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Sample records for design eye point

  1. Design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Keyi

    2015-12-01

    In this research, design of artificial spherical superposition compound eye is presented. The imaging system consists of three layers of lens arrays. In each channel, two lenses are designed to control the angular magnification and a field lens is added to improve the image quality and extend the field of view. Aspherical surfaces are introduced to improve the image quality. Ray tracing results demonstrate that the light from the same object point is focused at the same imaging point through different channels. Therefore the system has much higher energy efficiency than conventional spherical apposition compound eye.

  2. Eye tracking in user experience design

    CERN Document Server

    Romano Bergstorm, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Eye Tracking for User Experience Design explores the many applications of eye tracking to better understand how users view and interact with technology. Ten leading experts in eye tracking discuss how they have taken advantage of this new technology to understand, design, and evaluate user experience. Real-world stories are included from these experts who have used eye tracking during the design and development of products ranging from information websites to immersive games. They also explore recent advances in the technology which tracks how users interact with mobile devices, large-screen displays and video game consoles. Methods for combining eye tracking with other research techniques for a more holistic understanding of the user experience are discussed. This is an invaluable resource to those who want to learn how eye tracking can be used to better understand and design for their users. * Includes highly relevant examples and information for those who perform user research and design interactive experi...

  3. Head and eye movement as pointing modalities for eyewear computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    2014-01-01

    While the new generation of eyewear computers have increased expectations of a wearable computer, providing input to these devices is still challenging. Hand-held devices, voice commands, and hand gestures have already been explored to provide input to the wearable devices. In this paper, we examined using head and eye movements to point on a graphical user interface of a wearable computer. The performance of users in head and eye pointing has been compared with mouse pointing as a baseline method. The result of our experiment showed that the eye pointing is significantly faster than head or mouse pointing; however, our participants thought that the head pointing is more accurate and convenient.

  4. Head and eye movement as pointing modalities for eyewear computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbeigi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2014-01-01

    While the new generation of eyewear computers have increased expectations of a wearable computer, providing input to these devices is still challenging. Hand-held devices, voice commands, and hand gestures have already been explored to provide input to the wearable devices. In this paper, we examined using head and eye movements to point on a graphical user interface of a wearable computer. The performance of users in head and eye pointing has been compared with mouse pointing as a baseline meth...

  5. Design of a computer game using an eye-tracking device for eye's activity rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Huan, Chia-Chin; Chan, Chao-Ning; Yeh, Mau-Shiun; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2004-07-01

    An eye mouse interface that can be used to operate a computer using the movement of the eyes is described. We developed this eye-tracking system for eye motion disability rehabilitation. When the user watches the screen of a computer, a charge-coupled device will catch images of the user's eye and transmit it to the computer. A program, based on a new cross-line tracking and stabilizing algorithm, will locate the center point of the pupil in the images. The calibration factors and energy factors are designed for coordinate mapping and blink functions. After the system transfers the coordinates of pupil center in the images to the display coordinate, it will determine the point at which the user gazed on the display, then transfer that location to the game subroutine program. We used this eye-tracking system as a joystick to play a game with an application program in a multimedia environment. The experimental results verify the feasibility and validity of this eye-game system and the rehabilitation effects for the user's visual movement.

  6. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  7. Design of Eye Movement Interactive Interface and Example Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiang-Zong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the unceasing development of HCI (Human Computer Interaction technology, natural interactive products are valued by more and more people. The next generation of man-machine interface may use touch, hearing or vision, etc. Among them, the visual sense is the most important channel to get information, but researches are mostly focused on the measurement of eye movement or data processing. In the future, the interaction of eyes with machines will have a very wide prospect. After concluding the pluses and minuses of available eye control systems, we puts forth the design principle, system concept and the state transition model of eyes interaction from the consideration of user-centered design principle. The system simplifies the measurement process, focuses on the fast tracking, calibration and accurate eye movement identification. At the same time, we use context information to reduce interaction time and combines with keys to eliminate eye movements’ ambiguity. Based on the design scheme, we develop a system-EyeHUD(Eye Head Up Diaplay which can be applied in driving. It includes an eye preset interface, an eye control interface and a virtual vehicle scene. Before starting cars, a driver uses the eye tracker to track and calibrate eyes, then chooses an interactive function, like one blink zoom in or two blink chick. When the eye control interface is opened, the driver can use auto eye control to operate it, or choose eyes+keys way to simulate a click. The evaluation results shows: EyeHUD can successfully achieve all the default function and participants don’t need long time to understand the information provided by the interface. Compared with the eyes+keys way, the auto eye control has no obvious difference in recognition success rate.

  8. ATSU Point Design (gasdynamics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    In this presentation the basic principles outlined in the first talk ''Gas Cell Neutralizers'' will be applied to a problem of particular interest viz., the design of a ''gasdynamic free-jet'' neutralizer for the Los Alamos ATSU project. What will be presented here does not in any way represent the final gas neutralizer design for ATSU. Rather, the material presented herein should be viewed as simply a preliminary design intended to identify and gain insight into the more subtle issues that must be considered in designing this type of gas neutralizer.

  9. Achromatic Interaction Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimei Wang,, Yaroslav Derbenev, S.Alex Bogacz, P. Chevtsov, Andre Afanaciev, Charles Ankenbrandt, Valentin Ivanov, Rolland P. Johnson

    2009-05-01

    Designers of high-luminosity energy-frontier muon colliders must provide strong beam focusing in the interaction regions. However, the construction of a strong, aberration-free beam focus is difficult and space consuming, and long straight sections generate an off-site radiation problem due to muon decay neutrinos that interact as they leave the surface of the earth. Without some way to mitigate the neutrino radiation problem, the maximum c.m. energy of a muon collider will be limited to about 3.5 TeV. A new concept for achromatic low beta design is being developed, in which the interaction region telescope and optical correction elements, are installed in the bending arcs. The concept, formulated analytically, combines space economy, a preventative approach to compensation for aberrations, and a reduction of neutrino flux concentration. An analytical theory for the aberration-free, low beta, spatially compact insertion is being developed.

  10. Detection of characteristic eye points in non-ideal light conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi?niewska, Joanna; Gali?ski, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Detection of characteristic eye points under challenging light conditions is a non-trivial task. Difficulty of this task increase even more when low resolution images are used. This article introduces an adaptive solution for detection of characteristic eye points in mentioned conditions. First, light normalization algorithm is performed. Then, face and eye detection followed by determination of eye status (namely: open or closed) is done. Finally, an adaptive method for pupil and eye corners detection is developed by comparing some existing methods. Experimental results show the outperformance of the proposed method.

  11. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  12. The aesthetics of he eyes and mouth position in a three-point face schema

    OpenAIRE

    Fr?ckiewicz, Waldemar

    2001-01-01

    Oculographical research of people watching a human face indicates than beholder's eyes stop most often and for the longest period of time on the eyes and the mouth of the face looked at and that they move among these three points most frequently. The position of the eyes and mouth in relation to one another can be described with a single number being a measure of an angle with the vertex in the middle of the mouth and with arms crossing the centers of the eye pupils. The angles were measured ...

  13. Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Xiao, Jianliang; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2013-05-01

    In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. Here we present materials, mechanics and integration schemes that afford scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras with nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees). Their surfaces are densely populated by imaging elements (artificial ommatidia), which are comparable in number (180) to those of the eyes of fire ants (Solenopsis fugax) and bark beetles (Hylastes nigrinus). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors into integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Our imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes). PMID:23636401

  14. Beginning SharePoint Designer 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Windischman, Woodrow W; Rehmani, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Web designers, developers, and IT professionals how to use the new version of SharePoint Designer. Covering both the design and business applications of SharePoint Designer, this complete Wrox guide brings readers thoroughly up to speed on how to use SharePoint Designer in an enterprise. You'll learn to create and modify web pages, use CSS editing tools to modify themes, use Data View to create interactivity with SharePoint and other data, and much more. Coverage includes integration points with Visual Studio, Visio, and InfoPath.: Shows web designers, developers, and IT professionals

  15. Design and development of miniature parallel robot for eye surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tomoya; Harada, Kanako; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ueta, Takashi; Noda, Yasuo; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    A five degree-of-freedom (DOF) miniature parallel robot has been developed to precisely and safely remove the thin internal limiting membrane in the eye ground during vitreoretinal surgery. A simulator has been developed to determine the design parameters of this robot. The developed robot's size is 85 mm × 100 mm × 240 mm, and its weight is 770 g. This robot incorporates an emergency instrument retraction function to quickly remove the instrument from the eye in case of sudden intraoperative complications such as bleeding. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the robot's performance in the master-slave configuration, and the results demonstrated that it had a tracing accuracy of 40.0 ?m. PMID:25569974

  16. Design of a new two element OSLD Badge for eye lens monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally the dose to the vicinity of the eye is received by the occupational radiation workers who handle radioisotopes or doctors who perform interventional radiographic procedures. The Eye dosimeters provide an estimate of the radiation dose to the lens of the eye. In the recent ICRP-2011 recommendations, the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 150 mSv in a year to 20 mSv in a year for all the occupational workers. To ensure that the dose limit for the eye lens does not exceed the prescribed dose limits, various eye lens dosimeters have been designed and are being used internationally. All these eye dosimeters consist of one natural LiF based thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) element sealed in a plastic holder. The design of the eye dosimeter and place of wear (near the eye) plays an important role in correct estimation of the dose to the lens of the eye. It is generally seen that the eye dosimeter when worn with the head strap on the forehead near the eye, the dose the element receives can be easily correlated to the eye dose. This paper presents the design of a new Eye lens dosimeter based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors for its possible use by the occupational workers covering the medical, industrial and nuclear facilities for assessing the Hp(3)

  17. Pointing with a One-Eyed Cursor for Supervised Training in Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Martin; Kraus, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pointing in the endoscopic view of a surgical robot is a natural and effcient way for instructors to communicate with trainees in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. However, pointing in a stereo-endoscopic view can be limited by problems such as video delay, double vision, arm fatigue, and reachability of the pointer controls. We address these problems by hardware-based overlaying the stereo-endoscopic view with a one-eyed cursor, which can be comfortably controlled by a wireless, gyrosc...

  18. Integrating Service Design and Eye Tracking Insight for Designing Smart TV User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ming Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a process that integrate service design method and eye tracking insight for designing a Smart TV user interface. The Service Design method, which is utilized for leading the combination of the quality function deployment (QFD and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, is used to analyze the features of three Smart TV user interface design mockups. Scientific evidences, which include the effectiveness and efficiency testing data obtained from eye tracking experiments with six participants, are provided the information for analysing the affordance of these design mockups. The results of this research demonstrate a comprehensive methodology that can be used iteratively for redesigning, redefining and evaluating of Smart TV user interfaces. It can also help to make the design of Smart TV user interfaces relate to users' behaviors and needs. So that to improve the affordance of design. Future studies may analyse the data that are derived from eye tracking experiments to improve our understanding of the spatial relationship between designed elements in a Smart TV user interface.

  19. Study on chromatic aberration in a population of Chinese myopic eyes by means of optical design

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yuanqing; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yongji; ZHANG Lin; Zheng, Shaolin; Wang, Lu; Chang, Shengjiang

    2013-01-01

    Two kinds of individual eye models, involving and without involving the angle between visual axis and optical axis, are established by means of optical design. We use them to study the properties of the transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) and longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) over the visible spectrum. Then the effects of the LCA and TCA on the visual quality of human eyes are evaluated. The statistical averages of TCA and LCA over the visible spectrum for Chinese myopic eyes are obta...

  20. Intraocular lens design for treating high myopia based on individual eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhaoqi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2007-02-01

    In this research, we firstly design the phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) based on individual eye model with optical design software ZEMAX. The individual PIOL is designed to correct the defocus and astigmatism, and then we compare the PIOL power calculated from the individual eye model with that from the experiential formula. Close values of PIOL power are obtained between the individual eye model and the formula, but the suggested method has more accuracy with more functions. The impact of PIOL decentration on human eye is evaluated, including rotation decentration, flat axis decentration, steep axis decentration and axial movement of PIOL, which is impossible with traditional method. To control the PIOL decentration errors, we give the limit values of PIOL decentration for the specific eye in this study.

  1. Design of Eye Movement Interactive Interface and Example Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Xiang-Zong; Fang Zhi-Gang; Xu Jie

    2013-01-01

    With the unceasing development of HCI (Human Computer Interaction) technology, natural interactive products are valued by more and more people. The next generation of man-machine interface may use touch, hearing or vision, etc. Among them, the visual sense is the most important channel to get information, but researches are mostly focused on the measurement of eye movement or data processing. In the future, the interaction of eyes with machines will have a very wide prospect. After concluding...

  2. EYE BALL HANGER”–AN INDIGENOUSLY DESIGNED DEVICE F OR DONOR CORNEAL EVALUATION IN ENUCLEATED EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Babu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Outcome of a corneal transplant surgery mainly depend s on the functional reserve of the cornea being transplanted. Thus Donor corneal tissue evaluation forms a vital step in assessing the viability of the graft. Cornea retrieval can be done as an in situ corneal button excision or whole globe enucleation. Studies have shown that enucleation causes less corneal damage and striae as compared to in situ Cor neo scleral button excision. 1 As soon as the eye is received at the eye bank corneal evaluation is done by corneal surgeon using slit lamp and specular microscope, and the cornea is graded, labele d and sent for storage. Before evaluation, cornea should be allowed to come to room temperature. Whole globe or corneo sclera button should not be left at room temperature for more than one hour.

  3. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t?30psec) and low energy (E?200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P?30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts

  4. Design of 3D eye-safe middle range vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polulyakh, Valeriy [Advanced Data Security, 1933 O' Toole Way, San Jose, CA 95131 (United States); Poutivski, Iouri [Terimber Corporation, 2456 Homewood Drive, San Jose, CA 95128, USA and Facebook Inc, 1601 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-05-27

    Laser Doppler Vibrometer and Range Meter (3D-MRV) is designed for middle range distances [1–100 meters]. 3D-MRV combines more than one laser in one device for a simultaneous real time measuring the distance and movement of the targets. The first laser has a short pulse (t?30psec) and low energy (E?200nJ) for distance measurement and the second one is a CW (continuous wave) single frequency laser for the velocity measurement with output power (P?30mW). Both lasers perform on the eye-safe wavelength 1.5 ?m. 3D-MRV uses the same mono-static optical transmitting and receiving channel for both lasers including an output telescope and a scanning angular system. 3D-MRV has an optical polarization switch to combine linear polarized laser beams from two lasers into one optical channel. The laser beams from both lasers by turns illuminate the target and the scattered laser radiation is collected by the telescope on a photo detector. The electrical signal from photo detector is used for measuring the distance to the target and its movement. For distance measurement the time of flight method is employed. For targets movement the optical heterodyne method is employed. The received CW laser radiation is mixed on a photo detector with the frequency-shifted laser radiation that is taken from CW laser and passed through an acousto-optic cell. The electrical signal from a photo detector on the difference frequency and phase has information about movement of the scattered targets. 3D-MVR may be used for the real time picturing of vibration of the extensive targets like bridges or aircrafts.

  5. Design of the stereoscopic eye-tracking system for quantitative remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Aleksandr; Levin, Eugene; Roggemann, Michael C.; Gienko, Gennady

    2008-08-01

    Spatial and temporal data derived from eye movements, compiled while the human eye observes geospatial imagery, retain meaningful and usable information. When human perceives the stereo effect, the virtual three dimensional (3D) model resulting from eye-brain interaction is generated in the mind. If the eye movements are recorded while the virtual model is observed, it is possible to reconstruct a 3D geometrical model almost identical to the one generated in the human brain. Information obtained from eye-movements can be utilized in many ways for remote sensing applications such as geospatial image analysis and interpretation. There are various eyetracking systems available on the market; however, none of them is designed to work with stereoscopic imagery. We explore different approaches and designs of the most suitable and non-intrusive scheme for stereoscopic image viewing in the eye-tracking systems to observe and analyze 3D visual models. The design of the proposed system is based on the optical separation method, which provides visually comfortable environment for perception of stereoscopic imagery. A proof of concept solution is based on multiple mirror-lens assembly that provides a significant reduction of geometrical constrains in eye-frame capturing. Two projected solutions: for wide-angle of viewing and helmet-integrated eye-tracker are also discussed here.

  6. Design and development of laser eye protection filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser based devices, have been operational for measurement of distances horizontally and vertically in avionics and surveillance industries. These equipments are functional on pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm, this wavelength elevate the risk of eye exposure to personnel at unexpected levels. In this paper the eye protection filters, for the wavelength 1064nm were developed with soft (ZnS) and hard (TiO2) coating materials by using thin film vacuum coating technique. The damage threshold of the filter is 0.2 J/cm2. Transmission characteristics are measured and discussed. Optical damage threshold (for eye 5 × 10?6 J/cm2) at various distances is also simulated.

  7. Design of a Subtarsal Ultrasonic Transducer for Mild Hyperthermia Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michael B; Bujak, Matthew C; Chérin, Emmanuel; Sade, Shachar; Foster, F Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a disorder of the ocular surface that causes pain and low vision in a significant portion of the adult population. A common cause is obstructive Meibomian gland dysfunction, whereby the Meibomian glands secrete abnormal meibum with a melting point elevated by 3°C-4°C; hence, hyperthermia is the typical treatment. A design is proposed for an ultrasound hyperthermia device made of a transducer contained inside a contact lens with an internal air gap. The transducer heats the posterior of the tarsus, and the air gap provides an air backing to the transducer, preventing direct heating of the cornea. A prototype device was built, and hyperthermia experiments were performed on a porcine subject in vivo. A therapeutic temperature rise of 5°C-7°C was achievable in 10-15 min. The temperature of the cornea did not rise more than 2°C during any of the experiments. PMID:26603735

  8. The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pál, András; Mészáros, László; Csépány, Gergely; Jaskó, Attila; Schlaffer, Ferenc; Vida, Krisztián; Mez?, György; Döbrentei, László; Farkas, Ern?; Kiss, Csaba; Oláh, Katalin; Regály, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also dis...

  9. Design of eye models used in quantitative analysis of interaction between chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-12-01

    Special kinds of eye models are constructed by means of optical system design to quantitatively investigate impacts of longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) and LCA+TCA on retina image quality and on depth of focus (DOF), as well as interaction between chromatic and higher-order aberrations. Results show that LCA plays a main role in enhancement of DOF and higher-order aberrations further increase DOF. For most of the eyes the impact of higher-order aberrations on vision is much smaller than that of LCA+TCA and the presence of LCA+TCA further reduces the impact of higher-order aberrations. The impact of LCA approximates to that of LCA+TCA, and the impact of TCA approximates to that of normal level of higher-order aberrations and is negligible.

  10. High Pulse Repetition Rate, Eye Safe, Visible Wavelength Lidar Systems: Design, Results and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James; Berkoff, Timothy; Welton, Elsworth; Campbell, James; OCStarr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In 1993 the first of the eye safe visible wavelength lidar systems known now as Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) became operational. Since that time there have been several dozen of these systems produced and applied for full time profiling of atmospheric cloud and aerosol structure. There is currently an observational network of MPL sites to support global climate research. In the course of application of these instruments there have been significant improvements in understanding, design and performance of the systems. There are addition potential and applications beyond current practice for the high repetition rate, eye safe designs. The MPL network and the current capability, design and future potential of MPL systems are described.

  11. Visual Eye Tracking Data as Medium in User Dialogue - Service Design’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hyökki, Satu

    2011-01-01

    Eye tracking allows us to observe the eye movements of the users, simplified, a scan path of the user reveals us what ?is drawing the attention or inattention of the user. Eye tracking can bring added value to user research by providing ?insights that would not be available with more conventional research methods, such as things that user is no longer ?recalling, or not realising they even took place. ? The objective of this thesis was to find out how visual eye tracking data could be use...

  12. COMS eye plaque brachytherapy dosimetric sensitivity to source photon energy and seed design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the influence of source photon energy on eye plaque brachytherapy dose distributions for a 16 mm COMS plaque filled with 103Pd, 125I, or 131Cs sources or monoenergetic photon emissions ranging from 12 keV to 100 keV. Dose distributions were similarly created for all permutations of three common brachytherapy seed designs. Within this range, sources with average energy ?22 keV may reduce dose to the opposite eye wall by more than a factor of 2 while maintaining tolerable proximal sclera doses when prescribing to depths of 9 mm or less. Current commercially-available brachytherapy sources can exhibit up to 15% relative dosimetric sensitivity to seed design at regions within the eye. - Highlights: • Episcleral eye plaque brachytherapy utilizes low-energy photon-emitting sources. • Dose distribution sensitivity to source photon energy and seed design was examined. • Tumor dose conformity and critical structure sparing from ?22 keV photons is preferred. • Ocular dose distributions varied by up to 15% with seed design permutations

  13. Remote control of mobile robots through human eye gaze: the design and evaluation of an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hemin Omer; Sherkat, Nasser; Lotfi, Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    Controlling mobile robots remotely requires the operator to monitor the status of the robot through some sort of feedback. Assuming a vision based feedback system is used the operator is required to closely monitor the images while navigating the robot in real time. This will engage the eyes and the hands of the operator. Since the eyes are engaged in the monitoring task anyway, their gaze can be used to navigate the robot in order to free the hands of the operator. However, the challenge here lies in developing an interaction interface that enables an intuitive distinction to be made between monitoring and commanding. This paper presents a novel means of constructing a user interface to meet this challenge. A range of solutions are constructed by augmenting the visual feedback with command regions to investigate the extent to which a user can intuitively control the robot. An experimental platform comprising a mobile robot together with cameras and eye-gaze system is constructed. The design of the system allows control of the robot, control of onboard cameras and control of the interface through eye-gaze. A number of tasks are designed to evaluate the proposed solutions. This paper presents the design considerations and the results of the evaluation. Overall it is found that the proposed solutions provide effective means of successfully navigating the robot for a range of tasks.

  14. The Tromsø Eye Study : study design, methodology and results on visual acuity and refractive errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Erke, Maja G

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:? To describe the study design and methodology of the Tromsø Eye Study (TES), and to describe visual acuity and refractive error in the study population. Methods:? The Tromsø Eye Study is a sub-study of the Tromsø Study, a population-based multipurpose longitudinal study in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway. The Tromsø Eye Study was a part of the sixth survey of the Tromsø Study, conducted from October 2007 through December 2008. The eye examination included information on self-reported eye diseases, assessment of visual acuity and refractive errors, retinal photography and optical coherence tomography. Retinal images were graded for diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, and with computer-assisted measurements of arteriolar and venular diameters. In addition, TES researchers have access to the large comprehensive Tromsø Study database including physical examination results, carotid artery ultrasound, electrocardiogram, bone densitometry, cognitive tests, questionnaires, DNA, blood and urine samples and more from the present and the five previous surveys. Results:? Visual acuity was assessed in 6459 subjects and refraction in 6566 subjects aged 38-87?years. Snellen visual acuity

  15. Aalto University Design Factory in the eyes of its community

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Tua; Clavert, Maria; Kirjavainen, Senni; Laakso, Miko; Luukkonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    This report concerns Aalto University Design Factory (ADF), one of the spearhead projects and first physical manifestations of Aalto University. ADF aims to be a platform for integrative interdisciplinary education, research and industrial collaboration, as well as a catalyst for a culture of experimental and problem-based education to promote better learning outcomes. Since opening its doors in November 2008, ADF has strived to achieve these by providing a non-hierarchical, constantly develo...

  16. The optic chiasm: a turning point in the evolution of eye/hand coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Matz

    2013-01-01

    The primate visual system has a uniquely high proportion of ipsilateral retinal projections, retinal ganglial cells that do not cross the midline in the optic chiasm. The general assumption is that this developed due to the selective advantage of accurate depth perception through stereopsis. Here, the hypothesis that the need for accurate eye-forelimb coordination substantially influenced the evolution of the primate visual system is presented. Evolutionary processes may change the direction ...

  17. Research of Digital Interface Layout Design based on Eye-tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects’ search efficiency. Based on data and results, this study constructed a matching model which is appropriate for multilevel digital interface layout and verified the fact that the task element is a significant and important aspect of layout design. A scientific experimental model of research on digital interfaces for complex systems is provided. Both data and conclusions of the eye movement experiment provide a reference for layout designs of interfaces for complex systems with different task characteristics.

  18. The Fly's Eye Camera System: An Instrument Design for Large Étendue Time Domain Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csépány, G.; Pál, A.; Vida, K.; Regály, Z.; Mészáros, L.; Oláh, K.; Kiss, C.; Döbrentei, L.; Jaskó, A.; Mezõ, G.; Farkas, E.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high étendue. Funding has already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving ˜10 sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly - that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures - until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometime in the spring or summer of 2013.

  19. The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey

    CERN Document Server

    Csépány, Gergely; Vida, Krisztián; Regály, Zsolt; Mészáros, László; Oláh, Katalin; Kiss, Csaba; Döbrentei, László; Jaskó, Attila; Mez?, György; Farkas, Ern?

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving $\\sim10$ sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly -- that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures -- until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometimes in the spring or summer of 2013.

  20. The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András; Csépány, Gergely; Jaskó, Attila; Schlaffer, Ferenc; Vida, Krisztián; Mez?, György; Döbrentei, László; Farkas, Ern?; Kiss, Csaba; Oláh, Katalin; Regály, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving ~10 sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly -- that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures -- until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometimes in the spring or summer of 2013.

  1. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  2. Accuracy Constraint Determination in Fixed-Point System Design

    OpenAIRE

    O. Sentieys; R. Rocher; Serizel, R.; Menard, D.

    2008-01-01

    Most of digital signal processing applications are specified and designed with floatingpoint arithmetic but are finally implemented using fixed-point architectures. Thus, the design flow requires a floating-point to fixed-point conversion stage which optimizes the implementation cost under execution time and accuracy constraints. This accuracy constraint is linked to the application performances and the determination of this constraint is one of the key issues of the conversion process. In t...

  3. Design point selection for an ignited ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameter choice for the ITER design is dominated by the need to achieve ignition. Different energy confinement time scalings extrapolate to different device parameters, and the final design chosen must have a reasonable chance of success under the presently favoured scalings. This study investigates the device performance over the plasma current - aspect ratio design space, using sets of simplified equations and more detailed parametric analysis codes, with a view to clarifying the acceptable parameter region. Alterations to the initial assumptions of plasma elongation, plasma safety factor and peak toroidal field, and the effect of limiting the wall load, are also investigated. The study concludes that a device with aspect ratio around 3 and plasma current about 20 MA would be an appropriate choice. Under the assumptions of the study such a device would have a major radius of about 5.8m and would require the attainment of enhancement factors around 1.5 over L-mode scaling. (author). 6 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  4. User Centred Design for adolescents withCerebral Palsy : Designing an eye controlled software to enhance mathematical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlman, Pär

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to find an answer to what prerequisites that needs to betaken into consideration when designing an eye controlled software formathematical activities carried out by children that suffers from cerebralpalsy. A user centred study was conducted at three habilitation centresaround Stockholm. This resulted in a high-fi prototype for columnarcalculation, in which findings from the study were incorporated.These findings included the need to be able to adjust colour, sizeand shape of ...

  5. Status of Fast Ignition Point Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The fast ignition (FI) approach to inertial confinement fusion offers the prospect for achieving the high target gains necessary for an attractive inertial fusion energy system. In the FI scheme a two step approach is used to reach the conditions required to initiate fusion and burn: firstly, a DT-filled capsule is compressed to form a dense core (300 g/cc); secondly, a small region of the core is heated rapidly to ignition temperature (12 keV) with a high-power laser-generated electron beam. A major challenge for FI target design has been the complexity in modeling both the compression and ignition phases self-consistently and at full-scale. We report on progress in the design of a high gain FI target using an integrated suite of codes capable of simulating all aspects of an FI implosion, including fuel compression, ignitor pulse laser-plasma interaction, fast electron generation and transport, core heating, ignition, and burn. We use a cone-in-shell target with an indirect-drive irradiation scheme compatible with the 1.8 MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. Two-dimensional hohlraum and capsule simulations are performed with the radiation-hydrodynamics code, HYDRA, to optimize the peak density, areal density, and spatial uniformity of the compressed fuel around the cone tip, whilst maintaining its physical integrity. The ultrashort-pulse laser-plasma interaction and fast electron generation is simulated with a three-dimensional explicit particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The subsequent transport of the electrons through the imploding plasma and their heating of the dense core is modeled with a hybrid-PIC electron transport code coupled to the HYDRA code. The PIC calculations predict an over-energetic and divergent electron source that results in low energy coupling to the compressed core and reduced gain. We describe techniques to improve energy coupling and gain through the use of both azimuthal and axial magnetic fields generated through gradients in material resistivity and magnetic compression of initially imposed seed fields. Integrated calculations are used to design and optimize these schemes and determine ignition energy requirements for achieving high fusion gain. (author)

  6. Designing a Secure Point-of-Sale System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Pedersen, Allan; Hedegaard, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes some experiences with using the ''Common Criteria for Information Security Evaluation'' as the basis for a design methodology when designing secure systems. As an example, the design process for a Point-of-Sale (POS) system is described.

  7. Frequency of secondary cataract development in pseudophakic eyes with posterior chamber IOL of current designs in case of axial myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Sorokoletov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To evaluate a frequency of secondary cataract development in different periods of postoperative follow-up after cataract phacoemulsification depending on the degree of axial myopia and the implanted IOL design. Material and methods. A retrospective analysis of secondary cataract formation in the long-term follow-up after cataract phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation was performed in 16575 eyes out of 8722 patients with emmetropia and axial myopia. The average age of patients was 74±7 years, and the follow-up period was 5 years. The eyes with associated pathology such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy etc, were excluded from the study. Depending on the design of implanted IOL all eyes were divided into 3 groups. The first group included 5527 eyes with the implanted B-lens IOL (Hanita, Israel. The second group included 5629 eyes with the implanted Idea IOL (XCELENS, Switzerland. The third group consisted of 5419 eyes with the implanted Acrysof natural, SA60AT IOL (Alcon, USA. In every case the degree of myopia was evaluated using axial length of an eye that was measured instrumentally. The incidence of secondary cataract formation was evaluated on quantity of YAG-laser posterior capsule dissection within the 5-year follow-up after phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. Conclusion. According to our results the incidence of PCO is directly dependent on the axial length of the eye, strongly increasing in eyes with high axial myopia. The design and material of implanted IOL played an important role in PCO formation too. The eyes with the Acrysof natural, SA60AT IOL (Alcon, USA had the lowest incidence of PCO in the long-term follow-up.

  8. The eye in child abuse: key points on retinal hemorrhages and abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binenbaum, Gil; Forbes, Brian J

    2014-12-01

    This review presents an up-to-date overview of ocular injuries resulting from child abuse, with a spotlight on abusive head trauma. Retinal hemorrhage is a principle finding of inflicted head trauma. The specific pattern of hemorrhages holds valuable diagnostic information, which can help to guide multidisciplinary assessments of the likelihood of abuse. Indirect ophthalmoscopy through dilated pupils by an ophthalmologist is necessary for adequate examination and documentation of retinal findings. Initial pediatrician evaluation of the eye and indications for ophthalmological consultation are reviewed. Focus is then placed upon understanding retinal hemorrhage patterns, their diagnostic significance and likely pathophysiological mechanisms. The differential diagnosis of retinal hemorrhage in young children is discussed, highlighting key distinctions among retinal hemorrhage patterns, severity and frequencies, as well as other ocular findings. The most common cause of retinal hemorrhage in an infant is trauma, and most other causes can be identified by considering the hemorrhage pattern, ocular or systemic signs and the results of laboratory and imaging tests, when indicated. PMID:25501729

  9. Design considerations for eye-safe single-aperture laser radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubov, D.; McCormick, K.; Volfson, L.

    2015-05-01

    The design considerations for low cost, shock resistant, compact and efficient laser radars and ranging systems are discussed. The reviewed approach with single optical aperture allows reducing the size, weight and power of the system. Additional design benefits include improved stability, reliability and rigidity of the overall system. The proposed modular architecture provides simplified way of varying the performance parameters of the range finder product family by selecting the sets of specific illumination and detection modules. The performance operation challenges are presented. The implementation of non-reciprocal optical elements is considered. The cross talk between illumination and detection channels for single aperture design is reviewed. 3D imaging capability for the ranging applications is considered. The simplified assembly and testing process for single aperture range finders that allows to mass produce the design are discussed. The eye safety of the range finder operation is summarized.

  10. Revised Point of Departure Design Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittje, James E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Borowoski, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Four Revised Point of Departure NTR Engines were Designed and Analyzed using MCNP and NESS. All Four Engines Have Thermodynamically Closed Cycles at Nominal Chamber Pressures. 111 kilonewton (25 kip-force) Cermet Design Required Dedicated Heater Elements to Close the Cycle. Cermet Based Designs had Slightly Higher TW Ratios, but Required Substantially More U-235. NERVA Derived Criticality Limited Engine Could Operate at Lower Power and Thrust Levels Compared to the Criticality Limited Cermet Design.

  11. Design of a population-based study of visual impairment in India : The Andhra Pradesh eye disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable population-based epidemiologic data regarding vision and ocular morbidity, as well as those about the perceptions of people regarding visual impairment and eye care, are lacking for the most part in the developing world including India. These data are the basis on which effective eye care services can be developed. To meet this need we designed the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study, a population-based epidemiology study of 10,000 people in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The design of this study is described in this paper. Various options for the sample size, study areas, sampling procedure, and recruitment of subjects were considered. A sample size of 10,000 people, 5,000 each in the < or = 30 and > 30 years age groups, was determined to obtain reasonable confidence in estimating the prevalence of diseases and odds ratios for risk factors of interest. A multistage sampling strategy was chosen for the study which was assumed to give a design effect of 1.5 for the estimates. One urban area, Hyderabad, and three rural areas, West Godavari, Adilabad and Mahbubnagar districts, were selected in Andhra Pradesh. Interview instruments were developed to obtain detailed information about demographic data, diet, ocular and systemic history, risk factors for eye diseases, visual function, quality of life, barriers to eye care, and knowledge about eye diseases. A detailed examination procedure was devised to obtain a broad range of normative and abnormal data related to eyes and vision. A protocol was developed for doing automated visual fields, slitlamp and fundus photography. Computer databases were made in FoxPro for data entry and subsequent analysis with SPSS. Pilot studies were done to test the instruments, procedures, and logistics of the study in urban and rural areas. Information from the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study is expected to help in planning and implementation of effective long-term preventive, curative, and rehabilitative eye care services in Andhra Pradesh.

