be determined is divided into a desired number of segments. Over each segment, the velocity distribution is prescribed together with an inlet or outlet flow angle at which this velocity distribution is to be achieved. In this way multi-point design requirements can be met. It is necessary to satisfy several conditions that arise to guarantee compatibility with the inlet and outlet flow as well as closure of the cascade blade. Satisfaction of these conditions does not necessarily result in a cascade with all the desired characteristics. For example, the cascade blades may be bulbous or crossed. Through Newton iteration, however, the desired characteristics may be prescribed by allowing for the adjustment of the design parameters that define the mathematical problem through conformal mapping. Several examples will be illustrated to demonstrate the capability of the method. It will be shown that the method is limited to the design of cascades with solidities of up to one.

  11. Portable Amplifier Design for a Novel EEG Monitor in Point-of-Care Applications

    Luan, Bo; Sun, Mingui; Jia, Wenyan

    2012-01-01

    The Electroencephalography (EEG) is a common diagnostic tool for neurological diseases and dysfunctions, such as epilepsy and insomnia. However, the current EEG technology cannot be utilized quickly and conveniently at the point of care due to the complex skin preparation procedures required and the inconvenient EEG data acquisition systems. This work presents a portable amplifier design that integrates a set of skin screw electrodes and a wireless data link. The battery-operated amplifier co...

  12. Project Review on Implementation of Responsive Web Design on SharePoint 2013

    Kosova-Alija, Mirlinda

    2015-01-01

    Häme University of Applied Sciences has undergone a major web renewal project: all degree programmes and different departmental subsites were migrated or rebuilt by implementing responsive web design onto a Share-Point 2013 platform. The aim of the HAMK website is to provide current and correct information in a clear and accessible format at the same time providing the best possible user experience. The purpose of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive preview on the process of implem...

  13. Star Tracker Based ATP System Conceptual Design and Pointing Accuracy Estimation

    Orfiz, Gerardo G.; Lee, Shinhak

    2006-01-01

    A star tracker based beaconless (a.k.a. non-cooperative beacon) acquisition, tracking and pointing concept for precisely pointing an optical communication beam is presented as an innovative approach to extend the range of high bandwidth (> 100 Mbps) deep space optical communication links throughout the solar system and to remove the need for a ground based high power laser as a beacon source. The basic approach for executing the ATP functions involves the use of stars as the reference sources from which the attitude knowledge is obtained and combined with high bandwidth gyroscopes for propagating the pointing knowledge to the beam pointing mechanism. Details of the conceptual design are presented including selection of an orthogonal telescope configuration and the introduction of an optical metering scheme to reduce misalignment error. Also, estimates are presented that demonstrate that aiming of the communications beam to the Earth based receive terminal can be achieved with a total system pointing accuracy of better than 850 nanoradians (3 sigma) from anywhere in the solar system.

  14. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non-point

  15. Clinical efficacy of eye point massage in Chinese drug iontherapy for children amblyopia%眼部穴位按摩在中药离子导入治疗儿童弱视中的疗效观察

    韦丽娇; 何碧华; 谢祥勇

    2013-01-01

    目的观察按摩眼部穴位在中药离子导入治疗儿童弱视中的作用及疗效。方法对纳入标准的弱视儿童120例(224眼),按就诊日期单双号分为对照组60例(110眼),观察组60例(114眼)。两组均用1%阿托品滴眼后验光配镜,并采用遮盖方法及精细作业治疗作为基础治疗。对照组采用补肝益肾、养血明目中药方眼部离子导入,每次导入15 min。观察组在中药眼部离子导入同时,予以眼部穴位按摩,10 min/次。两组均以3个月为1个疗程,治疗期间监测两组视力、起效时间及疗程长短。结果观察组总有效率为95.6%,对照组总有效率为91.8%,两者比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但观察组起效时间快,疗程短于对照组。结论眼部穴位按摩配合基础治疗加中药眼部离子导入疗法,具有促进弱视眼视功能恢复的作用。%Objective To observe the efficacy of eye point massage in Chinese drug iontherapy for children amblyopia.Methods One hundred and twenty amblyopia patients (224 eyes) were randomly divided into control group with 60 patients(110 eyes) and observation group with 60 patients(114 eyes).Both of two groups were got their eyeglasses by mydriatic refractometry after 1% atropine, and treated with occlusion and penalization .At the same time,control group were iontophoresed Chinese drugs each time 15 min, observation group were massaged the eye point each massage time 10 min after iontophoresing Chinese drugs , observing for 2 courses and 3 months made up of a course.The eyesight, onset time and duration were compared between the two groups .Results The effective rate for observation group was 95.6%,the control group 91.8%,showing that was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the two groups.But the onset time and duration of observation group were better than that of control group . Conclusion Eye point massage has similar action with Chinese drug

  16. Positions of Guide Eyes in Circular Warp Knitting Machines

    GU Zhao-wen

    2002-01-01

    The special lapping requirements were pointed out and the safe range to fix the guide eyes on the circular guide unit was determined by means of Locus Formulas of Warp sections in lapping movement, which were carried out on installing prototype machine. Based on the calculations of the force components acting on lapping points, the positions of the guide eyes in chain overlapping could be used to determine the safe range that could meet the requirements for tricot overlapping.The safe range can ensure the successful lapping and the multi-guide unit designing in circular warp-knitting machines.

  17. Characterization and Design of Digital Pointing Subsystem for Optical Communication Demonstrator

    Racho, C.; Portillo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory-based lasercom demonstration terminal designed to validate several key technologies, including beacon acquisition, high bandwidth tracking, precision bearn pointing, and point-ahead compensation functions. It has been under active development over the past few years. The instrument uses a CCD array detector for both spatial acquisition and high-bandwidth tracking, and a fiber coupled laser transmitter. The array detector tracking concept provides wide field-of-view acquisition and permits effective platform jitter compensation and point-ahead control using only one steering mirror. This paper describes the detailed design and characterization of the digital control loop system which includes the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), the CCD image tracker, and the associated electronics. The objective is to improve the overall system performance using laboratory measured data. The. design of the digital control loop is based on a linear time invariant open loop model. The closed loop performance is predicted using the theoretical model. With the digital filter programmed into the OCD control software, data is collected to verify the predictions. This paper presents the results of the, system modeling and performance analysis. It has been shown that measurement data closely matches theoretical predictions. An important part of the laser communication experiment is the ability of FSM to track the laser beacon within the. required tolerances. The pointing must be maintained to an accuracy that is much smaller than the transmit signal beamwidth. For an earth orbit distance, the system must be able to track the receiving station to within a few microradians. The failure. to do so will result in a severely degraded system performance.

  18. Principles for the design and calibration of radiation protection dosemeters for operational and protection quantities for eye lens dosimetry

    The work package two of the ORAMED project-Collaborative Project (2008-2011) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme-is devoted to the study of the eye lens dosimetry. A first approach is to implement the use of Hp(3) by providing new sets of conversion coefficients and well suited calibration and type test procedures. This approach is presented in other papers in the proceedings of this conference. Taking into account that the eye lens is an organ close to the surface of the body, another approach would be to directly estimate the absorbed dose to the eye lens, Dlens,est through a special calibration procedure although this quantity is not directly measurable. This paper is a methodological paper that tries to identify the critical aspects of a dosimetry in terms of Dlens. (authors)

  19. Highly effective and accurate weak point monitoring method for advanced design rule (1x nm) devices

    Ahn, Jeongho; Seong, ShiJin; Yoon, Minjung; Park, Il-Suk; Kim, HyungSeop; Ihm, Dongchul; Chin, Soobok; Sivaraman, Gangadharan; Li, Mingwei; Babulnath, Raghav; Lee, Chang Ho; Kurada, Satya; Brown, Christine; Galani, Rajiv; Kim, JaeHyun

    2014-04-01

    Historically when we used to manufacture semiconductor devices for 45 nm or above design rules, IC manufacturing yield was mainly determined by global random variations and therefore the chip manufacturers / manufacturing team were mainly responsible for yield improvement. With the introduction of sub-45 nm semiconductor technologies, yield started to be dominated by systematic variations, primarily centered on resolution problems, copper/low-k interconnects and CMP. These local systematic variations, which have become decisively greater than global random variations, are design-dependent [1, 2] and therefore designers now share the responsibility of increasing yield with manufacturers / manufacturing teams. A widening manufacturing gap has led to a dramatic increase in design rules that are either too restrictive or do not guarantee a litho/etch hotspot-free design. The semiconductor industry is currently limited to 193 nm scanners and no relief is expected from the equipment side to prevent / eliminate these systematic hotspots. Hence we have seen a lot of design houses coming up with innovative design products to check hotspots based on model based lithography checks to validate design manufacturability, which will also account for complex two-dimensional effects that stem from aggressive scaling of 193 nm lithography. Most of these hotspots (a.k.a., weak points) are especially seen on Back End of the Line (BEOL) process levels like Mx ADI, Mx Etch and Mx CMP. Inspecting some of these BEOL levels can be extremely challenging as there are lots of wafer noises or nuisances that can hinder an inspector's ability to detect and monitor the defects or weak points of interest. In this work we have attempted to accurately inspect the weak points using a novel broadband plasma optical inspection approach that enhances defect signal from patterns of interest (POI) and precisely suppresses surrounding wafer noises. This new approach is a paradigm shift in wafer inspection

  20. Design and development of a point focus concentrated PV module operating above 100 suns

    Olah, S.; Ho, F.; Khemthong, S.

    The present objective was to design, develop, fabricate and performance-test a highly efficient and cost-effective concentrated photovoltaic module which can operate above 100-suns concentration, which can be mass produced, and is reliable, with minimum maintenance. A point-focus module design was chosen, operating at 120 suns using a molded acrylic Fresnel lens and passive cooling. Four modules were built and tested, and a manufacturing cost analysis was made. The module and components were designed for future high volume production with the use of automated equipment in mind. The module consisted of a lightweight module body fabricated from aluminum sheet stock, a lens parquet assembly, and a 15 high efficiency solar cell-heat sink assembly, connected in series to produce 55 W under normal operating conditions.

  1. Using eye-tracking methodology in consumer science

    Bialkova, S.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim

    versus point of purchase) and study goals (appearance studies, package design, identification of food choice motives). Furthermore, the presentations will discuss how different components of attention can be distinguished based on eye-tracking data (stimulus-driven versus task-driven processes) and how...

  2. A parametric system study for the selection of RFP fusion reactor design point

    Based on simple physics, engineering, and economic models among various design parameters of reversed-field pinch (RFP) fusion reactors, a parametric system study program has been developed giving cost of electricity (COE) for a given set of design parameters or a set of design parameters giving the minimum COE. This program has been used extensively to select design points and evaluate the sensitivity of physics, engineering, economic and operational parameters in the REPUTER RFP fusion reactor design study effort. Several key features emerged from the study in relation to high power density RFP fusion reactors with solid breeder blanket. They are: 1. selection of normal conductor for TF and PF coils to reduce the thickness of radiation shielding, 2. selection of a total first wall loading of 18 MW/m2 considering the potential economic merit and nonlinear effects which might shorten the lifetime of the first wall, and 3. a maintenance policy of package replacement of the fusion power core, including TF coils, to significantly reduce maintenance time. The uncertainty range of COE was evaluated based on the sensitivity and uncertainty of design variables and parameters. The result warned us of the use of COE evaluated in this program for the purpose of comparison of economy with the result of other fusion system studies. (orig.)

  3. Wheelchair Motion Control Guide Using Eye Movement Based on EEG Signals.

    D.Uma Mageswar; G.Selvavinayagam

    2013-01-01

    The design and implementation of an Autonomous Movement Robot based on a Wheelchair based on EOG signal is to help a disable or handicapped person. These EOG electrodes are placed at right and left of eye and other pair of electrodes are at top and right of the eye. These electrodes used to response after gazing of one target point for a particular time period. After gazing of point, the wheelchair used to move to a target position. So, it produce delay during eye gaze. To overcome this delay...

  4. Point design targets, specifications, and requirements for the 2010 ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility

    Point design targets have been specified for the initial ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)]. The targets contain D-T fusion fuel in an ablator of either CH with Ge doping, or Be with Cu. These shells are imploded in a U or Au hohlraum with a peak radiation temperature set between 270 and 300 eV. Considerations determining the point design include laser-plasma interactions, hydrodynamic instabilities, laser operations, and target fabrication. Simulations were used to evaluate choices, and to define requirements and specifications. Simulation techniques and their experimental validation are summarized. Simulations were used to estimate the sensitivity of target performance to uncertainties and variations in experimental conditions. A formalism is described that evaluates margin for ignition, summarized in a parameter the Ignition Threshold Factor (ITF). Uncertainty and shot-to-shot variability in ITF are evaluated, and sensitivity of the margin to characteristics of the experiment. The formalism is used to estimate probability of ignition. The ignition experiment will be preceded with an experimental campaign that determines features of the design that cannot be defined with simulations alone. The requirements for this campaign are summarized. Requirements are summarized for the laser and target fabrication.

  5. Your Eyes

    ... feel a thing, the shape of your lenses changed. When you look at things up close, the ... and Contact Lenses Why Do Eyes Water? Pinkeye Blindness Corneal Abrasions I Was Born Blind: Julia's Story ...

  6. Fixed-Point Design of Generalized Comb Filters: A Statistical Approach

    Laddomada, Massimiliano

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of designing computationally efficient Generalized Comb Filters (GCF). Basically, GCF filters are anti-aliasing filters that guarantee superior performance in terms of selectivity and quantization noise rejection compared to classical comb filters, when used as decimation filters in multistage architectures. Upon employing a partial polyphase (PP) architecture proposed in a companion paper, we develop a sensitivity analysis in order to investigate the effects of the coefficients' quantization on the frequency response of the designed filters. We show that the sensitivity of the filter response to errors in the coefficients is dependent on the particular split of the decimation factor between the two sub-filters constituting the PP architecture. The sensitivity analysis is then used for developing a fixed-point implementation of a sample filter from the class of GCF filters, used as reference filter throughout the paper. Finally, we present computer simulations in order...

  7. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  8. Eye Injuries at Work

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  9. Facts About Pink Eye

    ... Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most common ... depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves inflammation ...

  10. How to administer eye drops and eye ointment.

    Shaw, Mary

    2016-05-25

    Rationale and key points Eye drops and eye ointment are the mainstay of treatment of ocular conditions. Failure to prioritise administration of these medicines can prolong the condition and may present a risk to the patient's vision. ▶ Eye drops and eye ointments are used to treat acute and chronic conditions of the eye and surrounding structures. Eye drops must be instilled before applying eye ointment, since the ointment will affect the absorption of the eye drop. ▶ Nurses require knowledge of the technique, side effects and potential interactions associated with systemically or topically applied medicines to the eye to ensure patient safety and optimum outcomes. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you intend to develop your knowledge and skills regarding treatment of ocular conditions. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27224628

  11. Performance comparison of liquid metal and gas cooled ATW system point designs

    As part of the Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) program in the U.S., preliminary design studies have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to define and compare candidate Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems. The studies at ANL have focused primarily on the transmutation blanket component of the overall system. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), sodium, and gas cooled systems are among the blanket technology options currently under consideration. This paper summarizes the results from neutronics trade studies performed at ANL. Core designs have been developed for LBE and sodium cooled 840 MWt fast spectrum accelerator driven systems employing re-cycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses have been performed for a helium-cooled 600 MWt hybrid thermal and fast spectrum system proposed by General Atomics (GA), which is operated in the critical mode for three cycles and in a subcritical accelerator driven mode for a subsequent single cycle. For these three point designs, isotopic inventories, consumption rates, and annual burnup rates are compared. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic (TRU) isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation are also compared on a consistent basis. (author)

  12. 房屋改造加固设计要点%Housing Renovation And Design Points

    邓中亚

    2016-01-01

    Building due to disrepair, catastrophes, changes the structure performance, therefore, must be before modification reliability evaluation, according to the appraisal opinions for renovation and design. Only serious detection, scientific appraisal, the careful design, careful construction, to ensure the use safety of modified structure. This paper ilustrates the method of strengthening concrete structure transformation, and to emphasize the design key points.%建筑物由于年久失修、遭遇灾害,其结构性能会发生变化,因此,改造前必须对其进行可靠性鉴定,依据鉴定意见进行改造加固设计。只有做到认真检测、科学评估、周密设计、精心施工,才能确保改造后建筑结构的使用安全。本文详细说明了混凝土结构改造加固的方法,并强调了设计要点。

  13. Design and Implementation of Real-time Algorithms for Eye Tracking and PERCLOS Measurement for on board Estimation of Alertness of Drivers

    George, Anjith; Routray, Aurobinda

    2015-01-01

    The alertness level of drivers can be estimated with the use of computer vision based methods. The level of fatigue can be found from the value of PERCLOS. It is the ratio of closed eye frames to the total frames processed. The main objective of the thesis is the design and implementation of real-time algorithms for measurement of PERCLOS. In this work we have developed a real-time system which is able to process the video onboard and to alarm the driver in case the driver is in alert. For ac...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Causes of Dry ... Eye Diagnosis Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Devin A ...

  15. Design of multi-point automatic positioning pre-programmed crane control system

    This automatic positioning system is designed for the crane which is in common use. The crane hall is cut into several parts, the position is detected by the photoelectric switches, and the PLC and inverter are used for the control devices. The automatic positioning control of the crane is completed by means of the timing movement. The positioning error is less than 2.1 cm, the swing range when lifting object is less than 5.7 cm, and the average speed of the crane is more than 90% of the rated speed. This paper gives further description in the positioning control, direction control, speed control and the identification of the starting point. Finally it gives an analysis of the automatic positioning performance. (authors)

  16. Charge density distributions derived from smoothed electrostatic potential functions: design of protein reduced point charge models.

    Leherte, Laurence; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2011-10-01

    To generate reduced point charge models of proteins, we developed an original approach to hierarchically locate extrema in charge density distribution functions built from the Poisson equation applied to smoothed molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) functions. A charge fitting program was used to assign charge values to the so-obtained reduced representations. In continuation to a previous work, the Amber99 force field was selected. To easily generate reduced point charge models for protein structures, a library of amino acid templates was designed. Applications to four small peptides, a set of 53 protein structures, and four KcsA ion channel models, are presented. Electrostatic potential and solvation free energy values generated by the reduced models are compared with the corresponding values obtained using the original set of atomic charges. Results are in closer agreement with the original all-atom electrostatic properties than those obtained with a previous reduced model that was directly built from the smoothed MEP functions [Leherte and Vercauteren in J Chem Theory Comput 5:3279-3298, 2009]. PMID:21915750

  17. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  18. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    Brasolin, Franco; The ATLAS collaboration; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 period (LS1), that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) Project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 virtual machines (VMs) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 22000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 Project; operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities. The design aspects a...

  19. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS simulation in Point1 project.

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    During the LHC long shutdown period (LS1), that started in 2013, the simulation in Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage in an opportunistic way of the trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) farm of the ATLAS experiment. The farm provides more than 1500 computer nodes, and they are particularly suitable for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2500 virtual machines (VM) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 20000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a thorough review of the design, the results and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project operating a large scale Openstack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive GRID sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities within the ATLAS collaboration. The particular design ...

  20. Design of Neutral-Point Voltage Controller of a Three-level NPC Inverter with Small DC-Link Capacitors

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, S.

    2013-01-01

    A Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) three-level inverter with small dc-link capacitors is presented in this paper. The inverter requires zero average neutral-point current for stable neutral-point voltage. The small dc-link capacitors may not maintain capacitor voltage balance, even with zero neutral......-point current. This may happen due to nonlinearities present in the circuit. This requires a fast control of the neutral-point voltage. A simple carrier based modulation strategy which allows modeling of the neutral-point voltage dynamics as a continuous function of power drawn from the inverter is proposed...... neutral-point voltage control on the basis of the continuous model. The design method for optimum performance is discussed. The implementation of the proposed modulation strategy and the controller is very simple. The controller is implemented in a 7.5 kW induction machine based drive with only 14 ìF dc...

  1. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...... which combined gaze tracking with a classical mouse device. The result of our experiment shows that the combination of eye and head movements is faster than head pointing for far targets and more accurate than eye pointing....

  2. Planning proton therapy of the eye

    We describe a program for planning treatments of the eye with charged particle beams. Many of its features apply to treatment planning programs in general. These include the three-dimensional definition of the tumor volume and of normal structures, the possibility of delivering the treatment beam from any direction in space, the provision of arbitrary viewpoints including a ''beam's eye'' point of view, the design and fabrication of the field shaping aperture, the specification of the necessary beam quality (range and modulation), the calculation and display of isodose contours on any plane in space and on relevant surfaces, the identification of the extent to which normal structures are included or excluded from the beam, and the stimulation of the desired alignment film with which patient alignment can be verified

  3. Why Do Eyes Water?

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  4. Eye Disease Simulations

    ... Jobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Listen Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma information ...

  5. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  6. Eye Movement Disorders

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  7. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    ... can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  8. A Note on Eye Movement

    Bolina, O; Bolina, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    In a simplified fashion, the motion of the eyeball in its orbit consists of rotations around a fixed point. Therefore, this motion can be described in terms of the Euler's angles of rigid body dynamics. However, there is a physiological constraint in the motion of the eye which reduces to two its degrees of freedom. This paper reviews the basic features of the kinematics of the eye and the laws governing its motion.

