Benford's Law and Continuous Dependent Random Variables
Becker, Thealexa; Miller, Steven J; Ronan, Ryan; Strauch, Frederick W
2011-01-01
Many systems exhibit a digit bias. For example, the first digit base 10 of the Fibonacci numbers, or of $2^n$, equals 1 not 10% or 11% of the time, as one would expect if all digits were equally likely, but about 30% of the time. This phenomenon, known as Benford's Law, has many applications, ranging from detecting tax fraud for the IRS to analyzing round-off errors in computer science. The central question is determining which data sets follow Benford's law. Inspired by natural processes such as particle decay, our work examines models for the decomposition of conserved quantities. We prove that in many instances the distribution of lengths of the resulting pieces converges to Benford behavior as the number of divisions grow. The main difficulty is that the resulting random variables are dependent, which we handle by a careful analysis of the dependencies and tools from Fourier analysis to obtain quantified convergence rates.
Convergence of series of dependent [phi]-subgaussian random variables
Giuliano Antonini, Rita; Kozachenko, Yuriy; Volodin, Andrei
2008-02-01
The almost sure convergence of weighted sums of [phi]-subgaussian m-acceptable random variables is investigated. As corollaries, the main results are applied to the case of negatively dependent and m-dependent subgaussian random variables. Finally, an application to random Fourier series is presented.
Central Limit Theorem for the Sum of a Random Number of Dependent Random Variables
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Yilun Shang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the central limit theorem for certain classes of dependent random variables is explored. The dependency structure, as defined in the class of random variables can be reflected in some physical phenomena. Sufficient conditions for the sum of a random number of dependent random variables tending to normality are provided.
Central Limit Theorem for the Sum of a Random Number of Dependent Random Variables
Yilun Shang
2011-01-01
In this study, the central limit theorem for certain classes of dependent random variables is explored. The dependency structure, as defined in the class of random variables can be reflected in some physical phenomena. Sufficient conditions for the sum of a random number of dependent random variables tending to normality are provided.
Central limit theorem for sampled sums of dependent random variables
Guillotin-Plantard, Nadine; Prieur, Clémentine
2007-01-01
Abstract We prove a central limit theorem for linear triangular arrays under weak dependence conditions. Our result is then applied to dependent random variables sampled by a ${\\mathbb Z}$-valued transient random walk. This extends the results obtained by [N. Guillotin-Plantard and D. Schneider, Stoch. Dynamics3 (2003) 477–497]. An application to parametric estimation by random sampling is also provided.
Stein's method for dependent random variables occurring in Statistical Mechanics
Eichelsbacher, Peter; Lo?we, Matthias
2009-01-01
We obtain rates of convergence in limit theorems of partial sums $S_n$ for certain sequences of dependent, identically distributed random variables, which arise naturally in statistical mechanics, in particular, in the context of the Curie-Weiss models. Under appropriate assumptions there exists a real number $\\alpha$, a positive real number $\\mu$, and a positive integer $k$ such that $(S_n- n \\alpha)/n^{1 - 1/2k}$ converges weakly to a random variable with density proportio...
Stein's method for dependent random variables occurring in Statistical Mechanics
Eichelsbacher, Peter
2009-01-01
We obtain rates of convergence in limit theorems of partial sums $S_n$ for certain sequences of dependent, identically distributed random variables, which arise naturally in statistical mechanics, in particular, in the context of the Curie-Weiss models. Under appropriate assumptions there exists a real number $\\alpha$, a positive real number $\\mu$, and a positive integer $k$ such that $(S_n- n \\alpha)/n^{1 - 1/2k}$ converges weakly to a random variable with density proportional to $\\exp(-\\mu |x|^{2k} /(2k)!)$. We develop Stein's method for exchangeable pairs for a rich class of distributional approximations including the Gaussian distributions as well as the non-Gaussian limit distributions with density proportional to $\\exp(-\\mu |x|^{2k} /(2k)!)$. Our results include the optimal Berry-Esseen rate in the Central Limit Theorem for the total magnetization in the classical Curie-Weiss model, for high temperatures as well as at the critical temperature $\\beta_c=1$, where the Central Limit Theorem fails. Moreover,...