  12. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  13. Accuracy Constraint Determination in Fixed-Point System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serizel R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of digital signal processing applications are specified and designed with floatingpoint arithmetic but are finally implemented using fixed-point architectures. Thus, the design flow requires a floating-point to fixed-point conversion stage which optimizes the implementation cost under execution time and accuracy constraints. This accuracy constraint is linked to the application performances and the determination of this constraint is one of the key issues of the conversion process. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the accuracy constraint from the application performance. The fixed-point system is modeled with an infinite precision version of the system and a single noise source located at the system output. Then, an iterative approach for optimizing the fixed-point specification under the application performance constraint is defined and detailed. Finally the efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by experiments on an MP3 encoder.

  14. Accuracy Constraint Determination in Fixed-Point System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sentieys

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of digital signal processing applications are specified and designed with floatingpoint arithmetic but are finally implemented using fixed-point architectures. Thus, the design flow requires a floating-point to fixed-point conversion stage which optimizes the implementation cost under execution time and accuracy constraints. This accuracy constraint is linked to the application performances and the determination of this constraint is one of the key issues of the conversion process. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the accuracy constraint from the application performance. The fixed-point system is modeled with an infinite precision version of the system and a single noise source located at the system output. Then, an iterative approach for optimizing the fixed-point specification under the application performance constraint is defined and detailed. Finally the efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by experiments on an MP3 encoder.

  15. Research on registration algorithm based on feature points for human eye retina images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuran; Yang, Huizhen; Su, Liyun; Zhang, Yudong; Rao, Xuejun

    2009-05-01

    As a rule, according to the characteristics of living retinal images, such as gray and resolution unconsistency, some differences in detail, etc, it is a fairly difficult problem to carry out images stitching. In this paper, a robust image registration method based on feature points is proposed. To begin with, use RANSAC method to make rough match for the corner. Then, Mahalanobis distance is applied in the accurate purification. Finally, execute the image stitching with the purified corner. Practical experiments and application show that the proposed approach is feasible and effective.

  16. Revised Point of Departure Design Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittje, James E.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Schnitzler, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to further refine potential point of departure nuclear thermal rocket engine designs, four proposed engine designs representing two thrust classes and utilizing two different fuel matrix types are designed and analyzed from both a neutronics and thermodynamic cycle perspective. Two of these nuclear rocket engine designs employ a tungsten and uranium dioxide cermet (ceramic-metal) fuel with a prismatic geometry based on the ANL-200 and the GE-710, while the other two designs utilize uranium-zirconium-carbide in a graphite composite fuel and a prismatic fuel element geometry developed during the Rover/NERVA Programs. Two engines are analyzed for each fuel type, a small criticality limited design and a 111 kN (25 klbf) thrust class engine design, which has been the focus of numerous manned mission studies, including NASA's Design Reference Architecture 5.0. slightly higher T/W ratios, but they required substantially more 235U.

  17. Eye movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a special lecture at the 96th Annual Congress of the Japanese Ophthalmological Society in 1992, presenting studies on eye movement using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using cine mode MRI technology, two methods for producing a series of photographs have been invented: (1) the moving eye method or dynamic method in which the subjects were asked to perform 256 or 512 vertical and horizontal eye movements in synchronization with a sound trigger; and (2) the fixed eye method or static method in which the subjects were asked to gaze at individual points in a 5 to 7 point sequence as indicated by the investigator. MRI data was generated and the resulting series of photographs were observed in cine mode on a televisin monitor. Displaying the MRI-generated photographs in cine mode enables direct observation of eye movement, optic nerve and extraocular muscles within the orbit. Although the moving eye method is more accurate in its portrayal of the actual eye movement, at least 256 eye movements are required for about 5 minutes, causing physical and mental load for the subjects. The fixed eye method was thus used to examine ophthalmoplegia, including abducens palsy, oculomotor palsy, fracture of the orbital wall, foreign bodies in the orbit, Duane's syndrome, endocrine myopathy, esotropia and exotropia. This allowed the investigation of anatomical changes, such as atrophy or hypertrophy, and the functional state caused by contraction and relaxation of the extraocular muscles. Transposition of the extraocular muscles for paralytic squint was reexamined and a new surgical procedure was developed for abducens palsy. The measurement of the length, thickness and weight of the extraocular muscles from the MRI-generated photographs allowed more accurate analysis. Three dimensional reconstructive method of MRI provided a valuable tool for evaluating the orbit. (N.K.) 67 refs

  18. Optimum Design of Geometrically Nonlinear Structures with Degenerate Critical Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity coeffients of a critical load factor corresponding to a degenerate critical point is shown to be unbounded even for a minor imperfection. The existence of degenerate critical points are demonstrated through the example of a bar-spring model and a four-bar truss. The optimum design problem is formulated with constraint on the lowest eigenvalue of the stability matrix, and the sensitivity formula for the lowest eigenvalue is presented

  19. Professional SharePoint 2010 Branding and User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drisgill, Randy; Sanford, Jacob J; Stubbs, Paul; Riemann, Larry

    2010-01-01

    A must have guide for creating engaging and usable SharePoint 2010 brandingWith SharePoint 2010, Microsoft has provided a more robust environment for creating collaboration and content management sites that rival any of the popular websites on the internet. Creating a branded SharePoint site involves understanding both traditional web design techniques as well as topics that are typically reserved for developers. This book bridges that gap by not only providing expert guidance for creating beautiful public facing and internal intranet sites but it also addresses the needs of those readers that

  20. The design process seen through the eyes of a type designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    To understand how the design process works, the paper takes the outset in the work of one of the first innovating type designers: the English printer and typefounder John Baskerville (1706-1775). By comparing his way of working with a model for a contemporary design process, the paper reflects upon the relationship between this and the way Baskerville might have worked in the development of his historical typeface style.

  1. Material for Point Design (final summary of DIME material)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-25

    These slides summarize the motivation of the Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) project, the “point design” of the Polar Direct Drive (PDD) version of the NIF separated reactant capsule, the experimental requirements, technical achievements, and some useful backup material. These slides are intended to provide much basic material in one convenient location and will hopefully be of some use for subsequent experimental projects.

  2. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye

  3. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijian; Han, Dongmei; Dai, Yonghui; Zhao, Lina

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP) algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM) is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of “C programming language” are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate. PMID:26448738

  4. Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  5. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is a Black Eye? Tweet Black eye is a phrase used to describe bruising ... dark bruising in the tissue. What Is a Black Eye? Black Eye Symptoms What Causes a Black ...

  6. Oil-points - Designers means to evaluate sustainability of concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    1998-01-01

    Designers have an essential influence on product design and are therefore one target group for environmental evaluation methods. This implies, that such evaluation methods have to meet designers requirements. Evaluation of sustainability of products is often done using formal Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods. The different LCA based methodologies consider different environmental exchanges and are often rather complex.In this context, the authors raise the question, whether a simplified LCA method which is only based on energy considerations can be used as a tool for quick overviews. This is investigated by means of three case studies where environmental impact is estimated using the EDIP method, the Eco-indicator 95 method, and the Oil Point method proposed by the authors. It is found that the results obtained using Oil Points are in acceptable conformity with the results obtained with more complex methods. This, however, is only valid as long as chemical substances can be neglected in the considered life cycle systems. Comments from workshops with designers, where the cases were presented, are included in the paper.

  7. Design of laser radar-based feature points measurement scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binggao; An, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    With the development of scientific technology, the requirement of aircraft level measurement technology is growing. The traditional measurement method and device have become the bottleneck of the production. The optical 3D large-size measurement technique, with the advantages of large measurement scale, high accuracy, high generality, high flexibility and automatic measurement, has becomes the primary technique for measuring the geometry of large-size object. For the actual problems existed in the routine the feature points of level measure technology, such as failure to meet required degree of accuracy, lower efficiency and slower speed of data processing, this paper puts forwards a new measuring scheme on the feature-points of aircraft level measure by using the optical measurement system of Laser radar. Initially, the measuring principle analysis has been performed based on the optical measurement system of Laser radar. The measurement scheme of the feature-points of level measure has been carried out on the basis of the principle. And then, it makes profound analysis of the key technology which includes the technology of CCD image alignment and station-moving measurement. After the actual detection, the combined error of each feature-point is less than the comprehensive error 0.3mm, meeting the measuring scheme of accuracy index. Analysis results demonstrate that design of the measuring scheme is effective, and can meet the requirements of actual applications.

  8. Change point analysis and assessment : An integrated methodological design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop an analytical framework for studying processes such as continuous innovation and business development in high-tech SME clusters that transcends the traditional qualitative-quantitative divide. The article's key contribution is the conceptual integration of four existing and well-recognised but separate approaches to studying events, processes, and change, namely change-point analysis (CPA), event-history analysis (EHA), critical-incident technique (CIT), and sequence analysis (SA) into a single design framework which is especially useful for studying complex and long-term or ongoing processes.

  9. Design of a System for Vision Screening and Follow-up Eye Care for Children in Milwaukee Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Kathleen; Wu, Min; Steber, Dale; Cisler, Ron A.

    2005-01-01

    Vision problems affect many school age children, while only few of children are adequately screened for vision problems. The design of an information system supporting vision screening and follow-up eye care for Milwaukee Public Schools is discussed in this paper, which includes wireless data collection and web-based data management. The implementation of the system is ongoing. The information system will provide service to approximately 5,000 students annually in 30 urban e...

  10. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Programs Training and Jobs Facts About Dry Eye Listen This information was developed by the National ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  11. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  12. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Are Eye Allergies? Tweet Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are ... that Led to a Diabetes Diagnosis Find An Eye M.D. Enter zip code here Search by ...

  13. Optimal Point Spread Function Design for 3D Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Yoav; Sahl, Steffen J.; Backer, Adam S.; Moerner, W. E.

    2014-09-01

    To extract from an image of a single nanoscale object maximum physical information about its position, we propose and demonstrate a framework for pupil-plane modulation for 3D imaging applications requiring precise localization, including single-particle tracking and superresolution microscopy. The method is based on maximizing the information content of the system, by formulating and solving the appropriate optimization problem—finding the pupil-plane phase pattern that would yield a point spread function (PSF) with optimal Fisher information properties. We use our method to generate and experimentally demonstrate two example PSFs: one optimized for 3D localization precision over a 3 ?m depth of field, and another with an unprecedented 5 ?m depth of field, both designed to perform under physically common conditions of high background signals.

  14. Design of prototype two element optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter badge for eye lens monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype two element eye lens dosimeter badge based on highly sensitive ?-Al2O3: C optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) was designed and developed. The badge consists of a plastic card in which two thin ?-Al2O3: C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) discs are placed. The OSLDs in the plastic card (when inserted into plastic cassette) are covered with energy compensation filters made up of 0.3 mm thick Cu and 1.35 mm thick Teflon discs positioned symmetrically on both sides of the dosimeter. The OSLD badge is useful for monitoring doses from photons and beta particles. In this paper, theoretical studies using Monte Carlo method as well as using the analytical technique have been performed to study the energy response of the bare ?-Al2O3: C based disc dosimeters. These dosimeter discs have been found to exhibit over-response by a factor of ? 3.4 at ? 33 keV photon energy, whereas, beyond 80 keV photon energy, the response is nearly energy independent. Studies have also been performed to find the energy response of the ?-Al2O3: C disc dosimeters under different metal filters, viz., Al, Cu, Sn etc., and under various thicknesses of Teflon. From theoretical simulations, it has been found that 0.3 mm thick Cu is sufficient to correct the over-response in lower energy region within acceptable limits. Further, Teflon disc (DuPont, USA) having thickness of 1.35 mm is found to be the optimized choice as filter for the second dosimeter disc. It is worth mentioning that the ratio of the response of the OSL disc under Teflon to that under Cu filter indicates average energy of X-ray photons and same is used to correct the over-response as well as to estimate the quantity Hp(3). Also for higher photon energy region, the readout of the dosimeter disc under Teflon filter directly measures the quantity Hp(3). Same holds true for beta particles having maximum beta energy, Emax beyond 0.7 MeV. (author)

  15. Design of Floating Point Multiplier Using Vedic Aphorisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksha Rai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The word ‘Vedic’ is extracted from the word ‘Veda’ i.e. the store-house of all knowledge. Mathematics, derived from the Veda provides one line, super fast and mental methods along with quick cross checking systems. The Vedic mathematics was rediscovered in the early twentieth century from ancient Indian sculptures (Vedas. What we call VEDIC MATHEMATICS is a mathematical elaboration of 'Sixteen Simple Mathematical formulae from the Vedas' as brought out by Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji. Vedic Multiplication Technique will be used to implement Floating point multiplier. For mantissa multiplication I am using Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam sutra. The underflow and over flow cases will be handled. The inputs to the multiplier in 32 bit IEEE 754 format. In this paper, I proposed the design of high speed Vedic Multiplier using the techniques of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics that have been modified to improve performance. Vedic Multiplication Technique is used to implement IEEE 754 Floating point multiplier. For mantissa multiplication I am using Urdhva-triyakbhyam sutra for the underflow and over flow cases are handled. The multiplier’s inputs are provided in IEEE 754, 32 bit format. The Vedic Mathematics is the ancient system of mathematics which has a unique technique of calculations based on 16 Sutras. My work has proved the efficiency of Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam, Vedic method for multiplication which strikes a difference in the actual process of multiplication. It enables parallel generation of intermediate products, eliminates unwanted multiplication steps with zeros and scaled to higher bit levels using Karatsuba algorithm with the compatibility to different data types. The Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam Sutra is most efficient Sutra (Algorithm, giving minimum delay for multiplication of all types of numbers, either small or large. I implement this multiplier using VHDL. I implement my work by Xilinx ISE tool i.e. responsible for synthesis also. For simulation I am using Modelsim 10.2a.

  16. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye turns black and blue, gradually becoming purple, green, and yellow over several days. The abnormal color ... direct hit to the eye from a ball. Chemical injuries A chemical injury to the eye can ...

  17. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  18. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  19. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  20. Quantifying patterns of dynamics in eye movement to measure goodness in organization of design elements in interior architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkia, Hasti; Sangari, Arash; Nelson, Mark; Assadi, Amir H.

    2013-03-01

    Architecture brings together diverse elements to enhance the observer's measure of esthetics and the convenience of functionality. Architects often conceptualize synthesis of design elements to invoke the observer's sense of harmony and positive affect. How does an observer's brain respond to harmony of design in interior spaces? One implicit consideration by architects is the role of guided visual attention by observers while navigating indoors. Prior visual experience of natural scenes provides the perceptual basis for Gestalt of design elements. In contrast, Gestalt of organization in design varies according to the architect's decision. We outline a quantitative theory to measure the success in utilizing the observer's psychological factors to achieve the desired positive affect. We outline a unified framework for perception of geometry and motion in interior spaces, which integrates affective and cognitive aspects of human vision in the context of anthropocentric interior design. The affective criteria are derived from contemporary theories of interior design. Our contribution is to demonstrate that the neural computations in an observer's eye movement could be used to elucidate harmony in perception of form, space and motion, thus a measure of goodness of interior design. Through mathematical modeling, we argue the plausibility of the relevant hypotheses.

  1. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the GIFTS Instrument Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomkowski, Paul P.

    2003-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Instrument is the next generation spectrometer for remote sensing weather satellites. The GIFTS instrument will be used to perform scans of the Earth s atmosphere by assembling a series of field-of- views (FOV) into a larger pattern. Realization of this process is achieved by step scanning the instrument FOV in a contiguous fashion across any desired portion of the visible Earth. A 2.3 arc second pointing stability, with respect to the scanning instrument, must be maintained for the duration of the FOV scan. A star tracker producing attitude data at 100 Hz rate will be used by the autonomous pointing algorithm to precisely track target FOV s on the surface of the Earth. The main objective is to validate the pointing algorithm in the presence of spacecraft disturbances and determine acceptable disturbance limits from expected noise sources. Proof of concept validation of the pointing system algorithm is carried out with a full system simulation developed using Matlab Simulink. Models for the following components function within the full system simulation: inertial reference unit (IRU), attitude control system (ACS), reaction wheels, star tracker, and mirror controller. With the spacecraft orbital position and attitude maintained to within specified limits the pointing algorithm receives quaternion, ephemeris, and initialization data that are used to construct the required mirror pointing commands at a 100 Hz rate. This comprehensive simulation will also aid in obtaining a thorough understanding of spacecraft disturbances and other sources of pointing system errors. Parameter sensitivity studies and disturbance analysis will be used to obtain limits of operability for the GIFTS instrument. The culmination of this simulation development and analysis will be used to validate the specified performance requirements outlined for this instrument.

  2. Oil-points - Designers means to evaluate sustainability of concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    1998-01-01

    Designers have an essential influence on product design and are therefore one target group for environmental evaluation methods. This implies, that such evaluation methods have to meet designers requirements. Evaluation of sustainability of products is often done using formal Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods. The different LCA based methodologies consider different environmental exchanges and are often rather complex.In this context, the authors raise the question, whether a simplified LCA me...

  3. Key points for the design of Mox facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a MOX fuel fabrication facility involves specific technical difficulties: - Process aspects: for example, its is necessary to meet the stringent requirements on the end products, while handling large quantities of powders and pellets; - Safety aspects: for example, containment of radioactive materials requires to use gloveboxes, to design process equipment so as to limit dispersion to the gloveboxes and to use systems for dust collection. - Technological aspects: for example, it is necessary to take into account maintenance early in the design, in order to lower the operation costs and lower the dose to the personnel. - Quality control and information systems: for example, it is necessary to be able to trace all the different products (powder lots, pellets, rods, assemblies). The design methods and organization set-up by COGEMA enables to master these technical difficulties during the different design steps and to obtain a MOX fabrication facility at the best performance versus cost compromise. These design methods rely mainly on: - taking into account all the different above mentioned constraints from the very beginning of the design process (by using the know-how resulting from experience feed-back, and also specific design tools developed by COGEMA and SGN); - launching a technical development and testing program at the beginning of the project and incorporating its results in the course of the design. (author)

  4. Design and Implementation of IEEE-754 Addition and Subtraction for Floating Point Arithmetic Logic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.VINAY CHAMKUR , Chetana.R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the FPGA implementation of a Decimal Floating Point (DFP adder/subtractor using IEEE 754-2008 format. In this paper we describe an efficient implementation of an IEEE 754 single precision Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic to include specifications for decimal floating-point arithmetic. As processor support for decimal floating-point arithmetic emerges, it is important to investigate efficient algorithms and hardware designs for common decimal floating-point arithmetic algorithms. This paper presents novel designs for a decimal floating-point addition and subtraction. They are fully synthesizable hardware descriptions in VERILOG. Each one is presented for high speed computing.

  5. The Tromsø Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Erke, Maja G; von Hanno, Therese; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Peto, Tunde; Sjølie, Anne K; Njølstad, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:? To describe the study design and methodology of the Tromsø Eye Study (TES), and to describe visual acuity and refractive error in the study population. Methods:? The Tromsø Eye Study is a sub-study of the Tromsø Study, a population-based multipurpose longitudinal study in the municipality of Tromsø, Norway. The Tromsø Eye Study was a part of the sixth survey of the Tromsø Study, conducted from October 2007 through December 2008. The eye examination included information on self-reported...

  6. PORTRAYING THE NORDIC DESIGN FROM AN INSIDE POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Puente Toraño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandinavian Design. Alternative Histories is a rather technical but an easy-to-read academic work, focusing mainly on the often ignored complexity of the theme, introducing various fresh perspectives to the subject. The authors try to provide the reader with a radically different vision, constructed by clarifying many of the persistent myths of Scandinavian design.

  7. Design and Implementation of IEEE-754 Addition and Subtraction for Floating Point Arithmetic Logic Unit

    OpenAIRE

    V.VINAY CHAMKUR , Chetana.R

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the FPGA implementation of a Decimal Floating Point (DFP) adder/subtractor using IEEE 754-2008 format. In this paper we describe an efficient implementation of an IEEE 754 single precision Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic to include specifications for decimal floating-point arithmetic. As processor support for decimal floating-point arithmetic emerges, it is important to investigate efficient algorithms and hardware designs for common decimal floating-point a...

  8. Fiber design and realization of point-by-point written fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Stecher, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    An increasing interest in making sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) written in polymer optical fibers (POFs) has been seen recently. Mostly microstructured POFs (mPOFs) have been chosen for this purpose because they are easier to fabricate compared, for example, to step index fibers and because they allow to tune the guiding parameters by modifying the microstructure. Now a days the only technique used to write gratings in such fibers is the phase mask technique with UV light illumination. Despite the good results that have been obtained, a limited flexibility on the grating design and the very long times required for the writing of FBGs raise some questions about the possibility of exporting POF FBGs and the sensors based on them from the laboratory bench to the mass production market. The possibility of arbitrary design of fiber Bragg gratings and the very short time required to write the gratings make the point-by-point grating writing technique very interesting and would appear to be able to fill this technological gap. On the other end this technique is hardly applicable for microstructured fibers because of the writing beam being scattered by the air-holes. We report on the design and realization of a microstructured polymer optical fiber made of PMMA for direct writing of FBGs. The fiber was designed specifically to avoid obstruction of the writing beam by air-holes. The realized fiber has been used to point-by-point write a 5 mm long fourth order FBG with a Bragg wavelength of 1518 nm. The grating was inspected under Differential Interferometric Contrast microscope and the reflection spectrum was measured. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first FBGs written into a mPOF with the point-by-point technique and also the fastest ever written into a polymer optical fiber, with less than 2.5 seconds needed.

  9. Design of Farthest-Point Masks for Image Halftoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramponi G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper, we briefly presented a new halftoning algorithm called farthest-point halftoning. In the present paper, this method is analyzed in detail, and a novel dispersion measure is defined to improve the simplicity and flexibility of the result. This new stochastic screen algorithm is loosely based on Kang's dispersed-dot ordered dither halftone array construction technique used as part of his microcluster halftoning method. Our new halftoning algorithm uses pixelwise measures of dispersion based on one proposed by Kang which is here modified to be more effective. In addition, our method exploits the concept of farthest-point sampling (FPS, introduced as a progressive irregular sampling method by Eldar et al. but uses a more efficient implementation of FPS in the construction of the dot profiles. The technique we propose is compared to other state-of-the-art dither-based halftoning methods in both qualitative and quantitative manners.

  10. Design and Implementation of Complex Floating Point Processor Using FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Murali Krishna Pavuluri; T.S.R.Krishna Prasad; Ch Rambabu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents complete processor hardware with three arithmetic units. The first arithmetic unit canperform 32-bit integer arithmetic operations. The second unit can perform arithmetic operations such asaddition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and square root on 32-bit floating point numbers. The thirdunit can perform arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication on complex numbers.The specific advancement in this processor is the new architecture introduce...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF EYES AND BRAIN BEHIND "ARTERMA TOOL" IN FIRST PERSON POINT OF VIEW INTERFACE OF GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Shayana Samaden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of point of view (POV in electronic games has been vastly applied and fast becoming a favorite among electronic games (EG players particularly in games of action genre like warfare games. While allowing the users to experience the character first-hand, POV has its limitations for users. One example of the problems is the difficulty to anticipate the direction an attack by the enemy from a POV blindspot. Another problem is the difficulty to prepare a strategy. Some players become “somewhat dizzy” and eventually give up the game. This paper elaborates on the development of a framework for interactive montage on EG software interface using ArTerma tools and how the ArTerma tool works in the POV interface. Therefore, to accomplish the development of ArTerma tools, (A1(DDI2E3 model is used. In (A1(DDI2E3 model usage, ADDIE model is combined with other model concept such as “DiegesisSpatiality” concept Model, Frame concept model, and Mental concept model has been employed along side an elaboration on case studies. The study hopes that the developed a new model as well as support tool can help improve future EGs.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF EYES AND BRAIN BEHIND "ARTERMA TOOL" IN FIRST PERSON POINT OF VIEW INTERFACE OF GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Shayana Samaden

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of point of view (POV in electronic games has been vastly applied and fast becoming a favorite among electronic games (EG players particularly in games of action genre like warfare games. While allowing the users to experience the character first-hand, POV has its limitations for users. One example of the problems is the difficulty to anticipate the direction an attack by the enemy from a POV blindspot. Another problem is the difficulty to prepare a strategy. Some players become “somewhat dizzy” and eventually give up the game. This paper elaborates on the development of a framework for interactive montage on EG software interface using ArTerma tools and how the ArTerma tool works in the POV interface. Therefore, to accomplish the development of ArTerma tools, (A1(DDI2E3 model is used. In (A1(DDI2E3 model usage, ADDIE model is combined with other model concept such as “Diegesis Spatiality” concept Model, Frame concept model, and Mental concept model has been employed along side an elaboration on case studies. The study hopes that the developed a new model as well as support tool can help improve future EGs.

  13. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  14. A design pathfinder with material correlation points for inflatable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Jared Terrell

    The incorporation of inflatable structures into aerospace systems can produce significant advantages in stowed volume to mechanical effectiveness and overall weight. Many applications of these ultra-lightweight systems are designed to precisely control internal or external surfaces, or both, to achieve desired performance. The modeling of these structures becomes complex due to the material nonlinearities inherent to the majority of construction materials used in inflatable structures. Furthermore, accurately modeling the response and behavior of the interfacing boundaries that are common to many inflatable systems will lead to better understanding of the entire class of structures. The research presented involved using nonlinear finite element simulations correlated with photogrammetry testing to develop a procedure for defining material properties for commercially available polyurethane-coated woven nylon fabric, which is representative of coated materials that have been proven materials for use in many inflatable systems. Further, the new material model was used to design and develop an inflatable pathfinder system which employs only internal pressure to control an assembly of internal membranes. This canonical inflatable system will be used for exploration and development of general understanding of efficient design methodology and analysis of future systems. Canonical structures are incorporated into the design of the phased pathfinder system to allow for more universal insight. Nonlinear finite element simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of various boundary conditions, loading configurations, and material orientations on the geometric precision of geometries representing typical internal/external surfaces commonly incorporated into inflatable pathfinder system. The response of the inflatable system to possible damage was also studied using nonlinear finite element simulations. Development of a correlated material model for analysis of the inflatable pathfinder system has improved the efficiency of design and analysis techniques of future inflatable structures. KEYWORDS: Nonlinear Finite Element, Inflatable Structures, Gossamer Space Systems, Photogrammetry Measurements, Coated Woven Fabric.

  15. WE-A-17A-12: The Influence of Eye Plaque Design On Dose Distributions and Dose- Volume Histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of slot design of the model EP917 plaque on dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Methods: The dimensions and orientation of the slots in EP917 plaques were measured. In the MCNP5 radiation simulation geometry, dose distributions on orthogonal planes and DVHs for a tumor and sclera were generated for comparisons. 27 slot designs and 13 plaques were evaluated and compared with the published literature and the Plaque Simulator clinical treatment planning system. Results: The dosimetric effect of the gold backing composition and mass density was < 3%. Slot depth, width, and length changed the central axis (CAX) dose distributions by < 1% per 0.1 mm in design variation. Seed shifts in the slot towards the eye and shifts of the 125 I-coated Ag rod within the capsule had the greatest impact on CAX dose distribution, increasing by 14%, 9%, 4%, and 2.5% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm, respectively, from the inner sclera. Along the CAX, dose from the full plaque geometry using the measured slot design was 3.4% ± 2.3% higher than the manufacturer-provided geometry. D10 for the simulated tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera for the measured plaque was also higher, but 9%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. In comparison to the measured plaque design, a theoretical plaque having narrow and deep slots delivered 30%, 37%, and 62% lower D10 doses to the tumor, inner sclera, and outer sclera, respectively. CAX doses at ?1, 0, 1, and 2 mm were also lower by a factor of 2.6, 1.4, 1.23, and 1.13, respectively. Conclusion: The study identified substantial sensitivity of the EP917 plaque dose distributions to slot design. However, it did not identify substantial dosimetric variations based on radionuclide choice (125I, 103Pd, or 131Cs). COMS plaques provided lower scleral doses with similar tumor dose coverage

  16. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumer Alerts LASIK — Laser Eye Surgery Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Avoid Indoor Tanning ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Pterygium (Surfer's Eye)?- Eye M.D.-approved information from EyeSmart Pinguecula and Pterygium (Surfer's Eye) Symptoms- Eye M.D.-approved information from EyeSmart Pinguecula and Pterygium (Surfer's Eye) Diagnosis ...

  18. New Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, Preliminary Point Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a preliminary assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

  19. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  20. Design and Implementation of Floating Point Multiplier for Better Timing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    B.Sreenivasa Ganesh,J.E.N.Abhilash, G. Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    IEEE Standard 754 floating point is the most common representation today for real numbers on computers. This paper gives a brief overview of IEEE floating point and its representation. This paper describes a single precision floating point multiplier for better timing performance. The main object of this paper is to reduce the power consumption and to increase the speed of execution by implementing certain algorithm for multiplying two floating point numbers. In order to design this VHDL is t...

  1. Design and estimation of coded exposure point spread functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Scott; Ding, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jingyi

    2012-10-01

    We address the problem of motion deblurring using coded exposure. This approach allows for accurate estimation of a sharp latent image via well-posed deconvolution and avoids lost image content that cannot be recovered from images acquired with a traditional shutter. Previous work in this area has used either manual user input or alpha matting approaches to estimate the coded exposure Point Spread Function (PSF) from the captured image. In order to automate deblurring and to avoid the limitations of matting approaches, we propose a Fourier-domain statistical approach to coded exposure PSF estimation that allows us to estimate the latent image in cases of constant velocity, constant acceleration, and harmonic motion. We further demonstrate that previously used criteria to choose a coded exposure PSF do not produce one with optimal reconstruction error, and that an additional 30 percent reduction in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of the latent image estimate can be achieved by incorporating natural image statistics. PMID:22585096

  2. Supersonic Aerodynamic Design Improvements of an Arrow-Wing HSCT Configuration Using Nonlinear Point Design Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Eric R.; Hager, James O.; Agrawal, Shreekant

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the supersonic nonlinear point design optimization efforts at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace under the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. The baseline for these optimization efforts has been the M2.4-7A configuration which represents an arrow-wing technology for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Optimization work on this configuration began in early 1994 and continued into 1996. Initial work focused on optimization of the wing camber and twist on a wing/body configuration and reductions of 3.5 drag counts (Euler) were realized. The next phase of the optimization effort included fuselage camber along with the wing and a drag reduction of 5.0 counts was achieved. Including the effects of the nacelles and diverters into the optimization problem became the next focus where a reduction of 6.6 counts (Euler W/B/N/D) was eventually realized. The final two phases of the effort included a large set of constraints designed to make the final optimized configuration more realistic and they were successful albeit with a loss of performance.

  3. Simultaneous multi-design point approach to gas turbine on-design cycle analysis for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Jeffrey Scott

    Gas turbine engines for aircraft applications are required to meet multiple performance and sizing requirements, subject to constraints established by the best available technology level, that are both directly and indirectly associated with the aerothermodynamic cycle. The performance requirements and limiting values of constraints that are considered by the cycle analyst conducting an engine cycle design occur at multiple operating conditions. The traditional approach to cycle analysis chooses a single design point with which to perform the on-design analysis. Additional requirements and constraints not transpiring at the design point must be evaluated in off-design analysis and therefore do not influence the cycle design. Such an approach makes it difficult to design the cycle to meet more than a few requirements and limits the number of different aerothermodynamic cycle designs that can reasonably be evaluated. Engine manufacturers have developed computational methods to create aerothermodynamic cycles that meet multiple requirements, but such methods are closely held secrets of their design process. This thesis presents a transparent and publicly available on-design cycle analysis method for gas turbine engines which generates aerothermodynamic cycles that simultaneously meet performance requirements and constraints at numerous design points. Such a method provides the cycle analyst the means to control all aspects of the aerothermodynamic cycle and provides the ability to parametrically create candidate engine cycles in greater numbers to comprehensively populate the cycle design space. The cycle design space represents all of the candidate engine cycles that meet the performance requirements for a particular application from which a "best" engine can be selected. This thesis develops the multi-design point on-design cycle analysis method labeled simultaneous MDP. The method is divided into three different phases resulting in an 11 step process to generate a cycle design space for a particular application. The first phase is the requirements and technology definition phase which defines the engine cycle problem to be analyzed through the establishment of requisite performance requirements and technology rules at the different design points and determines the overall engine architecture. The second phase is the MDP setup phase which establishes a set of nonlinear equations by formulating a system of nonlinear equations at on-design mode from design rules that couple the design points, performance requirements, technology rules and design variables. The key to the method is the understanding of the coupling of the performance between the different design points. The equations are divided into three categories; user defined equations specified by the cycle analyst based on the chosen design rules, engine component matching relations to ensure that conservation of mass and energy is maintained at each of the design points, and constraint relations which determine the feasibility of the candidate engines. The third phase is the MDP execution phase which populates the cycle design space by parametrically varying cycle design variables and then simultaneously finds the solution to the entire set of nonlinear equations with a modified version of the Newton-Raphson solver. For a specific cycle design problem, the first two phases are only performed once and the third phase repeated for each unique combination of design variables to create the cycle design space. Through implementation of simultaneous MDP, a comprehensive cycle design space can be created quickly for the most complex of cycle design problems. Furthermore, the process documents the creation of each candidate engine providing transparency as to how each engine cycle was designed to meet all of the requirements. The cycle analyst is intricately involved in the simultaneous MDP method using their knowledge and expertise in the first two phases to define and setup the cycle design space, but are removed from the more time consuming task of finding each

  4. Designing Low-Cost Cryptographic Hardware for Wired- or Wireless Point-to-Point Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Sebastian

    Science and industry consider non classical cryptographic technologies to provide alternative security solutions. They are motivated by strong restrictions as they are often present in embedded security scenarios and in application such as battery powered embedded systems and RFID devices with often severe resource limitations. We investigate the implementation of a low hardware complexity cryptosystem for lightweight (authenticated) symmetric key exchange, based on two new Tree Parity Machine Rekeying Architectures (TPMRAs). This work significantly extends and optimizes (number of gates) previously published results on TPMRAs. We evaluate characteristics of standardcell ASIC design realizations as IP-core in 0.18-CMOS technology and an implementation into a standard bus controller with security features.

  5. Designing forward with an eye to the past: Morphogenesis of the lower Yuba River

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. Allan

    2015-12-01

    The early geomorphic evolution of the lower Yuba River (LYR), northern California, up to 1906 is reconstructed using cartographic, documentary, topographic, and stratigraphic evidence. The importance of early river mining is identified along with rates and patterns of floodplain aggradation and channel incision at the turn of the 20th century. The LYR is a classic example of anthropogeomorphic transformation of a river by episodic hydraulic mining sedimentation. This was followed by channelization, damming, dredging, and other engineering works to redirect, contain, and stabilize channels. These geomorphic changes and engineering controls continue to govern channel and floodplain form and process, control the trajectory of river responses, and constrain flood control, water quality, and aquatic ecosystem management options. Returning a river system to a prior condition should not be the primary goal of river rehabilitation projects, especially if hydrologic inputs have substantially changed. Reconstructing former conditions may be impractical and unsustainable under modern circumstances. Instead, fluvial systems should be designed and managed for present inputs and processes while anticipating future conditions. Rapid changes in land use and climate that generate changes in runoff and sediment loadings are likely to generate morphological instability, and these changes should be considered in the design and management of fluvial systems. The past geomorphic evolution of fluvial systems should also be considered in design and management decisions to recognize trajectories and suppressed tendencies. Recognition of trends and system vulnerabilities may avoid potential blunders, such as removing critical stabilizing works. Complex causalities may be difficult to reconstruct from geomorphic form alone, however, due to process-form dynamics. Detailed research on the geomorphic and engineering history of a river is essential, therefore, if substantial changes and morphologic instabilities have occurred.