  9. An experimental study on a training support system utilizing trainee's eye gaze point and think aloud protocol for diagnosing nuclear power plant anomalies

    An experimental system has been developed for aiming at supporting the simulator training of diagnosis nuclear power plant anomaly, where an expert provides the instructions to a trainee by his/her own educational and experienced point of view. This system has several characteristics as follows: (1) the expert can provide the instruction through the local area network or the Internet, (2) the training task is the detection of the primary cause of plant anomaly, which is not including the plant operation but requires only thinking, and (3) the system can automatically detects the trainee's view-point and think aloud protocols and provide these two types of information to the expert in real time for supporting his/her instruction. A laboratory experiment using this system was conducted, where an expert, who had really engaged in plant operation as a chief operator, was employed as the instructor for novice students. As the result of analyzing the experimental data, it was found that the two types of information, trainee's viewpoints and his verbal protocols, have some potential of effectiveness for supporting the instructor to estimate the trainees diagnostic thinking process and provide the instruction. (author)

  10. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    Ballestrero, S.; Batraneanu, S. M.; Brasolin, F.; Contescu, C.; Fazio, D.; Di Girolamo, A.; Lee, C. J.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Sedov, A.; Twomey, M. S.; Wang, F.; Zaytsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LSI) period, that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High-Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 Virtual Machines (VMs) each with 8 CPU cores, for a total of up to 22000 parallel jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project, operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 33 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.1 billion Monte Carlo events. The design aspects are presented: the virtualization platform exploited by Sim@P1 avoids interferences with TDAQ operations and it guarantees the security and the usability of the ATLAS private network. The cloud mechanism allows the separation of the needed support on both infrastructural (hardware, virtualization layer) and logical (Grid site support) levels. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of such a large system during the upcoming LHC Run 2 period: simple, reliable, and efficient tools are needed to quickly switch from Sim@P1 to TDAQ mode and back, to exploit the resources when they are not used for the data acquisition, even for short periods. The evolution of the central OpenStack infrastructure is described, as it was upgraded from Folsom to the Icehouse release, including the scalability issues addressed.

  11. Beam-Pointing Designs for Exploding-Pusher Proton and X-Ray Backlighting Targets at the National Ignition Facility

    Craxton, R. S.; Kong, Y. Z.; Garcia, E. M.; Huang, P. Y.; Kinney, J. P.; McKenty, P. W.; Zhang, R.; Le Pape, S.; Coppari, F.; Heeter, R. F.; Liedahl, D. A.; MacGowan, B. J.; Rygg, J. R.; Schneider, M. B.; Li, C. K.; Perry, T. S.

    2015-11-01

    The 2-D hydrodynamics code SAGE, which includes 3-D laser ray tracing, has been used to design laser pointing configurations for thin-shell, exploding-pusher targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) being considered as point sources of protons and continuum x rays. Since it is desired to irradiate these targets using limited numbers of beams, uniformity is maximized by individually pointing the different beams in each quad. An important design constraint is to minimize the laser blow-by into opposing beam ports. Designs have been developed for a variety of planned experiments. A six-quad design was used for the first proton backlighter development shot on the NIF. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Robust Brain-Machine Interface Design Using Optimal Feedback Control Modeling and Adaptive Point Process Filtering.

    Shanechi, Maryam M; Orsborn, Amy L; Carmena, Jose M

    2016-04-01

    Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain's behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user's motor intention during CLDA-a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to parameter

  13. NGNP Point Design - Results of the Initial Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulic Assessments During FY-03, Rev. 1

    Philip E. MacDonald; James W. Sterbentz; Robert L. Sant; P. Bayless; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; W. K. Terry

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary preconceptual designs for two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), one for a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and one for a pebble bed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs are to meet three basic requirements: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 °C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The two efforts are discussed separately below. The analytical results presented in this report are very promising, however, we wish to caution the reader that future, more detailed, design work will be needed to provide final answers to a number of key questions including the allowable power level, the inlet temperature, the power density, the optimum fuel form, and others. The point design work presented in this report provides a starting point for other evaluations, and directions for the detailed design, but not final answers.

  14. Cosmetics for the eye area after cosmetic surgical procedures.

    Ogden-West, N

    1999-01-01

    Cosmetic enhancement of the eye area after esthetic surgery allows the patient to get back into the mainstream of life faster. It also improves their psychic state by blocking out discoloration, helping to disguise incision scars and artistically coloring the face to enhance the results of the surgery. The patients automatically feel better, when they look better. After a surgical procedure, there are temporary and permanent structural changes that appear with blepharoplasty and laser surgery. Although these surgeries will take away loose skin, puffy fat deposits and wrinkles, they do not change the bone structure or eye placement. Before starting a makeup application, analyzation of the eyes for their structural features help the artist know the value of colors to be used. The measuring points of the brow along with the importance of framing the eye will also be discussed. Once the brows and the eyes have been analyzed, the artist needs to take into consideration the personality of the patient. This helps the artist decide on the colors, value, intensity and design which will be applied to the patient. Before eye makeup can be applied, the use of primers, concealers and/or camouflage creams will be used to block out any discoloration in the eye area. We will look at concerns in formulation of products that will go around the eyes after surgery. The application of cosmetic products should be used as an accessory. Women have a variety of dress styles: casual, business or evening. The style of makeup application should work in conjunction with what they are wearing and how they are feeling at the time. Just as there are many facets to a woman, there are various styles of application to fit her personality. PMID:10393519

  15. Teaching Skills to Use a Computer Mouse in Preschoolers with Developmental Disabilities: Shaping Moving a Mouse and Eye-Hand Coordination

    Shimizu, Hirofumi; Yoon, Soyoung; McDonough, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    We taught seven preschoolers with developmental disabilities to point-and-click with a computer mouse. The computer-based training program consisted of three parts, based on a task analysis of the behavioral prerequisites to point-and-click. Training 1 was designed to shape moving the mouse. Training 2 was designed to build eye-hand coordination…

  16. Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Kim Ae-Ran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition. Methods/Design A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang, ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance. Discussion The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.

  17. Screening of Adolescents for Eye Diseases in Nigerian High Schools

    Adegbehingbe, BO; Oladehinde, MK; Majemgbasan, TO; Onakpoya, HO; Osagiede, EO

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of pre-entrance eye screening programmes for school age children is still controversial. A point prevalence study of high school adolescents was conducted to determine the magnitude of undiagnosed eye diseases and offer appropriate treatment where feasible.

  18. Optical performance of the eye with progressive addition lens correction

    Barcik, A.; Siedlecki, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simulate the retinal image of the eye with progressive addition lens (PAL), correction (without cylindrical component) and investigate its quality. The optical design and analysis software was used in simulation. The topographical data of the front surface of PAL were taken from the scanning profilometry. Also the coordinates of the points of the distant and near power measurements were taken from topographical measurements. The back surface was assumed to be sphe...

  19. The Tromsø Eye Study

    Bertelsen, Geir; Erke, Maja G; von Hanno, Therese; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Peto, Tunde; Sjølie, Anne K; Njølstad, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  To describe the study design and methodology of the Tromsø Eye Study (TES), and to describe visual acuity and refractive error in the study population. Methods:  The Tromsø Eye Study is a sub-study of the Tromsø Study, a population-based multipurpose longitudinal study in the municipality...... of Tromsø, Norway. The Tromsø Eye Study was a part of the sixth survey of the Tromsø Study, conducted from October 2007 through December 2008. The eye examination included information on self-reported eye diseases, assessment of visual acuity and refractive errors, retinal photography and optical...

  20. Representations of sensory experiences in the early phases of architectural design: there is more than meets the eye

    Elsen, Catherine; Heylighen, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In response to questions about designers’ visual way of knowing and working, this article explores how sensory experience is conveyed during the early phases of architectural design. By processing 985 graphic components issued from a three-month ethnographic observation inside an architecture firm, and proposing an original methodology for their analysis, we identify and analyse graphic expressions of sensory-related design intentions. Multi-sensory dimensions of experiencing an architectural...

  1. A CAREM reactor's design evaluation from the nuclear security point of view

    The main objective of this work is to define the adequate rules for CAREM reactor security systems design and processes which aim to assure verification of the CALIN regulations 'Radiological Criteria' in relation to accidents concerning CAREM reactor design. (Author)

  2. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Causes ...

  4. Diabetes eye exams

    ... catch problems early if you get regular eye exams. ... diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years by an eye ... problems with your vision. Many can do screening exams for damage from diabetes. Once you have eye ...

  5. Application of Graphics Opening the Eyes Method in Advertising Design%图形开眼法在广告设计中的运用

    郑国喜

    2012-01-01

    以文学中的画龙点睛之笔为启示,分析了图形开眼方法及图形开眼原则,论述了在广告设计中如何从图形的影像、图形的叠加关系、图形的放置方式、图形的切割变化、图形的逻辑关系等方面进行变化,使图形成为整个广告设计的画龙点睛之笔。在此基础上,提出了应根据广告主题灵活运用图形开眼法来增加广告的趣味性与联想空间,为广告设计的图形处理方法提供参考和借鉴。%Taking finishing touch in the literature as enlightenment,it analyzed opening the eyes method of graphical and principles of graphics,discussed how to change from images of graphics,overlay relationship of graphics,placement of graphics,cutting changes of graphics,the logic relation of the graphics in advertising.Graphics become finishing touch of the entire advertising.On this basis,it proposed advertising theme should be based on flexible use of graphical opening the eyes method to Increase the interest and imagination of advertising,it provided reference and learn for graphics design of advertising.

  6. Design and fabrication of a diffractive beam splitter for dual-wavelength and concurrent irradiation of process points.

    Amako, Jun; Shinozaki, Yu

    2016-07-11

    We report on a dual-wavelength diffractive beam splitter designed for use in parallel laser processing. This novel optical element generates two beam arrays of different wavelengths and allows their overlap at the process points on a workpiece. To design the deep surface-relief profile of a splitter using a simulated annealing algorithm, we introduce a heuristic but practical scheme to determine the maximum depth and the number of quantization levels. The designed corrugations were fabricated in a photoresist by maskless grayscale exposure using a high-resolution spatial light modulator. We characterized the photoresist splitter, thereby validating the proposed beam-splitting concept. PMID:27410878

  7. Get Your Eyes Tested

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Your Eyes Tested Browse Sections The Basics Overview Eye Exams Vision ... The Basics The Basics: Overview Have your eyes tested (examined) regularly to help find problems early, when ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... the eyelids, cleanses the eye and washes away foreign particles or irritants. The inner layer consists of ... response to eye irritation or emotion. When a foreign body or dryness irritates the eye, or when ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Cortisone Shot and Dry Eye Aug 30, 2015 ... Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2016 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  12. Diabetic Eye Disease

    ... we see Common vision problems Age-Related Eye Diseases Eye Health Tips Podcasts Text Messages Vision-Related Terms, ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, ...

  13. EyeGENE

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology ... Eye Risk Dry Eye Diagnosis Dry Eye Treatment What Is ...

  15. Dilating Eye Drops

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  16. National Eye Institute

    ... Cryo-Electron Microscopy Learn more Video: Next-Generation Eye Imaging Tools Learn about how the NEI Audacious ... science. Audacious Goals Translational Research eyeGENE® International Research Eye and Vision Research The latest on NEI research. ...

  17. Diabetes eye exams

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000323.htm Diabetes eye exams To use the sharing features on this ... you get regular eye exams. You Need Regular Eye Exams Even if the doctor who takes care ...

  18. Diabetes - eye care

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000078.htm Diabetes - eye care To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Diabetic retinopathy - care Diabetes and your eyes Diabetes can harm your eyes. It can damage ...

  19. About the Eye

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  20. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  1. Space tug point design study. Volume 3: Design definition. Part 1: Propulsion and mechanical, avionics, thermal control and electrical power subsystems

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the configuration and performance of a space tug. Details of the space tug systems are presented to include: (1) propulsion systems, (2) avionics, (3) thermal control, and (4) electric power subsystems. The data generated include engineering drawings, schematics, subsystem operation, and component description. Various options investigated and the rational for the point design selection are analyzed.

  2. More than meets the eye: Using cognitive work analysis to identify design requirements for future rail level crossing systems.

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Mulvihill, Christine M; Cornelissen, Miranda; Walker, Guy H; Young, Kristie L; Stevens, Nicholas; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    An increasing intensity of operations means that the longstanding safety issue of rail level crossings is likely to become worse in the transport systems of the future. It has been suggested that the failure to prevent collisions may be, in part, due to a lack of systems thinking during design, crash analysis, and countermeasure development. This paper presents a systems analysis of current active rail level crossing systems in Victoria, Australia that was undertaken to identify design requirements to improve safety in future rail level crossing environments. Cognitive work analysis was used to analyse rail level crossing systems using data derived from a range of activities. Overall the analysis identified a range of instances where modification or redesign in line with systems thinking could potentially improve behaviour and safety. A notable finding is that there are opportunities for redesign outside of the physical rail level crossing infrastructure, including improved data systems, in-vehicle warnings and modifications to design processes, standards and guidelines. The implications for future rail level crossing systems are discussed. PMID:26143077

  3. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants.

    Bednar, David; Beerens, Koen; Sebestova, Eva; Bendl, Jaroslav; Khare, Sagar; Chaloupkova, Radka; Prokop, Zbynek; Brezovsky, Jan; Baker, David; Damborsky, Jiri

    2015-11-01

    There is great interest in increasing proteins' stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt's reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (ΔTm = 24°C and 21°C) by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:26529612

  4. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Education Programs All Education National Eye Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education ...

  5. Design and characterization of a tunable opto-mechatronic system to mimic the focusing and the regulation of illumination in the formation of images made by the human eye

    Santiago-Alvarado, A.; Cruz-Félix, A.; Hernández Méndez, A.; Pérez-Maldonado, Y.; Domínguez-Osante, C.

    2015-05-01

    Tunable lenses have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in such areas like machine vision, laser projection, ophthalmology, etc. In this work we present the design of a tunable opto-mechatronic system capable of focusing and to regulate the entrance illumination that mimics the performance made by the iris and the crystalline lens of the human eye. A solid elastic lens made of PDMS has been used in order to mimic the crystalline lens and an automatic diaphragm has been used to mimic the iris of the human eye. Also, a characterization of such system has been performed with standard values of luminosity for the human eye have been taken into account to calibrate and to validate the entrance illumination levels to the overall optical system.

  6. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  7. An advanced tracker design for pointing and control of space vehicles using the charge injection device

    Jones, C.; Kollodge, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of charge transfer devices (CTD) in pointing and control of space vehicles is examined, with emphasis on the use of charge injection devices (CID). The selection of CTD type and CID operation, including CID signal and noise analysis and signal improvement, are discussed. Star tracking operational advantages of the CTD are pointed out, and the tracking optical concept is discussed and graphically depicted. The position interpolation procedure and the effects of rate of stellar motion on position interpolation are considered, and error analysis is examined. Finally, the breadboard and test program are discussed in detail, coarse and fine acquisition, test for star, track pattern, test procedure and results. An overall accuracy performance of approximately 0.02 pixels or approximately 0.8 arcsec for the test equipment and tracker was obtained.

  8. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR concept, and it

  9. The use of experimental design to find the operating maximum power point of PEM fuel cells

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear nature. In this paper, the development of a PEM Fuel Cells mathematical model based on the Design of Experiment methodology is described. The Design of Experiment provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a mathematical model for the studied multivariable system with only a few experiments. The obtained results can be used for optimization and control of the PEM Fuel Cells systems

  10. Design and Evaluation of Cell Phone Pointing Interface for Robot Control

    Saso Koceski; Natasa Koceska; Ivica Kocev

    2012-01-01

    In this work a pointing interface based on human gestures using a mobile phone accelerometer for interaction with robots is proposed. Through this interface the user can sketch stroke gestures on a computer screen using the cell phone accelerometer to make a selection and instruct a robot to perform a task. Selection, cancelation and movement, as well as some additional commands such as stop, pause and resume are supported. All the projected gestures are processed using known image analysis a...

  11. A multi-point inverse airfoil design method based on conformal mapping

    Selig, Michael S.; Maughmer, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    An exact method of multipoint inverse airfoil design for incompressible flow is presented. Multipoint design is handled by dividing the airfoil into a number of desired segments. For each segment the velocity distribution is prescribed together with an angle of attack at which the prescribed velocity distribution is to be achieved. In this manner, multipoint design objectives can be taken into account in the initial specification of the velocity distribution. In order for the multipoint inverse airfoil design problem to be well posed, three integral constraints and several conditions arise which must be satisfied. Further restrictions are imposed if the airfoil is to have a specified pitching moment, thickness ratio, or other constraints. The system of equations is solved partly as a linear system and partly through multidimensional Newton iteration. Since the velocity distribution is prescribed about the circle in the angular coordinate, specification of the velocity in terms of arc length is handled through the multidimensional Newton iteration as well. The current formulation sets the stage for a more general multipoint inverse airfoil design method in which it will be possible to specify the velocity distribution, some boundary-layer development, or the surface geometry along a segment.

  12. Precise and efficient siRNA design: a key point in competent gene silencing.

    Fakhr, E; Zare, F; Teimoori-Toolabi, L

    2016-04-01

    RNA interference-related strategies have become appealing methods in various fields of research. Exact sequence design of these small molecules is an essential step in the silencing procedure. Numerous researchers have tried to define some algorithms in order to increase the chance of short interfering RNA's (siRNA's) success. In recent decades, online designing software has aimed at promoting the quality of siRNA designing based on the most cited algorithms. According to our previous experiments, a combination of different criteria would be helpful. That is, siRNAs suggested by a combination of tools seem to be more efficient. Furthermore, different factors such as distance of target region to transcription start site, nucleotide composition, absence of off-target effects and secondary structures in the target site and siRNA and the presence of asymmetry and energy valley within the siRNA will increase the efficiency of siRNAs. Despite application of different online tools and fulfilling the criteria, there is no guarantee for designing an effective siRNA. However, meticulous designing of siRNAs according to the suggested algorithms and scoring systems and using different siRNAs for targeting the same gene would lead to improved silencing outcome. In this review, we focus on common algorithms and online software, and introduce a new scoring system used in our experiments. PMID:26987292

  13. Starting points and objectives for a design study of a radioactive waste repository to be mined in a salt dome

    In close cooperation with Prof.Ir. P.Th. Velzeboer, Professor in Mining of the University of Technology in Delft, a design study has been made of a radioactive waste repository to be mined in a medium size salt dome. This article focuses on the starting points and objectives that formed the basis of this design study. The prime objective was a high degree of radiological and of conventional safety during the construction and operation of the disposal mine and a long-term isolation of the buried radionuclides once the facility was closed down and sealed. (Auth.)

  14. Experience Feedback of Current LWR on the Design and Operation of Advanced LWR, under the Safety Analysis Point of View

    Current LWR are operating with an excellent safety record. It is foreseen that they will be progressively replaced by more advanced designs (Generation III, III+, and IV). This paper reviews the role of the safety analysis, both in steady and transient state, in the flexible yet safe operation of the nuclear power plants. Several aspects such as licensing, technological progress, efficiency, public opinion and environmental consideration, and generation replacement, are considered form a broad perspective. Besides, deficiencies, learned lessons and design and operation aspects that could be improved in the new reactor fleet, under the perspective of safety analysis, are also considered from the engineering point of view and experience. (author)

  15. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  16. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Help Itchy Eyes Aug 18, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  19. Design of intelligent distributed control systems: a dependability point of view

    The use of fieldbuses and the emergence of intelligent sensors and actuators are opening up new possibilities for distributed control systems, but are also introducing additional constraints in terms of achieving dependability objectives. The type of production environment will greatly determine the predominant criterion for an automatic control system, i.e. reliability, availability, maintainability, safety, etc. On the other hand, the choice of a fieldbus system will also depend on factors such as application size, data throughput, and integration of time considerations. Other important criteria include cost, confidentiality, and compatibility with existing equipment. Therefore, it appears essential that designers be given the means to assess dependability at each design step by integrating feedback from experience. Assessing dependability is too often limited to an evaluation at the end of the design process, which often involves reselecting previous choices. The main topic of this paper is to focus on the communication function which is a pivotal of intelligent distributed control systems. So this article is a synthesis of different aspects linked to the design of fieldbus based applications thanks to the contributors, who come from various fields. Consequently it highlights the main problem and give some ways to solve them

  20. Eye safe laser range finders

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  1. Note on a simplified approach to design point performance analysis of HAWT rotors

    Shepherd, D. G.

    A simplified method for the design and performance analysis of a horizontal axis wind turbine rotor is given which can be carried out on a hand-held calculator by elimination of iteration processes. It is based on the use of the ideal, optimized analysis for determining the blade geometry, thus requiring only fixed values of the axial induction factor and corresponding optimized rotational induction factors. Power output is obtained by using a blade element torque relationship which allows for drag and includes the tip-loss effect by direct application of the customary loss factor without requiring recalculation of induction factors. Results over a range of tip-speed ratios from 4 to 12 for lift-drag ratios of 25, 50, 75 and 100 show very reasonable agreement, with some published results of current design methods requiring computer solutions.

  2. Design of Ultrasonically-Activatable Nanoparticles using Low Boiling Point Perfluorocarbons

    Sheeran, Paul S.; Luois, Samantha; Mullin, Lee; Matsunaga, Terry O.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, an interest has developed in designing in biomaterials for medical ultrasonics that can provide the acoustic activity of microbubbles, but with improved stability in vivo and a smaller size distribution for extravascular interrogation. One proposed alternative is the phase-change contrast agent. Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) consist of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) that are initially in liquid form, but can then be vaporized with acoustic energy. Crucial parameters for PCCAs includ...