A Strong Limit Theorem for Weighted Sums of Sequences of Negatively Dependent Random Variables
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Wu Qunying
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Applying the moment inequality of negatively dependent random variables which was obtained by Asadian et al. (2006, the strong limit theorem for weighted sums of sequences of negatively dependent random variables is discussed. As a result, the strong limit theorem for negatively dependent sequences of random variables is extended. Our results extend and improve the corresponding results of Bai and Cheng (2000 from the i.i.d. case to ND sequences.
Empirical Value at Risk for Weak Dependent Random Variables
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Samir Ben Hariz
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, we study the empirical estimator of the Value at Risk (VaR for short for weak dependent observations. Our approach uses the oscillation of the empirical process under hypothesis of moment's inequality. We provide general conditions which ensure the convergence of the empirical estimator of the VaR. We also prove a central limit theorem (CLT for the difference. We perform some simulations for different sequences to illustrate our results. Finally, we apply the results for different sequences under assumptions of mixing or covariance.
Central limit theorem for the Banach-valued weakly dependent random variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The central limit theorem (CLT) for the Banach-valued weakly dependent random variables is proved. In proving CLT convergence of finite-measured (i.e. cylindrical) distributions is established. A weak compactness of the family of measures generated by a certain sequence is confirmed. The continuity of the limiting field is checked
The Randomized Dependence Coefficient
Lopez-paz, David; Hennig, Philipp; Scho?lkopf, Bernhard
2013-01-01
We introduce the Randomized Dependence Coefficient (RDC), a measure of non-linear dependence between random variables of arbitrary dimension based on the Hirschfeld-Gebelein-R\\'enyi Maximum Correlation Coefficient. RDC is defined in terms of correlation of random non-linear copula projections; it is invariant with respect to marginal distribution transformations, has low computational cost and is easy to implement: just five lines of R code, included at the end of the paper.
An edgeworth expansion for a sum of M-Dependent random variables
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Wan Soo Rhee
1985-09-01
Full Text Available Given a sequence X1,X2,Ã¢Â€Â¦,Xn of m-dependent random variables with moments of order 3+ÃŽÂ±Ã¢Â€Â‰(0<ÃŽÂ±Ã¢Â‰Â¦1, we give an Edgeworth expansion of the distribution of SÃÂƒÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1(S=X1+X2+Ã¢Â€Â¦+Xn,Ã¢Â€Â‰ÃÂƒ2=ES2 under the assumption that E[exp(it SÃÂƒ1] is small away from the origin. The result is of the best possible order.
Dependence among complex random variables as a fuel cell condition indicator
Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana; Boškoski, Pavle; Debenjak, Andrej; Juri?i?, ?ani
2015-06-01
As various faults alter the PEM fuel cell impedance characteristic over a broad frequency range, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is frequently employed for the purpose of condition monitoring. The proposed methodology treats the impedance components among different frequencies as dependent complex random variables. The information about fuel cell condition is incorporated into the dependence structure of these complex random variables. This dependence is described through the corresponding joint cumulative density function by employing copula functions. The benefits of such an approach are threefold: (i) the estimation of the joint cumulative density function requires only several measurements of a fuel cell in a fault-free condition, (ii) the procedure is computationally efficient, and (iii) the output of the copula function is directly used as an overall unit-free condition indicator. The approach was evaluated on a kW-range PEM fuel cell stack subjected to water management faults of various severities. The results show that the ci corresponds with the severity of the induced faults.