  6. Stauts of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Hohlraum Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, P; Dunne, M; Ho, D; Lasinski, B; Meeker, D; Ross, J S

    2012-04-10

    Progress on the hohlraum point design for the LIFE engine is described. New features in the original design [Amendt et al., Fus. Sci. Technol. 60, 49 (2011)] are incorporated that address the imperatives of low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, efficient and prompt material recycling, an ability for near-term testing of key target design uncertainties on the National Ignition Facility, and robustness to target chamber environment and injection insults. To this end, the novel use of Pb hohlraums and aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel loading within a high-density-carbon (HDC) ablator is implemented in the hohlraum point design.

  7. Design of 16-point Radix-4 Fast Fourier Transform in 0.18µm CMOS Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Siva K. Palaniappan; Tun Z.A. Zulkifli

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces detail design of semi-custom CMOS Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) architecture for computing 16-point radix-4 FFT. FFT is one of the most widely used algorithms in digital signal processing. It is used in many signal processing and communication application as an important block for various multi-carrier systems such as for WLAN (Wireless local area network). This paper describes the design of an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) CMOS FFT processor for 16-point...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye ... for Dry Eye? Dry Eye Diagnosis Dry Eye Treatment Sometimes people don't produce enough tears or ...

  9. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Injuries at Work Tweet About 300,000 Americans ... it comes to eye protection." Watch Out for Eye Dangers Common causes for eye injuries are: Flying ...

  10. Using Eye Makeup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Using Eye Makeup Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  11. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Smoking and Eye Health Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  12. Using eye-tracking methodology in consumer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialkova, S.; Mueller Loose, Simone

    Eye-tracking methodology will soon be mature enough to become a standard tool in consumer science. The workshop will begin with a short overview of the perceptual and attention processes that can be measured by eye-tracking. The available hardware and software will be compared, and typical experimental designs will be discussed that can be recommended for eye-tracking studies in consumer science. The application potential will then be demonstrated in four case presentations, focusing on different product categories (from dairy products to alcoholic beverages), measurement contexts (laboratory versus point of purchase) and study goals (appearance studies, package design, identification of food choice motives). Furthermore, the presentations will discuss how different components of attention can be distinguished based on eye-tracking data (stimulus-driven versus task-driven processes) and how the explanatory power of eye-tracking studies can be boosted by combining eye-tracking with other methodologies (shelf simulations, choice experiments, neuroimaging techniques). The workshop will conclude with an open discussion in which participants can consult the presenters on the applicability of eye-tracking methods in their own research.

  13. On the design of IEEE compliant floating point units and their quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Peter-Michael

    1999-01-01

    Abstract this thesis addresses the question of which are the important issues in the design of a high-speed floating-point unit (FPU) that is fully compliant with the IEEE floating-point standard 754-1985 [19]. There are a few choices that need to be made when designing an IEEE compliant FPU, among them: the internal representation of floating-point numbers, the rounding algorithms, handling of denormal results, usage of the same rounding hardware for different units (e.g. adder, multiplier, ...

  14. Does the Three-Point Rule Make Soccer More Exciting? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yoong Hon; Parinduri, Rasyad

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether the three-point rule—the increase in rewards for a win from two- to three points that FIFA adopted in 1995—makes Bundesliga games become more exciting. Using regression discontinuity design as the empirical strategy, we do not find evidence that the three-point rule makes games more decisive, increases the number of goals, or decreases goal differences. We only find some evidence that the three-point rule increases the second-half goals of losing first-half teams. Overall, ...

  15. Wheelchair Motion Control Guide Using Eye Movement Based on EEG Signals.

    OpenAIRE

    D.Uma Mageswar; G. Selvavinayagam

    2013-01-01

    The design and implementation of an Autonomous Movement Robot based on a Wheelchair based on EOG signal is to help a disable or handicapped person. These EOG electrodes are placed at right and left of eye and other pair of electrodes are at top and right of the eye. These electrodes used to response after gazing of one target point for a particular time period. After gazing of point, the wheelchair used to move to a target position. So, it produce delay during eye gaze. To overcome this delay...

  16. Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2013-01-01

    Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view By Aviaja Borup Lynggaard & Birgitte Geert Jensen This poster presents a design case of collaborative innovation between design students from Aarhus School of Architecture and pupils from the public school, Samsøgades School in Aarhus, facilitated by the research project Kids n’Tweens Lifestyle. The scope of collaborating was to design the content for DOKK1, the new Mediaspace center in Aarhus, where design students took offset from the children’s wor...

  17. Reliability of impingement sampling designs: An example from the Indian Point station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 4-year data base (1976-1979) of daily fish impingement counts at the Indian Point electric power station on the Hudson River was used to compare the precision and reliability of three random-sampling designs: (1) simple random, (2) seasonally stratified, and (3) empirically stratified. The precision of daily impingement estimates improved logarithmically for each design as more days in the year were sampled. Simple random sampling was the least, and empirically stratified sampling was the most precise design, and the difference in precision between the two stratified designs was small. Computer-simulated sampling was used to estimate the reliability of the two stratified-random-sampling designs. A seasonally stratified sampling design was selected as the most appropriate reduced-sampling program for Indian Point station because: (1) reasonably precise and reliable impingement estimates were obtained using this design for all species combined and for eight common Hudson River fish by sampling only 30% of the days in a year (110 d); and (2) seasonal strata may be more precise and reliable than empirical strata if future changes in annual impingement patterns occur. The seasonally stratified design applied to the 1976-1983 Indian Point impingement data showed that selection of sampling dates based on daily species-specific impingement variability gave results that were more precise, but not more consistently reliable, than sampling allocations based on the variability of all fish species combined. 14 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  18. Optimal Design Measures under Asymmetric Errors, with Application to Binary Design Points

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Mausumi; Mukerjee, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    We study the optimal design problem under second-order least squares estimation which is known to outperform ordinary least squares estimation when the error distribution is asymmetric. First, a general approximate theory is developed, taking due cognizance of the nonlinearity of the underlying information matrix in the design measure. This yields necessary and sufficient conditions that a D- or A-optimal design measure must satisfy. The results are then applied to find opti...

  19. Double peacock eye optical element for extended focal depth imaging with ophthalmic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lenny A.; Millán, María S.; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2012-04-01

    The aged human eye is commonly affected by presbyopia, and therefore, it gradually loses its capability to form images of objects placed at different distances. Extended depth of focus (EDOF) imaging elements can overcome this inability, despite the introduction of a certain amount of aberration. This paper evaluates the EDOF imaging performance of the so-called peacock eye phase diffractive element, which focuses an incident plane wave into a segment of the optical axis and explores the element's potential use for ophthalmic presbyopia compensation optics. Two designs of the element are analyzed: the single peacock eye, which produces one focal segment along the axis, and the double peacock eye, which is a spatially multiplexed element that produces two focal segments with partial overlapping along the axis. The performances of the peacock eye elements are compared with those of multifocal lenses through numerical simulations as well as optical experiments in the image space. The results demonstrate that the peacock eye elements form sharper images along the focal segment than the multifocal lenses and, therefore, are more suitable for presbyopia compensation. The extreme points of the depth of field in the object space, which represent the remote and the near object points, have been experimentally obtained for both the single and the double peacock eye optical elements. The double peacock eye element has better imaging quality for relatively short and intermediate distances than the single peacock eye, whereas the latter seems better for far distance vision.

  20. Design and performance considerations of cat's-eye retroreflectors for use in open-path Fourier-transform-infrared spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Robert L; Griffiths, Peter R

    2002-10-20

    A ray-tracing analysis of cat's-eye retroreflectors for use in active open-path Fourier-transform-infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry and the results of testing f/0.5 and f/1.75 cat's-eye retroreflectors built in our laboratory with a commercial active OP/FT-IR spectrometer are presented. The ray-tracing model is based on the optical characteristics of a commercial single-telescope monostatic OP/FT-IR spectrometer and explores trends in cat's-eye behavior in practical but rigorous field conditions encountered during transportable outdoor use. All mirrors modeled are paraboloids for which the focal ratios of the primary mirror are f/0.5, f/1.75, and f/3. The effect of the focal ratio of the primary mirror, the focal length of the secondary mirror, and the off-axis alignment of the primary and the secondary mirror have been evaluated as a function of path length, including variable input-beam divergence, between the spectrometer and the cat's-eye. The paraboloidal mirrors comprising the primary and secondary of the cat's-eye retroreflectors tested were made in our laboratory by spin casting liquid epoxy-graphite composite mixtures followed by in situ polymerization with no postpolishing. PMID:12396182

  1. Unbalanced and Minimal Point Equivalent Estimation Second-Order Split-Plot Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Peter A.; Kowalski, Scott M.; Vining, G. Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Restricting the randomization of hard-to-change factors in industrial experiments is often performed by employing a split-plot design structure. From an economic perspective, these designs minimize the experimental cost by reducing the number of resets of the hard-to- change factors. In this paper, unbalanced designs are considered for cases where the subplots are relatively expensive and the experimental apparatus accommodates an unequal number of runs per whole-plot. We provide construction methods for unbalanced second-order split- plot designs that possess the equivalence estimation optimality property, providing best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters; independent of the variance components. Unbalanced versions of the central composite and Box-Behnken designs are developed. For cases where the subplot cost approaches the whole-plot cost, minimal point designs are proposed and illustrated with a split-plot Notz design.

  2. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Cárdenas-García.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set [...] of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM's transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylindro-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.9992 ± 0.0004 in the 8 ?m to 14 ?m wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have an expanded uncertainty of 54 mK, with a coverage factor k = 2.

  3. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylinder-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.9992±0.0004 in the 8 ?m to 14 ?m wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have and expanded uncertainty of 54 m K, with a coverage factor k = 2. (Author)

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is ...

  5. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is Dry Eye? Tweet ... eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address © ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye ... 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for ...

  8. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening ... Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is Dry Eye? Tweet ...

  10. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Eye Injuries KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Emergencies > Eye ... do not delay flushing the eye first. Black Eyes and Blunt Injuries A black eye is often ...

  11. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from EyeSmart Related Answers Does herbal medicine for sleep worsen dry eye? I have dry eyes and ... eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address © ...

  13. Effect of fuel fabrication parameters on performance- designer's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel bundle performance in reactor depends upon the material properties, dimensions of the different components and their inter-compatibility. This paper brings out the fuel parameters required to be optimised to achieve better fuel reliability, operational flexibility, safety and economics from the designer point of view

  14. Design Considerations for Miniaturized Control Moment Gyroscopes for Rapid Retargeting and Precision Pointing of Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Kunal; Fitz-Coy, Norman; Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design as well as characterization of a practical control moment gyroscope (CMG) based attitude control system (ACS) for small satellites in the 15-20 kilogram mass range performing rapid retargeting and precision pointing maneuvers. The paper focuses on the approach taken in the design of miniaturized CMGs while considering the constraints imposed by the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as well as the size of the satellite. It is shown that a hybrid mode is more suitable for COTS based moment exchange actuators; a mode that uses the torque amplification of CMGs for rapid retargeting and direct torque capabilities of the flywheel motors for precision pointing. A simulation is provided to demonstrate on-orbit slew and pointing performance.

  15. Compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR): sensitivity study and design-point determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique, magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the viewpoint of low-field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. A comprehensive system model is developed and described for a steady-state, compact RFP reactor (CRFPR). This model is used to select a unique cost-optimized design point that will be used for a conceptual engineering design. The cost-optimized CRFPR design presented herein would operate with system power densities and mass utilizations that are comparable to fission power plants and are an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion power. The sensitivity of the base-case design point to changes in plasma transport, profiles, beta, blanket thickness, normal vs superconducting coils, and fuel cycle (DT vs DD) is examined. The RFP approach is found to yield a point design for a high-power-density reactor that is surprisingly resilient to changes in key, but relatively unknown, physics and systems parameters

  16. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Avoid Indoor Tanning ...

  17. Design features of matrix nanoscale pointed graphene/SiC field emission cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, E.; Jityaev, I.; Kolomiitsev, A.

    2015-10-01

    The article describes the design features of the matrix nanoscale pointed field emission cathodes based on silicon carbide with a graphene film. The influence of the distance between electrodes, the distance between cathodes, the cathode height at the fixed values of the rounding-off radius of the top, the potential difference and the half-angle of the opening of cone forming the cathode is researched. The effective parameters of the matrix pointed field emission structure with nanoscale cathodes that provides homogeneity of the electrical field are determined.

  18. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  19. At-sea test system point design for a one-third scale cold water pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, W.H. (ed.)

    1979-12-01

    One step in the development of the technology for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipes (CWP) is the at-sea testing of a fiberglass reinforced plastic nominal 10-foot diameter pipe. A design procedure and criteria for developing test hardware by scaling down a 30-foot diameter OTEC 10/40 MW Pilot Plant CWP design are presented. An example point design for the pipe, instrumentation to be used during the at-sea tests, and methods for selecting the support platform and mooring are described. The design considered starts with a scale model of a larger prototype, and then is modified to address the problems of fabrication and of survivability and handling during the 1/3rd scale model tests.

  20. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lens works much like the lens of a movie projector at the movies. Next time you sit in the dark theater, look behind you at the stream of light coming from the ... so you can see the movie clearly. In the eye's case, however, the film ...

  1. Design and Simulation of PV System with Incremental Conductance Method for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Maheswara Rao Ch., Bala Murali Krishna V., A. Srihari Babu, Suman S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete design and simulation of a Photovoltaic System (PVS with capable of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT.In this paper Incremental Conductance Method (ICM is adopted for the MPPT technique. The proposed PV System is modelled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink GUI environment. Finally, dynamic performance of the proposed PV System with ICM is presented to demonstrate its capability of MPPT, which has a better tracking performance.

  2. Design and Simulation of PV System with Incremental Conductance Method for Maximum Power Point Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Maheswara Rao Ch., Bala Murali Krishna V., A. Srihari Babu, Suman S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a complete design and simulation of a Photovoltaic System (PVS) with capable of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).In this paper Incremental Conductance Method (ICM) is adopted for the MPPT technique. The proposed PV System is modelled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink GUI environment. Finally, dynamic performance of the proposed PV System with ICM is presented to demonstrate its capability of MPPT, which has a better tracking performance.

  3. The Design Of Speech-Control Power Point Presentation Tool Using Arm7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Vishnu Kumar, Dr.T.JayaChandra Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper was mainly exploring the important tool for many people who were exchanging knowledge especially proceeding power-point presentation as one auxiliary tool. The lecturer’s most proper position should be between the audience and screen of power-point and this location is far away the mouse or keyboard and also if he want go for particular slide using mouse or keyboard is long process, so if we have designed one facility with wireless control and could be controlled with speech-recognition function so that users need not rush between the screen and computer and also he can easily go for particular slide. Today some identical products with RF [1] and push function on the power-point pen that needs users to pre-learn the functions and those usage often caused errors especially in the dark environment, so in this paper we combined WSN ZigBee modules [2] with speech-recognition function and ARM7 based LPC2148 microcontroller to design the creative product, so to called “Hi-TEC ZigBee remotecontroller of Power-Point presentation”.

  4. Design of optimal impulse transfers from the Sun-Earth libration point to asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yamin; Qiao, Dong; Cui, Pingyuan

    2015-07-01

    The lunar probe, Chang'E-2, is the first one to successfully achieve both the transfer to Sun-Earth libration point orbit and the flyby of near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. This paper, taking the Chang'E-2's asteroid flyby mission as an example, provides a method to design low-energy transfers from the libration point orbit to an asteroid. The method includes the analysis of transfer families and the design of optimal impulse transfers. Firstly, the one-impulse transfers are constructed by correcting the initial guesses, which are obtained by perturbing in the direction of unstable eigenvector. Secondly, the optimality of one-impulse transfers is analyzed and the optimal impulse transfers are built by using the primer vector theory. After optimization, the transfer families, including the slow and the fast transfers, are refined to be continuous and lower-cost transfers. The method proposed in this paper can be also used for designing transfers from an arbitrary Sun-Earth libration point orbit to a near-Earth asteroid in the Sun-Earth-Moon system.

  5. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are: Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  6. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  7. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with ... to have it completed and keep it for future use. Questions to Ask When Considering LASIK If ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) ... Symptoms Blurriness Dark Curtain Dark Spots Discharge Double Vision Drooping Eyelid Eye Pain Eyelash Crusting Eyelid Lump ...

  9. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dome at the front of the eye — to improve the way the eye focuses light rays onto the retina at the back of the eye. With LASIK, an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.) creates a thin ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lazy Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis Cataracts Contact Lens-Related Infections Detached & Torn Retina Diabetic ... for Dry Eye? Dry Eye Diagnosis Dry Eye Treatment Sometimes people don't produce enough tears or ...

  11. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

  12. Eye Complications in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  13. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Avoid Indoor Tanning ...

  14. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home ... Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers ...

  15. A Note on Eye Movement

    CERN Document Server

    Bolina, O; Bolina, Oscar

    1998-01-01

    In a simplified fashion, the motion of the eyeball in its orbit consists of rotations around a fixed point. Therefore, this motion can be described in terms of the Euler's angles of rigid body dynamics. However, there is a physiological constraint in the motion of the eye which reduces to two its degrees of freedom. This paper reviews the basic features of the kinematics of the eye and the laws governing its motion.

  16. Characterization and Design of Digital Pointing Subsystem for Optical Communication Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racho, C.; Portillo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory-based lasercom demonstration terminal designed to validate several key technologies, including beacon acquisition, high bandwidth tracking, precision bearn pointing, and point-ahead compensation functions. It has been under active development over the past few years. The instrument uses a CCD array detector for both spatial acquisition and high-bandwidth tracking, and a fiber coupled laser transmitter. The array detector tracking concept provides wide field-of-view acquisition and permits effective platform jitter compensation and point-ahead control using only one steering mirror. This paper describes the detailed design and characterization of the digital control loop system which includes the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), the CCD image tracker, and the associated electronics. The objective is to improve the overall system performance using laboratory measured data. The. design of the digital control loop is based on a linear time invariant open loop model. The closed loop performance is predicted using the theoretical model. With the digital filter programmed into the OCD control software, data is collected to verify the predictions. This paper presents the results of the, system modeling and performance analysis. It has been shown that measurement data closely matches theoretical predictions. An important part of the laser communication experiment is the ability of FSM to track the laser beacon within the. required tolerances. The pointing must be maintained to an accuracy that is much smaller than the transmit signal beamwidth. For an earth orbit distance, the system must be able to track the receiving station to within a few microradians. The failure. to do so will result in a severely degraded system performance.

  17. [Concern points and considerations for pharmacodynamic study design of new traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Pharmacodynamic (PD) studies play an important role in research and development of new traditonal Chinese medicines (TCMs). Phamacologic and toxicologic studies that aim to research drug ability can provide supporting data for the clinical trials and reduce the risk of clinical trials. In recent years, PD studies in TCMs are developing and progressing, but there are still some problems affecting the value of PD studies in the development of new TCMs. The value of PD studies depends on scientific and rational study design. This article summaries some defects in PD study design of new TCMs that are common in the application data, including defects in study type, testing targets, dosing, duration of administration, control group, testing time. This article also discusses some points of concern and specific requirements for PD study design of new TCMs. PMID:24956867

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Is at Risk for Dry Eye? Dry Eye Diagnosis Dry Eye Treatment Sometimes people don't produce ... information from EyeSmart Pinguecula and Pterygium (Surfer's Eye) Diagnosis and Treatment- Eye M.D.-approved information from ...

  19. Design Parameters Analysis of Point Absorber WEC via an evolutionary-algorithm-based Dimensioning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Blanco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy conversion has an essential difference from other renewable energies since the dependence between the devices design and the energy resource is stronger. Dimensioning is therefore considered a key stage when a design project of Wave Energy Converters (WEC is undertaken. Location, WEC concept, Power Take-Off (PTO type, control strategy and hydrodynamic resonance considerations are some of the critical aspects to take into account to achieve a good performance. The paper proposes an automatic dimensioning methodology to be accomplished at the initial design project stages and the following elements are described to carry out the study: an optimization design algorithm, its objective functions and restrictions, a PTO model, as well as a procedure to evaluate the WEC energy production. After that, a parametric analysis is included considering different combinations of the key parameters previously introduced. A variety of study cases are analysed from the point of view of energy production for different design-parameters and all of them are compared with a reference case. Finally, a discussion is presented based on the results obtained, and some recommendations to face the WEC design stage are given.

  20. An artificial compound eye system for large field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Lifang; Shi, Ruiying; Dong, Xiaochun; Deng, Qiling; Du, Chunlei

    2012-11-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology, optical imaging system has been widely used, and the performance requirements are getting higher and higher such as lighter weight, smaller size, larger field of view and more sensitive to the moving targets. With the advantages of large field of view, high agility and multi-channels, compound eye is more and more concerned by academia and industry. In this work, an artificial spherical compound eye imaging system is proposed, which is formed by several mini cameras to get a large field of view. By analyzing the relationship of the view field between every single camera and the whole system, the geometric arrangement of cameras is studied and the compound eye structure is designed. By using the precision machining technology, the system can be manufactured. To verify the performance of this system, experiments were carried out, where the compound eye was formed by seven mini cameras which were placed centripetally along a spherical surface so that each camera points in a different direction. Pictures taken by these cameras were mosaiced into a complete image with large field of view. The results of the experiments prove the validity of the design method and the fabrication technology. By increasing the number of the cameras, larger view field even panoramic imaging can be realized by using this artificial compound eye.

  1. Design and Performance of a Multi-Point Scan Confocal Microendoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Risi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy provides high-resolution cellular-level imaging via a minimally invasive procedure, but requires fast scanning to achieve real-time imaging in vivo. Ideal confocal imaging performance is obtained with a point scanning system, but the scan rates required for in vivo biomedical imaging can be difficult to achieve. By scanning a line of illumination in one direction in conjunction with a stationary confocal slit aperture, very high image acquisition speeds can be achieved, but at the cost of a reduction in image quality. Here, the design, implementation, and experimental verification of a custom multi-point aperture modification to a line-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope is presented. This new design improves the axial resolution of a line-scan system while maintaining high imaging rates. In addition, compared to the line-scanning configuration, previously reported simulations predicted that the multi-point aperture geometry greatly reduces the effects of tissue scatter on image quality. Experimental results confirming this prediction are presented.

  2. General Didactics and Instructional Design: eyes like twins A transatlantic dialogue about similarities and differences, about the past and the future of two sciences of learning and teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Zierer, Klaus; Seel, Norbert M.

    2012-01-01

    Although General Didactics (GD) and Instructional Design (ID) have not shown many points of contact in the past, there are some obvious parellels from the perspective of their historical development. This will be examined in detail in this article. More specifically, we speak about model building, which has characterized General Didactics and Instructional Design for some decades. However, the models of General Didactics and Instructional Design are not problem-free with regard to the continu...

  3. Design and Implementation of Floating Point Multiplier for Better Timing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Sreenivasa Ganesh,J.E.N.Abhilash, G. Rajesh Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IEEE Standard 754 floating point is the most common representation today for real numbers on computers. This paper gives a brief overview of IEEE floating point and its representation. This paper describes a single precision floating point multiplier for better timing performance. The main object of this paper is to reduce the power consumption and to increase the speed of execution by implementing certain algorithm for multiplying two floating point numbers. In order to design this VHDL is the hardware description language is used and targeted on a Xilinx Spartan-3 FPGA. The implementation’s tradeoffs are area speed and accuracy. This multiplier also handles overflow and underflow cases. For high accuracy of the results normalization is also applied. By the use of pipelining process this multiplier is very good at speed and accuracy compared with the previous multipliers. This pipelined architecture is described in VHDL and is implemented on Xilinx Spartan 3 FPGA. Timing performance is measured with Xilinx Timing Analyzer. Timing performance is compared with standard multipliers.

  4. Design of FPGA based 32-bit Floating Point Arithmetic Unit and verification of its VHDL code using MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh Grover; M.K.SONI

    2014-01-01

    Most of the algorithms implemented in FPGAs used to be fixed-point. Floating-point operations are useful for computations involving large dynamic range, but they require significantly more resources than integer operations. With the current trends in system requirements and available FPGAs, floating-point implementations are becoming more common and designers are increasingly taking advantage of FPGAs as a platform for floating-point implementations. The rapid advance in Field-Programmable Ga...

  5. Fatigue test of helical nervous electrodes and weak point analysis of helical nervous electrodes design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Hongwei; Wen, Xiongwei; Mo, Xiaolong; Li, Luming

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of both implantation and removal of the helical nervous electrodes, the safety and the reliability of the electrode becomes an important issue in its clinical application-particularly its fatigue failure caused by body movement. Utilizing fatigue testing, we evaluated the weak points of the helical electrode. Our data analysis for fatigue cycles recorded by the fatigue test equipment showed that the adhesive strength between the silicone and suture, and the load of the electrode were essential for the mechanical durability of the electrode. The locations of the weak points and improvements for helical electrode design were given. The suggestions of decreasing damages to the nerves in clinical use will be helpful to the surgeons. PMID:24111146

  6. Formation of the hurricane eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigh, Jonathan L.

    This dissertation consists of three distinct studies which investigate aspects of eye formation. The first study reviews eye phenomenon in a variety of vortices ranging from simple vortices to the menagerie of geophysical vortices, emphasizing similarities and differences to the eyes formed in hurricanes. The hurricane eye is found to be a paradoxical structure imposed by conservation of angular momentum and the boundaries of the vortex. A comprehensive definition for hurricane eye formation is proposed and various eye formation mechanisms are summarized. The next study presents a simple theoretical argument to isolate the conditions under which a tropical cyclone can rapidly develop a warm-core thermal structure and subsequently approach a steady state. The theoretical argument is based on the balanced vortex model and, in particular, on the associated transverse circulation equation and the geopotential tendency equation. The transverse circulation and the temperature tendency in a tropical vortex depend not only on the diabatic forcing, but also on the spatial distributions of the static stability, the baroclinity, and the inertial stability. The vortex response to diabatic heating depends critically on whether the heating occurs in the low inertial stability region outside the radius of maximum wind or in the high inertial stability region inside the radius of maximum wind. This result suggests that rapid intensification is favored for storms which have at least some of the eyewall convection inside the radius of maximum wind. The development of an eye partially removes diabatic heating from the high inertial stability region of the storm center, yet rapid intensification may continue if the eyewall heating continues to become more efficient. As the warm core matures and static stability increases over the inner core, conditions there become less favorable for deep upright convection and the storm tends to approach a steady state. The final study characterizes the kinematic and thermodynamic changes that occur before, during, and after the initial eye formations of a broad set of Atlantic tropical cyclones. To obtain the requisite structure and intensity parameters, a new data set has been synthesized from the Vortex Data Messages transmitted by routine aircraft reconnaissance from 1989--2008. Intensity ranges are determined for the times when the eye/eyewall structure first appears in aircraft radar and infrared satellite imagery. The mean intensity at which an eye is first observed in both aircraft or satellite imagery is found to be 58 kt, somewhat lower than reported in previous studies. Changes about the time of eye formation are examined for intensity, the radius of maximum winds, the minimum Rossby radius of deformation, eye temperature and dew point temperature depression. Storms are found to intensify most rapidly near the time of eye formation, especially when a persistent eye is observed in infrared satellite imagery. Many storms which are forming eyes are found to undergo a substantial and rapid contraction in the radius of maximum winds during the 24-h period before the eye is observed; once the eye is present, this contraction slows or ceases. Strong warming at lower levels (850 or 700 hPa) of the eye is not observed to correlate well with the time in which the eye is first observed. Finally, observations suggest that the dynamical heating efficiency of the resulting eyewall increases even as the physical scale of the efficient heating region decreases. This allows the storm to continue intensifying even though the total inner core diabatic heating may decrease. The answer to why some storms fail to form eyes may shed light on whether eye formation is a stochastic process involving constructive and destructive mesoscale interactions---or whether it is a manifold attractor of the system sometimes stymied by an unfavorable environment.

  7. Critical Points of Contact : Exploring networked relations in urban mobility and service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary urban societies multiple networks and systems interact, overlap, exist in parallel, converge, conflict etc. creating unforeseen complexity and less transparency. By exploring how layered networks of physical movement, service information, goods delivery, commercial communication etc. are connected (and disconnected) we get a much better understanding of how to design and intervene regardless if we are thinking about public spaces in the city or new systems of service design. The many networks orchestrating and facilitating contemporary everyday life are dependent on the strategic sites where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service design, geography, and mobility studies. After the introduction in section we develop and define the notion of CPC based upon a broad set of disciplines and theories. We illustrate the usefulness of the notion within the field of mobility in the network city and within the field of service design. The paper ends with concluding remarks and perspectives for further theoretical as well as empirical work in prolongation of this beginning research effort.

  8. Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ae-Ran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition. Methods/Design A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang, ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance. Discussion The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.

  9. A Most Probable Point-Based Method for Reliability Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis and Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gene J.-W.; Gumbert, Clyde R.; Newman, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    A major step in a most probable point (MPP)-based method for reliability analysis is to determine the MPP. This is usually accomplished by using an optimization search algorithm. The optimal solutions associated with the MPP provide measurements related to safety probability. This study focuses on two commonly used approximate probability integration methods; i.e., the Reliability Index Approach (RIA) and the Performance Measurement Approach (PMA). Their reliability sensitivity equations are first derived in this paper, based on the derivatives of their respective optimal solutions. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the use of these derivatives for better reliability analysis and Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO).

  10. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach which combined gaze tracking with a classical mouse device. The result of our experiment shows that the combination of eye and head movements is faster than head pointing for far targets and more accurate ...

  11. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  12. How to examine an eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Janet

    2015-11-25

    Rationale and key points This article aims to assist nurses to perform a systematic external examination of the eye with the minimum of equipment. The eyes form a complex anatomical system, about which nurses often lack confidence. ? Eye problems are a relatively common reason for presentation to emergency departments and primary care. ? The nurse requires a knowledge of the underlying anatomy and physiology to perform an eye examination. ? Nurses in non-specialist settings should be able to assess the integrity of the eye and decide whether specialist referral and examination is required. ? Eye examination requires few elements of equipment and should be systematic. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. What further knowledge and skills you require to enable you to explain to the patient what might be occurring when they have an eye problem. 2. How you will gain this knowledge. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26602677

  13. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  14. Design and Development of Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Eye Safe Laser Operating at 20 Hz without Forced Air Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Bhardwaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the design and development of an electro-optically Q-switched diode pumped Nd:YAG laser with intracavity optical parametric oscillator, generating ~ 5 ns laser pulses of ~8 mJ energy at eye safe wavelength of 1534 nm. A Z-shaped laser resonator has been designed with porro prism end reflector in Q-switch arm containing RTP Q-Switch and a suitably oriented waveplate. The gain arm consists of a Ø3 x 72 mm Nd: YAG laser rod, pumped from one side by 3 x 5 bar laser diode array stack emitting total optical peak power of 740 W at 804 nm at 38 °C. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs have been employed to maintain the optimum temperature of laser diode arrays and the combined heat load from the pump chamber and TECs is distributed over the system base plate with embedded heat pipes. Such cooling mechanism has eliminated the requirement of fins and fans in the laser system. Eye safe radiation is out-coupled through intra cavity KTA OPO (5 x 5 x 20 mm3 placed in the gain arm. Laser was operated at 20 Hz for several duty cycles of 10 min on and 10 min off and output energy remained stable within ±0.5 mJ without any forced air/liquid cooling.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.599-605, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5759

  15. Evaluation of Human Emotion from Eye Motions

    OpenAIRE

    Vidas Raudonis; Gintaras Dervinis; Andrius Vilkauskas; Agne Paulauskaite - Taraseviciene; Gintare Kersulyte - Raudone

    2013-01-01

    The object of this paper is to develop an emotion recognition system that analysis the motion trajectory of the eye and gives the response on appraisal emotion. The emotion recognition solution is based on the data gathering using head mounted eye tracking device. The participants of experimental investigation were provided with a visual stimulus (PowerPoint slides) and the emotional feedback was determined by the combination of eye tracking device and emotion recognition software. The stimul...

  16. Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte; Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    Designing DOKK1 from a child’s point of view By Aviaja Borup Lynggaard & Birgitte Geert Jensen This poster presents a design case of collaborative innovation between design students from Aarhus School of Architecture and pupils from the public school, Samsøgades School in Aarhus, facilitated by the research project Kids n’Tweens Lifestyle. The scope of collaborating was to design the content for DOKK1, the new Mediaspace center in Aarhus, where design students took offset from the children’s world in a creative workshop as inspiration for the final design proposals. The task was carried out in collaboration with the working group on the new Dokk1 and the goal was to create a library that makes sense for the whole family. Some of the questions that the students wanted to answer was: • How can you create a library where there are joint activities that makes sense for the whole family? • How to create fun for families in the library? • How can play help to promote interaction and communication? The students worked with the space in Dokk1 as the “third place”, which is identified by Oldenburg (1999) as “great good places”, being public places on neutral ground where people can gather and interact. The cooperative design workshop led to a range of insights and inspiration for the students to implement in their design solutions. An issue that the workshop revealed concerned a variety of interests and requirements when designing across ages. The age difference between users calls for variations in the use of space and design. The workshop also showed that the “third place” is achieved today in existing places around the city, such as in shops and banks. Therefore, several of the solutions showed that there is need to create a residence that can accommodate the versatility and give space for user participation. The workshop was facilitated by Kids n’Tweens Lifestyle, as part of method development when engaging children in the design process. 8 groups were formed and a range of creative methods was tested. The methods varied from: Model making, lego prototyping, mood boards/blocks, inspirational pictures, future scenarios (library in 500 years), thinking out loud, body storming and sketching. The outcome led to new insights about the end users and an ideacatalogue for the students to elaborate from. The poster will present two design results – “Bookscape” and “Tumble”. Bookscape took offset from the children’s aspiration to create small and private spaces, as the shelves can be moved and thus act as space makers. The storage of the books provides a platform where new activities can take place. Tumble took offset from the pupils’ request towards being able to perform multiple activities in DOKK1. This led to the design of transformative furniture that can be rolled around on 4 different edges that each enables different activities. We presented an innovative collaboration between design students and pupils from a public school. A creative workshop led to manifold projects, where two are presented in this poster to exemplify how the inputs from children can feed a creative design process.

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? ...

  18. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach which combined gaze tracking with a classical mouse device. The result of our experiment shows that the combination of eye and head movements is faster than head pointing for far targets and more accurate than eye pointing.