  3. On the number of support points of maximin and Bayesian optimal designs

    Braess, Dietrich; Dette, Holger

    2007-01-01

    We consider maximin and Bayesian $D$-optimal designs for nonlinear regression models. The maximin criterion requires the specification of a region for the nonlinear parameters in the model, while the Bayesian optimality criterion assumes that a prior for these parameters is available. On interval parameter spaces, it was observed empirically by many authors that an increase of uncertainty in the prior information (i.e., a larger range for the parameter space in the maximin criterion or a larg...

  4. Robot design from a neuro-ethological point of view. Shinkei kodogaku kara mita robot

    Shimozawa, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. of Applied Electricity)

    1991-11-01

    The science concerning the method of obtaining the desirable information by adjusting the controllable quantity based on the measurement of the uncontrollable quantity is called cybernetics. The cybernetics is the most ideal image of the robot. The instinct of animals is supported by the nervous system. The science which deals with the nervous system of animals as a function of its instinct is called the neuro-ethology. In this sense, the neuro-ethology is identical to the cybernetics. The fundamental basis of robot design the design of the robot is therefore the neuro-ethology. The treatment of the dependent information about space and time in the auditory nervous system of animals was reviewed. The petuliarity of the auditory system, auditory as an interferometry, and the evolution of the auditory system was explained by taking the sonner system in bats as a prototype of the auditory system of animal. For further explanation of auditory system, the correspondence to the phonetic recognition of Homo-sapiens was also reviewed. It is important for design of the robot to investigate the mechanism to extract informations of the auditory nervous system in animals including Homo-sapiens. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  5. The use of a new design irrigator for the emergency treatment of chemical eye injuries in an accident and emergency department.

    Watts, M T; Mulira, A

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of a hand-held drench hose into a district general hospital accident and emergency department, for the emergency irrigation of chemically injured eyes is reported. The hose is described, together with the technique of irrigation. The advantages that a high-flow, low pressure system affords over conventional irrigation methods are discussed. The system appears to offer a simple, immediately available, effective tool for emergency eye care, which is suitable for use by a variet...

  6. Contribution to the design of a micro-programmed floating point arithmetical operator

    This report is intended for a presentation of the implementation of an arithmetical operator. Fast microprocessor together with microprogramming techniques were used for development. For clarity, this report is shared in three parts following the different steps of design and development. The first part relates the preliminary study stage, setting down the outlines of the project: tentative data, choice of components and architecture of operator. The second part is devoted to the development step. It deals with implementation aid systems and computation algorithms for arithmetical functions. Results and conclusions are the subject of the third part. (author)

  7. Recent Advances in Optimal Design of Structures from a Reliability Point of View

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Structural optimisation and structural reliability theory are considered. Both of these areas have developed during the last two decades from being of purely theoretical interest to areas useful in practical design. The main elements of structural reliability theory are described in the second...... Baker[4] and Madsen et al.[5]. Next a heuristic method, the so-called ß-unzipping method[6] is mentioned. This method can be used to estimate the reliability of a structural system if some modelling assumptions are fulfilled. In the third section some elements of structural optimisation theory are...

  8. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  9. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  10. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    Michelle Hessen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement.

  11. Novel four-point-probe design and nanorobotic dual endeffector strategy for electrical characterization of as-grown SWCNT bundles

    Eichhorn, V; Fatikow, S; Sardan Sukas, Özlem;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel nanorobotic strategy for non-destructive and direct electrical characterization of as-grown bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is presented. For this purpose, test patterns of SWCNT bundles having different diameters are grown on a silicon substrate by...... chemical vapor deposition. A new design of microstructured four-point-probes is proposed and fabricated allowing for direct contacting of vertically aligned bundles of SWCNTs. A nanorobotic setup is upgraded into a dual endeffector system to achieve good electrical contact between four-point-probe and...... SWCNT bundle and to perform electrical measurements. First experimental results of non-destructive electrical characterization are presented and discussed....

  12. Comparison of self-reported quality of vision outcomes after myopic LASIK with two femtosecond lasers: a prospective, eye-to-eye study

    Sáles, Christopher S; Manche, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare self-reported quality of vision (QoV) outcomes after myopic LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) with two femtosecond lasers. Design Prospective, randomized, eye-to-eye study. Methods Consecutive myopic patients were treated with wavefront-guided LASIK bilaterally. Eyes were randomized according to ocular dominance. The flap of one eye was made with the IntraLase FS 60 kHz femtosecond laser with a conventional 70° side-cut, and the flap of the fellow eye was made with the IntraLase iFS 150 kHz femtosecond laser with an inverted 130° side-cut. Patients completed the validated, Rasch-tested, linear-scaled 30-item QoV questionnaire preoperatively and at Months 1, 3, 6, and 12. Results The study enrolled 120 fellow eyes in 60 patients. None of the measured QoV parameters exhibited statistically significant differences between the groups preoperatively or at any postoperative time point. Conclusion Creating LASIK flaps with an inverted side-cut using a 150 kHz femtosecond laser and with a conventional 70° side-cut using a 60 kHz femtosecond laser resulted in no significant differences in self-reported QoV assessed by the QoV questionnaire.

  13. Effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students.

    Kim, Sang-Dol

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study used a pretest-posttest design with a non-equivalent control group. Forty undergraduate nursing students were selected by convenience sampling, with 20 assigned to an exercise group and 20 assigned to a control group. The yogic eye exercise intervention was performed for 60 minutes, two days a week for 8 weeks. It consisted of 8 steps: palming, blinking, sideways viewing, front and sideways viewing, rotational viewing, up and down viewing, preliminary nose tip gazing, and near and distant viewing. Eye fatigue was measured using a questionnaire for evaluating ocular fatigue. [Results] The exercise-group measurements revealed a significantly decreased eye-fatigue score compared with that of the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic eye exercises could reduce the eye fatigue score in undergraduate nursing students. PMID:27390422

  14. Initial Scaling Studies and Conceptual Thermal Fluids Experiments for the Prismatic NGNP Point Design

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial high temperature gas reactor scaling studies and conceptual experiment design for gas flow and heat transfer. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/ATHENA/RELAP5-3D calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses are being applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant forced convection with slight transverse property variation. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple buoyant jets into a confined density-stratified crossflow -- with obstructions. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second experiment will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets

  15. Lenses matching of compound eye for target positioning

    Guo, Fang; Zheng, Yan Pei; Wang, Keyi

    2012-10-01

    Compound eye, as a new imaging method with multi-lens for a large field of view, could complete target positioning and detection fastly, especially at close range. Therefore it could be applicated in the fields of military and medical treatment and aviation with vast market potential and development prospect. Yet the compound eye imaging method designed use three layer construction of multiple lens array arranged in a curved surface and refractive lens and imaging sensor of CMOS. In order to simplify process structure and increase the imaging area of every sub-eye, the imaging area of every eye is coved with the whole CMOS. Therefore, for several imaging point of one target, the corresponding lens of every imaging point is unkonown, and thus to identify. So an algorithm was put forward. Firstly, according to the Regular Geometry relationship of several adjacent lenses, data organization of seven lenses with a main lens was built. Subsequently, by the data organization, when one target was caught by several unknown lenses, we search every combined type of the received lenses. And for every combined type, two lenses were selected to combine and were used to calculate one three-dimensional (3D) coordinate of the target. If the 3D coordinates are same to the some combine type of the lenses numbers, in theory, the lenses and the imaging points are matched. So according to error of the 3D coordinates is calculated by the different seven lenses numbers combines, the unknown lenses could be distinguished. The experimental results show that the presented algorithm is feasible and can complete matching task for imaging points and corresponding lenses.

  16. A Space-Based Point Design for Global Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Profiling Matched to the Recent NASA/NOAA Draft Science Requirements

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David; Frehlich, Rod G.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.

    2002-01-01

    An end-to-end point design, including lidar, orbit, scanning, atmospheric, and data processing parameters, for space-based global profiling of atmospheric wind will be presented. The point design attempts to match the recent NASA/NOAA draft science requirements for wind measurement.

  17. 非致命激光武器人眼模拟系统的设计与实现%Design and implement of Non-lethal Laser weapons eye simulated system

    战仁军; 崔鹤平; 李其祥

    2013-01-01

    The non-leathal laser weapons are main equipments of Armed Policed Force .In order to satisfy the demand for the non -leathal laser weapons development ,In this paper the eye optics system is analysed .On the basis of eye data model ,the eye simulate system is designed and Implemented .In the non-leathal laser weapons development ,this system can imitate effectively injury result of eye attacked by different frequency laser .%非致命激光致盲武器已成为武警处置突发事件的主要装备,为了满足非致命激光致盲武器研制的需要,本文分析了人眼的光学系统,根据人眼数据模型设计了人眼模拟系统,在非致命激光致盲武器研制中,可以有效模仿人眼受到不同功率激光的毁伤效果。

  18. The expression of the correction of corneal astigmatism in the point spread function analysis system of human eyes%人眼角膜散光矫正的点扩散函数分析表达

    姜珺; 毛欣杰; 金成鹏; 吕帆

    2008-01-01

    optical imaging quality among corneal astigmatism subjects under different corrections by using the Point Spread Function analysis system (PSF). Methods PSF 1000 analyzer was used to measure retinal image quality of eyes of 26 subjects with corneal astigmatism ( sphere ranged from - 3.00 to - 6.00 DS, cylinder ranged from - 0. 75 to - 3.00 DC), who were fully corrected with three different methods respectively: spectacles (SPE), rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGPCL) and toric soft contact lenses (TSCL). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curve was recorded and evaluated. 12 points of the MTF curve (equivalent to the 12 points of Lag Mar VA chart) were chosen for analysis. Equivalent moderate myopia 26 subjects without astigmatism were set up as control group. Results The MTF curve of each eye is enantiomorphous symmetrical Compared with the control group ( < -0. 75D), with 3.0 mm pupil, there's no statistical difference under low spatial frequency, the difference between middle and high frequency is significant ( P < 0.05 ). With 6. 0 mm pupil, there is statistical difference in all frequencies (P < 0.01 ). With simulated 3.0 mm pupil and 6.0 mm pupil, MTF values of all these three methods are statistical different. With 3.0 mm pupil, the MTF value of eyes fitted with RGPCLs is higher than that fitted with TSCLs except in the following frequency 3.00 , 3.78,4. 78,different in all frequencies ( P < 0.05 ). In all these three methods, MTF values with simulated 3.0 mm pupil are significantly higher than that with simulated 6.0 nun pupil ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusions PSF analytical method is available for offering objective data of retina imaging quality. RGPCL and its induced tear film is improved not only correcting the corneal astigmatism, but also enhances the ocular optical quality by reducing diffraction, dispersion and other high order of aberration.

  19. 基于SharePoint Server的OA系统设计%Design on OA System Based on SharePoint Server

    段洪秀; 燕剑

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft SharePoint Server是微软新一代的企业业务协作平台.通过SharePoint Server,企业可以加强信息的整合,从而有效降低IT成本和提高运营效率.简要介绍了SharePoint应用于OA系统的可行性,说明了Share-Point Server的工作原理及各个组成部分的功能,并结合OA系统的特点,描述了某公司OA的设计及实施方案.

  20. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Wiley, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  1. Smoking and Eye Health

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Home

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... MD Mar. 01, 2014 When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye, making the ... the eye smooth and clear. Without this tear film, good vision would not be possible. Sometimes people ...

  5. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ... more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages from the retina to the brain. Retina ( ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  7. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  8. Diabetes - eye care

    ... dilated eye exam. This is called digital retinal photography. Your eye doctor may ask you to come ... doctor if: You cannot see well in dim light. You have blind spots. You have double vision ( ...

  9. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    ... eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: ...

  10. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    ... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... to further reduce the inflammation. Updated 03/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... itself in tears. By producing tears at a slow and steady rate, the eye stays moist and ... produce tears. It can make tears at a slow, steady rate to maintain normal eye lubrication. It ...

  12. School eye health appraisal

    Desai Sanjiv; Desai Rajiv; Desai N; Lohiya Shobha; Bhargava G; Kumar K

    1989-01-01

    School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priori...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Cause Nighttime Glare? Sep 12, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  14. Diabetic Eye Disease

    ... Diabetic Eye Disease How can diabetes affect my eyes? Too much glucose, also called sugar, in your blood from diabetes ... diabetes can also affect the nerves to the eye. Having high blood glucose from diabetes causes decreased blood supply to the ...

  15. Eye and orbital cavity

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  16. Diamond Eye: a distributed architecture for image data mining

    Burl, Michael C.; Fowlkes, Charless; Roden, Joe; Stechert, Andre; Mukhtar, Saleem

    1999-02-01

    Diamond Eye is a distributed software architecture, which enables users (scientists) to analyze large image collections by interacting with one or more custom data mining servers via a Java applet interface. Each server is coupled with an object-oriented database and a computational engine, such as a network of high-performance workstations. The database provides persistent storage and supports querying of the 'mined' information. The computational engine provides parallel execution of expensive image processing, object recognition, and query-by-content operations. Key benefits of the Diamond Eye architecture are: (1) the design promotes trial evaluation of advanced data mining and machine learning techniques by potential new users (all that is required is to point a web browser to the appropriate URL), (2) software infrastructure that is common across a range of science mining applications is factored out and reused, and (3) the system facilitates closer collaborations between algorithm developers and domain experts.

  17. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  18. School eye health appraisal

    Desai Sanjiv

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priorities in the delivery of school based eye care.

  19. Design and Development of a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT charge controller for Photo-Voltaic (PV power generation system

    Muhammad Riazul Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how to implement MPPT using the most popular switching power supply topology. There are many published works on this topic, but only a tiny portion of them show how to actually implement the algorithms in hardware, as well as state common problems and pitfalls. In our work to keep the design simple we have used Arduino Nano. It has features like: LCD display, Led Indication and it is equipped with various protections to protect the circuitry from abnormal condition. This design is suitable for a 50W solar panel to charge a commonly used 12V lead acid battery. As the maximum power point (MPP of photovoltaic (PV power generation systems changes with changing atmospheric conditions (e.g. solar radiation and temperature, an important consideration in the design of efficient PV systems is to track the MPP correctly. We have implemented the most common MPPT algorithm named Perturb and Observe (PO to control the output of a synchronous buck-converter

  20. Artificial eye for in vitro experiments of laser light interaction with aqueous media

    Cain, Clarence P.; Noojin, Gary D.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    1997-01-01

    An artificial eye has been designed and assembled that mimics the focusing geometry of the living eye. The artificial eye's focusing characteristics are measured and compared with those of the in vivo system. The artificial eye is used to measure several nonlinear optical phenomena that may have an impact on the laser damage thresholds of the retina produced by ultrashort laser pulses. We chose a focal length of 17 mm to simulate the rhesus monkey eye, with a visual cone angle of 8.4 deg for a 2.5-mm diameter laser beam input. The measured focal point image diameter was 5.6 plus or minus 1 micrometer, which was 1.5 times the calculated diffraction-limited image diameter. This focusing system had the best M2 of all the systems evaluated. We used the artificial eye to measure the threshold for laser- induced breakdown, stimulated Brillouin scattering, super- continuum generation, and pulse temporal broadening due to group velocity dispersion.

  1. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  2. 童装设计要点分析%Analysis of Design Points on Children's Clothing

    谢秀红

    2012-01-01

    Based on market analysis and brand case studies, it dissected the design points of children's clothing. The results showed that a good grasp of the brand concept of positioning, integrating the development trend, color characteristics and regional en- vironment with children's clothing products could meet the needs of the children's wear market.%通过市场分析和品牌案例研究,对童装设计要点进行剖析,得出:把握好品牌定位,发展潮流,色彩及区域环境相融合的童装产品才能满足童装市场新的需求。

  3. The Eyes have it : Eye Tracking Analysis of Anthropomorphic Car Fronts using Spatiotemporal Scan Statistics

    Purucker, Christian; Jan R. Landwehr; Sprott, David E.; Herrmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Eye tracking has traditionally relied on regions of interest as a data source for analysis. Although widespread, this methodology is prone to several limitations. A new approach for eye tracking data analysis relying on spatiotemporal scan statistics is proposed and an exemplary experiment on anthropomorphic car front design is conducted.

  4. Organization of eye bank

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  5. Oxytocin and Pareidolia Face Detection Using the Visual Search Task. A double blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design study using eye tracking and intranasal oxytocin.

    Winge, Jarle Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Face pareidolia is the human tendency to see illusory human-like faces, for example in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of a face. Past research on humans show that oxytocin has a crucial role in enhancing facial processing. By leading to an increased focus on the face in general, and eyes especially, alter the encoding and conceptual recognition of social stimuli, enhancing sensitivity to hidden emotions in facial expressions, and enhancing the ability to interpret the fac...

  6. Improvements in packages comprising eye baths and eye lotions

    A new packaged assembly comprising an eye bath and eye lotion is described. The eye bath is shaped for application to the eye; it has a rim portion formed so as to provide a smooth skin-contacting surface and is sealed to a lid at a position removed from the skin-contacting area. The eye bath is formed in a sterile condition and aseptically filled to an appropriate level with eye lotion by a blow moulding process. The eye bath and its contents are sterilised after sealing by radioactive sterilsation. This packaged assembly is an improvement over previous eye bath assemblies in that it allows the eye bath to be used in a sterile form. It is also more comfortable and convenient to use than other sterile forms of eye treatment such as eye drops or jets of eye wash. Furthermore, bathing the eye provides a more prolonged treatment. (U.K.)

  7. Teamwork for eye care

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development (HRD – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  8. Teamwork for eye care

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  9. How to perform irrigation of the eye.

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-02-01

    rationale and key points: This article aims to help nurses to understand the importance of performing irrigation immediately following chemical injury to the eye, and outlines the most effective technique. It is essential that irrigation of the eye is understood and performed correctly. Chemical injury to the eye is an ophthalmic emergency. It presents a serious risk to the patient's vision and may cause blindness. The length of time the chemical remains in contact with the eye determines the severity of the injury. Immediate irrigation of the eye is essential to minimise preventable loss of vision. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you would ensure immediate irrigation following chemical injury to the eye in your clinical area. 2. How you know when you have irrigated the eye for long enough, if you have previously performed this procedure, and how reading this article might influence your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26838655

  10. Assessment of Corneal Epithelial Thickness in Asymmetric Keratoconic Eyes and Normal Eyes Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    S. Catalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the characteristics of asymmetric keratoconic eyes and normal eyes by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT corneal mapping. Methods. Retrospective corneal and epithelial thickness OCT data for 74 patients were compared in three groups of eyes: keratoconic (n=22 and normal fellow eyes (n=22 in patients with asymmetric keratoconus and normal eyes (n=104 in healthy subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC of receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves for each variable were compared across groups to indicate their discrimination capacity. Results. Three variables were found to differ significantly between fellow eyes and normal eyes (all p<0.05: minimum corneal thickness, thinnest corneal point, and central corneal thickness. These variables combined showed a high discrimination power to differentiate fellow eyes from normal eyes indicated by an AUC of 0.840 (95% CI: 0.762–0.918. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that topographically normal fellow eyes in patients with very asymmetric keratoconus differ from the eyes of healthy individuals in terms of their corneal epithelial and pachymetry maps. This type of information could be useful for an early diagnosis of keratoconus in topographically normal eyes.

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  13. Eye Disease and Development

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease; the...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Academy Publications ...

  17. 膝眼穴电致孔透皮给药治疗膝骨性关节炎30例护理干预%Study of Nursing Intervention about Eye of the Knee Point of Electroporation Transdermal Drug in Treatment of 30 Cases of Knee Osteoarthritis

    周秀梅; 包金花; 毕殿海

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss and evaluate current knee osteoarthritis treatment and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine nursing intervention with patients so as to improve the cure rate of osteoarthritis of knee to provide reference. Method:Ninety patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were randomly divided into 3 groups,respectively,30 cases for eye of the knee point nursing groups,nursing intervention on electroporation transdermal drug delivery group 30 cases,eye of the knee point electroporation transdermal delivery of nursing intervention group of 30 patients. Then improving of the symptom was compared after treatment. Result:Eye of the knee point electroporation transdermal delivery of nursing intervention symptoms improved significantly better than the other two groups,the difference was statistical significance(P<0.05). Conclusion:Eye of the knee point in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee nursing intervention on electroporation transdermal drug delivery have an reasonable drug price,operation simple and easy, painless,positive significance to improve the effect of holistic nursing care.%目的:探讨膝骨性关节炎患者治疗及中医特色护理干预措施,为提高膝骨性关节炎治愈率提供参考依据。方法:将90例膝骨性关节炎患者按随机数字表法分为三组,分别为膝眼穴组30例、电致孔透皮给药组30例、膝眼穴电致孔透皮给药组30例,治疗后分别进行症状改善的比较。结果:膝眼穴电致孔透皮给药症状改善明显优于其他两组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对膝骨性关节炎进行膝眼穴电致孔透皮给药护理干预,药物价廉、操作简单易行、无痛苦,对提高整体护理效果有积极意义。

  18. 针刺眼三针在Bell麻痹功能康复中的应用价值探讨%The Value of Acupuncture at Three Points of Eyes for the Functional Recovery of Bell Palsy

    周长斗; 李芳莉; 潘田成; 冯声旺; 龙喜; 胡朝耀

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨针刺眼三针(睛明、上明、承泣)在Bell麻痹功能康复中的应用价值.方法:将80例患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组各40例.观察组在常规针刺、药物治疗的基础上针刺眼周重要腧穴眼三针,对照组仅采用常规针刺与药物治疗;治疗前后分别做强度-时间曲线检测患侧额枕肌额腹和上口轮匝肌,判断面神经损伤及恢复程度.结果:在常规针刺和药物治疗的基础上,针刺眼三针能够显著提高Bell麻痹的临床疗效,并可明显缩短治疗周期.结论:针刺眼三针在Bell麻痹功能康复中有较高的应用价值.%Objective:To probe the role of acupuncture at three acupoints of eyes in the functional discovery of bell palsy. Methods:80 cases were randomly divided into the treatment group of 40 cases and the control group of 40 cases. The treatment group was treated by electroacupuncture at rountinely selected acupoints and rountinely oral medicine combined with acupuncture at three acupoints of eyes including Jingming, Shangming and the Chengqi. The control group was treated by acupuncture at rountinely selected acupoints and rountinely oral medicine. The intensity on 0.05 ms in the intensity/time (I/t) curve for frontal ventral fronto - occipital muscle and orbicular muscle of mouth at the affected side was used for assessment criteria of the course. Results:Routine electroacupuncture and oral medicine treatment combined with acupuncture at 3 acupoints of eyes could significantly increase clinical therapeutic effect on bell palsy, and the therapeutic cycle was shorted obviously.Conclusion:Acupuncture at 3 acupoints of eyes can significantly improve bell palsy and promote recovery of functions of facial nerves.