  19. Performance comparison of liquid metal and gas cooled ATW system point designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.S.; Taiwo, T.A.; Hill, R.N.; Khalil, H.S.; Wade, D.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    As part of the Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) program in the U.S., preliminary design studies have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to define and compare candidate Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems. The studies at ANL have focused primarily on the transmutation blanket component of the overall system. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), sodium, and gas cooled systems are among the blanket technology options currently under consideration. This paper summarizes the results from neutronics trade studies performed at ANL. Core designs have been developed for LBE and sodium cooled 840 MWt fast spectrum accelerator driven systems employing re-cycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses have been performed for a helium-cooled 600 MWt hybrid thermal and fast spectrum system proposed by General Atomics (GA), which is operated in the critical mode for three cycles and in a subcritical accelerator driven mode for a subsequent single cycle. For these three point designs, isotopic inventories, consumption rates, and annual burnup rates are compared. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic (TRU) isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation are also compared on a consistent basis. (author)

  20. Performance comparison of liquid metal and gas cooled ATW system point designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) program in the U.S., preliminary design studies have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to define and compare candidate Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems. The studies at ANL have focused primarily on the transmutation blanket component of the overall system. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), sodium, and gas cooled systems are among the blanket technology options currently under consideration. This paper summarizes the results from neutronics trade studies performed at ANL. Core designs have been developed for LBE and sodium cooled 840 MWt fast spectrum accelerator driven systems employing re-cycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses have been performed for a helium-cooled 600 MWt hybrid thermal and fast spectrum system proposed by General Atomics (GA), which is operated in the critical mode for three cycles and in a subcritical accelerator driven mode for a subsequent single cycle. For these three point designs, isotopic inventories, consumption rates, and annual burnup rates are compared. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic (TRU) isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation are also compared on a consistent basis. (author)

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home ... Video The Scary Drive that Led to a Diabetes Diagnosis Free Newsletter Get eye MD-reviewed tips ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies ... right quality of tears to keep their eyes healthy and comfortable. This condition is known as dry ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eye Injuries at Home Tweet You might think that the family home ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  4. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have LASIK, it is important to keep a record of your pre-operation and post-operation eye ... eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Is Dry Eye? Tweet When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye, making the ... the eye smooth and clear. Without this tear film, good vision would not be possible. What Is ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a film of tears spreads over the eye, making the surface of the eye smooth and clear. ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology medical ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the eyelids, cleanses the eye and washes away foreign particles or irritants. The inner layer consists of ... response to eye irritation or emotion. When a foreign body or dryness irritates the eye, or when ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to eye irritation or emotion. When a foreign body or dryness irritates the eye, or when a ... Resources EyeWiki contact us sitemap Reproducing text or images from this website is strictly prohibited by US ...

  9. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... publications and references used throughout site. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... Crusting of eyelids or lashes sometimes occurs Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, suggestions ...

  10. Design of multi-point automatic positioning pre-programmed crane control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This automatic positioning system is designed for the crane which is in common use. The crane hall is cut into several parts, the position is detected by the photoelectric switches, and the PLC and inverter are used for the control devices. The automatic positioning control of the crane is completed by means of the timing movement. The positioning error is less than 2.1 cm, the swing range when lifting object is less than 5.7 cm, and the average speed of the crane is more than 90% of the rated speed. This paper gives further description in the positioning control, direction control, speed control and the identification of the starting point. Finally it gives an analysis of the automatic positioning performance. (authors)

  11. An experimental study on a training support system utilizing trainee's eye gaze point and think aloud protocol for diagnosing nuclear power plant anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental system has been developed for aiming at supporting the simulator training of diagnosis nuclear power plant anomaly, where an expert provides the instructions to a trainee by his/her own educational and experienced point of view. This system has several characteristics as follows: (1) the expert can provide the instruction through the local area network or the Internet, (2) the training task is the detection of the primary cause of plant anomaly, which is not including the plant operation but requires only thinking, and (3) the system can automatically detects the trainee's view-point and think aloud protocols and provide these two types of information to the expert in real time for supporting his/her instruction. A laboratory experiment using this system was conducted, where an expert, who had really engaged in plant operation as a chief operator, was employed as the instructor for novice students. As the result of analyzing the experimental data, it was found that the two types of information, trainee's viewpoints and his verbal protocols, have some potential of effectiveness for supporting the instructor to estimate the trainees diagnostic thinking process and provide the instruction. (author)

  12. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS Simulation at Point1 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Brasolin, Franco; The ATLAS collaboration; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 period (LS1), that started in 2013, the Simulation at Point1 (Sim@P1) Project takes advantage, in an opportunistic way, of the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) HLT (High Level Trigger) farm of the ATLAS experiment. This farm provides more than 1300 compute nodes, which are particularly suited for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2700 virtual machines (VMs) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 22000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a review of the design, the results, and the evolution of the Sim@P1 Project; operating a large scale OpenStack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ HLT farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive ATLAS sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities. The design aspects a...

  13. Design, Results, Evolution and Status of the ATLAS simulation in Point1 project.

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Fazio, Daniel; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Lee, Christopher Jon; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Scannicchio, Diana; Sedov, Alexey; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Wang, Fuquan; Zaytsev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    During the LHC long shutdown period (LS1), that started in 2013, the simulation in Point1 (Sim@P1) project takes advantage in an opportunistic way of the trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) farm of the ATLAS experiment. The farm provides more than 1500 computer nodes, and they are particularly suitable for running event generation and Monte Carlo production jobs that are mostly CPU and not I/O bound. It is capable of running up to 2500 virtual machines (VM) provided with 8 CPU cores each, for a total of up to 20000 parallel running jobs. This contribution gives a thorough review of the design, the results and the evolution of the Sim@P1 project operating a large scale Openstack based virtualized platform deployed on top of the ATLAS TDAQ farm computing resources. During LS1, Sim@P1 was one of the most productive GRID sites: it delivered more than 50 million CPU-hours and it generated more than 1.7 billion Monte Carlo events to various analysis communities within the ATLAS collaboration. The particular design ...

  14. Spacecraft Formation Design Near the Sun-Earth L(sub 2) Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collange, Guillaume; Leitner, Jesse

    2003-01-01

    Over the next two decades international space agencies including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the European Space Agency are proposing space missions which employ distributed spacecraft technologies to enable vast improvements in remote sensing performance as compared to fundamental performance limitations associated with fairing sizes of even the largest launch vehicles. A key initial step towards enabling such challenging missions is the development of processes and algorithms for designing the desired motion of the spacecraft formation subject to simultaneous gravitational and fuel constraints. In this paper we develop analogous methodologies for designing trajectories of relative motion near the L(sub 2) point as have been thoroughly developed for the Earth-orbiting regime. In this preliminary study, we confine ourselves to the basic assumptions of the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem where disturbances, non-gravitational effects, and fourth and greater body affects are ignored. The focus is on determining formations that are defined primarily by the natural gravitational effects on the vehicles, such that maintenance over long-term will not require significant fuel consumption.

  15. Eye care in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasankar S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Patients in intensive care units have impaired ocular protective mechanisms, resulting in a high risk of developing eye complications. Various eye care protocols are being used, but none is proven to be absolutely effective. Aims: To compare the efficacy of using a combination of ocular lubricants and securing tape over the eyelids (Open chamber method, with use of swimming goggles and regular moistening of eyelids with gauze soaked in sterile water (Closed chamber method, to prevent corneal epithelial breakdown in the sedated and semiconscious intensive care adult patient. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical study was performed. Patients with Glasgow coma scale score of £ 10/15, admitted into the Medical ICU of a large teaching hospital, over a four month duration, were studied. Materials and Methods: Patients were examined daily by an Ophthalmologist, using a portable slit lamp and the patient?s corneas were tested daily using 1% Fluorescein drops. Standard grading scales were used to record eyelid position and corneal and conjunctival changes. Statistical analysis used: Quantitative variables were described in terms of their relative frequencies in proportions. Null hypothesis was applied to derive the statistical significance of the observed variations in both the treatment groups. Chi-square test for relationships was used to assess the effect of specific variables on the development of keratopathy. Results: Sixty one patients (122 eyes in the open chamber group and 63 (126 eyes in the closed chamber group, were analyzed. Incomplete lid closure was seen in 74 eyes (30%. Exposure keratopathy was noticed in 39 eyes (32% in open chamber group and ten (8% in closed chamber group and was more severe in the former group. There was no difference in the incidence of conjunctival oedema in both groups. Incomplete lid closure and use of muscle relaxants, were significant risk factors for developing keratopathy. Conclusions: Use of swimming goggles and regular moistening of eyelids with gauze soaked in sterile water providing a moisture chamber, is more effective than using a combination of ocular lubricants and securing tape over the eyelids, in preventing corneal epithelial breakdown in sedated and semiconscious intensive care unit patients.

  16. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to i...

  17. The Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) Sensors for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J. B.; Mauk, B. H.; Baker, D. N.; Carranza, P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Craft, J.; Crain, W. R.; Crew, A.; Dotan, Y.; Fennell, J. F.; Friedel, R. H.; Friesen, L. M.; Fuentes, F.; Galvan, R.; Ibscher, C.; Jaynes, A.; Katz, N.; Lalic, M.; Lin, A. Y.; Mabry, D. M.; Nguyen, T.; Pancratz, C.; Redding, M.; Reeves, G. D.; Smith, S.; Spence, H. E.; Westlake, J.

    2015-06-01

    The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) Investigation is one of five particles and fields investigations on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. This mission consists of four satellites operating in close proximity in elliptical, low-inclination orbits, and is focused upon the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection. The Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) investigation aboard the four MMS spacecraft consists of two instrument designs, the EIS (Energetic Ion Spectrometer) and the FEEPS (Fly's Eye Electron Proton Spectrometer). This present paper describes FEEPS from an instrument physics and engineering point of view, and provides some test and calibration data to facilitate effective analysis and use of the flight data for scientific purposes. A FEEPS consists of six Heads, each composed of two Eyes. Each eye is a particle telescope with a single silicon detector; there are nine electron eyes and three ion eyes per FEEPS. The energy coverage is from 25 keV to 650 keV for electrons and 45 keV to 650 keV for ions. Each eye has sixteen energy channels, the spacing of which can be modified by command. The fields of view and pointing of each eye are designed to provide a broad, instantaneous field of view for the twelve eyes per FEEPS. There are two FEEPS per MMS spacecraft mounted such that the pair along with the single EIS provide more than 3?-sr instantaneous solid-angle coverage and complete coverage in the equatorial region. A twenty-second spacecraft rotation period is divided into sixty-four sectors to provide detailed temporal and spatial sampling. Data are acquired in three modes: Burst Mode, the primary science mode; Fast Survey Mode; and Slow Survey Mode.

  18. Design of Multi-point Wireless Temperature and Humidity Sensor Network Based on NRF24l01

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Gang; Fan Wen-qiang; He Peng-fei; Liu Yun-xue

    2013-01-01

    Many fields need to use the multi-point data acquisition and transmission system to overcome the weakness of wired data transmission system. Based on the single chip transceiver nRF24L01 and favorite microprocessor STM32F107, designed the multi-point wireless sensor network. The system used the 1-wire temperature and humidity sensor DHT22 as Data acquisition components. The paper studied the hardware construction and the software design in details. Designed the circuit diagram, made the PCB p...

  19. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  20. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye ... 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for ...

  1. Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke (POINT) Trial: rationale and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S. Claiborne; Easton, J. Donald; Farrant, Mary; Barsan, William; Battenhouse, Holly; Conwit, Robin; Dillon, Catherine; Elm, Jordan; Lindblad, Anne; Morgenstern, Lewis; Poisson, Sharon N.; Palesch, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Background Ischemic stroke and other vascular outcomes occur in 10–20% of patients in the 3 months following a TIA or minor ischemic stroke, and many are disabling. The highest risk period for these outcomes is the early hours and days immediately following the ischemic event. Aspirin is the most common antithrombotic treatment used for these patients. Aim The aim of POINT is to determine whether clopidogrel plus aspirin taken <12 hours after TIA or minor ischemic stroke symptom onset is more effective in preventing major ischemic vascular events at 90 days in the high-risk, and acceptably safe, compared to aspirin alone. Design POINT is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke. Subjects are randomized to clopidogrel (600 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg/day) or matching placebo, and all will receive open-label aspirin 50–325 mg/day, with a dose of 162 mg daily for 5 days followed by 81 mg daily strongly recommended. Study Outcomes The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of new ischemic vascular events: ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction or ischemic vascular death, by 90 days. The primary safety outcome is major hemorrhage, which includes symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Discussion Aspirin is the most common antithrombotic given to patients with a stroke or TIA as it reduces the risk subsequent of stroke. This trial expects to determine whether more aggressive antithrombotic therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin, initiated acutely, is more effective than aspirin alone. PMID:23879752

  2. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  3. EyeC3D: 3D video eye tracking dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Hanhart, Philippe; Ebrahimi, touradj

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts of the scientific community in recent years, little is known about the mechanisms of the human visual system that control visual attention when watching 3D content. To help understanding these mechanisms and develop more accurate visual attention models, we created a public 3D video eye tracking dataset. The dataset provides the eye tracking information corresponding to eight stereoscopic video sequences. The eye tracking information includes the fixation points and fixation d...

  4. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Avoid Indoor Tanning Studies show UV exposure from tanning beds can cause eye damage and skin cancer. Not the look you're going for. Eyelash ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... makes tears (called the lacrimal gland) to release a large volume of tears, overwhelming the tear drainage system. These excess tears then overflow from your eye. Next Page: Causes of Dry Eye Written by Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by Dr. Devin Harrison on ... Topics What Is a Pinguecula and a Pterygium (Surfer's Eye)?- Eye M. ...

  6. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & ... should discuss with your Eye M.D. the benefits and risks — including quality of life issues — that could result from correcting vision with ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address

  7. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Avoid Indoor Tanning Studies show UV exposure from tanning beds can cause eye damage and skin cancer. Not the look you're going for. ...

  8. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Avoid Indoor Tanning Studies show UV exposure from tanning beds can cause ...

  9. NGNP Point Design - Results of the Initial Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulic Assessments During FY-03, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald; James W. Sterbentz; Robert L. Sant; P. Bayless; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; W. K. Terry

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary preconceptual designs for two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), one for a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and one for a pebble bed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs are to meet three basic requirements: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 °C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The two efforts are discussed separately below. The analytical results presented in this report are very promising, however, we wish to caution the reader that future, more detailed, design work will be needed to provide final answers to a number of key questions including the allowable power level, the inlet temperature, the power density, the optimum fuel form, and others. The point design work presented in this report provides a starting point for other evaluations, and directions for the detailed design, but not final answers.

  10. A stochastic point rainfall model of design storms based on 2-copula and dimensionless hyetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandì, Giuseppina; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    In this study a stochastic model to derive synthetic design storms at a point is presented. Generated rainfall events are totally stochastic but with characteristics in terms of shape, duration and average intensity have to satisfy the parameters derived by statistical analyses of the available historic records. The main advantage of this kind of approach is its applicability when few years of sub-hourly rainfall records, not necessary continuous, are available. The events are derived on the basis of a fixed inter-event time, and selected if their average intensity is bigger than a critical fixed one. In order to characterize the shape, dimensionless events are considered. The probability function to describe the hyetograph shape chosen in this study is the Beta cumulative distribution. Storm duration and average intensity of the observed events are modelled separately by fitting several probability distribution and selecting the best one using several statistical criteria. Finally, their correlation is modelled using the Frank Copula. In order to test the methodology, two sites placed in Sicily, Italy, were sub-hourly rainfall data were available, have been analyzed. The considered raingauges stations are: Monreale, placed in North-West part of Sicily, and Palazzolo Acreide, placed in South-East part of Sicily, where 10 minutes recorded rainfall data were available. The good performance of the model has been tested by comparing the statistics of the simulated events with those of the measured data, and the obtained results confirm the effectiveness of the methodology.

  11. Rational design of a novel azoimine appended maleonitrile-based Salen chemosensor for rapid naked-eye detection of copper(II) ion in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Khatereh; Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Arab, Vajihe

    2015-12-01

    Achieving specific selectivity and high sensitivity for the colorimetric recognition of copper(II) ions in aqueous media over a complex background of potentially competing metal ions is inherently challenging in sensor development. Thus, a novel azo-azomethine receptor (L) based on the combination of 2-amino-3-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylamino)maleonitrile and azo-coupled salicylaldehyde scaffold has been designed and synthesized for the naked-eye and rapid detection of Cu(2+) ion at trace level in a wide pH range. Accordingly, the devised chemosensor distinguished Cu(2+) from other metal ions by distinct color change from light yellow to light brown without any expensive equipment. The binding stoichiometry between Cu(2+) and L has been investigated using Job's plot and MALDI-TOF mass analysis. Remarkably, the current sensor can detect Cu(2+) ions even at 1.07 ?M level, which is lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible level (30 ?M) in drinking water. Furthermore, sensor L was successfully utilized in the preparation of test strips for the detection of copper(II) ions from aqueous environment. PMID:26184468

  12. Design of Multi-point Wireless Temperature and Humidity Sensor Network Based on NRF24l01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fields need to use the multi-point data acquisition and transmission system to overcome the weakness of wired data transmission system. Based on the single chip transceiver nRF24L01 and favorite microprocessor STM32F107, designed the multi-point wireless sensor network. The system used the 1-wire temperature and humidity sensor DHT22 as Data acquisition components. The paper studied the hardware construction and the software design in details. Designed the circuit diagram, made the PCB plate, programmed software by Keil C and debugged with Keil uVision4 MDK V4.10. Results show that, the multi-point wireless sensor network can work more efficiently and more flexibility. It meets the performance requirements of high real-time, low power consumption and low cost.

  13. Design of FPGA based 32-bit Floating Point Arithmetic Unit and verification of its VHDL code using MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Grover

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the algorithms implemented in FPGAs used to be fixed-point. Floating-point operations are useful for computations involving large dynamic range, but they require significantly more resources than integer operations. With the current trends in system requirements and available FPGAs, floating-point implementations are becoming more common and designers are increasingly taking advantage of FPGAs as a platform for floating-point implementations. The rapid advance in Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA technology makes such devices increasingly attractive for implementing floating-point arithmetic. Compared to Application Specific Integrated Circuits, FPGAs offer reduced development time and costs. Moreover, their flexibility enables field upgrade and adaptation of hardware to run-time conditions. A 32 bit floating point arithmetic unit with IEEE 754 Standard has been designed using VHDL code and all operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are tested on Xilinx. Thereafter, Simulink model in MAT lab has been created for verification of VHDL code of that Floating Point Arithmetic Unit in Modelsim.

  14. Effect of the sampling design of ground control points on the geometric correction of remotely sensed imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.; Ge, Y.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Zhou, C.; Brus, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The acquirement of ground control points (GCPs) is a basic and important step in the geometric correction of remotely sensed imagery. In particular, the spatial distribution of GCPs may affect the accuracy and quality of image correction. In this paper, both a simulation experiment and actual-image analyses are carried out to investigate the effect of the sampling design for selecting GCPs on the geometric correction of remotely sensed imagery. Sampling designs compared are simple random samp...

  15. The status and development prospects of cooling tower design from the point of view of various environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacturers of wet and dry cooling towers are striving to develop plants for discharging waste heat into the atmosphere which are as operationally safe and favourable from the environmental point of view as possible. Using as an example plants which have been tendered and designed for water cooling, the paper indicates how the cooling tower design can be adapted to suit the particular environmental protection requirements of the location. (orig.)

  16. Chapter 2. Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocular scintigraphy can now be carried out with several tracers: 131I diiodofluorescein and sup(99m)Tc, hypervascularisation indicators; 131I iodinated chloroquine, melanoma selective. The detector used is an Anger scintillation camera coupled to a multiparameter analysis chain or a computer. The ''pin-hole'' type collimator, which has a stenopaeic opening in front of each eye, is adaptable to any inter-pupil distance. The very simple scintigraphic procedure is described. The results, taken from two statistical studies on 198 and 80 patients respectively, concern the main types of eye disease encountered: malignant melanic tumours, other tumours, metastases, choroiditis, idiopathic detachments of the retina etc... The interpretation of the scintigrams and the problems involved are considered. Finally the main indications of the method are defined with emphasis on the possibilities of double scintigraphy, diiodofluorescein only showing up the hypervascularisation often associated with the tumour whereas iodinated chloroquine, when the result is positive, points to the presence of a malignant melanoma

  17. Design and implementation for satellite remote sensing forest fire-points automatic monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chunhui; Chen, Huailiang; Yin, Qing

    2009-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing monitoring of forest fire-points is a routine operation of weather service. By taking advantage of remote sensing information's characteristics such as relatively fixed resolution, little geometric distortion and quite stable data quality, the thesis establishes Henan Satellite Remote Sensing Forest Fire-points Automatic Monitoring System in the way of automatic geography registration based on gray correlation and control point database, which can realize automation of the whole process including automatic monitoring,automatic geography registration,automatic fire-points monitoring,automatic production releasing and cell phone short-message notice of fire-points warning information. The system could greatly improve service efficiency. Automatic registration of remote sensing information based on gray correlation and control point database features simpleness and quickness. Through automatic geography registration testing of sunny EOS/MODIS data (at daytime and nightime) during 18 periods from February 2008 to May 2008 in Henan Province with average error of registration is 0.637 pixels at daytime and 0.319 at nighttime, it can fully meet ordinary operation requirements. Fire-point identification and fire-point area estimate method in the system can be applied to monitoring different fires at daytime and at nighttime. Besides, it can automatically screen effective fire-points according to background geographic information, and thus it can improve monitoring accuracy.

  18. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach. PMID:24911020

  19. A CAREM reactor's design evaluation from the nuclear security point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to define the adequate rules for CAREM reactor security systems design and processes which aim to assure verification of the CALIN regulations 'Radiological Criteria' in relation to accidents concerning CAREM reactor design. (Author)

  20. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye. With LASIK, an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.) creates a thin flap in the cornea using either ... D. the benefits and risks — including quality of life issues — that could result from correcting vision with ...

  1. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diseases may be affecting vision. These diseases include: Cataracts Inflammations (swelling) Tumors Other inner eye problems Next Page: Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Written by Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by Dr. Denise ...

  2. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye — to improve the way the eye focuses light rays onto the retina at the back of ... correctly. The patient looks at a special pinpoint light, called a fixation or target light, while the ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye) Astigmatism Bacterial Keratitis Bell's Palsy Blepharitis Cataracts Contact Lens-Related Infections Detached & Torn Retina Diabetic Retinopathy ... Eye Reduced Vision Tearing See all Symptoms > Glasses, Contacts & LASIK Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs ...

  4. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article to ... reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while sitting, ...

  5. Get Your Eyes Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drops in your eyes to dilate (enlarge) your pupils. A dilated eye exam is the only way ... for Problems 9 of 9 sections View All Content last updated on: October 27, 2015 Reviewer Information | ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to eye irritation or emotion. When a foreign body or dryness irritates the eye, or when a person cries, excessive tearing ... us sitemap Reproducing text or images from this website is strictly prohibited by US ...

  7. Diabetes and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema -- blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... growing in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  8. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... right eye care provider for your condition or treatment. Are You Fit at 40? A baseline eye ... in 1998, LASIK is has become a popular treatment in the United States and the overall complication ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of tears spreads over the eye, making the surface of the eye smooth and clear. Without this ... produced by the meibomian glands, forms the outermost surface of the tear film. Its main purpose is ...

  10. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye care provider for your condition or treatment. Are You Fit at 40? A baseline eye exam ... where it heals in place. For people who are nearsighted, LASIK is used to flatten a cornea ...

  11. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black eye because the bacteria can cause infection. Use ... it is removed, vision appears dim or goes black. Once the cornea is flattened, a hinged flap ...

  12. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes Sports and Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & ... a good candidate, understand the potential risks and benefits, and have realistic expectations about what your vision ...

  13. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  14. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... question here... Browse Top Answers > Privacy Policy > Featured Video LASIK (Femtosecond) Free Newsletter Get eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address

  15. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vegetables instead. High Tech for Low Vision Today's smartphones, e-readers and tablets offer features that can ... eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address

  16. Eye-wall resection.

    OpenAIRE

    Char, D H; Miller, T.; Crawford, J B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ocular retention rates, visual results, and metastases in uveal tumors managed with eye-wall resection techniques. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of uveal tumors selected for eye-wall resection with the surgical procedures performed by a single surgeon. All enucleation specimens were reviewed by one author. Both parametric and non-parametric analysis of data was performed. RESULTS: A total of 132 eyes were scheduled for eye-wall resection surgery. Mean patie...

  17. Eye Tracking Simulation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    WIDÉN, TOBIAS

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate eye tracking algorithm development that would benefit from simulation we created an eye tracking simulation software library and Application Programming Interface with reusable components. The main part of this library consists of a simulation core able to accept different geometrical models for the eyes, depiction mechanisms, illumination sources and eye tracking algorithms. The library has support for data generation using these models as partial input. It is also capable of p...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask an eye M.D. Search GetEyeSmart.org Diseases & Conditions A to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) ... Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye Uveitis/Iritis See all Diseases & Conditions > Symptoms Blurriness Dark Curtain Dark Spots Discharge ...

  19. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask an eye M.D. Search GetEyeSmart.org Diseases & Conditions A to Z Age-related Macular Degeneration ( ... Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye Uveitis/Iritis See all Diseases & Conditions > Symptoms Blurriness Dark Curtain Dark Spots Discharge ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye ...

  2. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Eyeglasses IOLs Refractive Surgery & LASIK Sunglasses Living EyeSmart About Ophthalmologists Adults Under 40 Adults 40 to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye ...

  3. Design and Implementation of a Digital Controller for a Vibration Isolation and Vernier Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Daniel J.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the recommissioning of the Annular Suspension and Pointing System (ASPS), originally developed in the mid 1970's for pointing and vibration isolation of space experiments. The hardware was developed for NASA Langley Research Center by Sperry Flight Systems (now Honeywell Satellite Systems), was delivered to NASA in 1983. Recently, the hardware was loaned to Old Dominion University (ODU). The ASPS includes coarse gimbal assemblies and a Vernier Pointing Assembly (VPA) that utilize magnetic suspension to provide noncontacting vibration isolation and vernier pointing of the payload. The VPA is the main focus of this research. At ODU, the system has been modified such that it can now be operated in a l-g environment without a gravity offload. Suspension of the annular iron rotor in five degrees-of-freedom has been achieved with the use of modern switching power amplifiers and a digital controller implemented on a 486-class PC.

  4. Determination of eye movements from pupil tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Hernández, Ana Belén; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Mas Candela, David; Vázquez Ferri, Carmen; Doménech Amigot, Begoña; Hernández Poveda, Consuelo; Miret Marí, Juan José; Illueca Contri, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The human eye is constantly moving even when it is maintaining a stable fixation point. Stable images on the retina rapidly saturate the photoreceptors and fade. The visual system needs of constant stimulation to which it adapts. These constant changes are achieved by fixation micromovements consisting of microtremors, drifts and microsaccades. Thus, accurate determination of pupil center is useful for precise eye tracking. We present a technique for pupil segmentation and contour analysis wh...

  5. Design of sampling locations for river water quality monitoring considering seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar; Ghosh, N C

    2015-06-01

    The design of a water quality monitoring network (WQMN) is a complicated decision-making process because each sampling involves high installation, operational, and maintenance costs. Therefore, data with the highest information content should be collected. The effect of seasonal variation in point and diffuse pollution loadings on river water quality may have a significant impact on the optimal selection of sampling locations, but this possible effect has never been addressed in the evaluation and design of monitoring networks. The present study proposes a systematic approach for siting an optimal number and location of river water quality sampling stations based on seasonal or monsoonal variations in both point and diffuse pollution loadings. The proposed approach conceptualizes water quality monitoring as a two-stage process; the first stage of which is to consider all potential water quality sampling sites, selected based on the existing guidelines or frameworks, and the locations of both point and diffuse pollution sources. The monitoring at all sampling sites thus identified should be continued for an adequate period of time to account for the effect of the monsoon season. In the second stage, the monitoring network is then designed separately for monsoon and non-monsoon periods by optimizing the number and locations of sampling sites, using a modified Sanders approach. The impacts of human interventions on the design of the sampling net are quantified geospatially by estimating diffuse pollution loads and verified with land use map. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the Kali River basin in the western Uttar Pradesh state of India was selected as a study area. The final design suggests consequential pre- and post-monsoonal changes in the location and priority of water quality monitoring stations based on the seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loadings. PMID:26009158

  6. Virtual CT endoscopy ''cruising eye view''. Development and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a virtual CT endoscopy, designated as 'Cruising Eye View (CEV)', generated from spiral volumetric CT data and reconstructed using a new three-dimensional image reconstruction technique. Using this new method, we reconstructed the inner image of patients with aortic dissection (2 cases) and arteriosclerosis obliterance (3 cases). The view point and view direction could be set arbitrarily in the vessel, so that the site, configuration, and/or degree of the intravascular abnormalities were recognized at first glance. Virtual CT endoscopy with CEV method is a promising, non-invasive strategy for achieving the inner image of diverse aorto-arterial pathologies. (author)

  7. School eye health appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priorities in the delivery of school based eye care.

  8. HEAVY EYE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy eye syndrome is an association of anisometropi a, usually with high myopia, and hypophoria or hypotropia. The more myopic eye is hypot ropic. This disorder was called heavy eye syndrome on the basis of the fanciful idea that the larger, more myopic eye is in a relatively low position, as though it were too heavy. Of course , gravity has no discernible role in the causation, which appears to be an abnormally low mus cle path of the lateral rectus in the involved eye. It is caused by conversion of lateral rectus muscle function from abduction to infraduction leading to impaired abduction and supra duction.

  9. Experience Feedback of Current LWR on the Design and Operation of Advanced LWR, under the Safety Analysis Point of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current LWR are operating with an excellent safety record. It is foreseen that they will be progressively replaced by more advanced designs (Generation III, III+, and IV). This paper reviews the role of the safety analysis, both in steady and transient state, in the flexible yet safe operation of the nuclear power plants. Several aspects such as licensing, technological progress, efficiency, public opinion and environmental consideration, and generation replacement, are considered form a broad perspective. Besides, deficiencies, learned lessons and design and operation aspects that could be improved in the new reactor fleet, under the perspective of safety analysis, are also considered from the engineering point of view and experience. (author)

  10. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, David; Beerens, Koen; Sebestova, Eva; Bendl, Jaroslav; Khare, Sagar; Chaloupkova, Radka; Prokop, Zbynek; Brezovsky, Jan; Baker, David; Damborsky, Jiri

    2015-11-01

    There is great interest in increasing proteins' stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt's reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (?Tm = 24°C and 21°C) by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:26529612

  11. Novel four-point-probe design and nanorobotic dual endeffector strategy for electrical characterization of as-grown SWCNT bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, V; Fatikow, S; Sardan Sukas, Özlem; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Bøggild, Peter; Occhipinti, L G

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel nanorobotic strategy for non-destructive and direct electrical characterization of as-grown bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is presented. For this purpose, test patterns of SWCNT bundles having different diameters are grown on a silicon substrate by chemical vapor deposition. A new design of microstructured four-point-probes is proposed and fabricated allowing for direct contacting of vertically aligned bundles of SWCNTs. A nanorobotic setup is upgraded ...

  12. Identifying combined design and analysis procedures in two-stage trials with a binary end point

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden, Jack; Wason, James

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage trial designs provide the flexibility to stop early for efficacy or futility and are popular because they have a smaller sample size on average than a traditional trial has with the same type I and II error rates. This makes them financially attractive but also has the ethical benefit of reducing, in the long run, the number of patients who are given ineffective treatments. Designs that minimise the expected sample size are often referred to as ‘optimal’. However, two-stage designs ...

  13. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  14. The use of experimental design to find the operating maximum power point of PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cr?ciunescu, Aurelian; P?tularu, Lauren?iu; Ciumbulea, Gloria; Olteanu, Valentin; Pitorac, Cristina; Drugan, Elena [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independen?ei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are difficult to model due to their complex nonlinear nature. In this paper, the development of a PEM Fuel Cells mathematical model based on the Design of Experiment methodology is described. The Design of Experiment provides a very efficient methodology to obtain a mathematical model for the studied multivariable system with only a few experiments. The obtained results can be used for optimization and control of the PEM Fuel Cells systems.

  15. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  16. Integrated design and evaluation of logistic networks: Oriented placement of the order penetration point

    OpenAIRE

    Klingebiel, Katja; Hellingrath, Bernd; Scavarda, Luiz Felipe

    2011-01-01

    The placement of the Order Penetration Point (OPP) is a key decision in automotive supply chains since the product will be differentiated according to the customers' requirements only after the OPP. From a marketing perspective variety proliferation is encouraged. Yet, competition has shifted from individual firms to global supply chains and under given market uncertainty the significance of supply chain flexibility is increasing. Upstream however, the expansion of outsourcing, supplier ratio...

  17. Design and simulation of 64 point FFT using Radix 4 algorithm for FPGA Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    K.Sreekanth Yadav

    2013-01-01

    The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is one of the rudimentary operations in field of digital signal, image processing and FFT processor is a critical block in all multicarrier systems used primarily in the mobile environment. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an efficient implementation of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The portability requirement of these systems is mainly responsible for the need of low power FFT architectures. . In this study, the development of 64 point FFT, based on De...

  18. Brewery and winery wastewater treatment : some focal points of design and operation

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A. G.; Peixoto, J.; Oliveira, J.M.; de Oliveira, J. A.; Costa, Cristina; Nogueira, R; Rodrigues, A C

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues are a critical factor for the today industry competitiveness. Indeed, the society and the individual consumers could set a common framework for companies’ commitment and engagement regarding environment protection. Redesign the process, recover by-products or reuse effluents are some of the possible actions towards an eco-efficient strategy. Nevertheless, a point remains crucial in such mission: the ability to defend natural ecosystems from polluted wastewaters. For such ...

  19. Design and Evaluation of Cell Phone Pointing Interface for Robot Control

    OpenAIRE

    Saso Koceski; Natasa Koceska; Ivica Kocev

    2012-01-01

    In this work a pointing interface based on human gestures using a mobile phone accelerometer for interaction with robots is proposed. Through this interface the user can sketch stroke gestures on a computer screen using the cell phone accelerometer to make a selection and instruct a robot to perform a task. Selection, cancelation and movement, as well as some additional commands such as stop, pause and resume are supported. All the projected gestures are processed using known image analysis a...