  19. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a

  20. Designing and evaluating sports footwear from the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and wearers - an analysis

    Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research work are: a to analyse the sports footwear, giving emphasis to its development, technical criteria and making, the opinion of the sportperson as an important element in parameter definition for the manufacturing and aspects concerning problems of the feet; b to verify the tecnical evolution the point of view of the manufacturers, specialists and researches; c identify the criteria adopted by wearers in their choice and evaluation. Data information was obtained from literature and bibliographical research (On-line systems, Comut, Sibradid and Internet in Portuguese, English and French. Through content analysis technique the following information was obtained: a concern on the design and manufacture of the sports footwear goes back to 19th century. Sports footwear has been moulded according to the charactectistics of type of sports, taking into consideration the rules of the games, the suggestion of specilists, the examination of the footwear and the type of injuries endured; b evaluation is an old practice, going back to the time of the footwear’s design and manufacturing. In a set of tests the first criterion was always the prevention of lesions. Five and ten criteria were adopted in 1977 and in 1980, respectively. Durability was included, enhancing consumerism; c for a host of reason the Brazilian consumer is a good of the footwear. This fact is indicative of his/her education as a consumer; d definition of parameters is urgent. They are an integral part of laws on quality control and production and propaganda material for the consumer’s orientation.

  1. The eyes of LITENING

    Moser, Eric K.

    2016-05-01

    LITENING is an airborne system-of-systems providing long-range imaging, targeting, situational awareness, target tracking, weapon guidance, and damage assessment, incorporating a laser designator and laser range finders, as well as non-thermal and thermal imaging systems, with multi-sensor boresight. Robust operation is at a premium, and subsystems are partitioned to modular, swappable line-replaceable-units (LRUs) and shop-replaceable-units (SRUs). This presentation will explore design concepts for sensing, data storage, and presentation of imagery associated with the LITENING targeting pod. The "eyes" of LITENING are the electro-optic sensors. Since the initial LITENING II introduction to the US market in the late 90s, as the program has evolved and matured, a series of spiral functional improvements and sensor upgrades have been incorporated. These include laser-illuminated imaging, and more recently, color sensing. While aircraft displays are outside of the LITENING system, updates to the available viewing modules have also driven change, and resulted in increasingly effective ways of utilizing the targeting system. One of the latest LITENING spiral upgrades adds a new capability to display and capture visible-band color imagery, using new sensors. This is an augmentation to the system's existing capabilities, which operate over a growing set of visible and invisible colors, infrared bands, and laser line wavelengths. A COTS visible-band camera solution using a CMOS sensor has been adapted to meet the particular needs associated with the airborne targeting use case.

  2. Investigate the challenges of mobile eye-tracking

    Muñoz Ciáurriz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Eye tracking: the process of measuring the point of gaze or the motion of the eye. Behind this definition lies a technology that has been evolving for more than 20 years. Its applications range from marketing and psychology research to substituting the mouse on a computer. Development of the technology has been accompanied by an increase of people using it. Therefore, at the same time that old difficulties where overcome, new challenges were created. Eye tracking can be divi...

  3. Design of set-point weighting PIλ + Dμ controller for vertical magnetic flux controller in Damavand tokamak

    In this paper, a simple method is presented for tuning weighted PIλ + Dμ controller parameters based on the pole placement controller of pseudo-second-order fractional systems. One of the advantages of this controller is capability of reducing the disturbance effects and improving response to input, simultaneously. In the following sections, the performance of this controller is evaluated experimentally to control the vertical magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak. For this work, at first a fractional order model is identified using output-error technique in time domain. For various practical experiments, having desired time responses for magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak, is vital. To approach this, at first the desired closed loop reference models are obtained based on generalized characteristic ratio assignment method in fractional order systems. After that, for the identified model, a set-point weighting PIλ + Dμ controller is designed and simulated. Finally, this controller is implemented on digital signal processor control system of the plant to fast/slow control of magnetic flux. The practical results show appropriate performance of this controller

  4. Optimization of the 3-Point Bending Failure of Anodized Aluminum Formed in Tartaric/Sulphuric Acid Using Doehlert Design

    Bensalah, W.; Feki, M.; De-Petris Wery, M.; Ayedi, H. F.

    2015-02-01

    The bending failure of anodized aluminum in tartaric/sulphuric acid bath was modeled using Doehlert design. Bath temperature, anodic current density, sulphuric acid, and tartaric acid concentrations were retained as variables. Thickness measurements and 3-point bending experiments were conducted. The deflection at failure ( D f) and the maximum load ( F m) of each sample were, then, deducted from the corresponding flexural responses. The treatment of experimental results has established mathematical models of second degree reflecting the relation of cause and effect between the factors and the studied properties. The optimum path study of thickness, deflection at failure, and maximum load, showed that the three optima were opposite. Multicriteria optimization using the desirability function was achieved in order to maximize simultaneously the three responses. The optimum conditions were: C tar = 18.2 g L-1, T = 17.3 °C, J = 2.37 A dm-2, C sul = 191 g L-1, while the estimated response values were e = 57.7 µm, D f = 5.6 mm, and F m = 835 N. Using the established models, a mathematical correlation was found between deflection at failure and thickness of the anodic oxide layer. Before bending tests, aluminum oxide layer was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. After tests, the morphology and the composition of the anodic oxide layer were inspected by SEM, optical microscopy, and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy.

  5. Design of set-point weighting PIλ + Dμ controller for vertical magnetic flux controller in Damavand tokamak.

    Rasouli, H; Fatehi, A

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a simple method is presented for tuning weighted PI(λ) + D(μ) controller parameters based on the pole placement controller of pseudo-second-order fractional systems. One of the advantages of this controller is capability of reducing the disturbance effects and improving response to input, simultaneously. In the following sections, the performance of this controller is evaluated experimentally to control the vertical magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak. For this work, at first a fractional order model is identified using output-error technique in time domain. For various practical experiments, having desired time responses for magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak, is vital. To approach this, at first the desired closed loop reference models are obtained based on generalized characteristic ratio assignment method in fractional order systems. After that, for the identified model, a set-point weighting PI(λ) + D(μ) controller is designed and simulated. Finally, this controller is implemented on digital signal processor control system of the plant to fast/slow control of magnetic flux. The practical results show appropriate performance of this controller. PMID:25554294

  6. Optimization of point sources on thin films using a statistical design approach. Application to 60Co sources

    Radioactive point sources prepared by depositing weighed drops on thin membranes are commonly used in ionizing radiation metrology for 47πβ-γ coincidence counting or for low energy electrons spectrometry. The present study deals with the preparation of good quality sources having high detection yields. Some influential parameters on the source quality are studied using 60Co as radioactive tracer. An approach based on experimental statistical designs has been chosen. This approach allows us to obtain reliable results with a number of experiences lower than in the case of a systematic approach. Homogeneous 60Co sources with high metrological qualifies (Rβ> 96 %) can be prepared using a direct deposit of ∼ 5 mg drops of 60Co solution ([Co] = 12 μg/g), [HCl] = 0,5 mol/I) and dried at 60 deg C. The support of the radioactive spot is constituted with a gold coated (130 μg/cm2 of Au) Vyns films (thickness 45 μg/cm2) on which a pad (diameter = 7 - 8 mm) of polystyrene microspheres (Estapor K-007) is prepared by an electro-spraying technique under 7,5 kV during 10 minutes. The alcoholic solution used for the electro-spraying step has the following chemical composition [Estapor K-007] 2.5 10-2 wt % and [Tween 20] = 2.7 10-2 wt %. (authors)

  7. Modulating non-native aggregation and electrostatic protein-protein interactions with computationally designed single-point mutations.

    O'Brien, C J; Blanco, M A; Costanzo, J A; Enterline, M; Fernandez, E J; Robinson, A S; Roberts, C J

    2016-06-01

    Non-native protein aggregation is a ubiquitous challenge in the production, storage and administration of protein-based biotherapeutics. This study focuses on altering electrostatic protein-protein interactions as a strategy to modulate aggregation propensity in terms of temperature-dependent aggregation rates, using single-charge variants of human γ-D crystallin. Molecular models were combined to predict amino acid substitutions that would modulate protein-protein interactions with minimal effects on conformational stability. Experimental protein-protein interactions were quantified by the Kirkwood-Buff integrals (G22) from laser scattering, and G22 showed semi-quantitative agreement with model predictions. Experimental initial-rates for aggregation showed that increased (decreased) repulsive interactions led to significantly increased (decreased) aggregation resistance, even based solely on single-point mutations. However, in the case of a particular amino acid (E17), the aggregation mechanism was altered by substitution with R or K, and this greatly mitigated improvements in aggregation resistance. The results illustrate that predictions based on native protein-protein interactions can provide a useful design target for engineering aggregation resistance; however, this approach needs to be balanced with consideration of how mutations can impact aggregation mechanisms. PMID:27160179

  8. Design and Study on Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control of the Chaos Embedded Particle Swarm Optimization for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Wind Power Systems

    Jui-Ho Chen; Her-Terng Yau; Weir Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC) of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO) Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by CEPSO, making it unnecessary to change the output power of different wind turbines, the designed in-repetition rate is reduced, and the system control efficiency is increased. The wind power system control is designe...

  9. A software module for implementing auditory and visual feedback on a video-based eye tracking system

    Rosanlall, Bharat; Gertner, Izidor; Geri, George A.; Arrington, Karl F.

    2016-05-01

    We describe here the design and implementation of a software module that provides both auditory and visual feedback of the eye position measured by a commercially available eye tracking system. The present audio-visual feedback module (AVFM) serves as an extension to the Arrington Research ViewPoint EyeTracker, but it can be easily modified for use with other similar systems. Two modes of audio feedback and one mode of visual feedback are provided in reference to a circular area-of-interest (AOI). Auditory feedback can be either a click tone emitted when the user's gaze point enters or leaves the AOI, or a sinusoidal waveform with frequency inversely proportional to the distance from the gaze point to the center of the AOI. Visual feedback is in the form of a small circular light patch that is presented whenever the gaze-point is within the AOI. The AVFM processes data that are sent to a dynamic-link library by the EyeTracker. The AVFM's multithreaded implementation also allows real-time data collection (1 kHz sampling rate) and graphics processing that allow display of the current/past gaze-points as well as the AOI. The feedback provided by the AVFM described here has applications in military target acquisition and personnel training, as well as in visual experimentation, clinical research, marketing research, and sports training.

  10. Eye-Tracking

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  11. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    ... Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it is, look on the product's container for an emergency number to call for instructions. ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety Tips Sep 25, ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... large volume of tears, overwhelming the tear drainage system. These excess tears then overflow from your eye. Next   Causes of Dry ... Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  14. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    ... special contact lens will be placed on your eye. The lens contains mirrors that help the doctor aim the laser. You will be instructed to look straight ahead or at a target light with your other eye. A laser will be focused on the bleeding ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  18. PlantEye

    Sørensen, Helle Kjærsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University.......Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University....

  19. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... Supported by the NEI Research at NEI All Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Education Programs All Education National Eye Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education ... (DIVRO) Student Training Programs NEI Home About ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center ... Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center ...

  1. Dry eye syndrome

    ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or chemical burns Previous eye surgery A rare autoimmune disorder in which the glands that produce tears are destroyed ( Sjögren's syndrome )

  2. New Research Progress in Design and Manufacture of Artificial Optical Compound Eye%仿生光学复眼设计及其制造技术研究新进展

    陈明君; 刘业胜; 李子昂; 褚鑫

    2011-01-01

    With the advantages of small volume, light weight, large field-of-view, high sensitivity and measuring speed, the artificial optical compound eye has broad application prospects in both advanced equipment of national defense and civilian industries and has attracted more and more attention. The characteristic of insects' compound eye is analyzed briefly and the structure, function and classification of compound eye are concluded; the new progress in both design and manufacture of artificial optical compound eye is discussed in detail; the disadvantage in design using the optical micro lens array and the deficiency in manufacture process, such as the special processing, are made clear through comprehensive analysis and discussion of the imaging test results of the artificial optical compound eye. The merits of designing optical compound eye by using cross-section hexagon higher-order curved surface and the advantage of manufacture by using ultra-precision machining technology are discussed. A new idea of modeling and processing of the curved surface is given in order to provide a useful reference for further study.%仿生光学复眼具有体积小、重量轻、视场大、灵敏度高、可测速等优点,在国防尖端装备及民用工业中有着广泛的应用前景,因而引起国内外学者的广泛关注.简要分析昆虫复眼的特征原理,归纳仿生光学复眼的结构、功能及其分类;详细阐述国内外学者在仿生光学复眼优化设计和制造技术方面取得的最新研究成果,并通过对仿生光学复眼成像试验结果的综合分析与讨论,得出仿生光学复眼在采用微透镜阵列进行设计存在的缺陷以及采取特种加工方法制造等加工工艺存在的不足;论述仿生光学复眼采用截面六边形高次曲面进行设计的优点以及采取超精密加工方法制造存在的优势,给出研制过程中对其曲面进行造型与加工的新思路,可为光学复眼的进一步研究提供有益参考.

  3. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine;

    2013-01-01

    the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p < 10−6) in the......In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE...

  4. Advocacy for eye care

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  5. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Gara, Alan G.; Marcella, James A.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  6. Generation of functional eyes from pluripotent cells.

    Andrea S Viczian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if functional retinas could be generated from a defined population of pluripotent Xenopus laevis cells. Animal pole cells isolated from blastula stage embryos are pluripotent. Untreated, these cells formed only epidermis, when transplanted to either the flank or eye field. In contrast, misexpression of seven transcription factors induced the formation of retinal cell types. Induced retinal cells were committed to a retinal lineage as they formed eyes when transplanted to the flanks of developing embryos. When the endogenous eye field was replaced with induced retinal cells, they formed eyes that were molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically similar to normal eyes. Importantly, induced eyes could guide a vision-based behavior. These results suggest the fate of pluripotent cells may be purposely altered to generate multipotent retinal progenitor cells, which differentiate into functional retinal cell classes and form a neural circuitry sufficient for vision.

  7. Eye dosimetry and protective eye wear for interventional clinicians

    Doses to the eyes of interventional clinicians can exceed 20 mSv. Various protective devices can afford protection to the eyes with the final barrier being protective eye wear. The protection provided by lead glasses is difficult to quantify, and the majority of dosimeters are not designed to be worn under lead glasses. This study has measured dose reduction factors (DRFs) equal to the ratio of the dose with no protection, divided by that when lead glasses are worn. Glasses have been tested in X-ray fields using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate the patient and clinician. DRFs for X-rays incident from the front vary from 5.2 to 7.6, while values for orientations reminiscent of clinical practice are between 1.4 and 5.2. Results suggest that a DRF of two is a conservative factor that could be applied to personal dosimeter measurements to account for the dose reduction provided by most types of lead glasses. (authors)

  8. Beyond Jeopardy and Lectures: Using "Microsoft PowerPoint" as a Game Design Tool to Teach Science

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael; Toker, Sacip

    2011-01-01

    To date, research involving homemade PowerPoint games as an instructional tool has not shown statistically significant gains in student performance. This paper examines the results of a study comparing the performance of students in a high school chemistry course who created homemade PowerPoint games as a test review with the students who used a…

  9. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  10. Perceptions of eye health in schools in Pakistan

    Qureshi Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Methods Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9–12 years old attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Results Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". Conclusion We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren.

  11. EyeGrip: Detecting Targets in a Series of Uni-directional Moving Objects Using Optokinetic Nystagmus Eye Movements

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    2016-01-01

    EyeGrip proposes a novel and yet simple technique of analysing eye movements for automatically detecting the user's objects of interest in a sequence of visual stimuli moving horizontally or vertically in front of the user's view. We assess the viability of this technique in a scenario where...... the user looks at a sequence of images moving horizontally on the display while the user's eye movements are tracked by an eye tracker. We conducted an experiment that shows the performance of the proposed approach. We also investigated the influence of the speed and maximum number of visible images...... in the screen, on the accuracy of EyeGrip. Based on the experiment results, we propose guidelines for designing EyeGrip-based interfaces. EyeGrip can be considered as an implicit gaze interaction technique with potential use in broad range of applications such as large screens, mobile devices and eyewear...

  12. Protection of the eye lens

    The limit of radiation exposure for eye lens is going to decrease dramatically from 150 to 20 mSv as a transposition into the French law of a CIPR (International Commission for Radiation Protection) directive. Sanitary studies have shown that radiologists are more likely by a factor of 3.8 to get eye lens opacities than the rest of the population. The wearing of protective glasses is recommended and in order to get a better monitoring of the radiation dose new dosimeters have been designed, they can be worn on the glass frame of directly stuck on the skin near the eyes. A study has shown that veterinary surgeons that are accustomed to stay near animals to keep them quiet during radiological exams are prone to receive high doses as well as physicians that use hypnosis to decrease the level of anxiety of their patients during radiological exams. Radiation exposure of radiologists can be mitigated through: the use of protective shields and equipment and the optimization of the dose delivered to the patient. (A.C.)

  13. The analysis of visual variables for use in the cartographic design of point symbols for mobile Augmented Reality applications

    Halik, Łukasz

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the present deliberations was to systematise our knowledge of static visual variables used to create cartographic symbols, and also to analyse the possibility of their utilisation in the Augmented Reality (AR) applications on smartphone-type mobile devices. This was accomplished by combining the visual variables listed over the years by different researchers. Research approach was to determine the level of usefulness of particular characteristics of visual variables such as selective, associative, quantitative and order. An attempt was made to provide an overview of static visual variables and to describe the AR system which is a new paradigm of the user interface. Changing the approach to the presentation of point objects is caused by applying different perspective in the observation of objects (egocentric view) than it is done on traditional analogue maps (geocentric view). Presented topics will refer to the fast-developing field of cartography, namely mobile cartography. Particular emphasis will be put on smartphone-type mobile devices and their applicability in the process of designing cartographic symbols. Celem artykułu było usystematyzowanie wiedzy na temat statycznych zmiennych wizualnych, które sa kluczowymi składnikami budujacymi sygnatury kartograficzne. Podjeto próbe zestawienia zmiennych wizualnych wyodrebnionych przez kartografów na przestrzeni ostatnich piecdziesieciu lat, zaczynajac od klasyfikacji przedstawionej przez J. Bertin’a. Dokonano analizy stopnia uzytecznosci poszczególnych zmiennych graficznych w aspekcie ich wykorzystania w projektowaniu znaków punktowych dla mobilnych aplikacji tworzonych w technologii Rzeczywistosci Rozszerzonej (Augmented Reality). Zmienne poddano analizie pod wzgledem czterech charakterystyk: selektywnosci, skojarzeniowosci, odzwierciedlenia ilosci oraz porzadku. W artykule zwrócono uwage na odmienne zastosowanie perspektywy pomiedzy tradycyjnymi analogowymi mapami (geocentrycznosc) a

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  15. Dry eye syndrome

    ... workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye ... helpful steps include: DO NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a ...

  16. Anatomy of the Eye

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  17. Anatomy of the Eye

    ... Errors Scientists in the Laboratory Visual Acuity Testing Anatomy of the Eye View complete NEI image albums ... the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | USA.gov ...

  18. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  19. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related The link between seasonal allergens and dry ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  1. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs NEI Home About NEI Health Information News and Events Grants ... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Home > NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About ...

  2. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips ... questions and comments to the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  3. Diabetic Eye Problems

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  4. Get Your Eyes Tested

    ... objects are easier to see than near ones Astigmatism – a condition that makes it hard to see ... diabetes and high blood pressure . These diseases can cause eye problems if they aren’t treated. Lower ...

  5. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: ... Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual ...

  8. Healthy Eyes, Healthy Body

    ... attached to the eyeball and anchored to the skull. These muscles don’t bulk up like your ... or dim light is fine. ‐A sheet of black construction paper ‐Eye protection such as goggles with ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma ...

  10. What Is Eye Cancer?

    ... tissues are called orbital cancers. Adnexal structures Adnexal (accessory) structures include the eyelids and tear glands. Cancers ... common cancers that spread to the eye are breast and lung cancers . Most often these cancers spread ...