  20. Different schematic eyes and their accuracy to the in vivo eye: a quantitative comparison study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Storani de, Almeida; Luis Alberto, Carvalho.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Current ophthalmic technology allows the manipulation of eye components, such as anterior cornea and lens, of the human eye with a considerable precision and customization. This technology opens up the possibility of exploiting some characteristics of the eye in order to improve the methods of corre [...] cting optical aberrations. Moreover, product development and research for the eye-care professional has reached very high standards, since there is nowadays software available to design and simulate practically any mechanical or optical characteristic of the product, even before it is thrown into production line. Although quite similar in the general form, different human eye models simulate the image formation by considering different property combinations in the constitutive elements of the eye structure (such as refraction index and surface curvatures), producing retinal images that resemble very closely those of the biological eye. Using optical design software, we have implemented a simulation of 5 well-known schematic eyes available in the literature. These models were the Helmholtz-Laurance, Gullstrand, Emsley, Greivenkamp and Liou & Brennan. The optical performance of these different models was compared using different quantitative optical quality parameters. The model of Liou and Brennan, contains features of the biological eye that were not considered in previous models, as the distribution of a gradient refraction index and a decentered pupil. Furthermore, it has great reliability since it takes into account the mean value of empirical measurements of the in vivo eye in order to define size and parameters such as anterior and posterior curvature of cornea, lens, axial length, etc. Comparisons between the MTF (Modulation Transfer Function), spot diagrams and ray fan showed the difference in image quality between eye models, and the Strehl Ratio was also used as a parameter of comparison. A careful comparison between the different models showed that the first four schematic eyes have better optical quality than what is expected for the general and healthy emmetropic in vivo eye. Liou and Brennan schematic eye is the one that most closely resembles the in vivo biological eye. Therefore, in applications, such as research or product development for customized vision correction, which must consider optical properties intrinsic to the biological eye, we recommend this latter model; for applications that do not require refraction-limited performance, most of the other models should be a good approximation.

  1. Improvements in packages comprising eye baths and eye lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new packaged assembly comprising an eye bath and eye lotion is described. The eye bath is shaped for application to the eye; it has a rim portion formed so as to provide a smooth skin-contacting surface and is sealed to a lid at a position removed from the skin-contacting area. The eye bath is formed in a sterile condition and aseptically filled to an appropriate level with eye lotion by a blow moulding process. The eye bath and its contents are sterilised after sealing by radioactive sterilsation. This packaged assembly is an improvement over previous eye bath assemblies in that it allows the eye bath to be used in a sterile form. It is also more comfortable and convenient to use than other sterile forms of eye treatment such as eye drops or jets of eye wash. Furthermore, bathing the eye provides a more prolonged treatment. (U.K.)

  2. Eye structure and amphibious foraging in albatrosses

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Anterior eye structure and retinal visual fields were determined in grey-headed and black-browed albatrosses, Diomedea melanophris and D. chrysostoma (Procellariiformes, Diomedeidae), using keratometry and an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique. Results for the two species were very similar and indicate that the eyes are of an amphibious optical design suggesting that albatross vision is well suited to the visual pursuit of active prey both on and below the ocean surface. The corneas are relativ...

  3. Teamwork for eye care

    OpenAIRE

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  4. EYE BASED CONTROL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Shrunkhala Satish Wankhede, Ms. S. A. Chhabria

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an individual human computer interface system using eye motion tracking is introduced. Traditionally human computer interface uses mouse, keyboard as an input device. However, the proposed vision-based virtual interface controls system work on various eye movements such as eye blinking. The planned virtual multimodal interface system provides vision-based mechanism, to convey between human and computer system, instead of conventional human computer interaction through mouse and...

  5. The questionably dry eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, I A; Seal, D. V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the recognition of the dry eye when the clinical diagnosis is in doubt and other external eye diseases may be present. Papillary conjunctivitis is common to the dry eye as well as other pathological conditions and confuses the diagnosis. We have correlated the factors involved in the assessment for dryness. We have shown that particulate matter in the unstained tear film is associated with low tear lysozyme concentration. Tear flow and tear lysozyme are not necess...

  6. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure...

  7. Evaluation of Human Emotion from Eye Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Raudonis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to develop an emotion recognition system that analysis the motion trajectory of the eye and gives the response on appraisal emotion. The emotion recognition solution is based on the data gathering using head mounted eye tracking device. The participants of experimental investigation were provided with a visual stimulus (PowerPoint slides and the emotional feedback was determined by the combination of eye tracking device and emotion recognition software. The stimulus was divided in four groups by the emotion that should be triggered in the human, i.e., neutral, disgust, exhilaration and excited. Some initial experiments and the data on the recognition accuracy of the emotion from eye motion trajectory are provided along with the description of implemented algorithms.

  8. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant - Insights Gained from the INEEL Point Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides the results of an assessment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Insights gained regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the two designs are also discussed. Both INEEL designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 deg. C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Two major modifications of the current Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) design were needed to obtain a prismatic block design with a 1000 deg. C outlet temperature: reducing the bypass flow and better controlling the inlet coolant flow distribution to the core. The total power that could be obtained for different core heights without exceeding a peak transient fuel temperature of 1600 deg. C during a low-pressure conduction cooldown event (also sometimes called a de-pressurized loss of flow event) was also calculated. With a coolant inlet temperature of 490 deg. C and 10% nominal core bypass flow, it is estimated that the peak power for a 10- block high core is 686 MWt, for a 12-block high core is 786 MWt, and for a 14-block core is about 889 MWt. The core neutronics calculations showed that the NGNP will exhibit strongly negative Doppler and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity over the burnup cycle. In the event of rapid loss of the helium gas, there is negligible core reactivity change. However, water or steam ingress into the core coolant channels can produce a relatively large reactivity effect. Two versions of a passively safe annular pebble-bed NGNP have also been developed at the INEEL, a 300 and a 600 MWt module. A modified pebble design that improves both the fuel utilization and safety was identified (the fuel zone radius in the pebble was adjusted to optimize the fuel-to-moderator ratio). Design optimization calculations were performed with a genetic algorithm that automatically selects a sequence of design parameter sets to meet specified fitness criteria increasingly well. And finally, cross sections were calculated more accurately for pebble bed reactors, and research needs were identified for the further refinement of the cross section calculations. (authors)

  9. Eye injuries in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Niiranen, M; Raivio, I

    1981-01-01

    We report a retrospective study of children's eye injuries treated during 1977 at Helsinki University Eye Hospital. There were 110 cases representing 34.5% of all eye injuries and 3% of all patients treated in 1977; 81.8% were boys and 18.2% girls. Half of the injuries were caused by another child, one-third were self-inflicted, and the rest were other accidents. The risk of eye injury in girls was low and stable at all ages, but in boys the risk grew markedly at the age of 8 years. The commo...

  10. Finite element and node point generation computer programs used for the design of toroidal field coils in tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.A.

    1975-06-01

    The structural analysis of toroidal field coils in Tokamak fusion machines can be performed with the finite element method. This technique has been employed for design evaluations of toroidal field coils on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The application of the finite element method can be simplified with computer programs that are used to generate the input data for the finite element code. There are three areas of data input where significant automation can be provided by supplementary computer codes. These concern the definition of geometry by a node point mesh, the definition of the finite elements from the geometric node points, and the definition of the node point force/displacement boundary conditions. The node point forces in a model of a toroidal field coil are computed from the vector cross product of the coil current and the magnetic field. The computer programs named PDXNODE and ELEMENT are described. The program PDXNODE generates the geometric node points of a finite element model for a toroidal field coil. The program ELEMENT defines the finite elements of the model from the node points and from material property considerations. The program descriptions include input requirements, the output, the program logic, the methods of generating complex geometries with multiple runs, computational time and computer compatibility. The output format of PDXNODE and ELEMENT make them compatible with PDXFORC and two general purpose finite element computer codes: (ANSYS) the Engineering Analysis System written by the Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., and (WECAN) the Westinghouse Electric Computer Analysis general purpose finite element program. The Fortran listings of PDXNODE and ELEMENT are provided.

  11. Finite element and node point generation computer programs used for the design of toroidal field coils in tokamak fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural analysis of toroidal field coils in Tokamak fusion machines can be performed with the finite element method. This technique has been employed for design evaluations of toroidal field coils on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The application of the finite element method can be simplified with computer programs that are used to generate the input data for the finite element code. There are three areas of data input where significant automation can be provided by supplementary computer codes. These concern the definition of geometry by a node point mesh, the definition of the finite elements from the geometric node points, and the definition of the node point force/displacement boundary conditions. The node point forces in a model of a toroidal field coil are computed from the vector cross product of the coil current and the magnetic field. The computer programs named PDXNODE and ELEMENT are described. The program PDXNODE generates the geometric node points of a finite element model for a toroidal field coil. The program ELEMENT defines the finite elements of the model from the node points and from material property considerations. The program descriptions include input requirements, the output, the program logic, the methods of generating complex geometries with multiple runs, computational time and computer compatibility. The output format of PDXNODE and ELEMENT make them compatible with PDXFORC and two general purpose finite element computer codes: (ANSYS) the Engineering Analysis System written by the Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., and (WECAN) the Westinghouse Electric Computer Analysis general purpose finite element program. The Fortran listings of PDXNODE and ELEMENT are provided

  12. Design of Ultrasonically-Activatable Nanoparticles using Low Boiling Point Perfluorocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeran, Paul S; Luois, Samantha; Mullin, Lee; Matsunaga, Terry O.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, an interest has developed in designing in biomaterials for medical ultrasonics that can provide the acoustic activity of microbubbles, but with improved stability in vivo and a smaller size distribution for extravascular interrogation. One proposed alternative is the phase-change contrast agent. Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) consist of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) that are initially in liquid form, but can then be vaporized with acoustic energy. Crucial parameters for PCCAs includ...

  13. Recent Advances in Optimal Design of Structures from a Reliability Point of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Structural optimisation and structural reliability theory are considered. Both of these areas have developed during the last two decades from being of purely theoretical interest to areas useful in practical design. The main elements of structural reliability theory are described in the second section. First, a short review of the reliability theory for structural elements (e.g., beams and tubular joints) based on the so-called ß-index philosophy (Cornell[1], Ditlevsen[2], and Hasofer and Lind[3...

  14. An approach to optimal architectural and urban design from the energy efficiency point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Kapetina Mirna N.; Rapai? Milan R.; Atanackovi?-Jeli?i? Jelena

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to architecture and urban design that results in an increase of the energy efficiency of buildings set close to each other, which is set as the optimization problem. The main goal is to maximize the sunlight impact on objects, in a way to minimize inter-object shading on each building. The problem is solved by the PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm and its modifications, as well as the application of PSO algorithm...

  15. Novel four-point-probe design and nanorobotic dual endeffector strategy for electrical characterization of as-grown SWCNT bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, V; Fatikow, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel nanorobotic strategy for non-destructive and direct electrical characterization of as-grown bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is presented. For this purpose, test patterns of SWCNT bundles having different diameters are grown on a silicon substrate by chemical vapor deposition. A new design of microstructured four-point-probes is proposed and fabricated allowing for direct contacting of vertically aligned bundles of SWCNTs. A nanorobotic setup is upgraded into a dual endeffector system to achieve good electrical contact between four-point-probe and SWCNT bundle and to perform electrical measurements. First experimental results of non-destructive electrical characterization are presented and discussed.

  16. Sex/gender disparities and women's eye health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Janine A; Davis, Alison F

    2015-02-01

    Our eyes are, both literally and figuratively, windows to the world, and ophthalmic approaches offer a tremendous space for conducting research to learn more. Male/female differences in ocular health and disease are prevalent but we know far too little about root causes to design and implement diagnostic, preventive, and treatment strategies to address sex- and gender-based disparities in eye health. Herein, we discuss several ophthalmic diseases and other conditions with ocular manifestations, with a focus upon those that disproportionately affect women. Because the vast majority of biomedical research in this area comes from studies of mixed-gender populations, or of male-predominant populations, there is a pressing need for sex- and/or gender-based research at various points along the basic to clinical biomedical research continuum. Moreover, the multitude of factors that affect eye health call for a balanced look at the influence of biology, culture, and societal contributors. As clinicians, we owe our patients the best care for their needs, and that care must be derived from research that shows what is effective, for whom, and under what conditions. PMID:25548854

  17. Development of calculation method for the system design parameters at the design point of the passive DHR system in KALIMER-600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of a sodium cooled liquid metal reactor, KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) of which electric power is 150 MWe, has performed. A revised design concept up-rating electric capacity to 600 MWe, named as KALIMER-600, has been currently developed. The Residual Heat Removal (RHR) system under a loss of normal heat sink accident of KALIMER-600 is characterized by the concept of PDRC (Passive Decay heat Removal Circuit) and it has superiority in the aspect that an enough decay heat removal capacity can be provided and any additional consideration associated with the core thermal power increase can also be neglected since it uses a very simple concept of direct reactor pool cooling. In this regard, a proper method for setting up the steady state design parameters at the design point of PDRC system should be required to secure a sufficient decay heat removal capacity of the RHR system in KALIMER-600. This study describes developing procedure of two different methods for determining the design parameters of PDRC system. They are the rough and the detail analysis method, and the methods have a mutual complementary nature. On the basis of the relationship between the various design parameters produced by using the developed methods, overall characteristics of PDRC system corresponding to the variations of system design parameters have been investigated, and more detail calculations are carried out using the results of the investigations such as the variations of the temperature, pressure loss, mass flowrate and UA values in each heat transfer circuit or heat exchanger in PDRC system. This report also provides the brief procedure of a computational programming for the detail analysis method and, using the computational routine, it is expected that an expansion of applicability to flexibly cope with a design change of PDRC system in KALIMER-600 is possible

  18. A Self-Calibrating, Camera-Based Eye Tracker for the Recording of Rodent Eye Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Zoccolan, Davide; Graham, Brett J.; Cox, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Much of neurophysiology and vision science relies on careful measurement of a human or animal subject's gaze direction. Video-based eye trackers have emerged as an especially popular option for gaze tracking, because they are easy to use and are completely non-invasive. However, video eye trackers typically require a calibration procedure in which the subject must look at a series of points at known gaze angles. While it is possible to rely on innate orienting behaviors for calibration in som...

  19. Contribution to the design of a micro-programmed floating point arithmetical operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended for a presentation of the implementation of an arithmetical operator. Fast microprocessor together with microprogramming techniques were used for development. For clarity, this report is shared in three parts following the different steps of design and development. The first part relates the preliminary study stage, setting down the outlines of the project: tentative data, choice of components and architecture of operator. The second part is devoted to the development step. It deals with implementation aid systems and computation algorithms for arithmetical functions. Results and conclusions are the subject of the third part. (author)

  20. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... excess tears then overflow from your eye. Next Page: Causes of Dry Eye Written by Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by Dr. Devin Harrison on March 1, 2014 Search for Questions & Answers Search QA Browse all answered questions > Related Resources Related Topics What Is a Pinguecula and a Pterygium (Surfer's ...

  2. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... excimer laser preprogrammed with the patient's unique eye measurements is centered above the eye. The surgeon checks that the laser is positioned correctly. The patient looks at a special pinpoint light, called a fixation or target light, while the ...

  3. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  4. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, Todd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Willey, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms which make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses 4 stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  5. Analysis of fixational eye micromovements through pupil tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Hernández, Ana Belén; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Mas Candela, David; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The human eye is constantly moving even when it is maintaining a stable fixation point. Stable images on the retina rapidly saturate the photoreceptors and fade. The visual system needs of constant stimulation is achieved by fixation micromovements consisting of microtremors, drifts and microsaccades. We present a technique for pupil segmentation and contour analysis which will provide valuable information about fixational eye movements.

  6. Eye Tracking Studies of Normative and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Canan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of eye tracking measures (saccades, smooth-pursuit eye movements, fixations during scene and face perception, and pupillary dilation) to study typical and clinical populations of children and adolescents and evaluates the use of these measures. The studies are evaluated with a focus on points that may be of general…

  7. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicare benefits and your eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk for vision impairment and vision ... the arrows below for detailed information about Medicare benefits and your eyes. Download a Free Copy of ...

  8. EYE BASED CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrunkhala Satish Wankhede, Ms. S. A. Chhabria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an individual human computer interface system using eye motion tracking is introduced. Traditionally human computer interface uses mouse, keyboard as an input device. However, the proposed vision-based virtual interface controls system work on various eye movements such as eye blinking. The planned virtual multimodal interface system provides vision-based mechanism, to convey between human and computer system, instead of conventional human computer interaction through mouse and keyboard. For motion tracking, recognition of eye is explored through an optical flow technique. To minimize the error caused by light variation, histogram equalization and max-min normalization is used to improve every frame. An innovative system for user-computer interaction based on the user’s eye-gaze behavior.

  9. Eye Tracking Technique for Product Information Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoksoo

    This paper is about the study of the design of the product information provision system using eye tracking, which helps users in deciding over purchase of the product, with a system to provide product information that the user needs by tracking eye gaze of the user via Smart phone. The system provides the user with information of the product that attracts the user's eye, by means of users' eye tracking, user information confirmation using face recognition and user's preference for product. Therefore, once it is determined that the user requires a product, the server sends the product information stored in the product information database to the user's Smart phone to provide information the user requires. The customer, provided with product information in real time, can purchase the product that he/she wants efficiently, and avoid excessive consumption with accurate product information.

  10. Super-resolution imaging using multi- electrode CMUTs: theoretical design and simulation using point targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wei; Cretu, Edmond; Rohling, Robert

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates a low computational cost, super-resolution ultrasound imaging method that leverages the asymmetric vibration mode of CMUTs. Instead of focusing on the broadband received signal on the entire CMUT membrane, we utilize the differential signal received on the left and right part of the membrane obtained by a multi-electrode CMUT structure. The differential signal reflects the asymmetric vibration mode of the CMUT cell excited by the nonuniform acoustic pressure field impinging on the membrane, and has a resonant component in immersion. To improve the resolution, we propose an imaging method as follows: a set of manifold matrices of CMUT responses for multiple focal directions are constructed off-line with a grid of hypothetical point targets. During the subsequent imaging process, the array sequentially steers to multiple angles, and the amplitudes (weights) of all hypothetical targets at each angle are estimated in a maximum a posteriori (MAP) process with the manifold matrix corresponding to that angle. Then, the weight vector undergoes a directional pruning process to remove the false estimation at other angles caused by the side lobe energy. Ultrasound imaging simulation is performed on ring and linear arrays with a simulation program adapted with a multi-electrode CMUT structure capable of obtaining both average and differential received signals. Because the differential signals from all receiving channels form a more distinctive temporal pattern than the average signals, better MAP estimation results are expected than using the average signals. The imaging simulation shows that using differential signals alone or in combination with the average signals produces better lateral resolution than the traditional phased array or using the average signals alone. This study is an exploration into the potential benefits of asymmetric CMUT responses for super-resolution imaging. PMID:24158286

  11. Initial Scaling Studies and Conceptual Thermal Fluids Experiments for the Prismatic NGNP Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial high temperature gas reactor scaling studies and conceptual experiment design for gas flow and heat transfer. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/ATHENA/RELAP5-3D calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses are being applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant forced convection with slight transverse property variation. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple buoyant jets into a confined density-stratified crossflow -- with obstructions. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second experiment will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets as they mix in flowing through the array of posts in a lower plenum en route to the single exit duct. Initial conceptual designs for such experiments are described.

  12. Eye Movements and Visual Encoding During Scene Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Keith; Smith, Tim J.; Malcolm, George L.; Henderson, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The amount of time viewers could process a scene during eye fixations was varied by a mask that appeared at a certain point in each eye fixation. The scene did not reappear until the viewer made an eye movement. The main finding in the studies was that in order to normally process a scene, viewers needed to see the scene for at least 150 ms during each eye fixation. This result is surprising because viewers can extract the gist of a scene from a brief 40- to 100-ms exposure. It also stands in...

  13. Perceptions of eye health in schools in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Methods Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9–12 years old attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Results Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". Conclusion We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren.

  14. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Marcella, James A. (Rochester, MN); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  15. Eye dosimetry and protective eye wear for interventional clinicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses to the eyes of interventional clinicians can exceed 20 mSv. Various protective devices can afford protection to the eyes with the final barrier being protective eye wear. The protection provided by lead glasses is difficult to quantify, and the majority of dosimeters are not designed to be worn under lead glasses. This study has measured dose reduction factors (DRFs) equal to the ratio of the dose with no protection, divided by that when lead glasses are worn. Glasses have been tested in X-ray fields using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate the patient and clinician. DRFs for X-rays incident from the front vary from 5.2 to 7.6, while values for orientations reminiscent of clinical practice are between 1.4 and 5.2. Results suggest that a DRF of two is a conservative factor that could be applied to personal dosimeter measurements to account for the dose reduction provided by most types of lead glasses. (authors)

  16. The life of a remedial design contractor (What it means to be first exclamation point)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August of 1990, the Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Parsons Corporation a contract to perform architectural/engineering (A/E) remedial design (RD) services for the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Complicating the implementation of the first RD contract were other contract firsts, such as (1) working initially under DOE as a prime contractor, then under a management and operations contractor as a subcontractor, and, currently, under an environmental restoration management contractor as a subcontractor; (2) operating under the then new DOE risk-sharing liability and indemnification regulation; and (3) operating under new, legally enforceable DOE nuclear safety regulations. In addition to these contract firsts. Were a number of funding and technical changes resulting from shifting priorities in the environmental program. These changes include (1) a decreased local emphasis on implementing innovative remediation technologies; (2) promoting ways to accomplish remedial activities faster, better, and cheaper without sacrificing safety; (3) a new emphasis on land use planning as a means of formulating cleanup levels; and (4) the increased involvement of the public

  17. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  18. Using eye-tracking methodology in consumer science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialkova, S.; Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Eye-tracking methodology will soon be mature enough to become a standard tool in consumer science. The workshop will begin with a short overview of the perceptual and attention processes that can be measured by eye-tracking. The available hardware and software will be compared, and typical experimental designs will be discussed that can be recommended for eye-tracking studies in consumer science. The application potential will then be demonstrated in four case presentations, focusing on differen...

  19. Eye and orbital cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases of the eye and orbital contents which can be treated by radiation therapy are relatively uncommon. They include benign diseases such as pterygium, orbital pseudo-tumor, and Graves' exophthalmos. Malignant diseases in adults include orbital and choroidal metastases, lacrimal gland tumors, carcinoma of the bulbar conjunctiva, orbital lymphomas and melanomas. Pediatric malignancies include retinoblastomas, optic nerve gliomas, and orbital rhabdomyosarcomas. Orbital irradiation may result in a variety of normal eye and orbital tissues responses. Those responses may occur when irradiating the eye or orbital diseases listed above or non-orbital primary tumors, such as nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors

  20. Protection of the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limit of radiation exposure for eye lens is going to decrease dramatically from 150 to 20 mSv as a transposition into the French law of a CIPR (International Commission for Radiation Protection) directive. Sanitary studies have shown that radiologists are more likely by a factor of 3.8 to get eye lens opacities than the rest of the population. The wearing of protective glasses is recommended and in order to get a better monitoring of the radiation dose new dosimeters have been designed, they can be worn on the glass frame of directly stuck on the skin near the eyes. A study has shown that veterinary surgeons that are accustomed to stay near animals to keep them quiet during radiological exams are prone to receive high doses as well as physicians that use hypnosis to decrease the level of anxiety of their patients during radiological exams. Radiation exposure of radiologists can be mitigated through: the use of protective shields and equipment and the optimization of the dose delivered to the patient. (A.C.)

  1. MEMS scanner mirror based system for retina scanning and in eye projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woittennek, Franziska; Knobbe, Jens; Pügner, Tino; Dallmann, Hans-Georg; Schelinski, Uwe; Grüger, Heinrich

    2015-02-01

    Many applications could benefit from miniaturized systems to scan blood vessels behind the retina in the human eye, so called "retina scanning". This reaches from access control to sophisticated security applications and medical devices. High volume systems for consumer applications require low cost and a user friendly operation. For example this includes no need for removal of glasses and self-adjustment, in turn guidance of focus and point of attraction by simultaneous projection for the user. A new system has been designed based on the well-known resonantly driven 2-d scanner mirror of Fraunhofer IPMS. A combined NIR and VIS laser system illuminates the eye through an eye piece designed for an operating distance allowing the use of glasses and granting sufficient field of view. This usability feature was considered to be more important than highest miniaturization. The modulated VIS laser facilitates the projection of an image directly onto the retina. The backscattered light from the continuous NIR laser contains the information of the blood vessels and is detected by a highly sensitive photo diode. A demonstrational setup has been realized including readout and driving electronics. The laser power was adjusted to an eye-secure level. Additional security features were integrated. Test measurements revealed promising results. In a first demonstration application the detection of biometric pattern of the blood vessels was evaluated for issues authentication in.

  2. Mission Specialist (MS) Thagard examines Commander Crippen's eyes on middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    On middeck, Mission Specialist (MS) Thagard examines Commander Crippen's eyes. Crippen's glasses are propped on top of his head. Thagard has a number of points on his face and head (note white object) for placing sensors.

  3. Overcoming Presbyopia by Manipulating the Eyes' Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleznyak, Leonard A.

    Presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation, is a visual condition affecting all adults over the age of 45 years. In presbyopia, individuals lose the ability to focus on nearby objects, due to a lifelong growth and stiffening of the eye's crystalline lens. This leads to poor near visual performance and affects patients' quality of life. The objective of this thesis is aimed towards the correction of presbyopia and can be divided into four aims. First, we examined the characteristics and limitations of currently available strategies for the correction of presbyopia. A natural-view wavefront sensor was used to objectively measure the accommodative ability of patients implanted with an accommodative intraocular lens (IOL). Although these patients had little accommodative ability based on changes in power, pupil miosis and higher order aberrations led to an improvement in through-focus retinal image quality in some cases. To quantify the through-focus retinal image quality of accommodative and multifocal IOLs directly, an adaptive optics (AO) IOL metrology system was developed. Using this system, the impact of corneal aberrations in regard to presbyopia-correcting IOLs was assessed, providing an objective measure of through-focus retinal image quality and practical guidelines for patient selection. To improve upon existing multifocal designs, we investigated retinal image quality metrics for the prediction of through-focus visual performance. The preferred metric was based on the fidelity of an image convolved with an aberrated point spread function. Using this metric, we investigated the potential of higher order aberrations and pupil amplitude apodization to increase the depth of focus of the presbyopic eye. Thirdly, we investigated modified monovision, a novel binocular approach to presbyopia correction using a binocular AO vision simulator. In modified monovision, different magnitudes of defocus and spherical aberration are introduced to each eye, thereby taking advantage of the binocular visual system. Several experiments using the binocular AO vision simulator found modified monovision led to significant improvements in through-focus visual performance, binocular summation and stereoacuity, as compared to traditional monovision. Finally, we addressed neural factors, affecting visual performance in modified monovision, such as ocular dominance and neural plasticity. We found that pairing modified monovision with a vision training regimen may further improve visual performance beyond the limits set by optics via neural plasticity. This opens the door to an exciting new avenue of vision correction to accompany optical interventions. The research presented in this thesis offers important guidelines for the clinical and scientific communities. Furthermore, the techniques described herein may be applied to other fields of ophthalmology, such as childhood myopia progression.

  4. Designs for Testing Group-Based Interventions with Limited Numbers of Social Units: The Dynamic Wait-Listed and Regression Point Displacement Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Peter A; Henry, David; Knoblauch, Shannon; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic wait-listed design (DWLD) and regression point displacement design (RPDD) address several challenges in evaluating group-based interventions when there is a limited number of groups. Both DWLD and RPDD utilize efficiencies that increase statistical power and can enhance balance between community needs and research priorities. The DWLD blocks on more time units than traditional wait-listed designs, thereby increasing the proportion of a study period during which intervention and control conditions can be compared, and can also improve logistics of implementing intervention across multiple sites and strengthen fidelity. We discuss DWLDs in the larger context of roll-out randomized designs and compare it with its cousin the Stepped Wedge design. The RPDD uses archival data on the population of settings from which intervention unit(s) are selected to create expected posttest scores for units receiving intervention, to which actual posttest scores are compared. High pretest-posttest correlations give the RPDD statistical power for assessing intervention impact even when one or a few settings receive intervention. RPDD works best when archival data are available over a number of years prior to and following intervention. If intervention units were not randomly selected, propensity scores can be used to control for non-random selection factors. Examples are provided of the DWLD and RPDD used to evaluate, respectively, suicide prevention training (QPR) in 32 schools and a violence prevention program (CeaseFire) in two Chicago police districts over a 10-year period. How DWLD and RPDD address common threats to internal and external validity, as well as their limitations, are discussed. PMID:25481512

  5. The Dynamic Evolutionary History of Pancrustacean Eyes and Opsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Miriam J; Oakley, Todd H

    2015-11-01

    Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus Crustacea) display an enormous diversity of eye designs, including multiple types of compound eyes and single-chambered eyes, often with color vision and/or polarization vision. Although the eyes of some pancrustaceans are well-studied, there is still much to learn about the evolutionary paths to this amazing visual diversity. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of eyes and opsins across the principle groups of Pancrustacea. First, we review the distribution of lateral and median eyes, which are found in all major pancrustacean clades (Oligostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida). At the same time, each of those three clades has taxa that lack lateral and/or median eyes. We then compile data on the expression of visual r-opsins (rhabdomeric opsins) in lateral and median eyes across Pancrustacea and find no evidence for ancient opsin clades expressed in only one type of eye. Instead, opsin clades with eye-specific expression are products of recent gene duplications, indicating a dynamic past, during which opsins often changed expression from one type of eye to another. We also investigate the evolutionary history of peropsins and r-opsins, which are both known to be expressed in eyes of arthropods. By searching published transcriptomes, we discover for the first time crustacean peropsins and suggest that previously reported odonate opsins may also be peropsins. Finally, from analyzing a reconciled, phylogenetic tree of arthropod r-opsins, we infer that the ancestral pancrustacean had four visual opsin genes, which we call LW2, MW1, MW2, and SW. These are the progenitors of opsin clades that later were variously duplicated or lost during pancrustacean evolution. Together, our results reveal a particularly dynamic history, with losses of eyes, duplication and loss of opsin genes, and changes in opsin expression between types of eyes. PMID:26319405

  6. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye ... 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for ...

  7. Find an Eye M.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye ... 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for ...

  8. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye ... 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for ...

  9. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Jens Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and c...

  10. The Cat's Eye Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen, NGC 6543, nicknamed the 'Cat's Eye Nebula.' Hubble reveals surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas. Estimated to be 1,000 years old, the nebula is a visual 'fossil record' of the dynamics and late evolution of a dying star. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the star might be a double-star system. The suspected companion star also might be responsible for a pair of high-speed jets of gas that lie at right angles to this equatorial ring. If the companion were pulling in material from a neighboring star, jets escaping along the companion's rotation axis could be produced. These jets would explain several puzzling features along the periphery of the gas lobes. Like a stream of water hitting a sand pile, the jets compress gas ahead of them, creating the 'curlicue' features and bright arcs near the outer edge of the lobes. The twin jets are now pointing in different directions than these features. This suggests the jets are wobbling, or precessing, and turning on and off episodically. This color picture, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2, is a composite of three images taken at different wavelengths. (red, hydrogen-alpha; blue, neutral oxygen, 6300 angstroms; green, ionized nitrogen, 6584 angstroms). The image was taken on September 18, 1994. NGC 6543 is 3,000 light- years away in the northern constellation Draco. The term planetary nebula is a misnomer; dying stars create these cocoons when they lose outer layers of gas. The process has nothing to do with planet formation, which is predicted to happen early in a star's life.

  11. Eye injuries in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolsum, L

    1999-02-01

    In a retrospective study from 1988 to 1998, eye injuries were found in 553 patients. Seventy-six (13.7%) of these injuries were associated with sport. The mechanism of trauma was for the most part a ball (71.1%) or a club (13.2%). Most eye injuries occurred in soccer (35.5%), which is, by far, the most widespread sport in this region of Norway. A disproportionately high number of the injuries occurred in floorball (17.1%), bandy (13.2%), and squash (10.5%). The rules in these sports may, in theory, be strict enough to prevent eye injuries in most cases. However, these rules are often neglected in informal activities. Strategies for educating the general public about the potentially serious effect of eye injuries in sports exposed to such risk are of great importance. PMID:9974198

  12. Aging and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day. Floaters can be a normal part of aging. But, sometimes they are a sign of a ... in the United States. Retinal disorders that affect aging eyes include: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers Search QA Browse all answered questions > Related Resources Related Topics What Is a Pinguecula and a ... privacy policy sponsorship & advertising policies about us Educational Resources EyeWiki contact us sitemap Reproducing text or images ...

  14. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seeing the right eye care provider for your condition or treatment. Are You Fit at 40? A ... recommended at age 40, when the signs of disease and changes in vision may start to occur. ...

  15. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... adhesives used with eyelash extensions can cause swelling, infection and permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the ... a black eye because the bacteria can cause infection. Use a bag of ice or frozen vegetables ...

  16. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Studies show UV exposure from tanning beds can cause eye damage and skin cancer. Not the look ... Dangers The adhesives used with eyelash extensions can cause swelling, infection and permanent loss of your eyelashes. ...

  17. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 90% of these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed ... body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet sports, ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I recently got a cortisone shot for my knee. Ever since then I have been suffering from dry eyes. Can this be a reaction from the shot? ... © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology medical disclaimer privacy policy ...

  19. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic influences that might affect you, such as perfumes, weeds, mold, etc. Signs and Symptoms The eye ... diseases: Allergic Contact Dermatitis Blepharitis Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Corneal Abrasion Corneal Foreign Body Recurrent Corneal Erosion ...

  20. National Eye Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Visual System. Learn More Facts About Macular Edema This fluid build-up in the macula can be associated with diabetic retinopathy, eye surgery, age-related macular degeneration, and other conditions. Learn More November is ...

  1. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of your eyes through tear ducts, or lacrimal ducts. These ducts are tiny tubes that run between ... tear duct. Babies can be born with blocked lacrimal ducts. They usually open on their own, but some ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search GetEyeSmart.org Diseases & Conditions A to Z ... film. Its main purpose is to smooth the tear surface and reduce evaporation of tears. The middle watery layer makes up most of what we ...

  3. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of blood lead levels in Saudi Arabian schoolgirls." International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1999 April-June, ... eye cosmetic a source of lead poisoning?" Israel Journal of Medical Science, 1992 July; 28(7):417-21. Parry C, ...

  4. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are present in the orbit (eye socket) that attach to the ... on which contact lenses are placed. Internal (Intraocular)Anatomy Anterior chamber: The anterior chamber is a fluid ( ...

  5. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outdoors There is growing evidence that spending more time outdoors may lower the risk of nearsightedness. What ... finger pressed firmly on the eyelid. From the time the suction ring is put on the eye ...

  6. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million by 2020. ( Click here to see demonstration ) Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes. It ... blood vessels), and proliferative retinopathy (most advanced stage). Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes. The risks of DR ...

  7. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D. Enter your question here... Browse Top Answers > Privacy Policy > Featured Video LASIK (Femtosecond) Free Newsletter Get ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology medical disclaimer privacy policy sponsorship & advertising policies about us Educational Resources ...