  11. Fungal Eye Infections

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  12. About the Eye

    Full Text Available ... of the NEI Donating to the NEI Health Information Eye Health Topics Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information News and Events All News Meetings and Events ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Full Text Available ... don't produce enough tears or the right quality of tears to keep their eyes healthy and ... Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision * Required * First Name: * Last Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * ...

  14. Melanoma of the eye

    ... modified July 9, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/eye/hp/intraocular-melanoma-treatment-pdq . Accessed October 7, 2015. Read ... by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed ...

  15. Aging and Your Eyes

    ... are outside. Healthy habits, like not smoking , making smart food choices , and maintaining a healthy weight can ... have a cataract, your eye care professional will watch for changes over time to see if you ...

  16. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    Chiu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsieh, Jui-Wei; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background: As designated points of entry (PoEs) play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005). This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA) and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK) by applying a new, practicable model.Design: An IHR PoE program was initiated ...

  17. Traffic engineering eye diagram

    Kowalik, Karol; Collier, Martin

    2005-01-01

    It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words - this statement also applies to networking topics. Thus, to effectively monitor network performance we need tools which present the performance metrics in a graphical way which is also clear and informative. We propose a tool for this purpose which we call the traffic engineering eye diagram (TEED). Eye diagrams are used in digital communications to analyse the quality of a digital signal; the TEED can similarly he used in the traffic engin...

  18. Photodamage to the eye

    A review is given of the important developments from June 1986 to June 1987 in the field of photodamage to the eye. Topics covered include ocular ultraviolet radiation dose, photodamage to the lens including changes in structural proteins and enzymes, photodamage to the retina including damage in continuous light and the role of photodamage in retinal diseases, photodamage in other ocular structures, synergistic and additive effects in photodamage, clinical photodamage and finally protective eye wear. (U.K.)

  19. Proceedings: Debilitating Eye Diseases

    Caras, Ingrid W.; Littman, Neil; Abo, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Debilitating eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa currently represent a large unmet medical need that could potentially be addressed by stem cell therapy. A number of novel stem cell-based cellular therapies are now under development to treat a variety of eye diseases. The approaches being taken by the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, together with its grantees, are discussed.

  20. Overcoming Presbyopia by Manipulating the Eyes' Optics

    Zheleznyak, Leonard A.

    Presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation, is a visual condition affecting all adults over the age of 45 years. In presbyopia, individuals lose the ability to focus on nearby objects, due to a lifelong growth and stiffening of the eye's crystalline lens. This leads to poor near visual performance and affects patients' quality of life. The objective of this thesis is aimed towards the correction of presbyopia and can be divided into four aims. First, we examined the characteristics and limitations of currently available strategies for the correction of presbyopia. A natural-view wavefront sensor was used to objectively measure the accommodative ability of patients implanted with an accommodative intraocular lens (IOL). Although these patients had little accommodative ability based on changes in power, pupil miosis and higher order aberrations led to an improvement in through-focus retinal image quality in some cases. To quantify the through-focus retinal image quality of accommodative and multifocal IOLs directly, an adaptive optics (AO) IOL metrology system was developed. Using this system, the impact of corneal aberrations in regard to presbyopia-correcting IOLs was assessed, providing an objective measure of through-focus retinal image quality and practical guidelines for patient selection. To improve upon existing multifocal designs, we investigated retinal image quality metrics for the prediction of through-focus visual performance. The preferred metric was based on the fidelity of an image convolved with an aberrated point spread function. Using this metric, we investigated the potential of higher order aberrations and pupil amplitude apodization to increase the depth of focus of the presbyopic eye. Thirdly, we investigated modified monovision, a novel binocular approach to presbyopia correction using a binocular AO vision simulator. In modified monovision, different magnitudes of defocus and spherical aberration are introduced to each eye, thereby

  1. AN INNER STRUGGLE: UNDER WESTERN EYES

    Hale Yağlıdere

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes.

  2. Unique designs, errors and strategies in the Five-Point Test: The contribution of age, phonemic fluency and visuospatial abilities in Italian children aged 6-11 years.

    Stievano, Paolo; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Performances on the Five-Point Test of 161 Italian children aged 6 to 11 years were investigated, along with phonemic fluency, visual-motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, visuospatial memory, and fluid intelligence. Five-Point Test accuracy was significantly related to phonemic fluency and visual-motor integration, while phonemic fluency was linked to motor coordination. The two fluency measures increased linearly with age, but the developmental progression of Five-Point Test accuracy was less influenced by age. Different age effects were also found on the relationship between fluid intelligence and the two fluency measures. The inspection of qualitative aspects of Five-Point Test performance (errors and strategies) suggested that strategy usage enhanced both productivity and accuracy in children; age-related changes were observed in the relationship between the number of errors and the total number of designs produced. PMID:25495262

  3. From gestural pointing to vocal pointing in the brain

    Loevenbruck, Hélène; Dohen, Marion; Vilain, Coriandre

    2008-01-01

    International audience Deixis, or pointing, is the ability to draw the viewer/listener's attention to an object, a person, a direction or an event. Pointing is involved at different stages of human communication development, in multiple modalities: first with the eyes, then with the finger, then with intonation and finally with syntax. It is ubiquitous and probably universal in human interactions. The role of index-finger pointing in language acquisition suggests that it may be a precursor...

  4. The Dynamic Evolutionary History of Pancrustacean Eyes and Opsins.

    Henze, Miriam J; Oakley, Todd H

    2015-11-01

    Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus Crustacea) display an enormous diversity of eye designs, including multiple types of compound eyes and single-chambered eyes, often with color vision and/or polarization vision. Although the eyes of some pancrustaceans are well-studied, there is still much to learn about the evolutionary paths to this amazing visual diversity. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of eyes and opsins across the principle groups of Pancrustacea. First, we review the distribution of lateral and median eyes, which are found in all major pancrustacean clades (Oligostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida). At the same time, each of those three clades has taxa that lack lateral and/or median eyes. We then compile data on the expression of visual r-opsins (rhabdomeric opsins) in lateral and median eyes across Pancrustacea and find no evidence for ancient opsin clades expressed in only one type of eye. Instead, opsin clades with eye-specific expression are products of recent gene duplications, indicating a dynamic past, during which opsins often changed expression from one type of eye to another. We also investigate the evolutionary history of peropsins and r-opsins, which are both known to be expressed in eyes of arthropods. By searching published transcriptomes, we discover for the first time crustacean peropsins and suggest that previously reported odonate opsins may also be peropsins. Finally, from analyzing a reconciled, phylogenetic tree of arthropod r-opsins, we infer that the ancestral pancrustacean had four visual opsin genes, which we call LW2, MW1, MW2, and SW. These are the progenitors of opsin clades that later were variously duplicated or lost during pancrustacean evolution. Together, our results reveal a particularly dynamic history, with losses of eyes, duplication and loss of opsin genes, and changes in opsin expression between types of eyes. PMID:26319405

  5. Agricultural geology sample point layout design through MapGIS-based Label point method%基于MapGIS的Label点法农业地质样点布置方法

    张固成; 傅杨荣; 郭跃品; 马荣林; 张家友

    2016-01-01

    以海南省东部某典型地区市县级农业地质普查为例,介绍了基于MapGIS的Lable点法样点布置方法。该方法首先将海南省第二次土地利用调查的26个土地利用小类归并成水田、旱地、果园、其他园地、林地、建设用地、滩涂、交通用地、水面、其他土地共10大类,图斑总数由9932个归并为4257个;然后将归并后的图斑按照面积大小划分为代表性依次降低的A、B、C三个级别;样点布置过程中,A级图斑采用传统500 m×500 m网格化方法布置样点,B级图斑采用基于MapGIS的Lable点法布置样点,C级图斑不布置样点。软件自动布置样点后,经必要的人工调整,在174 km2的工作区共布置1610个采样点,样点密度达9.25个/km2,符合农业地质调查相关规范要求。方法有效性验证显示:与传统单一的333 m×333 m网格化样点布置方法相比,该方法布置的样点在可采性、代表性、准确性、合理性四方面都有显著优势,值得推广应用。%With a municipal and county⁃level agricultural geological survey in a typical eastern region of Hainan Province as a case study, the MapGIS⁃based Label point method is introduced for sample point layout. The lands involved in the second land use survey of Hainan Province are incorporated into 10 categories comprising dry land, paddy field, orchards, other gardens, woodland, construction land, mudflat, traffic area, water surface and other land, and the number of pattern spots is reduced from 9,932 to 4,257 after the in⁃corporation;then, the incorporated pattern spots are divided into three levels of A, B and C with descending representativeness in ac⁃cordance with their area sizes;during the layout design of sample points, the traditional 500 m × 500 m grid method is adopted for Lev⁃el⁃A pattern spots, the MapGIS⁃based Label point method for Level⁃B pattern spots, but no sample point layout design for Level

  6. Game Design and Homemade PowerPoint Games: An Examination of the Justifications and a Review of the Research

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research on educational games often focuses on the benefits that playing games has on student achievement. However, there is a growing body of research examining the benefits of having students design games rather than play them. Problems with game design as an instructional tool include the additional instruction on the programming language…

  7. Eye Carduino: A Car Control System using Eye Movements

    Kumar, Arjun; Nagaraj, Disha; Louzardo, Joel; Hegde, Rajeshwari

    2011-12-01

    Modern automotive systems are rapidly becoming highly of transportation, but can be a web integrated media centre. This paper explains the implementation of a vehicle control defined and characterized by embedded electronics and software. With new technologies, the vehicle industry is facing new opportunities and also new challenges. Electronics have improved the performance of vehicles and at the same time, new more complex applications are introduced. Examples of high level applications include adaptive cruise control and electronic stability programs (ESP). Further, a modern vehicle does not have to be merely a means using only eye movements. The EyeWriter's native hardware and software work to return the co-ordinates of where the user is looking. These co-ordinates are then used to control the car. A centre-point is defined on the screen. The higher on the screen the user's gaze is, the faster the car will accelerate. Braking is done by looking below centre. Steering is done by looking left and right on the screen.

  8. Comparison of eye imaging pattern recognition using neural network

    Bukhari, W. M.; Syed A., M.; Nasir, M. N. M.; Sulaima, M. F.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    The beauty of eye recognition system that it is used in automatic identifying and verifies a human weather from digital images or video source. There are various behaviors of the eye such as the color of the iris, size of pupil and shape of the eye. This study represents the analysis, design and implementation of a system for recognition of eye imaging. All the eye images that had been captured from the webcam in RGB format must through several techniques before it can be input for the pattern and recognition processes. The result shows that the final value of weight and bias after complete training 6 eye images for one subject is memorized by the neural network system and be the reference value of the weight and bias for the testing part. The target classifies to 5 different types for 5 subjects. The eye images can recognize the subject based on the target that had been set earlier during the training process. When the values between new eye image and the eye image in the database are almost equal, it is considered the eye image is matched.

  9. Development of an Interactive Anatomical Three-Dimensional Eye Model

    Allen, Lauren K.; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a…

  10. Using eye tracker data in air traffic control

    Imants, P.; Greef, T. de

    2011-01-01

    Motivation/Research approach - An exploratory study was conducted to investigate whether eye movement metrics discriminate between different air traffic control tasks. Findings/Design - The results show the three tasks elicit different eye movement, as Yarbus (1967) also showed in static pictures, a

  11. Status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in European hospitals.

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ginjaume, Merce; O'Connor, Una; Kopec, Renata; Sans Merce, Marta

    2014-12-01

    A questionnaire was developed by the members of WG12 of EURADOS in order to establish an overview of the current status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in hospitals. The questionnaire was sent to medical physicists and radiation protection officers in hospitals across Europe. Specific topics were addressed in the questionnaire such as: knowledge of the proposed eye lens dose limit; monitoring and dosimetry issues; training and radiation protection measures. The results of the survey highlighted that the new eye lens dose limit can be exceeded in interventional radiology procedures and that eye lens protection is crucial. Personnel should be properly trained in how to use protective equipment in order to keep eye lens doses as low as reasonably achievable. Finally, the results also highlighted the need to improve the design of eye dosemeters in order to ensure satisfactory use by workers. PMID:25222935

  12. Status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in European hospitals

    A questionnaire was developed by the members of WG12 of EURADOS in order to establish an overview of the current status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in hospitals. The questionnaire was sent to medical physicists and radiation protection officers in hospitals across Europe. Specific topics were addressed in the questionnaire such as: knowledge of the proposed eye lens dose limit; monitoring and dosimetry issues; training and radiation protection measures. The results of the survey highlighted that the new eye lens dose limit can be exceeded in interventional radiology procedures and that eye lens protection is crucial. Personnel should be properly trained in how to use protective equipment in order to keep eye lens doses as low as reasonably achievable. Finally, the results also highlighted the need to improve the design of eye dosemeters in order to ensure satisfactory use by workers. (paper)

  13. POINTS AND LINES IN GO GIVING ENLIGHTEMENT TO GRAPHIC DESIGNERS%围棋的点线给平面设计者的启示

    顾梅

    2013-01-01

      通过对中华民族的璀璨文化中的围棋而引出点与线在平面设计中的表现。围棋对弈中的点与线的构成变化在平面设计中同样适用,这两种文化的不谋而合。在今天,各国的设计师在延续前人的设计理念的同时,不断有着创新的思维,更是扎根于本土的优秀传统文化底蕴,将文化与文化融合,将点与线的构成表现形式变得更为丰富和具有特点。%This passage brings the representation of point and line in the graphic design through the game of go, which comes from the brilliant Chinese culture. Changes of point and line in the game of go are also applied to the graphic design. The two clutures happen to coincide with each other. In nowadays, while carrying on the design concept of predecessors, designers of different countries get continuous creation thoughts. These thoughts are rooted in the excellent traditional culture. They inte-grates different cultures and makes the form of composition representation of point and line more imaginative and typical.

  14. Eye Vision Testing System and Eyewear Using Micromachines

    Nabeel A. Riza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed is a novel eye vision testing system based on micromachines that uses micro-optic, micromechanic, and microelectronic technologies. The micromachines include a programmable micro-optic lens and aperture control devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF, optical wireless communication and control links, and energy harvesting and storage devices with remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. The portable lightweight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under testing, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. A basic eye vision test system is built in the laboratory for near-sighted (myopic vision spherical lens refractive error correction. Refractive error corrections from zero up to −5.0 Diopters and −2.0 Diopters are experimentally demonstrated using the Electronic-Lens (E-Lens and aperture control methods, respectively. The proposed portable eye vision test system is suited for children’s eye tests and developing world eye centers where technical expertise may be limited. Design of a novel low-cost human vision corrective eyewear is also presented based on the proposed aperture control concept. Given its simplistic and economical design, significant impact can be created for humans with vision problems in the under-developed world.

  15. Airborne forward pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence (CAT) detection: system design and performance

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection ...

  16. Design, Construction and Testing of a Voltage-based Maximum Power Point Tracker (VMPPT) for Small Satellite Power Supply

    Masoum, Mohammad; Dehbonei, Hooman

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that at maximum power, the Photovoltaic (PV) voltage varies nonlinearily with temperature and isolation level, but is directly proportional to the PV cell open circuit voltage. The proportionality voltage-factor is fixed for a given PV generator regardless of temperature, isolation and panel configuration, but depends on cell material and manufacturing. This remarkable property is used to achieve temperature and insolation independent maximum power point tracking of satellite's so...

  17. King and Eye

    Suwannakij, Sing

    King and Eye explores the visual formation of kingship in Siam in its multifarious aspects. This dissertation identifies the leitmotifs in the dynamics between seeing the king and being seen by him, which burst forth in different eras. The visual sense has been a repository for the ontologization...... optical devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse...

  18. Danish Rural Eye Study

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina;

    2015-01-01

    older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence of...

  19. 导向系统设计中的色彩设计“交点”研究%The Study of the Major Overlapping Points in the Coloring Designs of the Orientation System Design

    颜陶

    2013-01-01

    导向设计中色彩设计与建筑色彩设计、环境色彩设计、信息载体色彩设计的“交点”比较集中地反映了导向系统的色彩设计所负载的功能价值和美学意义.三大色彩设计“交点”是导向系统色彩设计的重要环节,也体现出视觉传达设计和建筑设计、环境设计、产品设计的之间的交流与合作.导向系统不再是单一功能性设计,而是更多的带给人们视觉、心理的享受和体验,并给人以情感慰藉与关怀.%In the orientation system design system, the overlapping points of the coloring design with the Architecture coloring design, environmental coloring design and information carrier coloring design Epitomize the functional value and the aesthetic significance of the orientation system coloring design. The overlapping points of the three major coloring design plays an important role for the orientation system design. Meanwhile, they also express the communication and cooperation between visual communication design, architectural design, environmental design and product design. Based on the above reasons, orientation system coloring design is no longer the single function design, but also delivers more visual and physical experience to people. Furthermore, it brings emotional comfort and care to people.

  20. 卫生巾设计的要点探析%Analysis of the Main Points of the Sanitary Napkin Design

    陈德珍

    2013-01-01

      文章从产品品质、使用者关注点及生产成本等方面对卫生巾产品设计的要点进行了探讨,希望可以为卫生巾生产企业进行产品设计及生产时提供有益的参考。%The article analyzes the main points of sanitary napkin product design from the product quality, users focus and the production cost, etc. Hoping it can provide a beneficial reference for sanitary napkin production enterprises in terms of product design and production.

  1. A comprehensive data qa/qc strategy for data from autonomous point sensors: design, implementation and examples

    Versteeg, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    There is an exponential increase in the use of autonomous point sensors (sensors which collect and transmit data without any human intervention) across all of geosciences. Point sensors include both physical and chemical sensors. Such data is typically stored in relational databases, from which data is subsequently polled for a range of different purposes. One of the fundamental challenges for end users is to assess the confidence in specific measurements. Historically (when sensor owners, sensor installers, data managers and data users were associated with one research group or institution) there might have been an intuitive (if poorly quantifiable) feel for such confidence. However, in the current environment these roles are often filled by people who are geographically separated and in different organizations. In addition, while historically such data was subject to semi manual review, this is becoming less and less practical. Finally, there is more and more a desire to use data in near real time. Consequently, challenges exist on how to automate all aspects of data qa/qc and validation for autonomous sensors. Data validation can result either in a confidence range and/or a Boolean indicator (good/bad data). We have developed and implemented a comprehensive, multi level data validation strategy. This strategy progresses from analysis of the most recent data received from a sensor (typically one to hundreds of measurements) to an analysis of the recent data in the context of the historic data received from the sensor, to an analysis of data received by other sensors (which compares trends and patterns), to a simple model based analysis. The outcome of this analysis (which is performed as soon as new data arrives) results in a quality indicator which is made available to the user with the data. In this talk I will provide examples of this approach for a number of currently operating monitoring networks as well as a discussion on how to easily implement this

  2. Design and fabrication of a miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector for the determination of acidity of some fruit juice

    Prinya Masawat

    2008-01-01

    A miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector was designed and fabricated for the determination of acidity of some Thai citrus fruit juices collected in the northern area of Thailand. The method was based on on-line potentiometric titration of the acid contents with sodium hydroxide. Conditions such as volume of fruit juice sample, volume and concentration of potassium chloride used as supporting electrolyte and flow rate of titrant were optimize...

  3. Through Our Eyes

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  4. Eye Involvement in TSC

    ... of the eyes) should prompt inquiries into the family history and TSC involvement. Also, ophthalmologists should remember that mental handicap is ... or depigmented area and should inquire about the family’s history and any possible involvement in TSC. **This publication from the Tuberous Sclerosis ...

  5. Through the creator's eyes

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi

    2012-01-01

    adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (b) accessing the subjective experience of the participant through a confrontation interview based on the...

  6. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    ... your chin in a chin rest. A special contact lens will be placed on your eye. The lens ... If your blood sugar has been very high, your doctor will give you medicines to lower your blood sugar level. Arrange to have ...

  7. Embryology of the eye.

    Ridley, Harold

    1982-01-01

    A brief description of the basic patterns of mammalian development of the eye is presented based on events as they occur in human beings. The emphasis is not on the details of this development, but rather on its organization and timing, with a figure of comparative development providing a comparison of similar events in man, rat, mouse, and chick.

  8. Design of turn-around-point long-period gratings in a photonic crystal fiber for refractometry of gases

    Kaňka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 6 (2013), s. 16-24. ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11030; GA MŠk(CZ) LF11001 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber design * Photonic crystal fiber * Microstructured optical fiber Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2013

  9. Fast methodology to design the optimal collection point locations and number of waste bins: A case study.

    Boskovic, Goran; Jovicic, Nebojsa

    2015-12-01

    This paper concerns the development of a methodology aimed at determining the optimal number of waste bins as well optimizing the location of collection points. The methodology was based on a geographic information system, which handled different sets of information, such as street directions, spatial location of objects and number of inhabitants, location of waste bins, and radius of their coverage. The study was conducted in a district in the central area of the city of Kragujevac. Due to a lack of information about the existing situation, all necessary data was collected by fieldwork and by using GPS equipment. By using the developed methodology, the results indicated a reduction of 24% in the number of collection points and 33.5% in the number of waste bins, without reducing the quality of the provided services. It has led to cost and time savings for waste collection and environmental benefits. All users of the services were covered within a 75-m radius, and the usage of bins is more efficient. According to the reduction in the number of waste bins, a total amount of €26,000 may be achieved. In addition, the time for waste collection was reduced, resulting in a €1700 saving per year in fuel costs, as well as 4.5 tons of emitted CO2 into the atmosphere. PMID:26467320

  10. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  11. Gaze estimation for off-angle iris recognition based on the biometric eye model

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Barstow, Del; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Thompson, Joseph; Bolme, David; Boehnen, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ORNL biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  12. Optical eye simulator for laser dazzle events.

    Coelho, João M P; Freitas, José; Williamson, Craig A

    2016-03-20

    An optical simulator of the human eye and its application to laser dazzle events are presented. The simulator combines optical design software (ZEMAX) with a scientific programming language (MATLAB) and allows the user to implement and analyze a dazzle scenario using practical, real-world parameters. Contrary to conventional analytical glare analysis, this work uses ray tracing and the scattering model and parameters for each optical element of the eye. The theoretical background of each such element is presented in relation to the model. The overall simulator's calibration, validation, and performance analysis are achieved by comparison with a simpler model based uponCIE disability glare data. Results demonstrate that this kind of advanced optical eye simulation can be used to represent laser dazzle and has the potential to extend the range of applicability of analytical models. PMID:27140558

  13. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    ... Contact Us Subscribe to eNews Close Donate Medicare Benefits & Your Eyes Eye Health is Important! As you ... offered in a hospital outpatient setting. Prescription Drug Benefits All Medicare beneficiaries, no matter how they get ...

  14. What is Diabetic Eye Disease?

    ... least half will show signs of a diabetic eye disease and the most common of these by far ... vision. Announcer: Diabetic retinopathy is not the only eye disease that may affect people with diabetes. Others include ...

  15. What is Diabetic Eye Disease?

    Full Text Available ... least half will show signs of a diabetic eye disease and the most common of these by far ... vision. Announcer: Diabetic retinopathy is not the only eye disease that may affect people with diabetes. Others include ...

  16. Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery

    ... which can only be corrected with a corneal transplant.  What to Expect Before, During, and After Surgery Before You’ll need a complete eye examination by your refractive surgeon. Your referring eye ...

  17. Pink Eye: What To Do

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  18. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    Emily eHiggins; Mallorie eLeinenger; Keith eRayner

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind ...

  19. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees

    Braccini, Stephanie N.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a vid...

  20. A rigorous analysis using optimal transport theory for a two-reflector design problem with a point source

    We consider the following geometric optics problem: construct a system of two reflectors which transforms a spherical wavefront generated by a point source into a beam of parallel rays. This beam has a prescribed intensity distribution. We give a rigorous analysis of this problem. The reflectors we construct are (parts of) the boundaries of convex sets. We prove existence of solutions for a large class of input data and give a uniqueness result. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time that a rigorous mathematical analysis of this problem is given. The approach is based on optimal transportation theory. It yields a practical algorithm for finding the reflectors. Namely, the problem is equivalent to a constrained linear optimization problem

  1. Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?

    Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S; Haak, J; Wilke, F; Hübner, C; Dahms, C; Hoffmann, W; Kramer, A

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions. PMID:22242105

  2. Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?

    Hübner, N.-O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions.

  3. Airborne forward pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence (CAT) detection: system design and performance

    Vrancken, Patrick; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection technique relies on air density fluctuations measurement and is thus independent of backscatter from hydrometeors and aerosol particles. The subtle air density fluctuations caused by the turbulent air flow demand exceptionally high stability of the setup and in particular of the detection system. This paper describes an airborne test system for the purpose of demonstrating this technology and turbulence detection method: a high-power UV Rayleigh lidar system is installed on a research aircraft in a forward-looking configu...

  4. On the number of support points of maximin and Bayesian D-optimal designs in nonlinear regression models

    Braess, Dietrich; Dette, Holger

    2004-01-01

    We consider maximin and Bayesian D -optimal designs for nonlinear regression models. The maximin criterion requires the specification of a region for the nonlinear parameters in the model, while the Bayesian optimality criterion assumes that a prior distribution for these parameters is available. It was observed empirically by many authors that an increase of uncertainty in the prior information (i.e. a larger range for the parameter space in the maximin criterion or a larger variance of the ...

  5. Design and Realization of Integrated Management System for Data Interoperability between Point-of-Care Testing Equipment and Hospital Information System

    Park, Ki Sang; Heo, Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to design an integrated data management system based on the POCT1-A2, LIS2-A, LIS2-A2, and HL7 standard to ensure data interoperability between mobile equipment, such as point-of-care testing equipment and the existing hospital data system, its efficiency was also evaluated. Methods The method of this study was intended to design and realize a data management system which would provide a solution for the problems that occur when point-of-care testing equipment is introduced to existing hospital data, after classifying such problems into connectivity, integration, and interoperability. This study also checked if the data management system plays a sufficient role as a bridge between the point-of-care testing equipment and the hospital information system through connection persistence and reliability testing, as well as data integration and interoperability testing. Results In comparison with the existing system, the data management system facilitated integration by improving the result receiving time, improving the collection rate, and by enabling the integration of disparate types of data into a single system. And it was found out that we can solve the problems related to connectivity, integration and interoperability through generating the message in standardized types. Conclusions It is expected that the proposed data management system, which is designed to improve the integration point-of-care testing equipment with existing systems, will establish a solid foundation on which better medical service may be provided by hospitals by improving the quality of patient service. PMID:24175121

  6. Torsional eye movements in humans

    L.J. van Rijn

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIf one has to give a description of eye movements, what first comes to mind is the possibility of the eyes to rotate in horizontal and vertical directions. It is generally less obvious that the eyes are capable of moving in a third. namely the torsional. direction. This capability is by

  7. What is Diabetic Eye Disease?

    Full Text Available ... Announcer: Diabetic retinopathy is not the only eye disease that may affect people with diabetes. Others include cataract -- a condition in which the lens of the eye becomes clouded, interfering with ... of these diabetic eye diseases can be treated and treated with success.

  8. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  9. Eye Pupil Location Using Webcam

    Ciesla, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Three different algorithms used for eye pupil location were described and tested. Algorithm efficiency comparison was based on human faces images taken from the BioID database. Moreover all the eye localisation methods were implemented in a dedicated application supporting eye movement based computer control. In this case human face images were acquired by a webcam and processed in a real-time.

  10. Integration of Defocus by Dual Power Fresnel Lenses Inhibits Myopia in the Mammalian Eye

    McFadden, Sally A.; Tse, Dennis Y.; Bowrey, Hannah E.; Leotta, Amelia J.; Lam, Carly S.; Wildsoet, Christine F.; To, Chi-ho

    2014-01-01

    When dual optical defocus in a Fresnel-type lens is imposed on a mammalian eye, the eye integrates the defocus to guide its refractive development and eye growth. Myopia can be inhibited by incorporating positive or plano power with negative power, suggesting such lens designs may control myopia progression in humans.

  11. 试析城市生态园林设计要点%The Design Key Points of Urban Ecological Garden

    李霞; 杨姬

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes several design points of the urban ecological garden, including artificial rocky mountain, green land, buildings, surrounding water body, and lets the designer to notice the details cannot be ignored in the land-scape design, and construct the urban resources into the facilities that is good for people's living environment.%本文通过对人工山石、环境绿地、建筑物、周边水体环境等几个城市生态园林的设计要点进行分析,让设计师能够注意到园林设计中不可忽视的细节,充分地将城市资源建设成对人民生活环境有益的设施。

  12. Design and Study on Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control of the Chaos Embedded Particle Swarm Optimization for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Wind Power Systems

    Jui-Ho Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by CEPSO, making it unnecessary to change the output power of different wind turbines, the designed in-repetition rate is reduced, and the system control efficiency is increased. The wind power system control is designed by simulation, in comparison with the traditional wind power control method, and the simulated dynamic response obtained by the SMESC algorithm proposed in this paper is better than the traditional hill-climbing search (HCS and extremum seeking control (ESC algorithms in the transient or steady states, validating the advantages and practicability of the method proposed in this paper.

  13. Key Points for Design of Centrifugal Compressor Layout%离心式压缩机布置设计要点

    方纲

    2011-01-01

    Author has introduced the category,composition of centrifugal compressor sets and division of electric explosion zone;has discussed the key points for design of centrifugal compressor layout and the piping design skill from aspects of fireproof space,building design,crane layout,main machine and auxiliary equipment arrangement,steam condensers layout etc,.%介绍了离心式压缩机组的分类、组成以及电气防爆区域的划分;从防火间距、厂房设计、起重机布置、主机和辅机布置、凝汽器布置等方面探讨了离心式压缩机的布置设计要点和配管设计技巧。

  14. DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING DESIGN OF PNEUMATIC WASTE COLLECTION POINT%真空垃圾收集站工程设计实例探讨

    葛诚; 杨勇; 耿震

    2012-01-01

    Combined with the engineering design of the pneumatic waste collection point in Wuxi Sino Ecocity,this paper focused on the analysis of the system composition,form of construction,layout and elevation design.The matters needing attention in the design were also introduced to provide reference for the future similar projects.%结合无锡市中瑞生态城真空垃圾收集站的工程设计,分析了真空垃圾收集站系统组成、建造形式、平面布置、高程设计等,并介绍了设计过程中的注意事项,可为今后类似工程提供参考。

  15. What Is a Comprehensive Dilated Eye Exam?

    ... su oculista What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? Listen You may think your eyes are healthy, ... eye care professional for a comprehensive dilated eye exam is the only way to really be sure. ...

  16. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    ... Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes ... Best Sunglasses Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David ...

  17. Comparison of eye shields in radiotherapeutic beams

    Full text: Both MeV electrons and kV photons are used in the treatment of superficial cancers. The advantages and disadvantages for each of these modalities have been widely reported in the literature (See for example [1-2]). Of particular note in the literature is the use of lead and tungsten eye shields to protect ocular structures during radiotherapy. An investigation addressing issues raised in the literature that are relevant to the Wellington Cancer Centre method of treatment of lesions near the eye shall be summarised. Various small sized fields were irradiated to determine depth dose and profile curves in a water phantom shielded by various commercially available eye shields. Transmission factors relevant to critical ocular structures and particle distribution theories are used to further elucidate the comparison between the use of MeV electrons and kV photons in the treatment of superficial cancers. Superficial X-rays from a Pantak Therapax unit SXT 150 model of HVL 4.90mm Al were used for the lead eye shield measurements and electrons from a Varian Clinac 2100C nominal energies 6MeV and 9MeV (Rp 3.00cm and 4.34cm respectively) were used for the tungsten eye shield measurements. For the photon measurements circular applicators of 3cm, 4cm and 5cm diameter were used and for the electrons standard 6x6cm and 10x 10cm applicators were used, with no custom inserts. A Scanditronix RFA-300 water phantom and Scanditronix RFAplus version 5.3 software application were used to collect and collate all data. The eye shields were the Radiation Products Design Inc. medium lead eye shield (item 934-014) and the MED-TEC tungsten eye shields MT-T-45 M and MT-T-45 S. It is demonstrated that electron fields have appreciably greater scatter into the area directly under the eye shields than the photon fields. Similarly at the region of dmax for the electron fields the relative dose is appreciably greater than the photon fields at similar depth. The relative merits for electron

  18. Multiple linear regression models for shear strength prediction and design of simplysupported deep beams subjected to symmetrical point loads

    Panatchai Chetchotisak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of nonlinear strain distributions caused either by abrupt changes in geometry or in loading in deep beam, the approach for conventional beams is not applicable. Consequently, strut-and-tie model (STM has been applied as the most rational and simple method for strength prediction and design of reinforced concrete deep beams. A deep beam is idealized by the STM as a truss-like structure consisting of diagonal concrete struts and tension ties. There have been numerous works proposing the STMs for deep beams. However, uncertainty and complexity in shear strength computations of deep beams can be found in some STMs. Therefore, improvement of methods for predicting the shear strengths of deep beams are still needed. By means of a large experimental database of 406 deep beam test results covering a wide range of influencing parameters, several shapes and geometry of STM and six state-of-the-art formulation of the efficiency factors found in the design codes and literature, the new STMs for predicting the shear strength of simply supported reinforced concrete deep beams using multiple linear regression analysis is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, the regression diagnostics and the validation process are included in this study. Finally, two numerical examples are also provided for illustration.

  19. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  20. Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a good image of a sharp object may be achieved ...

  1. Highly integrated near-to-eye display and gaze tracker

    Järvenpää, Toni; Äyräs, Pekka

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a Near-to-Eye Display (NED) technology based on diffractive optics. Thin and highly transparent plastic light guides enable a light-weight and ergonomic see-through NED design. We have previously reported of a compact NED with an integrated gaze tracker. Eye gaze tracker can detect the user's focus point in the displayed image. We have now made advances to further increase the level of integration as well as to enable the optical see-through. Originally, three separate light guides were used: two for the display (red, green/blue) and one for infrared light of the gaze tracker. To reduce weight and the system complexity, a shared light guide is now used for transmitting red (~630 nm, display) and infrared (~850 nm, gaze tracker) wavelengths. In addition, shared output gratings are used for outcoupling the light. Light guide plates have been characterized by measuring their modulation transfer functions. Measurements show that the deterioration of the NED's resolution, caused by the light guides, is reduced with improved manufacturing techniques. Also, it has been verified that the additional gratings for infrared (light in-coupling and expansion areas) do not have a notable effect on the display resolution.

  2. Evaluation of accurate eye corner detection methods for gaze estimation

    Bengoechea, Jose Javier; Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Villanueva, Arantxa; Cabeza, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Accurate detection of iris center and eye corners appears to be a promising approach for low cost gaze estimation. In this paper we propose novel eye inner corner detection methods. Appearance and feature based segmentation approaches are suggested. All these methods are exhaustively tested on a realistic dataset containing images of subjects gazing at different points on a screen. We have demonstrated that a method based on a neural network presents the best performance even in light changin...

  3. Variable stars magnitudes estimations exploiting the eye physiology

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2011-01-01

    The physiology of the dark adaption process of the eye is revisited from an astronomical point of view. A new method for the magnitude estimation of a star is presented. It is based upon the timing of the physiological cycle of the rhodopsin during the eye dark adaption process. The limits of the application of the method are discussed. This method is suitable for bright stars as Betelgeuse, Antares or Delta Scorpii or stars at the limiting magnitude observed with a telescope.

  4. Incorporation of intraocular scattering in schematic eye models

    Beckmann's theory of scattering from rough surfaces is applied to obtain, from the experimental veiling glare functions, a diffuser that when placed at the pupil plane would produce the same scattering halo as the ocular media. This equivalent diffuser is introduced in a schematic eye model, and its influence on the point-spread function and the modulation-transfer function of the eye is analyzed

  5. Saccadic Eye Movements and the Generalized Pareto Distribution

    Lenz, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    We describe a statistical analysis of the eye tracker measurements in a database with 15 observers viewing 1003 images under free-viewing conditions. In contrast to the common approach of investigating the properties of the fixation points we analyze the properties of the transition phases between fixations. We introduce hyperbolic geometry as a tool to measure the step length between consecutive eye positions. We show that the step lengths, measured in hyperbolic and euclidean geometry, foll...

  6. "Eye Science" in 2011

    Jian Ge

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2011 is an opportune time for Yanke Xuebao (Eye Science) to launch its bilingual edition as a platform for cooperation between Chinese and international vision researchers.The yearly research output of Chinese investigators in all fields of science, but particularly biomedicine, has been growing recently by leaps and bounds.As an example, the American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO), one of the most prestigious clinical journals in our field,received more submissions from East Asian authors (Japan, China and Korea alone)than they did from the United States in 2010.Chinese investigators ranked third on the list, climbing rapidly, only after the US and Japan.Top vision research centers in China, such as Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, where Eye Science is published, now rank alongside Moorfields and Johns Hopkins as among the most prolific institutions in the world, measured by articles appearing annually in peer-reviewed SCI journals.

  7. Nutrition and the eye.

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

  8. EyePad

    From Jacobsen, Peter

    EyePad-projektet og denne rapport bekræfter, at tablets er blevet en vigtig faktor i hjemmets tv-stue eller hyggekrog. Selvom brugerne stadig betragter den som et stykke legetøj, der strengt taget er unødvendigt – så bliver tablets brugt i stor stil i talrige sammenhænge. Også til både nyhedstjek...... se de såkaldte ”lean back” og ”lean forward”-situationer som forholdsvis separate og afgrænsede. Enten var man i det ene eller det andet mode. Men EyePad-testen viser, at testpersonerne let kunne springe fra målrettet informationssøgning til en mere tilbagelænet læsning af en artikel, de pludselig...

  9. [The eye and cancer].

    Schalenbourg, Ann; Mantel, Irmela

    2015-12-16

    Cancer involves so rarely the eye that it may be recognized late. The most frequent primary intra-ocular tumours are retinoblastoma in small children and uveal melanoma in adults. Vision loss in systemic cancer has a varied differential diagnosis. Uveal metastases are most often associated with breast cancer, but can herald lung carcinoma. Masquerade syndrome looks like inflammation but represents the ocular involvement of primary CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Systemic cancer drugs, as well as radiotherapy, can cause ocular toxicity, mostly at the retina. In the rare paraneoplastic syndromes, patient's cancer antibodies cross-react with retinal antigens, leading to severe vision loss. When cancer involves the eye, a fast referral into specialized care can significantly improve visual and vital prognosis. PMID:26852556

  10. Design of a Novel Low Cost Point of Care Tampon (POCkeT Colposcope for Use in Resource Limited Settings.

    Christopher T Lam

    Full Text Available Current guidelines by WHO for cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries involves visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA of the cervix, followed by treatment during the same visit or a subsequent visit with cryotherapy if a suspicious lesion is found. Implementation of these guidelines is hampered by a lack of: trained health workers, reliable technology, and access to screening facilities. A low cost ultra-portable Point of Care Tampon based digital colposcope (POCkeT Colposcope for use at the community level setting, which has the unique form factor of a tampon, can be inserted into the vagina to capture images of the cervix, which are on par with that of a state of the art colposcope, at a fraction of the cost. A repository of images to be compiled that can be used to empower front line workers to become more effective through virtual dynamic training. By task shifting to the community setting, this technology could potentially provide significantly greater cervical screening access to where the most vulnerable women live. The POCkeT Colposcope's concentric LED ring provides comparable white and green field illumination at a fraction of the electrical power required in commercial colposcopes. Evaluation with standard optical imaging targets to assess the POCkeT Colposcope against the state of the art digital colposcope and other VIAM technologies.Our POCkeT Colposcope has comparable resolving power, color reproduction accuracy, minimal lens distortion, and illumination when compared to commercially available colposcopes. In vitro and pilot in vivo imaging results are promising with our POCkeT Colposcope capturing comparable quality images to commercial systems.The POCkeT Colposcope is capable of capturing images suitable for cervical lesion analysis. Our portable low cost system could potentially increase access to cervical cancer screening in limited resource settings through task shifting to community health workers.

  11. Dry Eye Syndrome

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  12. A Real-Time Video-based Eye Tracking Approach for Driver Attention Study

    Ying Zang; Hongbo Liu

    2012-01-01

    nowing the driver's point of gaze has significant potential to enhance driving safety, eye movements can be used as an indicator of the attention state of a driver; but the primary obstacle of integrating eye gaze into today's large scale real world driving attention study is the availability of a reliable, low-cost eye-tracking system. In this paper, we make an attempt to investigate such a real-time system to collect driver's eye gaze in real world driving environment. A novel eye-tracking ...

  13. Designing a Minimum Data Set for Breast Cancer: a Starting Point for Breast Cancer Registration in Iran

    RN Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the high incidence of deaths from breast cancer, high cost of treatment and limited resources, the need to formulate and implement effective programs in reducing the burden of disease is obvious. Care, control and creation of cancer information system having an infrastructure from collection of minimum data sets (MDS are the top priorities of research in Iran’s Ministry of Health.Methods: This is an applied descriptive research with comparative approach implemented in 2010. MDS for breast cancer on selected countries were searched and reviewed and proposed model based on the country’s need was designed. Research data were implemented in 2 stages; assessment of MDS on selected countries and the validation of the proposed model through several meetings that has been carried out by the Undersecretary for Research and Technology and several oncologists and pathologists.Results: The MDS is composed of 11 parameters in the form of fields in closed structured arrangements with consideration to coding responses. These parameters include: hospital data, demography, referral, physical examination and investigation, diagnostic information, pathology, treatment, palliative care, completion of primary treatment, clinical trials and follow-up. This form is available for use in the cancer registry database.Conclusion: MDS provides an opportunity to strengthen communication between performed researches and research results for the improvement of programs, policies and strategies and provides positive effect on equality in the health system. Although the stages of creating the MDS for breast cancer has been successful, but many challenges has been met until its completion.

  14. The Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) Sensors for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Blake, J. B.; Mauk, B. H.; Baker, D. N.; Carranza, P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Craft, J.; Crain, W. R.; Crew, A.; Dotan, Y.; Fennell, J. F.; Friedel, R. H.; Friesen, L. M.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; Ibscher, C.; Jaynes, A.; Katz, N.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A. Y.; Mabry, D. M.; Nguyen, T.; Pancratz, C.; Redding, M.; Reeves, G. D.; Smith, S.; Spence, H. E.; Westlake, J.

    2016-03-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of five particles and fields investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. This mission consists of four satellites operating in close proximity in elliptical, low-inclination orbits, and is focused upon the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) investigation aboard the four MMS spacecraft consists of two instrument designs, the EIS (Energetic Ion Spectrometer) and the FEEPS (Fly's Eye Electron Proton Spectrometer). This present paper describes FEEPS from an instrument physics and engineering point of view, and provides some test and calibration data to facilitate effective analysis and use of the flight data for scientific purposes.