  9. Therapy of Eye Cancer

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Development and Creation of New Forms of Ophthalmology b - Applicators for Radiation Therapy of Eye Cancer and Study of Psycho-Physiological Effects on Man of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Radio Nuclides.

  10. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection and permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on ... replace dedicated low vision tools and devices. Kids & the Great Outdoors There is growing evidence that spending ...

  11. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 40? A baseline eye exam is recommended at age 40, when the signs of disease and changes ... be aware that LASIK cannot correct presbyopia , the age-related loss of close-up focusing power. How ...

  12. Effect of Education Sessions of a Structured School Eye Screening Programme on Indian Schoolteachers' Knowledge and Responsibility for Children's Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummalapalli, Rohit; Williams, Jachin D.; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Salchow, Daniel J.; Forster, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of education sessions on Indian schoolteacher awareness of childhood eye health issues, responsibility for children's eye health, and successful participation in a teacher-led eye screening health intervention programme in primary schools aimed at addressing avoidable childhood blindness in India. Design:…

  13. AN INNER STRUGGLE: UNDER WESTERN EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Ya?l?dere

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes.

  14. Eye Problems in Radiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Tahmasebi; Morteza Joorabian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, technologic advances (including the"nintroduction of MDCT) coupled with an increasing"nnumber of unfilled radiology positions have led to an"nincreasing workload for radiologists. In fact radiologists"nworking under a heavy workload potentially face"na range of health issues, including musculoskeletal"ninjuries, eye strain and other problems. Eye strain is"na well-recognized consequence of computer overuse"nand it may be a particular is...

  15. Tromsø eye study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon; Schirmer, Henrik; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Njølstad, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:? To determine the prevalence of visual impairment, retinopathy and macular oedema, and assess risk factors for retinopathy in persons with diabetes. Methods:? The present study included 514 participants with diabetes aged 46-87?years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a sub-study of the population-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Visual acuity was measured using an auto-refractor. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy and macular oedema. We collected data on risk factor exposur...

  16. A novel eye-detection algorithm utilizing edge-related geometrical information

    OpenAIRE

    Asteriadis, S.; Nikolaidis, N.; Hajdu, A.; Pitas, I.

    2010-01-01

    A novel method for eye detection and eye center localization, based on geometrical information is described in this paper. First, a face detector is applied to detect the facial region, and the edge map of this region is extracted. A vector pointing to the closest edge pixel is then assigned to every pixel. Length and slope information for these vectors is used to detect the eyes. For eye center localization, intensity information is used. The proposed method can work on lowresolution images ...

  17. A 99 Dollar Head-Mounted Eye Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Marko, Youri; Mazzei, Andrea; Kaplan, Frédéric; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Head-mounted eye-trackers are powerful research tools to study attention processes in various contexts. Most existing commercial solutions are still very expensive, limiting the current use of this technology. We present a hardware design to build, at low cost, a camera-based head-mounted eye tracker using two cameras and one infrared LED. A Playstation Eye camera (PEye) is fixed on an eyeglasses frame and positioned under one eye to track its movements. The filter of the PEye is replaced by ...

  18. Comparison of eye imaging pattern recognition using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, W. M.; Syed A., M.; Nasir, M. N. M.; Sulaima, M. F.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    The beauty of eye recognition system that it is used in automatic identifying and verifies a human weather from digital images or video source. There are various behaviors of the eye such as the color of the iris, size of pupil and shape of the eye. This study represents the analysis, design and implementation of a system for recognition of eye imaging. All the eye images that had been captured from the webcam in RGB format must through several techniques before it can be input for the pattern and recognition processes. The result shows that the final value of weight and bias after complete training 6 eye images for one subject is memorized by the neural network system and be the reference value of the weight and bias for the testing part. The target classifies to 5 different types for 5 subjects. The eye images can recognize the subject based on the target that had been set earlier during the training process. When the values between new eye image and the eye image in the database are almost equal, it is considered the eye image is matched.

  19. Effectiveness of Dry Eye Therapy Under Conditions of Environmental Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Alan; Madden, Louise C.; Simmons, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Dry eye is often characterized by increased tear evaporation due to poor tear film quality, especially of the lipid component of the tear film. Using an environmental chamber to induce environmental stress, this study compared the effect of three lubricant eye drops on various aspects of tear physiology in a crossover design (evaporation was the principal outcome measure).

  20. Development of an Interactive Anatomical Three-Dimensional Eye Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K.; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a…

  1. Using Eye Tracking for Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Anneli; Schmidt, Albrecht; Marshall, Paul; SUNDSTEDT, VERONICA

    2011-01-01

    The development of cheaper eye trackers and open source software for eye tracking and gaze interaction brings the possibility to integrate eye tracking into everyday use devices as well as highly specialized equipment. Apart from providing means for analyzing eye movements, eye tracking also offers the possibility of a natural user interaction modality. Gaze control interfaces are already used within assistive applications for disabled users. However, this novel user i...

  2. Identification system by eye retinal pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification system by eye retinal pattern is introduced from the view-point of history of R and D, measurement, apparatus, evaluation tests, safety and application. According to our evaluation tests, enrolling time is approximately less than 1 min, verification time is a few seconds and false accept rate is 0 %. Evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories in USA show the comparison data of false accept rates such as 0 % for eye retinal pattern, 10.5 % for finger-print, 5.8 % for signature dynamics and 17.7 % for speaker voice. The identification system by eye retinal pattern has only three applications in Japan, but there has been a number of experience in USA. This fact suggests that the system will become an important means for physical protections not only in nuclear field but also in other industrial fields in Japan. (author)

  3. Design, simulation and fabrication of a novel contact-enhanced MEMS inertial switch with a movable contact point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel inertial switch based on a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) was designed, which consists of three main parts: a proof mass as the movable electrode, a cross beam as the stationary electrode and a movable contact point to prolong the contact time. A MATLAB/Simulink model, which had been verified by comparison with ANSYS transient simulation, was built to simulate the dynamic response, based on which the contact-enhancing mechanism was confirmed and the dependence of threshold acceleration on the proof mass thickness was studied. The simulated dynamic responses under various accelerations exhibit satisfactory device behaviors: the switch-on time is prolonged under transient acceleration; the switch-on state is more continuous than the conventional design under long lasting acceleration. The inertial micro-switch was fabricated by multilayer electroplating technology and then tested by a drop hammer experiment. The test results indicate that the contact effect was improved significantly and a steady switch-on time of over 50 µs was observed under half-sine wave acceleration with 1 ms duration, in agreement with the dynamic simulation

  4. Eye Vision Testing System and Eyewear Using Micromachines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel A. Riza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed is a novel eye vision testing system based on micromachines that uses micro-optic, micromechanic, and microelectronic technologies. The micromachines include a programmable micro-optic lens and aperture control devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF, optical wireless communication and control links, and energy harvesting and storage devices with remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. The portable lightweight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under testing, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. A basic eye vision test system is built in the laboratory for near-sighted (myopic vision spherical lens refractive error correction. Refractive error corrections from zero up to ?5.0 Diopters and ?2.0 Diopters are experimentally demonstrated using the Electronic-Lens (E-Lens and aperture control methods, respectively. The proposed portable eye vision test system is suited for children’s eye tests and developing world eye centers where technical expertise may be limited. Design of a novel low-cost human vision corrective eyewear is also presented based on the proposed aperture control concept. Given its simplistic and economical design, significant impact can be created for humans with vision problems in the under-developed world.

  5. Wheelchair Motion Control Guide Using Eye Movement Based on EEG Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Uma Mageswar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of an Autonomous Movement Robot based on a Wheelchair based on EOG signal is to help a disable or handicapped person. These EOG electrodes are placed at right and left of eye and other pair of electrodes are at top and right of the eye. These electrodes used to response after gazing of one target point for a particular time period. After gazing of point, the wheelchair used to move to a target position. So, it produce delay during eye gaze. To overcome this delay, EEG amplifier are used. These EEG signals are placed to capture brain waves. These brain waves are controlled by microcontroller and it produce analog waves. To convert analog waves to digital output Analog to digital converter is used. Object Sensor is used to avoid obstacles in its path respectively. The main contribution of the work is the combination of several technologies and techniques that came from different areas such as mechanical, electronic engineering. Driver circuit with relay are used to move wheelchair automatically. ZigBee is used for long transmission of wheelchair. Accelerometer and interfacing circuit are done by using head movement. DLOA algorithm used to avoid obstacles while reaching destination point. The target coordinates of the destination place using EEG, to reduce delay for auto navigation process.

  6. Automatic system for 3D reconstruction of the chick eye based on digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Genest, Reno; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Choh, Vivian; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of anatomical specimens is very complex and accurate 3D reconstruction is important for morphological studies, finite element analysis (FEA) and rapid prototyping. Although magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and laser scanners can be used for reconstructing biological structures, the cost of the equipment is fairly high and specialised technicians are required to operate the equipment, making such approaches limiting in terms of accessibility. In this paper, a novel automatic system for 3D surface reconstruction of the chick eye from digital photographs of a serially sectioned specimen is presented as a potential cost-effective and practical alternative. The system is designed to allow for automatic detection of the external surface of the chick eye. Automatic alignment of the photographs is performed using a combination of coloured markers and an algorithm based on complex phase order likelihood that is robust to noise and illumination variations. Automatic segmentation of the external boundaries of the eye from the aligned photographs is performed using a novel level-set segmentation approach based on a complex phase order energy functional. The extracted boundaries are sampled to construct a 3D point cloud, and a combination of Delaunay triangulation and subdivision surfaces is employed to construct the final triangular mesh. Experimental results using digital photographs of the chick eye show that the proposed system is capable of producing accurate 3D reconstructions of the external surface of the eye. The 3D model geometry is similar to a real chick eye and could be used for morphological studies and FEA. PMID:21181572

  7. Design and Study on Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control of the Chaos Embedded Particle Swarm Optimization for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Wind Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Ho Chen; Her-Terng Yau; Weir Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC) of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO) Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by CEPSO, making it unnecessary to change the output power of different wind turbines, the designed in-repetition rate is reduced, and the system control efficiency is increased. The wind power system control is designe...

  8. Influences of reference plane and direction of measurement on eye aberration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A.; Charman, W. Neil

    2005-12-01

    We explored effects of measurement conditions on wave aberration estimates for uncorrected, axially myopic model eyes. Wave aberrations were initially referenced to either the anterior corneal pole or the natural entrance pupil of symmetrical eye models, with rays traced into the eye from infinity (into the eye) to simulate normal vision, into the eye from infinity and then back out of the eye from the retinal intercepts (into/out of the eye), or out of the eye from the retinal fovea (out of the eye). The into-the-eye and out-of-the-eye ray traces gave increases in spherical aberration as myopia increased, but the into/out-of-the-eye ray trace showed little variation in spherical aberration. Reference plane choice also affected spherical aberration. Corresponding residual aberrations were calculated after the models had been optically corrected, either by placing the object or image plane at the paraxial far point or by modifying corneas to simulate laser ablation corrections. Correcting aberrations by ablation was more complete if the original aberrations were referenced to the cornea rather than to the entrance pupil. For eyes corrected by spectacle lenses, failure to allow for effects of pupil magnification on apparent entrance pupil diameter produced larger changes in measured aberrations. The general findings regarding choice of reference plane and direction of measurement were found to be equally applicable to eyes that lacked rotational symmetry.

  9. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  10. Modern eye banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquavella, J V

    1981-11-01

    Ophthalmology has accepted the primary responsibility for supervision and control of the medical aspect of eye banking. Operating within the framework of the American Academy of Ophthalmology and the Eye Bank Association of America, Medical Standards have been promulgated which recognize the need for standardization and quality control throughout the eye banking procedures. The role of the Medical Director and the Medical Standards Committee has been strengthened. Challenges to be met include increasing the supply of donor tissue, the development of a statistical data base, research to expand endothelial viability, the incorporation of new technology, and the necessity to develop resources to combat an increasingly hostile financial and political environment in our nation's hospitals. PMID:7322459

  11. Design and development of cell queuing, processing, and scheduling modules for the iPOINT input-buffered ATM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haoran

    1997-12-01

    This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a heuristic strategy that leads to 'socially optimal' solutions, yielding a maximum number of contention-free cells being scheduled. A novel mixed digital-analog circuit has been designed to implement the MUCS core functionality. The MUCS circuit maps the cell scheduling computation to the capacitor charging and discharging procedures that are conducted fully in parallel. The design has a uniform circuit structure, low interconnect counts, and low chip I/O counts. Using 2 ?m CMOS technology, the design operates on a 100 MHz clock and finds a near-optimal solution within a linear processing time. The circuit has been verified at the transistor level by HSPICE simulation. During this research, a five-port IQ-based optoelectronic iPOINT ATM switch has been developed and demonstrated. It has been fully functional with an aggregate throughput of 800 Mb/s. The second-generation IQ-based switch is currently under development. Equipped with iiQueue modules and MUCS module, the new switch system will deliver a multi-gigabit aggregate throughput, eliminate HOL blocking, provide per-VC QoS, and achieve near-100% link bandwidth utilization. Complete documentation of input modules and trunk module for the existing testbed, and complete documentation of 3DQ, iiQueue, and MUCS for the second-generation testbed are given in this dissertation.

  12. Selecting PPE for the Workplace (Personal Protective Equipment for the Eyes and Face)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2300 if additional assistance is required. Eye and Face Protection eTool Eye and Face Protection eTool FAQs Glossary Additional References Site Map ... Personal protective equipment (PPE) for the eyes and face is designed to prevent or lessen the severity ...

  13. The Bluest Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Kašková, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    This bachelor paper deals with a novel The Bluest Eye by the African American author Toni Morrison, and its two translations by Michael Žantovský. The first one was called Nejmod?ejší o?i, and was published in 1983, and the second one is Velmi modré o?i, and was published twelve years later. The introductory chapter presents various theories regarding artistic translation in general, next chapter portrays the life and writing style of Toni Morrison with focus on The Bluest Eye. The core of...

  14. Optimization of point sources on thin films using a statistical design approach. Application to 60Co sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive point sources prepared by depositing weighed drops on thin membranes are commonly used in ionizing radiation metrology for 47??-? coincidence counting or for low energy electrons spectrometry. The present study deals with the preparation of good quality sources having high detection yields. Some influential parameters on the source quality are studied using 60Co as radioactive tracer. An approach based on experimental statistical designs has been chosen. This approach allows us to obtain reliable results with a number of experiences lower than in the case of a systematic approach. Homogeneous 60Co sources with high metrological qualifies (R?> 96 %) can be prepared using a direct deposit of ? 5 mg drops of 60Co solution ([Co] = 12 ?g/g), [HCl] = 0,5 mol/I) and dried at 60 deg C. The support of the radioactive spot is constituted with a gold coated (130 ?g/cm2 of Au) Vyns films (thickness 45 ?g/cm2) on which a pad (diameter = 7 - 8 mm) of polystyrene microspheres (Estapor K-007) is prepared by an electro-spraying technique under 7,5 kV during 10 minutes. The alcoholic solution used for the electro-spraying step has the following chemical composition [Estapor K-007] 2.5 10-2 wt % and [Tween 20] = 2.7 10-2 wt %. (authors)

  15. Optimization of the 3-Point Bending Failure of Anodized Aluminum Formed in Tartaric/Sulphuric Acid Using Doehlert Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, W.; Feki, M.; De-Petris Wery, M.; Ayedi, H. F.

    2015-02-01

    The bending failure of anodized aluminum in tartaric/sulphuric acid bath was modeled using Doehlert design. Bath temperature, anodic current density, sulphuric acid, and tartaric acid concentrations were retained as variables. Thickness measurements and 3-point bending experiments were conducted. The deflection at failure ( D f) and the maximum load ( F m) of each sample were, then, deducted from the corresponding flexural responses. The treatment of experimental results has established mathematical models of second degree reflecting the relation of cause and effect between the factors and the studied properties. The optimum path study of thickness, deflection at failure, and maximum load, showed that the three optima were opposite. Multicriteria optimization using the desirability function was achieved in order to maximize simultaneously the three responses. The optimum conditions were: C tar = 18.2 g L-1, T = 17.3 °C, J = 2.37 A dm-2, C sul = 191 g L-1, while the estimated response values were e = 57.7 µm, D f = 5.6 mm, and F m = 835 N. Using the established models, a mathematical correlation was found between deflection at failure and thickness of the anodic oxide layer. Before bending tests, aluminum oxide layer was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. After tests, the morphology and the composition of the anodic oxide layer were inspected by SEM, optical microscopy, and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy.

  16. Design of set-point weighting PI? + D? controller for vertical magnetic flux controller in Damavand tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a simple method is presented for tuning weighted PI? + D? controller parameters based on the pole placement controller of pseudo-second-order fractional systems. One of the advantages of this controller is capability of reducing the disturbance effects and improving response to input, simultaneously. In the following sections, the performance of this controller is evaluated experimentally to control the vertical magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak. For this work, at first a fractional order model is identified using output-error technique in time domain. For various practical experiments, having desired time responses for magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak, is vital. To approach this, at first the desired closed loop reference models are obtained based on generalized characteristic ratio assignment method in fractional order systems. After that, for the identified model, a set-point weighting PI? + D? controller is designed and simulated. Finally, this controller is implemented on digital signal processor control system of the plant to fast/slow control of magnetic flux. The practical results show appropriate performance of this controller

  17. Design of set-point weighting PI? + D? controller for vertical magnetic flux controller in Damavand tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, H.; Fatehi, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a simple method is presented for tuning weighted PI? + D? controller parameters based on the pole placement controller of pseudo-second-order fractional systems. One of the advantages of this controller is capability of reducing the disturbance effects and improving response to input, simultaneously. In the following sections, the performance of this controller is evaluated experimentally to control the vertical magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak. For this work, at first a fractional order model is identified using output-error technique in time domain. For various practical experiments, having desired time responses for magnetic flux in Damavand tokamak, is vital. To approach this, at first the desired closed loop reference models are obtained based on generalized characteristic ratio assignment method in fractional order systems. After that, for the identified model, a set-point weighting PI? + D? controller is designed and simulated. Finally, this controller is implemented on digital signal processor control system of the plant to fast/slow control of magnetic flux. The practical results show appropriate performance of this controller.

  18. A probabilistic approach to online eye gaze tracking without explicit personal calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jixu; Ji, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Existing eye gaze tracking systems typically require an explicit personal calibration process in order to estimate certain person-specific eye parameters. For natural human computer interaction, such a personal calibration is often inconvenient and unnatural. In this paper, we propose a new probabilistic eye gaze tracking system without explicit personal calibration. Unlike the conventional eye gaze tracking methods, which estimate the eye parameter deterministically using known gaze points, our approach estimates the probability distributions of the eye parameter and eye gaze. Using an incremental learning framework, the subject does not need personal calibration before using the system. His/her eye parameter estimation and gaze estimation can be improved gradually when he/she is naturally interacting with the system. The experimental result shows that the proposed system can achieve <3° accuracy for different people without explicit personal calibration. PMID:25532184

  19. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During ... Eye Protection Eyesight Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Avoid Indoor Tanning ...

  20. Design of Neutral-Point Voltage Controller of a Three-level NPC Inverter with Small DC-Link Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, S.

    2013-01-01

    A Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) three-level inverter with small dc-link capacitors is presented in this paper. The inverter requires zero average neutral-point current for stable neutral-point voltage. The small dc-link capacitors may not maintain capacitor voltage balance, even with zero neutral-point current. This may happen due to nonlinearities present in the circuit. This requires a fast control of the neutral-point voltage. A simple carrier based modulation strategy which allows modeling of ...

  1. Conjunctivitis: What Is Pink Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health News Consumer Alerts Conjunctivitis: What Is Pink Eye? Tweet Conjunctivitis is the term used to describe ... that Led to a Diabetes Diagnosis Find An Eye M.D. Enter zip code here Search by ...

  2. Teaching "The Bluest Eye."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Linda W.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how teaching "The Bluest Eye" not only helps students learn about the time period of the novel and its relevant issues and techniques, but also helps them to understand themselves. Shows how it can fit into contemporary literature classes, introductory courses to fiction or literature, or into women's literature classes. (EL)

  3. The Eyes Have It

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA'S Ames Research Center contracted with SRI international to contract a device that would be able to anticipate, track, and monitor involuntary ocular movement horizontally, vertically, and with respect to depth-of-field. This development helped research institutions to understand the eye. The Eyetracker, manufactured and distributed by Forward Optical Technologies, Inc. is now used in the clinical/medical field.

  4. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  5. The Human Eye Proteome Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semba, Richard D; Enghild, Jan Johannes; Venkatraman, Vidya; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 285 million people with visual impairment worldwide, of whom 39 million are blind. The pathogenesis of many eye diseases remains poorly understood. The human eye is currently an emerging proteome that may provide key insight into the biological pathways of disease. We review proteomic investigations of the human eye and present a catalogue of 4842 non-redundant proteins identified in human eye tissues and biofluids to date. We highlight the need to identify new biomarkers ...

  6. Eye movements when viewing advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    EmilyHiggins

    2014-01-01

    In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind ...

  7. A self-calibrating, camera-based eye tracker for the recording of rodent eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    DavideZoccolan; DavidD Cox

    2010-01-01

    Much of neurophysiology and vision science relies on careful measurement of a human or animal subject’s gaze direction. Video-based eye trackers have emerged as an especially popular option for gaze tracking, because they are easy to use and are completely non-invasive. However, video eye trackers typically require a calibration procedure in which the subject must look at a series of points at known gaze angles. While it is possible to rely on innate orienting behaviors for calibration in som...

  8. Tamoxifen-Containing Eye Drops Successfully Trigger Cre-Mediated Recombination in the Entire Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Anja; Leimbeck, Sarah V; Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic lethality in mice with targeted gene deletion is a major issue that can be circumvented by using Cre-loxP-based animal models. Various inducible Cre systems are available, e.g. such that are activated following tamoxifen treatment, and allow deletion of a specific target gene at any desired time point during the life span of the animal. In this study, we describe the efficiency of topical tamoxifen administration by eye drops using a Cre- reporter mouse strain (R26R). We report that tamoxifen-responsive CAGGCre-ER (TM) mice show a robust Cre- mediated recombination throughout the entire eye. PMID:26427451

  9. Spectacle-related eye injuries, spectacle-impact performance and eye protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha; Dain, Stephen J; Mackey, David A

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to review the prevalence of spectacle-related ocular trauma and the performance of currently available spectacle materials and to identify the risk factors associated with spectacle-related ocular trauma. A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase and Google with the keywords 'eyeglasses' OR 'spectacles' AND 'ocular injury' / 'eye injury'/ 'eye trauma' / 'ocular trauma'. Articles published prior to 1975 were excluded from this review because of advances in spectacle lens technology and Food and Drug Administration legislative changes requiring impact resistance of all prescription spectacle lenses in the United States. Six hundred and ninety-five individual ocular traumas, for which spectacles contributed to or were the main cause of injury, were identified in the literature. Eye injuries occurred when spectacles were worn in sports, in which medium- to high-impact energies were exerted from balls, racquets or bats and/or as a result of a collision with another player. Frame, lens design and product material choice were found to be associated with ocular injury, with polycarbonate lenses cited as the material of choice in the literature. International, regional and national standards for spectacle lenses had a wide range of impact requirements for prescription spectacle lenses, sports eye protection and occupational eye protection. Spectacle-related injury represents a small but preventable cause of ocular injury. With the increasing numbers of spectacle wearers and calls to spend more time outdoors to reduce myopia, spectacle wearers need to be made aware of the potential risks associated with wearing spectacles during medium- to high-risk activities. At particular risk are those prone to falls, the functionally one-eyed, those who have corneal thinning or have had previous eye surgery or injury. With increased understanding of specific risk factors, performance guidelines can be developed for prescription spectacle eye-protection requirements. PMID:25963111

  10. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  11. Protecting Your Eyes at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Administration (OSHA) requires the use of eye and face protection whenever there is a reasonable probability of ... as goggles, face shields, safety glasses, or full face respirators must be used when an eye hazard exists. The eye protection chosen for specific ...

  12. Eye Pupil Location Using Webcam

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesla, Michal; Koziol, Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Three different algorithms used for eye pupil location were described and tested. Algorithm efficiency comparison was based on human faces images taken from the BioID database. Moreover all the eye localisation methods were implemented in a dedicated application supporting eye movement based computer control. In this case human face images were acquired by a webcam and processed in a real-time.

  13. Eye-Tracking Measures Reveal How Changes in the Design of Aided AAC Displays Influence the Efficiency of Locating Symbols by School-Age Children without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; O'Neill, Tara; McIlvane, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many individuals with communication impairments use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems involving letters, words, or line drawings that rely on the visual modality. It seems reasonable to suggest that display design should incorporate information about how users attend to and process visual information. The…

  14. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao-Hsuan Chiu; Jui-Wei Hsieh; Yi-Chun Wu; Jih-Haw Chou; Feng-Yee Chang

    2014-01-01

    Background: As designated points of entry (PoEs) play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005). This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA) and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK) by applying a new, practicable model. Design: An IHR PoE program was initiated...

  15. Rapid eye-fixation training without eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Leung, Parkson; Franconeri, Steve; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance of stable central eye fixation is crucial for a variety of behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging experiments. Naïve observers in these experiments are not typically accustomed to fixating, requiring the use of cumbersome and costly eye-tracking or producing confounds in results. We devised a flicker display that produced an easily detectable visual phenomenon whenever the eyes moved. A few minutes of training using this display dramatically improved the accuracy of eye fixation while observers performed a demanding spatial attention cueing task. The same amount of training using control displays did not produce significant fixation improvements and some observers consistently made eye movements to the peripheral attention cue, contaminating the cueing effect. Our results indicate that (1) eye fixation can be rapidly improved in naïve observers by providing real-time feedback about eye movements, and (2) our simple flicker technique provides an easy and effective method for providing this feedback. PMID:19451374

  16. Variable stars magnitudes estimations exploiting the eye physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2011-01-01

    The physiology of the dark adaption process of the eye is revisited from an astronomical point of view. A new method for the magnitude estimation of a star is presented. It is based upon the timing of the physiological cycle of the rhodopsin during the eye dark adaption process. The limits of the application of the method are discussed. This method is suitable for bright stars as Betelgeuse, Antares or Delta Scorpii or stars at the limiting magnitude observed with a telescope.

  17. Eye-based head gestures for interaction in the car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we suggest using a new method for head gesture recognition in the automotive context. This method involves using only the eye tracker for measuring the head movements through the eye movements when the gaze point is fixed. It allows for identifying a wide range of head gestures that can be used as an alternative input in the multimodal interaction context. Two approaches are described for using this method for interaction with objects inside or outside the car. Some application exa...

  18. An Appearance based Method for Eye Gaze Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    S V Sheela; P.A.Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Gaze estimation systems compute the direction of eye gaze based on observed eye movements. The need for gaze-contingent applications is the basis of the current research work. The gaze pointing systems is a substitute for the existing input devices. Approach: The gaze tracking methods are either feature based or appearance based. In this study, an appearance based approach for gaze tracking is proposed based on Run Length Coding (RLC). The experiment was conducted consideri...

  19. An Eye Detection Algorithm Using Pixel to Edge Information

    OpenAIRE

    Asteriadis, S.; Nikolaidis, N.; Hajdu, A.; Pitas, I.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for eyes localization on a face, based only on geometrical information. A face detector is applied first to detect the bounding box of the face, and the edge map is extracted. A vector is assigned to every pixel, pointing to the closest edge pixel. Length and slope information for these vectors is consequently used to detect and localize the eyes. The method has been tested on two face databases with very good results.

  20. Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Minority Eye Health: Know Your Risks Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  1. ANSWER: A painful eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir Ali MOHAMED ALI; Ruben MATHEW, Nayan JOSHI

    2011-01-01

    (Refer to page 207)Answer: HypopyonIn this case, hypopyon is seen in the anterior chamber and posterior synaechiae can also be seen at the pupil margin. Hypopyon can be defined as layering of white blood cells in the anterior chamber of the eye following acute, subacute and chronic inflammatory reactions involving the aqueous humor and anatomical structures adjacent to it. It appears as a white milky layer at the bottom of the anterior chamber.

  2. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    2013-01-01

    King and Eye explores the visual formation of kingship in Siam in its multifarious aspects. This dissertation identifies the leitmotifs in the dynamics between seeing the king and being seen by him, which burst forth in different eras. The visual sense has been a repository for the ontologization of the state, that is, for determining what exists in its purview, what constitutes its reality, and, implicitly, what is excluded from it. The shift in the formation of the sense means the transformati...

  3. Through the creator's eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses a methodological gap in the study of creativity: the difficulty of capturing the microgenesis of creative action in ways that would reflect both its psychological and behavioral dynamics. It explores the use of subjective camera (subcam) by research participants as part of an adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (...

  4. The ?-ray energy and angular response of the EYE-Deye-lens dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the recent ICRP recommendation to decrease the limit of occupational exposure to the eye lens from 150 mSv to 20 mSv/year, a dedicated individual eye-lens dosemeter, EYE-D™, was developed at the IFJ PAN. This dosemeter uses MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescent detectors covered with a polyamide capsule and was so far optimized to achieve a flat photon energy and angular response for X-ray exposures typical in interventional radiology. To verify the applicability of this eye-lens dosemeter in external ?-ray fields which arise, e.g. in nuclear medicine procedures, we measured and calculated its ?-ray energy and angular response. Measurements, applying ?-rays from Sr-90/Y-90 isotope, were performed at the Beta Secondary Standard type 2 (BSS 2) in CLOR. Calculations, using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo transport code which simulates coupled electron and photon transport in arbitrary materials, were performed for P-32, K-42 and Sr-90/Y-90 fields to simulate doses received by the eye lens within the human body. PENELOPE Monte Carlo transport code was also used to calculate doses received with EYE-D™ detectors. We found good agreement between the measured and calculated energy and angular responses which confirms the suitability of this dosemeter in assessing Hp(3) to estimate the eye lens. Obtained results and conclusions, however preliminary, conform with current ICRP recommendations when performing individual radiation protection dosimetry in external ?-ray fields occurring in nuclear industry and nuclear medicine activities. -- Highlights: •The applicability of EYE-Deye-lens dosemeter in external ?-ray fields have been investigated. •Measurements and calculations ?-ray energy and angular response of EYE-D™ have been performed. •A comparison of calculations results with experimental data is presented. •Obtained results confirmed the suitability of this dosemeter in assessing Hp(3) to estimate the eye lens

  5. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century. PMID:1473465

  6. Eye movement; Experimental and clinical study using cine mode MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inatomi, Akihiro (Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)); Kaji, Kazutaka; Sasaki, Kenji (and others)

    1992-12-01

    This is a special lecture at the 96th Annual Congress of the Japanese Ophthalmological Society in 1992, presenting studies on eye movement using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using cine mode MRI technology, two methods for producing a series of photographs have been invented: (1) the moving eye method or dynamic method in which the subjects were asked to perform 256 or 512 vertical and horizontal eye movements in synchronization with a sound trigger; and (2) the fixed eye method or static method in which the subjects were asked to gaze at individual points in a 5 to 7 point sequence as indicated by the investigator. MRI data was generated and the resulting series of photographs were observed in cine mode on a televisin monitor. Displaying the MRI-generated photographs in cine mode enables direct observation of eye movement, optic nerve and extraocular muscles within the orbit. Although the moving eye method is more accurate in its portrayal of the actual eye movement, at least 256 eye movements are required for about 5 minutes, causing physical and mental load for the subjects. The fixed eye method was thus used to examine ophthalmoplegia, including abducens palsy, oculomotor palsy, fracture of the orbital wall, foreign bodies in the orbit, Duane's syndrome, endocrine myopathy, esotropia and exotropia. This allowed the investigation of anatomical changes, such as atrophy or hypertrophy, and the functional state caused by contraction and relaxation of the extraocular muscles. Transposition of the extraocular muscles for paralytic squint was reexamined and a new surgical procedure was developed for abducens palsy. The measurement of the length, thickness and weight of the extraocular muscles from the MRI-generated photographs allowed more accurate analysis. Three dimensional reconstructive method of MRI provided a valuable tool for evaluating the orbit. (N.K.) 67 refs.

  7. Unique designs, errors and strategies in the Five-Point Test: The contribution of age, phonemic fluency and visuospatial abilities in Italian children aged 6-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stievano, Paolo; Scalisi, Teresa Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Performances on the Five-Point Test of 161 Italian children aged 6 to 11 years were investigated, along with phonemic fluency, visual-motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, visuospatial memory, and fluid intelligence. Five-Point Test accuracy was significantly related to phonemic fluency and visual-motor integration, while phonemic fluency was linked to motor coordination. The two fluency measures increased linearly with age, but the developmental progression of Five-Point Test accuracy was less influenced by age. Different age effects were also found on the relationship between fluid intelligence and the two fluency measures. The inspection of qualitative aspects of Five-Point Test performance (errors and strategies) suggested that strategy usage enhanced both productivity and accuracy in children; age-related changes were observed in the relationship between the number of errors and the total number of designs produced. PMID:25495262

  8. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100 % larger than the pressure loading experienced by the unprotected eye after 0.2 ms of impact of blast wave, for lower as well as higher charge mass. The present model provides fundamental insights of flow and pressure fields in the ocular region, which helps to explain the effectiveness of the eye armor. Since the measurements of these fields are not trivial, the computational model aids in better understanding of development of PBI. PMID:25828209

  9. ECEM (Eye Closure, Eye Movements): application to depersonalization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet, E Hollander

    2009-10-01

    Eye Closure, Eye Movements (ECEM) is a hypnotically-based approach to treatment that incorporates eye movements adapted from the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol in conjunction with hypnosis for the treatment of depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization Disorder has been differentiated from post-traumatic stress disorders and has recently been conceptualized as a subtype of panic disorder (Baker et al., 2003; David, Phillips, Medford, & Sierra, 2004; Segui et. al., 2000). During ECEM, while remaining in a hypnotic state, clients self-generated six to seven trials of eye movements to reduce anticipatory anxiety associated with depersonalization disorder. Eye movements were also used to process triggers that elicited breath holding, often followed by episodes of depersonalization. Hypnotic suggestions were used to reverse core symptoms of depersonalization, subjectively described as "feeling unreal" (Simeon et al., 1997). PMID:19862896

  10. Does eye tremor provide the hyperacuity phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to a study of the role of the fluctuations that the eye is subject to, from the point of view of noise-enhanced processing. To this end, a basic model of the retina is considered, namely a regular sampler subject to space and time fluctuations that model the random sampling and the involuntary eye tremor respectively. The filtering that can be done by the photoreceptor is also taken into account and the study focuses on a stochastic model of a natural scene. To quantify the effect of the noise, a coefficient of correlation between the signal acquired by a given photoreceptor and a given point of the scene that the eye is looking at is considered. It is shown both for academic examples and for a more realistic case that the fluctuations which affect the retina can induce noise-enhanced processing effects. The observed effect is then interpreted as a stochastic control of the retina via the random tremor

  11. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin E during eye development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qing-xin; Wang, Xian-Feng; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hirose, Susumu; Gehring, Walter J.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a critical point for eye development. Identification of genes for cell differentiation is critical for understanding the mechanism of eye formation and its evolution. Here, we show that an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, Apt, regulates the G1-to-S phase transition by inducing cyclin E during eye development. We identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by...