  15. Eye Gaze Tracking using Correlation Filters

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Mahallesi, Mevlana [Meliksah University, Turkey; Kayseri, Talas [Meliksah University, Turkey

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we studied a method for eye gaze tracking that provide gaze estimation from a standard webcam with a zoom lens and reduce the setup and calibration requirements for new users. Specifically, we have developed a gaze estimation method based on the relative locations of points on the top of the eyelid and eye corners. Gaze estimation method in this paper is based on the distances between top point of the eyelid and eye corner detected by the correlation filters. Advanced correlation filters were found to provide facial landmark detections that are accurate enough to determine the subjects gaze direction up to angle of approximately 4-5 degrees although calibration errors often produce a larger overall shift in the estimates. This is approximately a circle of diameter 2 inches for a screen that is arm s length from the subject. At this accuracy it is possible to figure out what regions of text or images the subject is looking but it falls short of being able to determine which word the subject has looked at.

  16. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  17. Evaluating the usefulness of Eye Tracking in Game-based Learning

    Kristian Kiili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of educational game design is to develop solutions that please as many players as possible, but are still educationally effective. How learning happens in games is methodologically very challenging to point out and thus it is usually avoided. In this paper we tackle this challenge with eye tracking method. The aim of this research is to study the meaning of cognitive feedback in educational games and evaluate the usefulness of eye tracking method in game based learning research and game design. Based on perceptual data we evaluated the playing behavior of 43 Finnish and Austrian children aged from 7 to 16. Four different games were used as test-beds. The results indicated that players’ perception patterns varied a lot and some players even missed relevant information during playing. The results showed that extraneous elements should be eliminated from the game world in order to avoid incidental processing in crucial moments. Animated content easily grasps player’s attention, which may disturb learning activities. Especially low performers and inattentive players have difficulties in distinguishing important and irrelevant content and tend to stick to salient elements no matter of their importance for a task. However, it is not reasonable to exclude all extraneous elements because it decreases engagement and immersion. Thus, balancing of extraneous and crucial elements is essential. Overall, the results showed that eye tracking can provide important information from game based learning process and game designs. However, we have to be careful when interpreting the perceptual data, because we cannot be sure if the player understands everything that he or she is paying attention to. Thus, eye tracking should be complemented with offline methods like retrospective interview that was successfully used in this research.

  18. Perfect drain for the Maxwell Fish Eye lens

    Gonzalez Lopez, Juan Carlos; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves using the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) requires a new concept: a point called the perfect drain that we shall call the perfect point drain. From the mathematical point of view, a perfect point drain is just like an ideal point source, except that it drains power from the electromagnetic field instead of generating it. We introduce here the perfect drain for the MFE as a dissipative region of non-zero size that completely drains the power from the point source....

  19. Joint design of kT-points trajectories and RF pulses under explicit SAR and power constraints in the large flip angle regime

    Gras, Vincent; Luong, Michel; Amadon, Alexis; Boulant, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    In Magnetic Resonance Imaging at ultra-high field, kT-points radiofrequency pulses combined with parallel transmission are a promising technique to mitigate the B1 field inhomogeneity in 3D imaging applications. The optimization of the corresponding k-space trajectory for its slice-selective counterpart, i.e. the spokes method, has been shown in various studies to be very valuable but also dependent on the hardware and specific absorption rate constraints. Due to the larger number of degrees of freedom than for spokes excitations, joint design techniques based on the fine discretization (gridding) of the parameter space become hardly tractable for kT-points pulses. In this article, we thus investigate the simultaneous optimization of the 3D blipped k-space trajectory and of the kT-points RF pulses, using a magnitude least squares cost-function, with explicit constraints and in the large flip angle regime. A second-order active-set algorithm is employed due to its demonstrated success and robustness in similar problems. An analysis of global optimality and of the structure of the returned trajectories is proposed. The improvement provided by the k-space trajectory optimization is validated experimentally by measuring the flip angle on a spherical water phantom at 7T and via Quantum Process Tomography.

  20. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product. PMID:15332359

  1. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    Chiu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsieh, Jui-Wei; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background As designated points of entry (PoEs) play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005). This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA) and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK) by applying a new, practicable model. Design An IHR PoE program was initiated for implementing the IHR core capacities at designated PoEs. The main methods of this program were 1) identifying the designated PoEs according to the pre-determined criteria, 2) identifying the competent authority for each health measure, 3) building a close collaborative relationship between stakeholders from the central and PoE level, 4) designing three stages of systematic assessment using the assessment tool published by the World Health Organization (WHO), and 5) undertaking action plans targeting the gaps identified by the assessments. Results Results of the self-assessment, preliminary external assessment, and follow-up external assessment revealed a continuous progressive trend at the TIA (86, 91, and 100%, respectively), and at the PoK (77, 97, and 99.9%, respectively). The results of the follow-up external assessment indicated that both these designated PoEs already conformed to the IHR requirements. These achievements were highly associated with strong collaboration, continuous empowerment, efficient resource integration, and sustained commitments. Conclusions Considering that many countries had requested for an extension on the deadline to fulfill the IHR 2005 core capacity requirements, Taiwan's experiences can be a source of learning for countries striving to fully implement these requirements. Further, in order to broaden the scope of public health protection into promoting global security, Taiwan will keep its commitments on multisectoral cooperation, human

  2. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    Hsiao-Hsuan Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As designated points of entry (PoEs play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005. This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK by applying a new, practicable model. Design: An IHR PoE program was initiated for implementing the IHR core capacities at designated PoEs. The main methods of this program were 1 identifying the designated PoEs according to the pre-determined criteria, 2 identifying the competent authority for each health measure, 3 building a close collaborative relationship between stakeholders from the central and PoE level, 4 designing three stages of systematic assessment using the assessment tool published by the World Health Organization (WHO, and 5 undertaking action plans targeting the gaps identified by the assessments. Results: Results of the self-assessment, preliminary external assessment, and follow-up external assessment revealed a continuous progressive trend at the TIA (86, 91, and 100%, respectively, and at the PoK (77, 97, and 99.9%, respectively. The results of the follow-up external assessment indicated that both these designated PoEs already conformed to the IHR requirements. These achievements were highly associated with strong collaboration, continuous empowerment, efficient resource integration, and sustained commitments. Conclusions: Considering that many countries had requested for an extension on the deadline to fulfill the IHR 2005 core capacity requirements, Taiwan's experiences can be a source of learning for countries striving to fully implement these requirements. Further, in order to broaden the scope of public health protection into promoting global security, Taiwan will keep its commitments on multisectoral cooperation

  3. 概念设计阶段起落架接地点设计%The Landing Gear Touchdown Point Design of Advanced Civil Jet Aircraft in Concept Design Phase

    王跃

    2012-01-01

    针对现代民用飞机设计特点,尤其是某些新技术的应用和飞机系列化发展的需求,在充分吸收和借鉴传统飞机概念设计阶段起落架设计方法的基础上,从工程应用角度出发,总结并提出一套现代民用飞机概念设计阶段起落架接地点设计流程及方法。同时,按照设计流程将影响起落架接地点设计的限制因素划分为适航安全、性能、结构、空间布置、运营等影响因素,明晰各限制因素对设计产生的影响。%According to the design characteristics of advanced civil jet aircraft, especially about application of some new techniques and the requirements of family development, and based on traditional landing gear design method, the paper gives a study on a new design method of landing gear touchdown point in concept design phase from engineer design aspect. Meanwhile, following design steps, the restriction factors of landing gear touchdown point design are classified in safety, oerformance, structure, kinematics, ooeration, etc. Each restriction factor is clearlv described in the paner.

  4. The projectionist's eye

    Bracey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This was a paper given at Attention: Detail symposium at Nottingham Trent University as part of Summer Lodge on Friday 3rd July 2015. "For several years I was a projectionist and this time has had a major impact on how I look and think as an artist. The projectionist has a unique and rather strange way of viewing films. As the end of the reel approaches the projectionist forensically examines the film, keeping a watchful eye out for the cue-dots. These tiny, round scratches or holes appea...

  5. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    Mallett, Michael Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  6. [Eye and the environment].

    Voide, Nathalie; Kaeser, Pierre-François; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2015-12-16

    The eyes are exposed to multiple environmental factors, which affect visual development, comfort, and visual health. While overexposure to sunlight can cause ocular surface and retinal pathologies, insufficient exposure to daylight could significantly contribute to myopia progression. New artificial lights, namely LED, have a higher risk of retinal phototoxicity, and could alter ocular circadian rhythm. The significant increase of prevalence of ocular allergies could be caused by the proliferation of environmental polluting substances, like tobacco smoke, fuel combustion by-products, or phtalates, which are found in many types of plastics. Finally, some dietary supplements could play a protective role in certain types of ocular pathologies, namely retinal pathologies. PMID:26852551

  7. With eyes wide open

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    The paper was presented in the panel “Tending the tensions in co-creation: A critical, reflexive approach to co-creative methods” at the 32nd IHSCR. This paper highlights different forms of tension involved in facilitating creative processes and argues that tension is a necessity for change and t...... constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  8. Evolution of Military Combat Eye Protection.

    Auvil, James R

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation for combat eye protection steadily increased following World War II. Products derived from experiences in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Iran/Iraq war drove technical improvements throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Dismal wear compliance prior to 2004 indicates Soldiers and their leaders did not appreciate these improvements and found little value in the bulky, ugly, and uncomfortable products. In 2003, the 10th Mountain Division requested enhanced eye protection. Program Executive Office Soldier, the optometry consultant to the Army Surgeon General, members of the Tri-Service Vision Conservation and Readiness Program, and other subject matter experts selected and tested commercial off-the-shelf eye protection against military ballistic impact standards. Optical devices that met ballistic standards formed the first Authorized Protective Eyewear List and were fielded beginning in 2004. Wear compliance rose dramatically for the stylish protective eyewear, reaching 85% to 95% and eye injuries decreased across the Department of Defense even as the incidence of attacks in Iraq increased. Researchers continue to evaluate new materials and designs to increase the capabilities, features and level of protection of future ballistic eyewear. PMID:27215881

  9. New eye phantom for ophthalmic surgery

    Fogli, Gessica; Orsi, Gianni; De Maria, Carmelo; Montemurro, Francesca; Palla, Michele; Rizzo, Stanislao; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we designed and realized a new phantom able to mimic the principal mechanical, rheological, and physical cues of the human eye and that can be used as a common benchmark to validate new surgical procedures, innovative vitrectomes, and as a training system for surgeons. This phantom, in particular its synthetic humor vitreous, had the aim of reproducing diffusion properties of the natural eye and can be used as a system to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of drugs and optimization of their dose, limiting animal experiments. The eye phantom was built layer-by-layer starting from the sclera up to the retina, using low cost and easy to process polymers. The validation of the phantom was carried out by mechanical characterization of each layer, by diffusion test with commercial drugs into a purposely developed apparatus, and finally by a team of ophthalmic surgeons. Experiments demonstrated that polycaprolactone, polydimethylsiloxane, and gelatin, properly prepared, are the best materials to mimic the mechanical properties of sclera, choroid, and retina, respectively. A polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin polymeric system is the best for mimicking the viscosity of the human humor vitreous, even if the bevacizumab half-life is lower than in the human eye.

  10. Optical properties of the mouse eye

    Geng, Ying; Schery, Lee Anne; Sharma, Robin; Dubra, Alfredo; Ahmad, Kamran; Libby, Richard T.; Williams, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) spots upon which ocular aberration measurements depend have poor quality in mice due to light reflected from multiple retinal layers. We have designed and implemented a SHWS that can favor light from a specific retinal layer and measured monochromatic aberrations in 20 eyes from 10 anesthetized C57BL/6J mice. Using this instrument, we show that mice are myopic, not hyperopic as is frequently reported. We have also measured longitudinal chromatic aber...

  11. A Seeing-eye Dog

    范图雨

    2000-01-01

    A seeing-eye dog is a special(特殊的) dog. It helps blind people walk along the streets and do many other things. We call these dogs ""seeing-eye"" dogs because the dogs are the ""eyes"" of the blind man and they help him to ""see"". These dogs go to special schools for several years to learn to help blind people.

  12. Assessing and managing eye injuries

    Karin Lecuona

    2005-01-01

    njuries to the eye are common. Many are minor but, if not treated quickly and appropriately, can lead to sight-threatening complications. Other injuries are severe, and even with expert management sight can be lost. Prevention of blindness from eye injuries requires: * injury prevention (health promotion including advocacy) * early presentation by the patient (health promotion and health worker training) * accurate assessment (good primary eye care and first aid) * prompt refe...

  13. Eye-based head gestures

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... on the interaction object while interacting. This method has been implemented on a head-mounted eye tracker for detecting a set of predefined head gestures. The accuracy of the gesture classifier is evaluated and verified for gaze-based interaction in applications intended for both large public...

  14. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close to...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  15. Interocular Difference of Peripheral Refraction in Anisomyopic Eyes of Schoolchildren.

    Junhong Chen

    Full Text Available Refraction in the peripheral visual field is believed to play an important role in the development of myopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in peripheral refraction among anisomyopia, isomyopia, and isoemmetropia for schoolchildren.Thirty-eight anisomyopic children were recruited and divided into two groups: (1 both eyes were myopic (anisomyopic group, AM group and (2 one eye was myopic and the contralateral eye was emmetropic (emmetropic anisomyopic group, EAM group. As controls, 45 isomyopic and isoemmetropic children were also recruited with age and central spherical equivalent (SE matched to those of the AM and EAM groups. The controls were divided into three groups: (1 intermediate myopia group (SE matched to the more myopic eye of AM group, (2 low myopia group (SE matched to the less myopic eye of AM group and the more myopic eye of EAM group, and (3 emmetropia group (SE matched to the less myopic eye of EAM group. Peripheral refraction at 7 points across the central ±30° on the horizontal visual field with a 10° interval was measured with an autorefractor. Axial length (AL, corneal curvature (CC, and anterior chamber depth (ACD were also determined by using the Zeiss IOL-Master.The relative peripheral spherical equivalent [RPR(M] and relative peripheral spherical value [RPR(S] of the more myopic eye was shifted more hyperopically than the contralateral eye in both the AM and the EAM groups (both p<0.0001. The RPR(M, S of the less myopic eyes in the AM and EAM groups showed a relatively flat trend across the visual field and were not significantly different from the emmetropia group. The RPR(M, S of less myopic eyes in the AM group were shifted less hyperopically than in the isomyopic low myopia group and the more myopic eye of the EAM group [RPR(M, p = 0.007; RPR(S, p = 0.001], although the central SEs of the three groups were not significantly different from each other. However, RPR(M, S of the more

  16. Interocular Difference of Peripheral Refraction in Anisomyopic Eyes of Schoolchildren

    Chen, Junhong; He, Ji C.; Chen, Yunyun; Xu, Jingjing; Wu, Haoran; Wang, Feifu; Lu, Fan; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Refraction in the peripheral visual field is believed to play an important role in the development of myopia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in peripheral refraction among anisomyopia, isomyopia, and isoemmetropia for schoolchildren. Methods Thirty-eight anisomyopic children were recruited and divided into two groups: (1) both eyes were myopic (anisomyopic group, AM group) and (2) one eye was myopic and the contralateral eye was emmetropic (emmetropic anisomyopic group, EAM group). As controls, 45 isomyopic and isoemmetropic children were also recruited with age and central spherical equivalent (SE) matched to those of the AM and EAM groups. The controls were divided into three groups: (1) intermediate myopia group (SE matched to the more myopic eye of AM group), (2) low myopia group (SE matched to the less myopic eye of AM group and the more myopic eye of EAM group), and (3) emmetropia group (SE matched to the less myopic eye of EAM group). Peripheral refraction at 7 points across the central ±30° on the horizontal visual field with a 10° interval was measured with an autorefractor. Axial length (AL), corneal curvature (CC), and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were also determined by using the Zeiss IOL-Master. Results The relative peripheral spherical equivalent [RPR(M)] and relative peripheral spherical value [RPR(S)] of the more myopic eye was shifted more hyperopically than the contralateral eye in both the AM and the EAM groups (both p<0.0001). The RPR(M, S) of the less myopic eyes in the AM and EAM groups showed a relatively flat trend across the visual field and were not significantly different from the emmetropia group. The RPR(M, S) of less myopic eyes in the AM group were shifted less hyperopically than in the isomyopic low myopia group and the more myopic eye of the EAM group [RPR(M), p = 0.007; RPR(S), p = 0.001], although the central SEs of the three groups were not significantly different from each other. However

  17. Human eye modelling for ophthalmic simulators project for clinic applications

    Most of eye tumors are treated by surgical means, which involves the enucleation of affected eyes. In terms of treatment and control of diseases, there is brachytherapy, which often utilizes small applicator of Co-60, I-125, Ru-106, Ir-192, etc. These methods are shown to be very efficient but highly cost. The objective of this work is propose a detailed simulator modelling for eye characterization. Additionally, this study can contribute to design and build a new applicator in order to reduce the cost and to allow more patients to be treated

  18. Peripheral refraction with eye and head rotation with contact lenses

    Ferreira, Daniela Patrícia Lopes; Neves, Helena Isabel Ferreira; Ribeiro, Miguel António Faria; Queirós, A.; Fernandes, Paulo Rodrigues Botelho; González-Méijome, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of eye and head rotation in the measurement of peripheral refraction with an open-field autorefractometer in myopic eyes wearing two different center-distance designs of multifocal contact lenses (MFCLs). Methods: Nineteen right eyes from 19 myopic patients (average central M ± SD = −2.67 ± 1.66 D) aged 20–27 years (mean ± SD = 23.2 ± 3.3 years) were evaluated using a Grand-Seiko autorefractometer. Patients were fitted with one multifocal aspheri...

  19. Eye in pregnancy

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic, vascular and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can affect the function of the eye. These changes are commonly transient, but in some cases they may be permanent and have consequences even after childbirth. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological or pathological and can be associated with the development of new ocular pathology or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. The most common physiological changes are alterations of corneal sensitivity and thickness, decreased tolerance to contact lenses, decreased intraocular pressure, hemeralopia and refractive errors. Possible posterior segment changes include worsening of diabetic retinopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy, increased risk of peripheral vitreochorioretinal dystrophies and retinal detachment. Thus, it should be kept in mind that the presence of any ocular symptoms in a pregnant woman requires ophthalmologic examination and further management. Knowledge of these ocular changes can help to differentiate the physiological changes from ocular manifestation of systemic disease and diseases pertaining to the eye in a pregnant woman. This article explains the effects of ocular changes in pregnancy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 16-20

  20. Lymphatic drainage from the eye: A new target for therapy.

    Yucel, Yeni; Gupta, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) has been central to glaucoma care for over a century. In order to prevent sight loss from disease, there has been considerable focus on medical and surgical methods to improve fluid drainage from the eye. In spite of this, our understanding of exactly how aqueous humor leaves the eye is not complete. Recently, lymphatic vessels have been discovered in the human uvea, with studies showing lymphatic fluid outflow in several models, in addition to evidence for their pharmacological enhancement. The presence of a lymphatic outflow system points to an exciting, expanded understanding of how fluid and particulate materials such as proteins move out of the eye, and how IOP may be regulated. We coin the term "uveolymphatic pathway"-to reflect a comprehensive and compelling new target for glaucoma and an exciting opportunity for future investigations to better understand the eye in health and disease. PMID:26497791

  1. A self-calibrating, camera-based eye tracker for the recording of rodent eye movements

    DavideZoccolan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of neurophysiology and vision science relies on careful measurement of a human or animal subject’s gaze direction. Video-based eye trackers have emerged as an especially popular option for gaze tracking, because they are easy to use and are completely non-invasive. However, video eye trackers typically require a calibration procedure in which the subject must look at a series of points at known gaze angles. While it is possible to rely on innate orienting behaviors for calibration in some nonhuman species, other species, such as rodents, do not reliably saccade to visual targets, making this form of calibration impossible. To overcome this problem, we developed a fully-automated infrared video eye-tracking system that is able to quickly and accurately calibrate itself without requiring cooperation from the subject. This technique relies on the optical geometry of the cornea and uses computer controlled motorized stages to rapidly estimate the geometry of the eye relative to the camera. The accuracy and precision of our system was carefully measured using an artificial eye, and its capability to monitor the gaze of rodents was verified by tracking spontaneous saccades and evoked oculomotor reflexes in head-fixed rats (in both cases, we obtained measurements that are consistent with those found in the literature. Overall, given its fully-automated nature and its intrinsic robustness against operator errors, we believe that our eye-tracking system enhances the utility of existing approaches to gaze-tracking in rodents and represents a valid tool for rodent vision studies.