  12. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  13. Rapid eye-fixation training without eye tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Leung, Parkson; Franconeri, Steve; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance of stable central eye fixation is crucial for a variety of behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging experiments. Naïve observers in these experiments are not typically accustomed to fixating, requiring the use of cumbersome and costly eye-tracking or producing confounds in results. We devised a flicker display that produced an easily detectable visual phenomenon whenever the eyes moved. A few minutes of training using this display dramatically improved the accuracy of ey...

  14. Visual fatigue versus eye-movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienne, Cyril; Blondé, Laurent; Doyen, Didier

    2012-03-01

    Observing 3D content on a cinema or TV screen potentially generates fatigue. In psychovisual research, experience of visual symptoms following the observation of stereo-content is usually assessed thanks to questionnaires and subjective reports. We attempted to explore the occurrence of visual fatigue using more objective methods, namely by using binocular eye-tracking and psychophysics. A main objective was to study the emergence of visual fatigue in relation with eye-movement knowing the stimulation of the oculomotor system and its response. We designed an experiment in which participants were asked to perform a repeated vergence effort task, just followed by, and interlaced with, a 3D space perception task. Participants' eye movements were recorded during the whole session using an eye-tracking system. The analysis revealed that the perception of 3D shapes was gradually affected by the intensity of the vergence effort task. The effect on stereo-estimation was actually due to visual fatigue. 3D objects and scenes are perceived flatter. Results on the subjective reports of SSQ revealed that oculomotor factors were predominant in the visual symptoms. In addition, some effects and correlations on the micro-saccadic rate were obtained. This work offers a perspective to characterize objectively visual fatigue when watching stereoscopic 3D content.

  15. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutri...

  16. A free geometry model-independent neural eye-gaze tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gneo Massimo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eye Gaze Tracking Systems (EGTSs estimate the Point Of Gaze (POG of a user. In diagnostic applications EGTSs are used to study oculomotor characteristics and abnormalities, whereas in interactive applications EGTSs are proposed as input devices for human computer interfaces (HCI, e.g. to move a cursor on the screen when mouse control is not possible, such as in the case of assistive devices for people suffering from locked-in syndrome. If the user’s head remains still and the cornea rotates around its fixed centre, the pupil follows the eye in the images captured from one or more cameras, whereas the outer corneal reflection generated by an IR light source, i.e. glint, can be assumed as a fixed reference point. According to the so-called pupil centre corneal reflection method (PCCR, the POG can be thus estimated from the pupil-glint vector. Methods A new model-independent EGTS based on the PCCR is proposed. The mapping function based on artificial neural networks allows to avoid any specific model assumption and approximation either for the user’s eye physiology or for the system initial setup admitting a free geometry positioning for the user and the system components. The robustness of the proposed EGTS is proven by assessing its accuracy when tested on real data coming from: i different healthy users; ii different geometric settings of the camera and the light sources; iii different protocols based on the observation of points on a calibration grid and halfway points of a test grid. Results The achieved accuracy is approximately 0.49°, 0.41°, and 0.62° for respectively the horizontal, vertical and radial error of the POG. Conclusions The results prove the validity of the proposed approach as the proposed system performs better than EGTSs designed for HCI which, even if equipped with superior hardware, show accuracy values in the range 0.6°-1°.

  17. Photochemical injury to the foveomacula of the monkey eye following argon blue-green panretinal photocoagulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Parver, L M

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Visual loss following panretinal photocoagulation was found in the Diabetic Retinopathy and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Studies. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that light scattered in the monkey eye during a procedure designed to mimic a clinical panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) can produce a photochemical injury to the foveomacula. METHODS: Ten eyes of 5 adult cynomologous monkeys underwent a PRP using an argon blue-green laser. Three eyes in 2 monkeys ...

  18. [Formation, development and changes of the eye acupunture region-dividing acupoint location program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian; Tian, Wei-zhu

    2005-04-01

    Eye acupuncture, a micro-needling therapy, has been widely applied in clinical treatment for over 30 years. Its theoretic system, especially, the eye acupuncture region-dividing point location program has been revised for 2 times, and the third program with reasonability of acupoint distribution, strictness of angle of acupoint region is easily accepted by clinical workers. In the paper, the theoretical basis of professor Peng Jingshan's inspection of the eye for recognition of diseases, diagnosis of diseases and eye acupuncture therapy were explained, and the information, development and change of the eye acupuncture region-dividing acupoint location program were analyzed and the history of development of eye acupuncture were introduced so as to direct clinical application of eye acupuncture. PMID:16309109

  19. Optical design of inhomogeneous media to perfectly focus scalar wave fields

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Gonzalez Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    A method to design isotropic inhomogeneous refractive index distribution is presented, in which the scalar wave field solutions propagate exactly on an eikonal function (i.e., remaining constant on the Geometrical Optics wavefronts). This method is applied to the design of ¿dipole lenses¿, which perfectly focus a scalar wave field emitted from a point source onto a point absorber, in both two and three dimensions. Also, the Maxwell fish-eye lens in two and three dimensions analyzed.

  20. Eye vision system using programmable micro-optics and micro-electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.; Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Mehdi N.

    2014-02-01

    Proposed is a novel eye vision system that combines the use of advanced micro-optic and microelectronic technologies that includes programmable micro-optic devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF) and optical wireless communication and control links, energy harvesting and storage devices and remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. This portable light weight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under test, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. Described is the basic design of the proposed system and its first stage system experimental results for vision spherical lens refractive error correction.

  1. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye Makeup ... Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with ...

  2. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bad for Your Eyes? Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer ... Risks for Smokers Veterans & Eye Health More Lifestyle Topics > EyeSmart Tips Avoid Indoor Tanning Studies show UV ...

  3. Characteristics of eye care practices with managed care contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kapur, Kanika; Solomon, Matthew D.; Paul P. Lee; Carol M. Mangione; Adams, John L; Wickstrom, Steven L.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the variation in practice structure, financial arrangements, and utilization and quality management systems for eye care practices with managed care contracts. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of 88 group and 56 solo eye care practices that contract with 6 health plans affiliated with a national managed care organization. The survey contained modules on practice structure, financial arrangements, utilization management, and quality management. The survey r...

  4. Evidence for a functional subdivision of Premotor Ear-Eye Field (Area 8B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lanzilotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Supplementary Eye Field (SEF and the Frontal Eye Field (FEF have been described as participating in gaze shift control. Recent evidence suggests, however, that other areas of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex also influence gaze shift. Herein, we have investigated electrically evoked ear- and eye movements from the Premotor Ear-Eye Field, or PEEF (area 8B of macaque monkeys. We stimulated PEEF during spontaneous condition (outside the task performance and during the execution of a visual fixation task (VFT. In the first case, we functionally identified two regions within the PEEF: a core and a belt. In the core region, stimulation elicited forward ear movements; regarding the evoked eye movements, in some penetrations, stimulation elicited contraversive fixed-vectors with a mean amplitude of 5.14°; while in other penetrations, we observed prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position. On the contrary, in the belt region, stimulation elicited backward ear movements; regarding the eye movements, in some penetrations stimulation elicited prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position, while in the lateral edge of the investigated region, stimulation elicited contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell beyond 15° in respect to the primary eye position. Stimulation during VFT either did not elicit eye movements or evoked saccades of only a few degrees. Finally, even though no head rotation movements were observed during the stimulation period, we viewed a relationship between the duration of stimulation and the neck forces exerted by the monkey’s head. We propose an updated vision of the PEEF composed of two functional regions, core and belt, which may be involved in integrating auditory and visual information important to the programming of gaze orienting movements.

  5. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallett, Michael Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  6. Aging and dry eye disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Juan; David A. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Dry eye disease is a prevalent eye disorder that in particular affects the elderly population. One of the major causes of dry eye, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), shows increased prevalence with aging. MGD is caused by hyperkeratinization of the ductal epithelium of meibomian gland and reduced quantity and/or quality of meibum, the holocrine product that stabilizes and prevents the evaporation of the tear film. Of note, retinoids which are used in current anti-aging cosmetics may promote t...

  7. Hospital epidemiology of dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana A; Choudhary R; Ahluwalia B; Gupta S.

    1991-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of dry eye were studied to comment upon its epidemiological aspects. The incidence of dry eye amongst ophthalmic outpatients was 0.46% with a male:female ratio of 1:1.22. Fifty seven percent of the patients were above 50 years of age. The incidence was higher amongst outdoor workers and people from rural areas with poor socioeconomic status. The influence of hot and dry climate and nutritional status on dry eye incidence is discussed.

  8. Game Design and Homemade PowerPoint Games: An Examination of the Justifications and a Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siko, Jason; Barbour, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research on educational games often focuses on the benefits that playing games has on student achievement. However, there is a growing body of research examining the benefits of having students design games rather than play them. Problems with game design as an instructional tool include the additional instruction on the programming language…

  9. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze on the interaction object while interacting. This method has been implemented on a head-mounted eye tracker for detecting a set of predefined head gestures. The accuracy of the gesture classifier is eva...

  10. Awareness and perception regarding eye donation in students of a nursing college in Bangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Corneal diseases constitute a significant cause of visual impairment and blindness in the developing world. The number of corneal transplants done is far less than the actual requirement in India. This is largely due to the inadequate number of corneas collected. Well-informed nursing students could be expected to influence eye donation rates. Aims: To assess the awareness and perception of 188 first- and second-year nursing students towards eye donation in Bangalore. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study design. Materials and Methods: A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info software package, Version 6.04. Results: The majority (96.8% of students knew that eyes can be donated after death but only 38.2% knew that the ideal time of donation was within 6 hours of death. Most participants (85.1% were either willing or had already donated their eyes. Nobility in the act of eye donation was the main motivational force for eye donation according to 85.6% of students. Perceived reasons for not pledging eyes by the students were: the unacceptable idea of separating the eyes from the body (67.9%, lack of awareness (42.8%, objection by family members (28.5%, and unsuitability to donate because of health problem (10.7%. Conclusion: This study revealed that nursing students were well aware of eye donations and most of them were inclined to sign-up for eye donation. The perceived reasons for not donating eyes need to be considered while creating awareness about eye donation in the community. The nursing students could be actively involved as volunteers in eye donation campaigns and they can act as counsellors for eye donors. They can also contribute by participating in creating awareness and motivating people to become eye donors.

  11. A self-calibrating, camera-based eye tracker for the recording of rodent eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavideZoccolan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of neurophysiology and vision science relies on careful measurement of a human or animal subject’s gaze direction. Video-based eye trackers have emerged as an especially popular option for gaze tracking, because they are easy to use and are completely non-invasive. However, video eye trackers typically require a calibration procedure in which the subject must look at a series of points at known gaze angles. While it is possible to rely on innate orienting behaviors for calibration in some nonhuman species, other species, such as rodents, do not reliably saccade to visual targets, making this form of calibration impossible. To overcome this problem, we developed a fully-automated infrared video eye-tracking system that is able to quickly and accurately calibrate itself without requiring cooperation from the subject. This technique relies on the optical geometry of the cornea and uses computer controlled motorized stages to rapidly estimate the geometry of the eye relative to the camera. The accuracy and precision of our system was carefully measured using an artificial eye, and its capability to monitor the gaze of rodents was verified by tracking spontaneous saccades and evoked oculomotor reflexes in head-fixed rats (in both cases, we obtained measurements that are consistent with those found in the literature. Overall, given its fully-automated nature and its intrinsic robustness against operator errors, we believe that our eye-tracking system enhances the utility of existing approaches to gaze-tracking in rodents and represents a valid tool for rodent vision studies.

  12. KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE & PRACTICE REGARDING EYE DONATION AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL - A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge , attitudes and practices regarding eye donation in selected adult population attending tertiary eye care centre. Methods: 636 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. A questionnaire was specially designed to know the facts about awareness and willingness for eye donation among general population attending tertiary eye care centre. Questionnaire included whether they had any knowledge of eye donation , source of information , willingness to donate eyes and also impact of eye donation on corneal blindness status. Results: Knowledge about eye donation was significantly associated with education and socioeconomic status. After counseling , 84.90% of partici pants agreed to motivate other family members/ friends to fill the pledge form of eye donation. Allowance of eye donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate . Higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant predictors of knowledge status of eye donation. For motivation , higher socioeconomic status , adequate knowledge and belief that eye donation is allowed in religion were significant predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Conclusion: Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures sh ould be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media , doctors and religious scholars

  13. The software design of multi-branch, multi-point remote monitoring system for temperature measurement based on MSP430 and DS18B20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper present that the system can acquire the remote temperature measurement data of 40 monitoring points, through the RS-232 serial port and the Intranet. System's hardware is consist of TI's MSP430F149 mixed-signal processor and UA7000A network module. Using digital temperature sensor DS18B20, the structure is simple and easy to expand, the sensors directly send out the temperature data, MSP430F149 has the advantage of ultra-low-power and high degree of integration. Using msp430F149, the multi-branch multi-point temperature measurement system is powerful, simple structure, high reliability, strong anti-interference capability. The client software is user-friendly and easy to use, it is designed in Microsoft Visual C+ +6.0 environment. The monitoring system is able to complete a total of 4 branches of the 40-point temperature measurements in real-time remote monitoring. (authors)

  14. Review of current methods for estimating areal reduction factors applied to South African design point rainfall and preliminary identification of new methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J P J, Pietersen; O J, Gericke; J C, Smithers; Y E, Woyessa.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Design point rainfall estimates assume a uniform distribution of rainfall over a catchment, and hence are only representative for a limited area. For larger areas, areal reduction factors (ARFs) are used to convert design point rainfall depths/intensities to an average areal design rainfall depth/in [...] tensity for a catchment-specific critical storm duration and catchment area. This paper presents a review of ARF estimation methods used nationally and internationally, with comparisons of the South African methods in the C5 secondary drainage region using standard input variables. The comparison of different ARF estimation methods confirmed that the empirical methods adopted for general use in South Africa are based on a limited database of observed rainfall data and are used without local correction factors beyond their original developmental regions. This results in the characterisation of the actual rainfall process over a catchment, and translation into questionable design peak discharge estimates. Therefore, the ARFs in South Africa need to be re-investigated in the light of recent extreme flood events, utilising the longer periods of record and denser rain-gauge networks which are now available for analysis. The variation of ARFs with return period and with rainfall producing mechanisms also needs to be investigated. Updated ARFs developed and verified using local rainfall data will improve the accuracy of design hydrology for large catchments in South Africa when event-based rainfall-runoff deterministic methods are used.

  15. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  16. Ultraviolet radiation: the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under most conditions, the eye is well adapted to protect itself against ultraviolet radiation encountered in the outdoor environment as a result of the exposure geometry of the sun. Only when snow is on the ground does one experience acute effects of UV sunlight exposure (i.e. snow blindness, or photokeratitis). With regard to artificial sources, there are many occasions where one views bright light sources such as tungsten-halogen lamps, arc lamps and welding arcs. Such viewing is normally only momentary because of the aversion response to bright light and due to discomfort glare. However, such an aversion does not take place for germicidal lamps and other UV lamps which do not contain a strong visible component in their spectrum. The adverse effects from viewing such sources has been studied for decades and during the last two decades guidelines for limiting exposure to protect the eye have been developed. The guidelines were fostered to a large extent by the growing use of lasers and the quickly recognized hazard posed by viewing laser sources. (author)

  17. Design and fabrication of a miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector for the determination of acidity of some fruit juice

    OpenAIRE

    Prinya Masawat

    2008-01-01

    A miniaturization micro volume auto titrator coupled with electrochemical end-point detector was designed and fabricated for the determination of acidity of some Thai citrus fruit juices collected in the northern area of Thailand. The method was based on on-line potentiometric titration of the acid contents with sodium hydroxide. Conditions such as volume of fruit juice sample, volume and concentration of potassium chloride used as supporting electrolyte and flow rate of titrant were optimize...

  18. Double Eye Brow: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Sudipta; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Sarkar, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Eye brows are essential for esthetic and functional purposes. Various kinds of eye brows are found in human species. Protective function is one of the important functions of eye brows. Double eye brow is a very rare condition found in human. This case report describes one of the rare cases of double eye brow.

  19. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye ... Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining ...

  20. Eye tracking and gating system for proton therapy of orbital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A new motion-based gated proton therapy for the treatment of orbital tumors using real-time eye-tracking system was designed and evaluated. Methods: We developed our system by image-pattern matching, using a normalized cross-correlation technique with LabVIEW 8.6 and Vision Assistant 8.6 (National Instruments, Austin, TX). To measure the pixel spacing of an image consistently, four different calibration modes such as the point-detection, the edge-detection, the line-measurement, and the manual measurement mode were suggested and used. After these methods were applied to proton therapy, gating was performed, and radiation dose distributions were evaluated. Results: Moving phantom verification measurements resulted in errors of less than 0.1 mm for given ranges of translation. Dosimetric evaluation of the beam-gating system versus nongated treatment delivery with a moving phantom shows that while there was only 0.83 mm growth in lateral penumbra for gated radiotherapy, there was 4.95 mm growth in lateral penumbra in case of nongated exposure. The analysis from clinical results suggests that the average of eye movements depends distinctively on each patient by showing 0.44 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.86 mm for three patients, respectively. Conclusions: The developed automatic eye-tracking based beam-gating system enabled us to perform high-precision proton radiotherapy of orbital tumors.

  1. Modular DIPS, 2.5-kWe modules for lunar/Mars surface applications, design point selection summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Demonstration Program is currently focused on the development of a standardized 2.5-kWe portable generator for multiple applications on the lunar or Martian surface. An optimum system configuration has been developed for the 2.5-kWe DIPS module that provides a system with a radiator area which is small and manageable without significantly impacting the system mass, efficiency, and technological risk. The 2.5-kWe DIPS module configuration was developed based on a systematic series of studies. Initially, technology breakpoints in the DIPS component and subsystem designs were identified. Based on the technology assessments, the maximum design temperature for the system was selected and various system and subsystem configurations were evaluated. Finally, the subsystem and system designs for the selected configuration were optimized using a detailed system design optimization computer code

  2. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2014-05-01

    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  3. Visible-spectrum remote eye tracker for gaze communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imabuchi, Takashi; Prima, Oky Dicky A.; Kikuchi, Hikaru; Horie, Yusuke; Ito, Hisayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Many approaches have been proposed to create an eye tracker based on visible-spectrum. These efforts provide a possibility to create inexpensive eye tracker capable to operate outdoor. Although the resulted tracking accuracy is acceptable for a visible-spectrum head-mounted eye tracker, there are many limitations of these approaches to create a remote eye tracker. In this study, we propose a high-accuracy remote eye tracker that uses visible-spectrum imaging and several gaze communication interfaces suited to the tracker. The gaze communication interfaces are designed to assist people with motor disability. Our results show that the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.77° and a frame rate of 28 fps with a personal computer. With a tablet device, the proposed eye tracker achieved an average accuracy of 0.82° and a frame rate of 25 fps. The proposed gaze communication interfaces enable users to type a complete sentence containing eleven Japanese characters in about a minute.

  4. Eye safe laser based DIRCM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbarth, S.; Thum-Jäger, A.

    2009-09-01

    To be effective a DIRCM must direct a Laser beam exceeding a certain power level towards the approaching missile. This power level inevitably leads to a potential laser hazard mainly regarding the eye safety of people potentially hit by the Laser beam. To evaluate this hazard the IEC 60825-1 is a well established international standard. This leads to the definition of a laser safety zone around the active DIRCM which can be as large as a few hundred meters. Therefore it cannot be excluded, that people are present within this zone. This Laser hazard is also a major topic for a civil or military DIRCM system certification. In this report we analyze the impact of various DIRCM designs on this safety zone as well as the resulting Laser hazard footprint at takeoff and landing. Also some technical means to make a DIRCM system inherently eye safe are discussed. As a result we come the conclusion that an eye safe DIRCM is possible, if appropriate measures are taken throughout the DIRCM system design.

  5. Eyelashes divert airflow to protect the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Guillermo J; Mao, Wenbin; DeMercurio, Peter; Montero, Carmen; Clewis, Joel; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David L

    2015-04-01

    Eyelashes are ubiquitous, although their function has long remained a mystery. In this study, we elucidate the aerodynamic benefits of eyelashes. Through anatomical measurements, we find that 22 species of mammals possess eyelashes of a length one-third the eye width. Wind tunnel experiments confirm that this optimal eyelash length reduces both deposition of airborne particles and evaporation of the tear film by a factor of two. Using scaling theory, we find this optimum arises because of the incoming flow's interactions with both the eye and eyelashes. Short eyelashes create a stagnation zone above the ocular surface that thickens the boundary layer, causing shear stress to decrease with increasing eyelash length. Long eyelashes channel flow towards the ocular surface, causing shear stress to increase with increasing eyelash length. These competing effects result in a minimum shear stress for intermediate eyelash lengths. This design may be employed in creating eyelash-inspired protection for optical sensors. PMID:25716186

  6. Dry eye disease after LASIK

    OpenAIRE

    ?uru, L; Alexandrescu, C.; Stana, D; Tudosescu, R

    2012-01-01

    LASIK is a surgical tehnique for the correction of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astygmatism). It results in a reshape of the cornea with ocular surface and especially tear film disease. It is a cause for a iatrogenic dry eye syndrome. Neurogenic and inflamatory theory explain this disease. The main therapy of dry eye is the replacement with artificial tears.

  7. Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be good. LASIK may not be recommended for patients with diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, glaucoma, herpes infections of the eye, cataracts, disorders of the cornea, and retinal disease. Discuss your general health status with your surgeon. A history of “dry eye” ...

  8. Metodología para incrementar el número de puntos experimentales en un diseño D-Óptimo / Methods for Increasing the Number of Experimental Points on a D-Optimal Design

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sindi, Argumedo Galván; Víctor Ignacio, López-Ríos.

    2014-07-30

    Full Text Available La finalidad de los diseños óptimos es determinar las condiciones experimentales adecuadas de tal forma que se pueda garantizar inferencias estadísticas lo más precisas posibles en términos de mínima varianza del vector de parámetros estimado. Esta teoría presupone el conocimiento de la función que [...] relaciona las variables explicativas con la variable respuesta, en esta situación, con frecuencia, se obtienen diseños con tantos puntos de soporte como parámetros tiene el modelo propuesto en la investigación. Dado que los diseños con p-puntos de soporte asumen que la función del modelo es conocida, éstos pueden llegar a ser no tan óptimos en algunas situaciones prácticas, debido a que no permiten probar la bondad de ajuste del modelo asumido [1]. En este artículo se presenta una generalización de la metodología propuesta en [2] para aumentar el número de puntos en el criterio D-optimalidad. Se encuentra una expresión para la varianza de la respuesta predicha en términos de una constante de ponderación ?, la cual permitirá determinar los puntos a adicionar al diseño D-óptimo. Se propone una estrategia para la elección de la constante ?. Finalmente se proporciona un diseño seudo-óptimo con p+s puntos de experimentación. Abstract in english The purpose of the optimum designs is to determine the optimal experimental conditions in terms of minimum variance of the estimated vector of parameters, so that statistical inferences can be generated as accurate as possible. This theory presupposes knowledge of the function relating the explanato [...] ry variables with the response variable. In this situation, usually get designs with support points as parameters in the model. Since p-point designs assume that the model function is known, these could not be optimal in some practical situations because they do not allow to test the goodness of fit of the assumed model [1]. In this paper we present a generalization of the methodology proposed by [2] to increase the number of support points in D-optimality criterion. An expression for the variance of the predicted response in terms of a constant ? will be provided, which allow to determine the points to be added to the D-optimal design. We propose a strategy for choosing ?. Finally we provide a pseudo-optimal design with (p + s) support points.

  9. Lateral Eye Movement and Cogitation in Junior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, Mark W.; Wichman, Harvey

    In a between-subject experimental design, 31 randomly selected junior high school students demonstrated lateral eye movement (LEM) immediately following the administration of each question in a group of questions, designed to alternately activate either the left or the right cerebral hemisphere. Because the subjects showed consistency in their…

  10. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion...

  11. Gray Eye Traffic Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Butalia #1, Durgesh Maru*2, Kuldeep Baheti*3, Avais Mohammad*4, Ankit Bagdiya*5

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gray Eye Traffic Surveillance (GETS is a system based on image processing technology and database processing for the purpose of Traffic Surveillance. This system is built specifically for India, where standard fonts and scripts for the number plates are rarely followed and corruption is a menace.This paper attempts to present a system to automate the entire process of traffic surveillance and curb corruption at the same time. A two way approach of developing a desktop and a web based mobile application is proposed. The desktop based application uses image processing technology to recognize the license number from image of vehicles captured by surveillance cameras and maintain a track log. The web based mobile application can be used by authorized traffic police to file complaints. The general public can log into this application to view their log and file complaints in case of any discrepancies. Different database schemas are used for various purpose like authentication, crime details, tracking system.

  12. Eyes of Ganges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005. Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  13. Design and Realization of Integrated Management System for Data Interoperability between Point-of-Care Testing Equipment and Hospital Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Sang; Heo, Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to design an integrated data management system based on the POCT1-A2, LIS2-A, LIS2-A2, and HL7 standard to ensure data interoperability between mobile equipment, such as point-of-care testing equipment and the existing hospital data system, its efficiency was also evaluated. Methods The method of this study was intended to design and realize a data management system which would provide a solution for the problems that occur when point-of-care testing equipment is introduced to existing hospital data, after classifying such problems into connectivity, integration, and interoperability. This study also checked if the data management system plays a sufficient role as a bridge between the point-of-care testing equipment and the hospital information system through connection persistence and reliability testing, as well as data integration and interoperability testing. Results In comparison with the existing system, the data management system facilitated integration by improving the result receiving time, improving the collection rate, and by enabling the integration of disparate types of data into a single system. And it was found out that we can solve the problems related to connectivity, integration and interoperability through generating the message in standardized types. Conclusions It is expected that the proposed data management system, which is designed to improve the integration point-of-care testing equipment with existing systems, will establish a solid foundation on which better medical service may be provided by hospitals by improving the quality of patient service. PMID:24175121

  14. Design and Study on Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking Control of the Chaos Embedded Particle Swarm Optimization for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Wind Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ho Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sliding mode extremum seeking control (SMESC of chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO Algorithm, applied to the design of maximum power point tracking in wind power systems. Its features are that the control parameters in SMESC are optimized by CEPSO, making it unnecessary to change the output power of different wind turbines, the designed in-repetition rate is reduced, and the system control efficiency is increased. The wind power system control is designed by simulation, in comparison with the traditional wind power control method, and the simulated dynamic response obtained by the SMESC algorithm proposed in this paper is better than the traditional hill-climbing search (HCS and extremum seeking control (ESC algorithms in the transient or steady states, validating the advantages and practicability of the method proposed in this paper.

  15. Eye movements - On-line measurement, analysis, and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliker, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper outlines the plans and progress related to the development of a Programmed Eye-track Recording System and Eye-coupled Ubiquitous Scene-generator known by the acronym PERSEUS. Particular attention is given to the design and implementation of a computer-based real-time eye-tracking system with associated digital scenic display capability. The accurate eye-tracker developed by Cornsweet and Crane (1973) is selected for this purpose. The discussion covers automatic detection of fixations and saccades, automatic scanpath analysis, fixation-conditional stimulation, and digital scene generation. The all-digital approach to scenic simulation not only eliminates the camera optics and electromechanical servomechanisms of TV-model systems of simulation but also opens the way to the virtually unlimited sequencing of data-base contents and perspectives thereof.

  16. Monitoring of eye lens doses in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainly due to the ICRP recommendation to decrease the exposure limit for eye lenses, the eye lens dosimetry has to be reconsidered. This paper gives an overview of the issues raised after this recommendation; that is to say, the choice and definition of the operational quantity to be monitored, the type testing and calibration of dosimeters aimed at measuring eyes lens 'doses', the design of existing eye lens dosimeters and their wearing conditions. Finally, a criterion to choose between a direct measurement of the personal dose equivalent at three millimeters depth, Hp(3), with a dedicated dosimeter, and an indirect evaluation of Hp(3) through whole-body monitoring is presented. (authors)

  17. Molecular-Level Dew-Point Simulation Methodology for Multi-Component Mixtures and Application to Refrigerant Cycle Design.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, Magda; Kowalski, M.; Smith, W. R.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2010, s. 1. ISBN N. [International Workshop "Molecular Modeling and Simulation for Industrial Applications".. Würzburg (DE), 22.03.2010-23.03.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : refrigerant cycle design * methodology * simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.processnet.org/index.php?id=1161&suffix=pdf&nonactive=1&lang=de&site=processnet_media

  18. Design of turn-around-point long-period gratings in a photonic crystal fiber for refractometry of gases.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ka?ka, Ji?í

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 182, ?. 6 (2013), s. 16-24. ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11030; GA MŠk(CZ) LF11001 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber design * Photonic crystal fiber * Microstructured optical fiber Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2013

  19. Perfect drain for the Maxwell fish eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfect imaging of electromagnetic waves using the Maxwell fish eye (MFE) requires a new concept: a point called the perfect drain that we shall call the perfect point drain. From the mathematical point of view, a perfect point drain is just like an ideal point source, except that it drains power from the electromagnetic field instead of generating it. We introduce here the perfect drain for the MFE as a dissipative region of non-zero size that completely drains the power from the point source. To accomplish this goal, the region must have a precise complex permittivity that depends on its size as well as on the frequency. The perfect point drain is obtained when the diameter of the perfect drain tends to zero. This interpretation of the perfect point drain is connected well with common concepts of electromagnetic theory, opening up both modeling in computer simulations and experimental verification of setups containing a perfect point drain.

  20. Methodology and concepts for the design of surface storage fills at the Anvil Points Oil Shale Retort Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohm, W.E. Jr.; Krinitzsky, E.L.

    1983-12-01

    Primary obtectives in design of surface disposal fills for processed and raw oil shales are: (a) to insure long-term physical stability, and (b) to prevent surface runoff, surface erosion, and possible subsurface seepage from degrading the water quality of streams and ground water, it was concluded that the analysis and design of spent shale disposal fills should be based on sound geotechnical engineeering principles, considerable experience, and good judgment. An understanding of the source of variability of spent shale materials and its effect on engineering properties is a first step in developing fill design. A second important step is the assessment of long-term changes in the properties of spent shale within a disposal fill. This assessment requires consideration of possible thermal, hydrochemical, and physical interactions within the fill and between the fill and site environment. The site environment is site-specific and depends on the geological, surface and subsurface hydrological, and geotechnical characteristics of the site. The variability of spent shale materials is a direct function of variations in mineral and chemical composition of the raw shale and of the processes applied. Current technology for the design and construction of spent shale disposal fills has not been proven by experience. A major problem is the large quantities of spent shale generated for surface disposal and the lack of available sites other than large gulches in the oil shale country of the western United States. Conceptual research fill designs developed in this study should be refined and constructed to provide needed information on in situ properties and long-term performance. Research fills planned by others should be augmented to obtain needed information, especially for codisposal of spent shales with treated waste water, raw shale fines, and process dust.

  1. Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anesthesia for Adults Having Eye Surgery En Español What kinds of anesthesia are available for adults having eye surgery? A “ ...

  2. Fast methodology to design the optimal collection point locations and number of waste bins: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Goran; Jovicic, Nebojsa

    2015-12-01

    This paper concerns the development of a methodology aimed at determining the optimal number of waste bins as well optimizing the location of collection points. The methodology was based on a geographic information system, which handled different sets of information, such as street directions, spatial location of objects and number of inhabitants, location of waste bins, and radius of their coverage. The study was conducted in a district in the central area of the city of Kragujevac. Due to a lack of information about the existing situation, all necessary data was collected by fieldwork and by using GPS equipment. By using the developed methodology, the results indicated a reduction of 24% in the number of collection points and 33.5% in the number of waste bins, without reducing the quality of the provided services. It has led to cost and time savings for waste collection and environmental benefits. All users of the services were covered within a 75-m radius, and the usage of bins is more efficient. According to the reduction in the number of waste bins, a total amount of €26?000 may be achieved. In addition, the time for waste collection was reduced, resulting in a €1700 saving per year in fuel costs, as well as 4.5?tons of emitted CO2 into the atmosphere. PMID:26467320

  3. Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Gregorio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m.

  4. An Appearance based Method for Eye Gaze Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Sheela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Gaze estimation systems compute the direction of eye gaze based on observed eye movements. The need for gaze-contingent applications is the basis of the current research work. The gaze pointing systems is a substitute for the existing input devices. Approach: The gaze tracking methods are either feature based or appearance based. In this study, an appearance based approach for gaze tracking is proposed based on Run Length Coding (RLC. The experiment was conducted considering transitional changes and the class-intervals in iris pixels. The image acquisition begins from the center of the screen in anticlockwise direction. The center of the screen was the pivot point. Results: Using RLC, the recognition rate of 95% was achieved. The image analysis in different directions determines the gaze point. The directions was determined with respect to the pivot point. Conclusion: The proposed system provides a robust, less computational gaze tracking method using web camera.

  5. Design and implementation of a beam-waveguide mirror control system for vernier pointing of the DSS-13 antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. S.; Moore, M.; Veruttipong, W.; Andres, E.

    1994-01-01

    The design and implementation of an antenna beam-waveguide (BWG) mirror position control system at the DSS-13 34-m antenna is presented. While it has several potential applications, a positioner on the last flat-plate BWG mirror (M6) at DSS 13 is installed to demonstrate the conical scan (conscan) angle-tracking technique at the Ka-band (32-GHz) operating frequency. Radio frequency (RF) beam-scanning predictions for the M6 mirror, computed from a diffraction analysis, are presented. From these predictions, position control system requirements are then derived. The final mechanical positioner and servo system designs, as implemented at DSS 13, are illustrated with detailed design descriptions given in the appendices. Preliminary measurements of antenna Ka-band beam scan versus M6 mirror tilt made at DSS 13 in December 1993 are presented. After reduction, the initial measurements are shown to be in agreement with the RF predicts. Plans for preliminary conscan experimentation at DSS 13 are summarized.