  2. Evidence for a functional subdivision of Premotor Ear-Eye Field (Area 8B.

    Marco Lanzilotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Supplementary Eye Field (SEF and the Frontal Eye Field (FEF have been described as participating in gaze shift control. Recent evidence suggests, however, that other areas of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex also influence gaze shift. Herein, we have investigated electrically evoked ear- and eye movements from the Premotor Ear-Eye Field, or PEEF (area 8B of macaque monkeys. We stimulated PEEF during spontaneous condition (outside the task performance and during the execution of a visual fixation task (VFT. In the first case, we functionally identified two regions within the PEEF: a core and a belt. In the core region, stimulation elicited forward ear movements; regarding the evoked eye movements, in some penetrations, stimulation elicited contraversive fixed-vectors with a mean amplitude of 5.14°; while in other penetrations, we observed prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position. On the contrary, in the belt region, stimulation elicited backward ear movements; regarding the eye movements, in some penetrations stimulation elicited prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position, while in the lateral edge of the investigated region, stimulation elicited contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell beyond 15° in respect to the primary eye position. Stimulation during VFT either did not elicit eye movements or evoked saccades of only a few degrees. Finally, even though no head rotation movements were observed during the stimulation period, we viewed a relationship between the duration of stimulation and the neck forces exerted by the monkey’s head. We propose an updated vision of the PEEF composed of two functional regions, core and belt, which may be involved in integrating auditory and visual information important to the programming of gaze

  3. Tipping Point

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  4. A bionic eye actuated by ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscle

    Yu, Min; Li, Yuxiu; He, Qingsong; Song, Linlin; Dai, Zhendong

    2011-04-01

    This research was conducted with the aim of developing an energy-efficient, noiseless, movable bionic eye for use in bionic toys. This novel bionic eye is actuated by an ionic polymer-metal composite actuator. The overall size of the eye was 39 mm in length, 45 mm in width, and 45 mm in thickness. The experimental results revealed such a bionic eye design is feasible. This type of bionic eye is appropriate for use in toys and robots to increase their visual impact.

  5. The design and implementation of a study to investigate the effectiveness of community vs hospital eye service follow-up for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration with quiescent disease

    Taylor, J; Scott, L J; Rogers, C A; Muldrew, A; O'Reilly, D; Wordsworth, S; Mills, N; Hogg, R; Violato, M; Harding, S P; Peto, T; Townsend, D; Chakravarthy, U; Reeves, B C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Standard treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF drugs. Following multiple injections, nAMD lesions often become quiescent but there is a high risk of reactivation, and regular review by hospital ophthalmologists is the norm. The present trial examines the feasibility of community optometrists making lesion reactivation decisions. Methods The Effectiveness of Community vs Hospital Eye Service (ECHoES) trial is a virtual trial; lesion reactivation decisions were made about vignettes that comprised clinical data, colour fundus photographs, and optical coherence tomograms displayed on a web-based platform. Participants were either hospital ophthalmologists or community optometrists. All participants were provided with webinar training on the disease, its management, and assessment of the retinal imaging outputs. In a balanced design, 96 participants each assessed 42 vignettes; a total of 288 vignettes were assessed seven times by each professional group. The primary outcome is a participant's judgement of lesion reactivation compared with a reference standard. Secondary outcomes are the frequency of sight threatening errors; judgements about specific lesion components; participant-rated confidence in their decisions about the primary outcome; cost effectiveness of follow-up by optometrists rather than ophthalmologists. Discussion This trial addresses an important question for the NHS, namely whether, with appropriate training, community optometrists can make retreatment decisions for patients with nAMD to the same standard as hospital ophthalmologists. The trial employed a novel approach as participation was entirely through a web-based application; the trial required very few resources compared with those that would have been needed for a conventional randomised controlled clinical trial. PMID:26449197

  6. Interpreting maps through the eyes of expert and novice users

    Ooms, Kristien; De Maeyer, Philippe; Fack, Veerle; Van Assche, Eva; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The experiments described in this article combine response time measurements and eye movement data to gain insight into the users' cognitive processes while working with dynamic and interactive maps. Experts and novices participated in a user study with a 'between user' design. Twenty screen maps were presented in a random order to each participant, on which he had to execute a visual search. The combined information of the button actions and eye tracker reveals that both user groups showed a...

  7. Double Eye Brow: A Rare Case Report

    Kar, Sudipta; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Sarkar, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Eye brows are essential for esthetic and functional purposes. Various kinds of eye brows are found in human species. Protective function is one of the important functions of eye brows. Double eye brow is a very rare condition found in human. This case report describes one of the rare cases of double eye brow.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: fish-eye disease

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions fish-eye disease fish-eye disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Cornea and Corneal Disease Educational Resources (4 links) Disease InfoSearch: Fish-Eye Disease MalaCards: fish-eye disease Orphanet: Fish-eye ...

  9. An easy iris center detection method for eye gaze tracking system

    Yu, Mingxin; Lin, Yingzi; Tang, Xiaoying; Xu, Jing; Schmidt, David; Wang, Xiangzhou; Guo, Yikang

    2015-01-01

    Iris center detection accuracy has great impact on eye gaze tracking system performance. This paper proposes an easy and efficient iris center detection method based on modeling the geometric relationship between the detected rough iris center and the two corners of the eye. The method fully considers four states of iris within the eye region, i.e. center, left, right, and upper. The proposed active edge detection algorithm is utilized to extract iris edge points for ellipse fitting. In addit...

  10. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  11. 潜水运动力学分析与潜水服设计要点%Analysis of Motion Mechanics and Design Points of Wet Diving Pants

    吴忻舟; 杜劲松

    2015-01-01

    The basic characteristics and design points of three kinds of diving suits are analyzed. Taking the diving pants as an example, the human lower limb movement, the diving environment and the wet diving suit material are analyzed, which lay the foundation for the production of wet diving suit.%分析三种潜水服的基本特点及设计要点,并以潜水裤为例,通过对人体下肢动作、潜水环境以及潜水服材料进行分析,结合潜水运动力学,为潜水服制作打下基础。

  12. Design and fabrication of a miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector for the determination of acidity of some fruit juice

    Prinya Masawat

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector was designed and fabricated for the determination of acidity of some Thai citrus fruit juices collected in the northern area of Thailand. The method was based on on-line potentiometric titration of the acid contents with sodium hydroxide. Conditions such as volume of fruit juice sample, volume and concentration of potassium chloride used as supporting electrolyte and flow rate of titrant were optimized by using univariate optimization. A sample throughput of 83 samples h-1 at 0.28 mL/min was achieved with satisfactory results. The results obtained by the proposed method agreed with those obtained by using the standard classical titration method.

  13. Design optimization of an intensity-interrogated long-period fibre grating film sensor operating near the phase-matching turning point

    The intensity interrogation of a sensitive-film-coated long-period fibre grating (LPFG) operating near the phase-matching turning point (PMTP) is fully investigated. The coated LPFG is designed to operate near the PMTP and a little off resonance by properly selecting the film and grating parameters; the variation of the film refractive index induced by the interaction between the sensitive film and the surrounding medium leads to the change of coupling strength with a fixed resonant wavelength. Based on the coupled-mode theory and a four-layer model, the phase-matching property and the influence of film optical parameters on the turning points are investigated. Furthermore, the determination of the range of a little off resonance is discussed. By analysing the dependence of sensitivity on the film parameters (film refractive index n3 and thickness h3) and the grating structural parameters (grating period Λ, length L and average index modulation σ), the optimum parameters for high sensitivity are obtained. The simulation results show that the resolution of film refractive index is available in the order of 10−7 which is comparable to that of the wavelength-interrogated LPFG sensor based on dual-peak resonance, but an expensive optical spectrum analyser can be excluded from the measuring system. (paper)

  14. Awareness and perception regarding eye donation in students of a nursing college in Bangalore

    Gupta Anita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Corneal diseases constitute a significant cause of visual impairment and blindness in the developing world. The number of corneal transplants done is far less than the actual requirement in India. This is largely due to the inadequate number of corneas collected. Well-informed nursing students could be expected to influence eye donation rates. Aims: To assess the awareness and perception of 188 first- and second-year nursing students towards eye donation in Bangalore. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study design. Materials and Methods: A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info software package, Version 6.04. Results: The majority (96.8% of students knew that eyes can be donated after death but only 38.2% knew that the ideal time of donation was within 6 hours of death. Most participants (85.1% were either willing or had already donated their eyes. Nobility in the act of eye donation was the main motivational force for eye donation according to 85.6% of students. Perceived reasons for not pledging eyes by the students were: the unacceptable idea of separating the eyes from the body (67.9%, lack of awareness (42.8%, objection by family members (28.5%, and unsuitability to donate because of health problem (10.7%. Conclusion: This study revealed that nursing students were well aware of eye donations and most of them were inclined to sign-up for eye donation. The perceived reasons for not donating eyes need to be considered while creating awareness about eye donation in the community. The nursing students could be actively involved as volunteers in eye donation campaigns and they can act as counsellors for eye donors. They can also contribute by participating in creating awareness and motivating people to become eye donors.

  15. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    Ţuru, L; Alexandrescu, C; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears.

  16. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  17. Eye Bank Association of America

    ... Journal is EBAA’s peer-reviewed publication dedicated to eye banking and corneal transplantation, providing free access to both readers and authors. To view the issue, please click the link below. Read More Eye Banker to Participate in Dance Competition Sponsored by ...

  18. [Diabetic eye disease].

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes. PMID:25817504

  19. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  20. Limitation and further development of seismic PSA in the view points of design human error and failure of safety-related logical system

    This paper deals with the limitation and its further development of Seismic PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) in the view point of human error in structural design and construction process, and also logical failure of safety-related computers, instrumentation systems, logical mechanics such as pilot-operated safety valves under seismic events. Shibata, one of the authors, has been collecting the data on damages of industrial facilities due to past destructive earthquakes since 1964, and he concluded that both logical problems were also significant factors for Seismic PSA as well as the factors which had been discussed such as local seismicity, response fluctuation, and fragility curve. The authors recognized this fact through the cooperative study on Seismic PSA as an activity of the Subcommittee on Seismic Risk Study, to which the authors belong, in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). This paper consists of three parts. The first part deals with the summary of the JAERI's work and their issues. The second and third parts deal with human error which will be expected in structural design process and logical failure of logical systems

  1. Design of a Broadband Amplifier for High Speed Applications

    Camargo, E.; Virk, R.S.; Hajji, R.; Parker, S; Ohnishi, H

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides comprehensive insight into the design approach followed for an amplifier dedicated to high speed base band signals. To demonstrate the methodology, an amplifier consisting of nine PHEMT cascode cells within a distributed amplifier topology was designed. The resulting frequency response is 40 GHz at the 3-dB point, and the output voltage for a 43 Gbps eye diagram is 7.3 Vpp at the chip terminal.

  2. Arousal facilitates involuntary eye movements.

    DiGirolamo, Gregory J; Patel, Neha; Blaukopf, Clare L

    2016-07-01

    Attention plays a critical role in action selection. However, the role of attention in eye movements is complicated as these movements can be either voluntary or involuntary, with, in some circumstances (antisaccades), these two actions competing with each other for execution. But attending to the location of an impending eye movement is only one facet of attention that may play a role in eye movement selection. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of arousal on voluntary eye movements (antisaccades) and involuntary eye movements (prosaccadic errors) in an antisaccade task. Arousal, as caused by brief loud sounds and indexed by changes in pupil diameter, had a facilitation effect on involuntary eye movements. Involuntary eye movements were both significantly more likely to be executed and significantly faster under arousal conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), and the influence of arousal had a specific time course (Experiment 2). Arousal, one form of attention, can produce significant costs for human movement selection as potent but unplanned actions are benefited more than planned ones. PMID:26928432

  3. Method for eye movements study

    Parra Mario Alfredo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quantitative analysis of eye movements in Digital Domain, has permitted to increase the amount of physiological information extracted form oculographic signals. In the Neuroscience field, it allows to deepen on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying oculomotor dysfunctions. Objectives: The main goal of this work is to obtain quantitative methods able to reduce subjective components introduced by researchers during visual description or qualifications of neural signals, also reducing the experience required to successfully identify normal or abnormal electrophysiological patterns. Methods: Smooth pursuit eye movements were evaluated in 27 normal subjects by applying quantitative analysis methods in both time and frequency domains. A set of variables was determined which acted as quantitative descriptors of oculomotor response during task performance. Results: The results clearly shown that quantitative variables could be of great value in order to increase the sensitivity of eye movements analysis, also increasing the power of eye movements exploration to assess the neurophysiological basis underlying eye movements execution in either motor and cognitive contexts. The amount of information extracted from eye movement’s signals through this method exceeds the 80% of the total information available. Conclusions: Further studies must be conducted to evaluate how these variables behave in such disorders of central nervous system where eye movement’s dysfunctions appear.

  4. Eye-hand coordination during dynamic visuomotor rotations.

    Lorenzo Masia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: for many technology-driven visuomotor tasks such as tele-surgery, human operators face situations in which the frames of reference for vision and action are misaligned and need to be compensated in order to perform the tasks with the necessary precision. The cognitive mechanisms for the selection of appropriate frames of reference are still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of changing visual and kinesthetic frames of reference during wrist pointing, simulating activities typical for tele-operations. METHODS: using a robotic manipulandum, subjects had to perform center-out pointing movements to visual targets presented on a computer screen, by coordinating wrist flexion/extension with abduction/adduction. We compared movements in which the frames of reference were aligned (unperturbed condition with movements performed under different combinations of visual/kinesthetic dynamic perturbations. The visual frame of reference was centered to the computer screen, while the kinesthetic frame was centered around the wrist joint. Both frames changed their orientation dynamically (angular velocity = 36 degrees /s with respect to the head-centered frame of reference (the eyes. Perturbations were either unimodal (visual or kinesthetic, or bimodal (visual+kinesthetic. As expected, pointing performance was best in the unperturbed condition. The spatial pointing error dramatically worsened during both unimodal and most bimodal conditions. However, in the bimodal condition, in which both disturbances were in phase, adaptation was very fast and kinematic performance indicators approached the values of the unperturbed condition. CONCLUSIONS: this result suggests that subjects learned to exploit an "affordance" made available by the invariant phase relation between the visual and kinesthetic frames. It seems that after detecting such invariance, subjects used the kinesthetic input as an informative signal rather than a

  5. Monitoring of eye lens doses in radiation protection

    Mainly due to the ICRP recommendation to decrease the exposure limit for eye lenses, the eye lens dosimetry has to be reconsidered. This paper gives an overview of the issues raised after this recommendation; that is to say, the choice and definition of the operational quantity to be monitored, the type testing and calibration of dosimeters aimed at measuring eyes lens 'doses', the design of existing eye lens dosimeters and their wearing conditions. Finally, a criterion to choose between a direct measurement of the personal dose equivalent at three millimeters depth, Hp(3), with a dedicated dosimeter, and an indirect evaluation of Hp(3) through whole-body monitoring is presented. (authors)

  6. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia

    Bingjie Wang; Rajeev K. Naidu; Renyuan Chu; Jinhui Dai; Xiaomei Qu; Hao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months ...

  7. Single eye or camera with depth perception

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2012-10-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by a short photoconducting lossi lightguide section at each pixel. The eye or camera lens selects the object point who's range is to be determined at the pixel. Light arriving at an image point trough a convex lens adds constructively only if it comes from the object point that is in focus at this pixel.. Light waves from all other object points cancel. Thus the lightguide at this pixel receives light from one object point only. This light signal has a phase component proportional to the range. The light intensity modes and thus the photocurrent in the lightguides shift in response to the phase of the incoming light. Contacts along the length of the lightguide collect the photocurrent signal containing the range information. Applications of this camera include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. An interesting application is as part of a crude teleportation system consisting of this camera and a three dimensional printer at a remote location.

  8. Design of free-space optical interconnects using two Gabor superlenses

    Garza-Rivera, Anel; Renero-Carrillo, Francisco-Javier; Trevino-Palacios, Carlos-G.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a novel design of micro-optical devices based on multi-aperture compound insect eyes, which transfer a point-to-point multichannel free space signal combined with a diffraction grating. The system is inspired in the refractive superposition compound eyes configuration known as Gabor superlens (GSL) using microlens arrays. A switching function and wave division multiplexing are achieved by introducing a diffraction grating placed in the global focus of the system. The source characteristics, either coherent or incoherent, influence the device performance.

  9. Estimation of a focused object using a corneal surface image for eye-based interaction

    Takemura, Kentaro; Yamakawa, Tomohisa; Takamatsu, Jun; Ogasawara, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are considering the use of eye tracking in head-mounted camera systems, such as Google’s Project Glass. Typical methods require detailed calibration in advance, but long periods of use disrupt the calibration record between the eye and the scene camera. In addition, the focused object might not be estimated even if the point-of-regard is estimated using a portable eye-tracker. Therefore, we propose a novel method for estimating the object that a user is focused upon, where an eye ...

  10. [Eye Myiasis - a Case Report].

    Kopecký, A; Němčanský, J; Doležil, Z; Mašková, R; Mašek, P

    2015-09-01

    The authors describe a case of 47 years old patient who came to the department of ophthalmology with eye discomfort, ear bleeding and itching of both legs. The diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis was made after an eye examination. Manual extraction of maggots from upper and lower fornix of the left eye was performed and symptomatic therapy was given. The patient was sent to otolaryngology and dermatology departments and MRI. The maggots were also found in both external auditory meatus and between the toes. MRI excluded affection of the deeper structures of the head. Improvement of the local condition was observed since the first follow-up visit. PMID:26782730

  11. An eye for an ear

    Wong, Yoong Wah Alex

    2012-01-01

    "An Eye for an Ear" Exhibition catalogue of award winning photography from the Photography Open Salon Arles 2012 exhibition ‘An Eye For An Ear‘. ‘An Eye For An Ear’ explores photographic observations, concepts, emotions, experiences and beliefs relating to the silences and the sounds of our society and the visible and invisible that surrounds us. Changes in how we view the world as a result of the development of new communication technologies, things that we see but that others may not hear o...

  12. Managing your eye unit's supplies

    RD Thulsiraj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to deliver eye care, many resources have to be in place at the right time: your patients, your staff, your facilities, your equipment, and your supplies. In this article, we focus on how you can manage your supplies to ensure that your eye service runs smoothly. These supplies, or consumables, include every little thing needed in the course of your daily work: IOLs, medicines, gloves, forms used for patient care, housekeeping supplies, and equipment spares. If any of these items become unavailable, your eye centre will be unable to provide the same high quality of services, and you may even have to turn patients away.

  13. Comparison of Dry Eye and Corneal Sensitivity between Small Incision Lenticule Extraction and Femtosecond LASIK for Myopia

    Li, Meiyan; Jing ZHAO; Shen, Yang; Li, Tao; He, Li; Xu, Hailin; Yu, Yongfu; Zhou, Xingtao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the changes in dry eye symptoms and clinical signs and corneal sensitivity after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond LASIK (femto-LASIK). Design Prospective, non-randomized comparative study. Methods The study included a total of 71 eyes of 71 patients; the SMILE group comprised 38 eyes of 38 patients, and the femto-LASIK group comprised 33 eyes of 33 patients. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Tear film breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer test ...

  14. [Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].

    Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

    2014-08-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with

  15. What the Eyes Already "Know": Using Eye Movement Measurement to Tap into Children's Implicit Numerical Magnitude Representations

    Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Tamm, Sascha; Hawelka, Stefan; Schneider, Michael; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Stern, Elsbeth; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    To date, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of mismatches between children's "implicit" and "explicit" knowledge at certain points in development that become manifest by their gestures and gaze orientation in different problem solving contexts. Stimulated by this research, we used eye movement measurement to investigate the…

  16. Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2015-01-01

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

  17. Eye safety analysis for non-uniform retinal scanning laser trajectories

    Schelinski, Uwe; Dallmann, Hans-Georg; Grüger, Heinrich; Knobbe, Jens; Pügner, Tino; Reinig, Peter; Woittennek, Franziska

    2016-03-01

    Scanning the retinae of the human eyes with a laser beam is an approved diagnosis method in ophthalmology; moreover the retinal blood vessels form a biometric modality for identifying persons. Medical applied Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) usually contain galvanometric mirror systems to move the laser spot with a defined speed across the retina. Hence, the load of laser radiation is uniformly distributed and eye safety requirements can be easily complied. Micro machined mirrors also known as Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are interesting alternatives for designing retina scanning systems. In particular double-resonant MEMS are well suited for mass fabrication at low cost. However, their Lissajous-shaped scanning figure requires a particular analysis and specific measures to meet the requirements for a Class 1 laser device, i.e. eye-safe operation. The scanning laser spot causes a non-uniform pulsing radiation load hitting the retinal elements within the field of view (FoV). The relevant laser safety standards define a smallest considerable element for eye-related impacts to be a point source that is visible with an angle of maximum 1.5 mrad. For non-uniform pulsing expositions onto retinal elements the standard requires to consider all particular impacts, i.e. single pulses, pulse sequences in certain time intervals and cumulated laser radiation loads. As it may be expected, a Lissajous scanning figure causes the most critical radiation loads at its edges and borders. Depending on the applied power the laser has to be switched off here to avoid any retinal injury.

  18. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease

    Ben Mead

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs, MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC, adipose tissues (ADSC and dental pulp (DPSC, together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment.

  19. Metaphors and Symbols in The Bluest Eye

    杨雯淇

    2015-01-01

    Toni Morrison as a great African-American writer produces many perfect novels. In her novels the shining points not only lie in the internal full-bodied black cultural tradition, but also lie in the absorption of the black folk oral literature and a great number of African myth and legend. She also gets influences from the skill of the Western Magical Realism of which the most important things are the use of metaphors and symbols. There are a lot of extremely profound symbolic images in Toni Morrison’s novels. The Bluest Eye is the typical representation of these shining points. Above all, there is a great significance to analyze the symbolic images for achieving a deeper understanding of Toni Morrison ’s novels.

  20. Nutrition and the Aging Eye

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Nutrition and the Aging Eye Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... and showed that an experimental combination of three anti-oxidant vitamins (C, E, and beta carotene) and ...