  6. RPE Cell and Sheet Properties in Normal and Diseased Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Alia; Bhatia, Shagun K; Mazzitello, Karina I; Chrenek, Micah A; Zhang, Qing; Boatright, Jeffrey H; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Jiang, Yi; Nickerson, John M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) morphology found spatial differences in density: a high density of cells in the macula, decreasing peripherally. Because the RPE sheet is not perfectly regular, we anticipate that there will be differences between conditions and when and where damage is most likely to begin. The purpose of this study is to establish relationships among RPE morphometrics in age, cell location, and disease of normal human and AMD eyes that highlight irregularities reflecting damage. Cadaveric eyes from 11 normal and 3 age-related macular degeneration (AMD) human donors ranging from 29 to 82 years of age were used. Borders of RPE cells were identified with phalloidin. RPE segmentation and analysis were conducted with CellProfiler. Exploration of spatial point patterns was conducted using the "spatstat" package of R. In the normal human eye, with increasing age, cell size increased, and cells lost their regular hexagonal shape. Cell density was higher in the macula versus periphery. AMD resulted in greater variability in size and shape of the RPE cell. Spatial point analysis revealed an ordered distribution of cells in normal and high spatial disorder in AMD eyes. Morphometrics of the RPE cell readily discriminate among young vs. old and normal vs. diseased in the human eye. The normal RPE sheet is organized in a regular array of cells, but AMD exhibited strong spatial irregularity. These findings reflect on the robust recovery of the RPE sheet after wounding and the circumstances under which it cannot recover. PMID:26427486

  7. Evaluation of different projectiles in matched experimental eye impact simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Kennedy, Eric A; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-03-01

    Eye trauma results in 30,000 cases of blindness each year in the United States and is the second leading cause of monocular visual impairment. Eye injury is caused by a wide variety of projectile impacts and loading scenarios with common sources of trauma being motor vehicle crashes, military operations, and sporting impacts. For the current study, 79 experimental eye impact tests in literature were computationally modeled to analyze global and localized responses of the eye to a variety of blunt projectile impacts. Simulations were run with eight different projectiles (airsoft pellets, baseball, air gun pellets commonly known as BBs, blunt impactor, paintball, aluminum, foam, and plastic rods) to characterize effects of the projectile size, mass, geometry, material properties, and velocity on eye response. This study presents a matched comparison of experimental test results and computational model outputs including stress, energy, and pressure used to evaluate risk of eye injury. In general, the computational results agreed with the experimental results. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to establish the stress and pressure thresholds that best discriminated for globe rupture in the matched experimental tests. Globe rupture is predicted by the computational simulations when the corneoscleral stress exceeds 17.21 MPa or the vitreous pressure exceeds 1.01 MPa. Peak stresses were located at the apex of the cornea, the limbus, or the equator depending on the type of projectile impacting the eye. A multivariate correlation analysis revealed that area-normalized kinetic energy was the best single predictor of peak stress and pressure. Additional incorporation of a relative size parameter that relates the projectile area to the area of the eye reduced stress response variability and may be of importance in eye injury prediction. The modeling efforts shed light on the injury response of the eye when subjected to a variety of blunt projectile impacts and further validate the eye model's ability to predict globe rupture. Results of this study are relevant to the design and regulation of safety systems and equipment to protect against eye injury. PMID:21303178

  8. Gender inequality in vision loss and eye diseases: Evidence from the Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Khandekar Rajiv; Mohammed A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose : The data from surveys of vision loss and monitoring of services were used to assess changes in gender inequality in Oman. Study Design : Retrospective review of data collection instruments. Materials and Method : The data sets of 12 years between 1996 and 2007 were abstracted to assess the gender equality for vision loss, eye disease prevalence, and service use. They included two surveys (1996 and 2005), Health Information from eye units (1998 and 2007), and eye screening i...

  9. Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hübner, N.-O.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions.

  10. Robust stability analysis and dynamic gain-scheduled controller design for point time-delay systems with parametrical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Sen, M.

    2008-08-01

    This paper discusses linear fractional representations (LFR) of parameter-dependent nonlinear systems with real-rational nonlinearities and point-delayed dynamics. Sufficient conditions for robust global asymptotic stability independent of the delays and the existence of a robust stabilizing gain-scheduled dynamic controller are investigated via linear matrix inequalities. Such inequalities are obtained from the values of the time-derivatives of appropriate Lyapunov functions at all the vertices of the polytope which contains the parametrized uncertainties. The synthesized stabilizing controller consists of an interpolation being performed with the stabilizing controllers at the set of vertices of a certain polytope where the nonlinear-rational parametrization belongs to. Some extensions are also given concerning robust global asymptotic stability dependent of the delays. Numerical examples corroborate the usefulness of the proposed formalism and its applicability to practical related problems.

  11. Single eye or camera with depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2012-10-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by a short photoconducting lossi lightguide section at each pixel. The eye or camera lens selects the object point who's range is to be determined at the pixel. Light arriving at an image point trough a convex lens adds constructively only if it comes from the object point that is in focus at this pixel.. Light waves from all other object points cancel. Thus the lightguide at this pixel receives light from one object point only. This light signal has a phase component proportional to the range. The light intensity modes and thus the photocurrent in the lightguides shift in response to the phase of the incoming light. Contacts along the length of the lightguide collect the photocurrent signal containing the range information. Applications of this camera include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. An interesting application is as part of a crude teleportation system consisting of this camera and a three dimensional printer at a remote location.

  12. Hospital epidemiology of dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana A

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred consecutive cases of dry eye were studied to comment upon its epidemiological aspects. The incidence of dry eye amongst ophthalmic outpatients was 0.46% with a male:female ratio of 1:1.22. Fifty seven percent of the patients were above 50 years of age. The incidence was higher amongst outdoor workers and people from rural areas with poor socioeconomic status. The influence of hot and dry climate and nutritional status on dry eye incidence is discussed.

  13. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close to emmetropia were included in a cross-sectional set-up (age 4-20 years, 91 males, 69 females), and (ii) 78 longitudinal data sets (67 male and 11 female annual repeat exams over 2-7 years, n=30; age span 4...

  14. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mead

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs, MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC, adipose tissues (ADSC and dental pulp (DPSC, together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment.

  15. The interblink interval in normal and dry eye subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston PR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith J Lane,1 George Ousler,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Our aim was to extend the concept of blink patterns from average interblink interval (IBI to other aspects of the distribution of IBI. We hypothesized that this more comprehensive approach would better discriminate between normal and dry eye subjects.Methods: Blinks were captured over 10 minutes for ten normal and ten dry eye subjects while viewing a standardized televised documentary. Fifty-five blinks were analyzed for each of the 20 subjects. Means, standard deviations, and autocorrelation coefficients were calculated utilizing a single random effects model fit to all data points and a diagnostic model was subsequently fit to predict probability of a subject having dry eye based on these parameters.Results: Mean IBI was 5.97 seconds for normal versus 2.56 seconds for dry eye subjects (ratio: 2.33, P = 0.004. IBI variability was 1.56 times higher in normal subjects (P < 0.001, and the autocorrelation was 1.79 times higher in normal subjects (P = 0.044. With regard to the diagnostic power of these measures, mean IBI was the best dry eye versus normal classifier using receiver operating characteristics (0.85 area under curve (AUC, followed by the standard deviation (0.75 AUC, and lastly, the autocorrelation (0.63 AUC. All three predictors combined had an AUC of 0.89. Based on this analysis, cutoffs of ?3.05 seconds for median IBI, and ?0.73 for the coefficient of variation were chosen to classify dry eye subjects.Conclusion: (1 IBI was significantly shorter for dry eye patients performing a visual task compared to normals; (2 there was a greater variability of interblink intervals in normal subjects; and (3 these parameters were useful as diagnostic predictors of dry eye disease. The results of this pilot study merit investigation of IBI parameters on a larger scale study in subjects with dry eye and other ocular surface disorders.Keywords: dry eye, interblink intervals, visual function, visual tasks, diagnostic model

  16. Health claims database study of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion treatment patterns in dry eye patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stonecipher KG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Karl G Stonecipher,1 Jenny Chia,2 Ahunna Onyenwenyi,2 Linda Villanueva,2 David A Hollander2 1TLC Laser Eye Centers, Greensboro, NC, 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye is a multifactorial, symptomatic disease associated with ocular surface inflammation and tear film hyperosmolarity. This study was designed to assess patterns of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis® use in dry eye patients and determine if there were any differences in use based on whether dry eye is physician-coded as a primary or nonprimary diagnosis. Methods: Records for adult patients with a diagnosis of dry eye at an outpatient visit from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009 were selected from Truven Health MarketScan® Research Databases. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients with at least one primary versus no primary dry eye diagnosis who filled a topical cyclosporine prescription. Data analyzed included utilization of topical corticosteroids, oral tetracyclines, and punctal plugs. Results: The analysis included 576,416 patients, accounting for 875,692 dry eye outpatient visits: 74.7% were female, 64.2% were ages 40-69 years, and 84.4% had at least one primary dry eye diagnosis. During 2008–2009, 15.9% of dry eye patients with a primary diagnosis versus 6.5% with no primary diagnosis filled at least one cyclosporine prescription. For patients who filled at least one prescription, the mean months’ supply of cyclosporine filled over 12 months was 4.44. Overall, 33.9% of dry eye patients filled a prescription for topical cyclosporine, topical corticosteroid, or oral tetracycline over 2 years. Conclusion: Patients with a primary dry eye diagnosis were more likely to fill a topical cyclosporine prescription. Although inflammation is key to the pathophysiology of dry eye, most patients seeing a physician for dry eye may not receive anti-inflammatory therapies. Keywords: corticosteroids, cyclosporine, dry eye syndromes, inflammation, medication adherence

  17. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye ... right eye care provider for your condition or treatment. Are You Fit at 40? A baseline eye ...

  18. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Tweet ... eye care provider for your condition or treatment. Are You Fit at 40? A baseline eye exam ...

  19. People with Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye ... 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for ...

  20. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Floaters & Flashes Glaucoma Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Low Vision Myopia (Nearsightedness) Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) Presbyopia (Aging Eye) Stye ... 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for ...

  1. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to 60 Adults Over 60 Babies, Children & Teenagers Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening ... Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes During Pregnancy Computer Usage & Eye Strain Maintaining Your Sight with Diabetes ...

  2. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alerts Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries Healthy Eyes ... permanent loss of your eyelashes. Hold the Rib Eye Don’t put raw meat on a black ...

  3. Eye hazards of environmental lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1950s and 1960s it became clear that the nuclear fireball and lasers could cause thermal retinal injury; at that time, the reference of Verhoeff, Bell, and Walker was often cited to argue that solar eclipse blindness (solar retinitis) was also a thermal retinal injury. It was not until 1975 that it became clear that a photochemical mechanism for retinal injury was possible for lengthy exposures in the primate or human eye. The potential for photochemical injury of the retina suggests the possibilities of delayed effects, and a considerable research effort has been underway over the last decade to study the implications for retinal degradation by intense light. The lens can undergo changes leading to cataract following exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although acute UVR injury of the cornea (photokeratitis) has been recognized since the early part of this century, the link between UVR and cataract has long been a point of controversy. Today, most scientists studying optical radiation hazards conclude that UVR is a causative factor in some forms of cataract. Differences of opinion arise as to the exact wavelength range that is effective (i.e., UVA: 315-400 nm and/or UVB: 280-315 nm). Pitts and colleagues have shown that only a very narrow band of UVR wavelengths between 295 and 320 nm appear to be effective in causing acute cataract in experimental animals. Epidemiological studies of cataract incidence appear to show that UVR is a causative factor, despite the fact that at least one investigator had concluded that high ambient temperature was a more likely causative factor than UVR. This author has recently completed a study of UVR exposures in the outdoor environment that would support the epidemiologic studies of UVR induction of cataract

  4. Design of Phase Array Antenna Using Least Mean Square Algorithm: The Use of Point Sources and Micro-strip Patch Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abubakar Mas’ud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a phased array antenna was designed using modified Least Mean Square algorithm, to adaptively track incident signals from satellite. The algorithms would form the beam perfectly and the main beam will be centered at the location of the desired signal and the nulls will be located at exactly the direction of the unwanted signals. The main beam and nulls would be steered toward incident signals automatically during adaptation process. The phased linear array using both point sources and micro-strip rectangular patch was designed. 8-elements with 0.5 wavelength separation were used. It was found that with micro-strip antenna sources placed along one of the axis, the algorithm gives a lower side lobe which gives best cancellation of interferers from other satellites with higher directivity and lower half-power beam widths.

  5. Eyes on the Solar System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eyes on the Solar System is a software package developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology using data provided by NASA's...

  6. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze on the interaction object while interacting. This method has been implemented on a head-mounted eye tracker for detecting a set of predefined head gestures. The accuracy of the gesture classifier is evaluated and verified for gaze-based interaction in applications intended for both large public displays and small mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.

  7. Building the eye care team

    OpenAIRE

    Thulasiraj Ravilla; Gnanasekaran Chinnathambi

    2014-01-01

    Eye care services are people intensive. They require the right people (competence), in the right numbers (capacity), in the right mix (team) with the right resources and processes (enabling conditions) to ensure effective and sustainable delivery of patient care.

  8. Eye-based head gestures for interaction in the car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we suggest using a new method for head gesture recognition in the automotive context. This method involves using only the eye tracker for measuring the head movements through the eye movements when the gaze point is fixed. It allows for identifying a wide range of head gestures that can be used as an alternative input in the multimodal interaction context. Two approaches are described for using this method for interaction with objects inside or outside the car. Some application examples are described where the discrete or continuous head movements in combination with the driver’s visual attention can be used for controlling the objects inside the car.

  9. A pain in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, Karen R; Kosmorsky, Gregory S; Lee, Michael S; Friedman, Deborah I

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with chronic left retro-orbital pain and photophobia. Palpation of the left occipital prominence revealed tenderness in the area of the greater occipital nerve and reproduced the eye pain. The diagnosis of cervicogenic headache was confirmed by symptom resolution following left greater occipital nerve blockade. The functional association between the greater occipital nerve and the trigeminal nerve provides a potential mechanism for this case of cervicogenic eye pain. PMID:24837852

  10. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements: fixations, saccades and smooth pursuits and three types of GDOs: static, dynamic, or absent. This taxonomy is qualified through related research and is the first main contribution of this paper. The second ...

  11. Eye Movements, Perceptual Span, and Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith

    1983-01-01

    Research is reviewed on eye movements during reading, on the perceptual span and control of eye movements during normal reading, and on the nature of eye movements in dyslexia. Rather than the cause of dyslexia, eye movements are said to reflect underlying cognitive or neurological problems. (CL)

  12. Antioxidants and Age-Related Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lenses Diet and Nutrition UV Protection Resources for Teachers 3D Vision & Eye Health Classroom Exercises How Your Eyes Work Reading and Vision Marketplace Home > Patients & Public > Caring for Your Vision > Nutrition > Antioxidants & Age-Related Eye Disease Antioxidants & Age-Related Eye Disease PDF Version (389 ...

  13. 14 CFR 67.103 - Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eye. 67.103 Section 67.103 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.103 Eye. Eye standards for a first-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/20 or better in each eye separately,...

  14. 14 CFR 67.303 - Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eye. 67.303 Section 67.303 Aeronautics and... AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.303 Eye. Eye standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are: (a) Distant visual acuity of 20/40 or better in each eye separately,...

  15. Cluster eye camera using microlenses on parabolic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-Kai; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2013-10-01

    There are two main types of imaging systems that exist in nature: the single aperture eye and the compound eye. Usually, cameras and most of artificial imaging systems are similar to the single aperture eye. But compound lenses can be more compact than single lenses. Our design is based on insect compound eyes, which also have a wide field of view (FOV). With the rise of micro-optical techniques, fabricating compound lenses has become easier. The simplest form of a curved microlens array is a parabolic surface. In this paper, we proposed a multi-channel imaging system, which combines the principles of the insect compound eye and the human eye. The optical system enables the reduction of track length of the imaging optics to achieve miniaturization. With the aid of optical engineering software ZEMAX, the multi-channel structure is simulated by a curved microlens array, and we use a Hypergon lens as the main lens to simulate the human eye, which can achieve the purpose of the wide FOV. With this architecture, each microlens of a microlens array transmits a segment of the overall FOV. The partial images that are separately recorded in different channels are stitched together to form the final image of the whole FOV by software processing. A 2.74 mm thin imaging system with 59 channels and 90° FOV is optimized using ZEMAX sequential ray tracing software on a 6.16 mm × 4.62 mm image plane. Finally, we will discuss the simulation results of this system and compare it with the optical cluster eye system and a mobile phone patent.

  16. Design of a Novel Low Cost Point of Care Tampon (POCkeT) Colposcope for Use in Resource Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christopher T.; Krieger, Marlee S.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Asma, Betsy; Muasher, Lisa C.; Schmitt, John W.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines by WHO for cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries involves visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) of the cervix, followed by treatment during the same visit or a subsequent visit with cryotherapy if a suspicious lesion is found. Implementation of these guidelines is hampered by a lack of: trained health workers, reliable technology, and access to screening facilities. A low cost ultra-portable Point of Care Tampon based digital colposcope (POCkeT Colposcope) for use at the community level setting, which has the unique form factor of a tampon, can be inserted into the vagina to capture images of the cervix, which are on par with that of a state of the art colposcope, at a fraction of the cost. A repository of images to be compiled that can be used to empower front line workers to become more effective through virtual dynamic training. By task shifting to the community setting, this technology could potentially provide significantly greater cervical screening access to where the most vulnerable women live. The POCkeT Colposcope’s concentric LED ring provides comparable white and green field illumination at a fraction of the electrical power required in commercial colposcopes. Evaluation with standard optical imaging targets to assess the POCkeT Colposcope against the state of the art digital colposcope and other VIAM technologies. Results Our POCkeT Colposcope has comparable resolving power, color reproduction accuracy, minimal lens distortion, and illumination when compared to commercially available colposcopes. In vitro and pilot in vivo imaging results are promising with our POCkeT Colposcope capturing comparable quality images to commercial systems. Conclusion The POCkeT Colposcope is capable of capturing images suitable for cervical lesion analysis. Our portable low cost system could potentially increase access to cervical cancer screening in limited resource settings through task shifting to community health workers. PMID:26332673

  17. Feature matching method study for uncorrected fish-eye lens image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baofeng; Jia, Yanhui; Röning, Juha; Feng, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    Because of the further from the center of image the lower resolution and the severe non-linear distortion are the characteristics of uncorrected fish-eye lens image, the traditional feature matching method can't achieve good performance in the applications of fish-eye lens, which correct distortion firstly and then matches the features in image. Center-symmetric Local Binary Pattern (CS-LBP) is a kind of descriptor based on grayscale information from neighborhood, which has high ability of grayscale invariance and rotation invariance. In this paper, CS-LBP will be combined with Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) to solve the problem of feature point matching on uncorrected fish-eye image. We first extract the interest points in the pair of fish-eye images by SIFT, and then describe the corresponding regions of the interest points through CS-LBP. Finally the similarity of the regions will be evaluated using the chi-square distance to get the only pair of points. For the specified interest point, the corresponding point in another image can be found out. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a satisfying matching performance in uncorrected fish-eye lens image. The study of this article will be useful to enhance the applications of fish-eye lens in the field of 3D reconstruction and panorama restoration.

  18. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As designated points of entry (PoEs play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005. This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK by applying a new, practicable model. Design: An IHR PoE program was initiated for implementing the IHR core capacities at designated PoEs. The main methods of this program were 1 identifying the designated PoEs according to the pre-determined criteria, 2 identifying the competent authority for each health measure, 3 building a close collaborative relationship between stakeholders from the central and PoE level, 4 designing three stages of systematic assessment using the assessment tool published by the World Health Organization (WHO, and 5 undertaking action plans targeting the gaps identified by the assessments. Results: Results of the self-assessment, preliminary external assessment, and follow-up external assessment revealed a continuous progressive trend at the TIA (86, 91, and 100%, respectively, and at the PoK (77, 97, and 99.9%, respectively. The results of the follow-up external assessment indicated that both these designated PoEs already conformed to the IHR requirements. These achievements were highly associated with strong collaboration, continuous empowerment, efficient resource integration, and sustained commitments. Conclusions: Considering that many countries had requested for an extension on the deadline to fulfill the IHR 2005 core capacity requirements, Taiwan's experiences can be a source of learning for countries striving to fully implement these requirements. Further, in order to broaden the scope of public health protection into promoting global security, Taiwan will keep its commitments on multisectoral cooperation, human resource capacity building, and maintaining routine and emergency capacities.

  19. Model-Based Eye Detection and Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Guerrero, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we present a system to extract the eye motion from a video stream containing a human face and applying this eye motion into a virtual character. By the notation eye motion estimation, we mean the information which describes the location of the eyes in each frame of the video stream. Applying this eye motion estimation into a virtual character, we achieve that the virtual face moves the eyes in the same way than the human face, synthesizing eye motion into a virtual character. I...

  20. Eye Health and Safety Among Latino Farmworkers

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Amit; Schulz, Mark R.; Quandt, Sara A.; Robinson, Erin N.; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; CHEN, HAIYING; ARCURY, THOMAS A.

    2011-01-01

    Farmworkers face a variety of risk factors for eye injuries. Measures of eye protection use and of eye safety knowledge and beliefs are based on a survey of 300 Latino farmworkers in North Carolina. Few farmworkers report using eye protection (8.3%); most (92.3%) report that employers do not provide eye protection. Approximately 70% report that they are not trained in preventing eye injuries; 81% believe that their chances of getting an eye injury are low. Many farmworkers choose to take risk...

  1. Eye gaze in intelligent user interfaces gaze-based analyses, models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Yukiko I; Bader, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in eye-tracking technologies opened the way to design novel attention-based intelligent user interfaces, and highlighted the importance of better understanding of eye-gaze in human-computer interaction and human-human communication. For instance, a user's focus of attention is useful in interpreting the user's intentions, their understanding of the conversation, and their attitude towards the conversation. In human face-to-face communication, eye gaze plays an important role in floor management, grounding, and engagement in conversation.Eye Gaze in Intelligent User Interfac

  2. Testing of the Safety and the Effectiveness of Using Samjeong Pharmacopuncture Solution as Eye drops

    OpenAIRE

    Seo Hyung-Sik; Lee Dong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This experimental study was designed to investigate the safety and the effectiveness of Samjeong pharmacopuncture solution (SPS) manufactured by using a the lowtemperature extract on process. Methods: To identify the safety and the effectiveness of using SPS as eye drops, we performed applied eye irritation tests on rabbits and antibacterial tests for Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysp...

  3. Optimizations and Applications in Head-Mounted Video-Based Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Video-based eye tracking techniques have become increasingly attractive in many research fields, such as visual perception and human-computer interface design. The technique primarily relies on the positional difference between the center of the eye's pupil and the first-surface reflection at the cornea, the corneal reflection (CR). This…

  4. Eye Injuries in Canadian Racquet Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Thomas J.; Bishop, Patrick J.; Easterbrook, W. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Racquet sports eye injuries have increased steadily in recent years. To determine the magnitude of the problem, the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Athletic Eye Injury Committee has sent questionnaires to COS members since 1976 to be completed for all racquet sports eye injuries treated. In the first year of the questionnaire 48 injuries were reported, including three legally blind eyes. From July 1978 to May 1981, 154 squash and 91 racquetball eye injuries were reported. Half the inj...

  5. Trustworthy-Looking Face Meets Brown Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Kleisner, Karel; Priplatova, Lenka; Frost, Peter; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the eff...

  6. Eye Detection System using Orientation Histogram

    OpenAIRE

    Nwe Ni San, Nyein Aye

    2013-01-01

    Face alignment is an important issue in face recognition systems. The performance of the face recognition system depends on the accuracy of face alignment. Since face alignment is usually conducted using eye positions, an accurate eye localization algorithm is essential for accurate face recognition. In many applications like eye-gaze tracking, iris detection for security system, the eye detection is also necessitated. In this paper, we propose a new eye detection system which can accurately ...

  7. Diretrizes para seleção de projetistas e avaliação da prestação do serviço de projeto de edificações na visão do contratante / Guidelines for designers selection and evaluation of the design service from the building developer point of view

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathália de, Paula; Celso Carlos, Novaes.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da prestação do serviço de projeto de edificações pode fomentar a relação entre os contratados (projetistas) e os contratantes (incorporador-construtor). Os resultados advindos da avaliação possibilitam a observação das dificuldades porventura ocorridas durante a prestação do serviço, a [...] análise do desempenho dos contratados, a retroalimentação de informações aos envolvidos, o planejamento de ações de melhorias e a seleção de projetistas em empreendimentos futuros. O objetivo deste trabalho é propor diretrizes para a seleção de projetistas e para a avaliação da PSP, sob a ótica do cliente contratante. Para esse fim, foram realizados estudos de caso em quatro empresas incorporadoras e construtoras e duas empresas de projeto da cidade de São Paulo. Os resultados mostram que as empresas incorporadoras e construtoras possuem suas práticas de seleção e avaliação de projetistas e que as empresas de projeto detêm práticas para avaliação da satisfação do cliente contratante. Ambos os tipos de avaliação mencionados - avaliação dos profissionais de projeto e da satisfação do cliente contratante - apresentam o mesmo objetivo: avaliar a prestação do serviço de projeto. A observação dessas práticas, somada à revisão bibliográfica realizada, contribuíram para a elaboração das diretrizes para a seleção de projetistas e para a avaliação da prestação do serviço de projeto. Abstract in english The evaluation of the building design service can improve the relationship between professionals (designers) and clients (real estate developers or construction companies). The evaluation results allow the observation of the difficulties that may have occurred during service provision, the assessmen [...] t of designers performance, provide feedback for the stakeholders, planning improvement actions, and the selection of designers for future projects. The aim of this study is to propose a set of guidelines for designer selection and design service evaluation from the building developer point of view. Case studies were carried out in four real estate developing companies and two design firms from the city of São Paulo. The results show that the builders and property developers have practices for designer selection and evaluation and that the design companies have practices for evaluating the satisfaction of their clients. Both types of evaluation - designer evaluation and evaluation of the contractor client satisfaction - have similar goals: to evaluate the design service. The observation of those practices and the literature review contributed to the elaboration of guidelines for designer selection and for the evaluation of the design service.

  8. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dietze, G, E-mail: rolf.behrens@ptb.d [Paracelsusstrasse 7, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-21

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  9. Severe dry-eye syndrome following external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are limited data in the literature on the probability of dry-eye complications according to radiotherapy dose. This study investigates the risk of radiation-induced severe dry-eye syndrome in patients in whom an entire orbit was exposed to fractionated external beam irradiation. Between October 1964 and May 1989, 33 patients with extracranial head and neck tumors received irradiation of an entire orbit. Most patients were treated with 60Co. The dose to the lacrimal apparatus was calculated at a depth of 1 cm from the anterior skin surface, the approximate depth of the major lacrimal gland. The end point of the study was severe dry-eye syndrome sufficient to produce visual loss secondary to corneal opacification, ulceration, or vascularization. Twenty patients developed severe dry-eye syndrome. All 17 patients who received dose ?57Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome. Three (19%) of 16 patients who received doses ?45 Gy developed severe dry-eye syndrome; injuries in the latter group were much more slower to develop (4 to 11 years) than in the higher dose group, in whom corneal vascularization and opacification were usually pronounced within 9-10 months. There were no data for the range of doses between 45.01 and 56.99 Gy. The data did not suggest an increased risk of severe dry-eye syndrome with increasing age. Data from the current series and the literature are combined to construct a sigmoid dose response curve. The incidence of injury increases from 0% reported after doses ?30 Gy to 100% after doses ?57 Gy. 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  10. USING EYE TRACKING TO MEASURE ONLINE INTERACTIVITY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana-Emilia ROBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding that each and every company, even the sweetshop around the corner has found its way to the Internet, some customers still hesitate to shop online or to shop from one site and ignore the other. In order to build an online effective communication between the participants, one of the most important factors is interactivity. In the last decade it received extensive attention in the marketing literature, but few are the studies which have seen new methods to measure it. Eye tracking technology has been broadly used in the cognitive sciences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existing literature in order to give insights into the eye tracking methodology when measuring the online interactivity. It also describes the eye tracking technology in general, extracts various examples from the eye tracking research field, with different applications, highlights its importance when analyzing the online consumer behavior, giving examples from various studies and finds the key points of the methodological difficulties. Finally, this work has an important merit for the future studies when taking into consideration the eye tracking technology in the online interactivity research and further, it is relevant for marketers, regarding the enhancement of online interactive interfaces and web or mobile applications.

  11. Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Videos from the National Eye Institute: Eye Diseases Past ... the early detection of eye disease. Share these videos with friends, family and colleagues. www.nei.nih. ...

  12. Eye-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past Issues / Spring 2015 ... new patient comes in because they scratched their eye while working in the yard, or they think ...

  13. Circuital model for the Maxwell Fish Eye perfect drain

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Juan C; Minano, Juan C; Benitez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Perfect drain for the Maxwell Fish Eye (MFE) is a non-magnetic dissipative region placed in the focal point to absorb all the incident radiation without reflection or scattering. The perfect drain was recently designed as a material with complex electrical permittivity that depends on frequency. However, this material is only a theoretical material, so it can not be used in practical devices. Recently, the perfect drain has been claimed as necessary to achieve super-resolution [Leonhard 2009, New J. Phys. 11 093040], which has increased the interest for practical perfect drains suitable for manufacturing. Here, we analyze the super-resolution properties of a device equivalent to the MFE, known as Spherical Geodesic Waveguide (SGW), loaded with the perfect drain. In the SGW the source and drain are implemented with coaxial probes. The perfect drain is realized using a circuit (made of a resistance and a capacitor) connected to the drain coaxial probes. Super-resolution analysis for this device is done in Comso...

  14. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  15. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  16. Tracking with the mind's eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, R. J.; Stone, L. S.

    1999-01-01

    The two components of voluntary tracking eye-movements in primates, pursuit and saccades, are generally viewed as relatively independent oculomotor subsystems that move the eyes in different ways using independent visual information. Although saccades have long been known to be guided by visual processes related to perception and cognition, only recently have psychophysical and physiological studies provided compelling evidence that pursuit is also guided by such higher-order visual processes, rather than by the raw retinal stimulus. Pursuit and saccades also do not appear to be entirely independent anatomical systems, but involve overlapping neural mechanisms that might be important for coordinating these two types of eye movement during the tracking of a selected visual object. Given that the recovery of objects from real-world images is inherently ambiguous, guiding both pursuit and saccades with perception could represent an explicit strategy for ensuring that these two motor actions are driven by a single visual interpretation.

  17. Making eye contact without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkirch, Marcus; Madipakkam, Apoorva Rajiv; Rehn, Erik; Sterzer, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    Direct gaze is a potent non-verbal signal that establishes a communicative connection between two individuals, setting the course for further interactions. Although consciously perceived faces with direct gaze have been shown to capture attention, it is unknown whether an attentional preference for these socially meaningful stimuli exists even in the absence of awareness. In two experiments, we recorded participants' eye movements while they were exposed to faces with direct and averted gaze rendered invisible by interocular suppression. Participants' inability to correctly guess the occurrence of the faces in a manual forced-choice task demonstrated complete unawareness of the faces. However, eye movements were preferentially directed towards faces with direct compared to averted gaze, indicating a specific sensitivity to others' gaze directions even without awareness. This oculomotor preference suggests that a rapid and automatic establishment of mutual eye contact constitutes a biological advantage, which could be mediated by fast subcortical pathways in the human brain. PMID:26133642

  18. Detection and localization of particle-emitting sources with compound-eye inspired detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi

    2007-08-01

    We develop methods to detect and localize particle-emitting sources using detector arrays that are inspired by biological compound eyes. The sources of interest may be optical, nuclear, or cosmic; they emit particles such as visible photons, neutrons, protons, or charged particles. Our results may have wide applications to artificial vision, which can be important in robotics (robot vision) or medicine (e.g., artificial eyes for the blind); security, where the detection of nuclear materials is needed; or astronomy. This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we detect a far-field particle source using two directional detector arrays: cubic and spherical. We propose a mean-difference test (MDT) detector, analyze its statistical performance, and show that the MDT has a number of advantages over the generalized likelihood- ratio test (GLRT). Second, we localize the source by proposing a novel biologically inspired detector array, whose configuration generalizes the compound eye of insects. This array combines the advantages of compound eyes (e.g., large field-of-view) and human eyes (e.g., high angular resolution). Based on a statistical model of the array measurements, we analyze the array performance by computing the Cramérao bound (CRB) on the error in estimating the source direction. We also derive lower bounds on the mean-square angular error (MSAE) of the source localization and investigate the MSAE of two source- direction estimators. Numerical examples, including the optimal array design, are presented to further illustrate the array performance. Third, we derive a statistical angular resolution limit (ARL) on resolving two closely spaced point sources in a three-dimensional frame, which is applicable to various measurement models (e.g., radar, sonar, or astronomy). Using the asymptotic analysis of the GLRT, we derive the ARL with constraints on the probabilities of false alarm and detection. Our results give explicit analytical expression for the ARL that is proportional to the square root of the CRB on the angular source separation, or equivalently to the lower bound on the MSAE.

  19. Perceptual Consequences of Elongated Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Guido; Harrison, William; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta; Bex, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Myopic eyes are elongated compared to the eyes of normally-sighted, emmetropic observers. This simple observation gives rise to an empirical question: what are the physiological and perceptual consequences of an elongated retinal surface? To address this question, we developed a geometric model of emmetropic and myopic retinae, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data [Atchison et al. (2005)], from which we derived psychophysically-testable predictions about visual function. We input range image data of natural scenes [Howe and Purves (2002)] to the geometric model to statistically estimate where in the visual periphery perception may be altered due to the different shapes of myopic and emmetropic eyes. The model predicts that central visual function should be similar for the two eye types, but myopic peripheral vision should differ regardless of optical correction. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the fall-off in contrast sensitivity with retinal eccentricity in emmetropes and best-corrected myopes. The full contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was assessed at 5, 10 and 15 degrees eccentricity using an adaptive testing procedure [Vul et al. (2010)]. Consistent with our model predictions, the area under the log CSF decreases in the periphery at a faster rate in best-corrected myopic observers than in emmetropes. Our modeling also revealed that a target at a given eccentricity projects onto a larger area of peripheral retinal for myopic than emmetropic eyes. This raises the possibility that crowding zones - the area over which features are integrated - may differ between eye types. We measured crowding zones at 5, 10 and 15 degrees of eccentricity using a 26 AFC letter identification task and found no significant differences between myopic and emmetropic observers. This suggests that crowding depends on spatial rather than retinal feature separation, which implies differences in the retino-cortical transformations in myopes and emmetropes. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325799

  20. Altered aquaporin expression in glaucoma eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Bek, Toke; Cour, Morten la; Nielsen, Søren; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) are channels in the cell membrane that mainly facilitate a passive transport of water. In the eye, AQPs are expressed in the ciliary body and retina and may contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma and optic neuropathy. We investigated the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP7 and AQP9 in human glaucoma eyes compared with normal eyes. Nine glaucoma eyes were examined. Of these, three eyes were diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma; three eyes had neovascular glaucoma...