On the characteristic function of a sum of M-dependent random variables
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Wansoo T. Rhee
1986-06-01
Full Text Available Let S=f1+f2+Ã¢Â€Â¦+fn be a sum of 1-dependent random variables of zero mean. Let ÃÂƒ2=ES2, L=ÃÂƒÃ¢ÂˆÂ’3Ã¢ÂˆÂ‘1Ã¢Â‰Â¦iÃ¢Â‰Â¦nE|fi|3. There is a universal constant a such that for a|t|L<1, we have|Eexp(itSÃÂƒÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1|Ã¢Â‰Â¦(1+a|t|sup{(a|t|LÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1/4lnL,Ã¢Â€Â‰Ã¢Â€Â‰Ã¢Â€Â‰exp(Ã¢ÂˆÂ’t2/80}.This bound is a very useful tool in proving Berry-Esseen theorems.
Paulin, Daniel
2012-01-01
We prove concentration inequalities for general functions of weakly dependent random variables satisfying the Dobrushin condition. In particular, we show Talagrand's convex distance inequality for this type of dependence. We apply our bounds to a version of the stochastic salesman problem, the Steiner tree problem, the total magnetisation of the Curie-Weiss model with external field, and exponential random graph models. Our proof uses the exchangeable pair method for proving...
Variable survival exponents in history-dependent random walks: hard movable reflector
Dickman, R; Dickman, Ronald; Jr, Francisco Fontenele Araujo; ben-Avraham, Daniel
2003-01-01
We review recent studies demonstrating a nonuniversal (continuously variable) survival exponent for history-dependent random walks, and analyze a new example, the hard movable partial reflector. These processes serve as a simplified models of infection in a medium with a history-dependent susceptibility, and for spreading in systems with an infinite number of absorbing configurations. The memory may take the form of a history-dependent step length, or be the result of a partial reflector whose position marks the maximum distance the walker has ventured from the origin. In each case, a process with memory is rendered Markovian by a suitable expansion of the state space. Asymptotic analysis of the probability generating function shows that, for large t, the survival probability decays as S(t) \\sim t^{-delta}, where \\delta varies with the parameters of the model. We report new results for a hard partial reflector, i.e., one that moves forward only when the walker does. When the walker tries to jump to the site R...
Variable survival exponents in history-dependent random walks: hard movable reflector
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Ronald, Dickman; Francisco Fontenele, Araujo Jr.; Daniel, ben-Avraham.
2003-09-01
Full Text Available We review recent studies demonstrating a nonuniversal (continuously variable) survival exponent for history-dependent random walks, and analyze a new example, the hard movable partial reflector. These processes serve as simplified models of infection in a medium with a history-dependent susceptibili [...] ty, and for spreading in systems with an infinite number of absorbing configurations. The memory may take the form of a historydependent step length, or be the result of a partial reflector whose position marks the maximum distance the walker has ventured from the origin. In each case, a process with memory is rendered Markovian by a suitable expansion of the state space. Asymptotic analysis of the probability generating function shows that, for large t, the survival probability decays as S(t) ~ t -d, where d varies with the parameters of the model. We report new results for a hard partial reflector, i.e., one that moves forward only when the walker does. When the walker tries to jump to the site R occupied by the reflector, it is reflected back with probability r, and stays at R with probability 1 - r; only in the latter case does the reflector move (R ® R+1). For this model, d = 1/2(1 - r), and becomes arbitrarily large as r approaches 1. This prediction is confirmed via iteration of the transition matrix, which also reveals slowly-decaying corrections to scaling.
Boutsikas, Michael V; 10.3150/09-BEJ201
2010-01-01
Let $X_1,X_2,...,X_n$ be a sequence of independent or locally dependent random variables taking values in $\\mathbb{Z}_+$. In this paper, we derive sharp bounds, via a new probabilistic method, for the total variation distance between the distribution of the sum $\\sum_{i=1}^nX_i$ and an appropriate Poisson or compound Poisson distribution. These bounds include a factor which depends on the smoothness of the approximating Poisson or compound Poisson distribution. This "smoothness factor" is of order $\\mathrm{O}(\\sigma ^{-2})$, according to a heuristic argument, where $\\sigma ^2$ denotes the variance of the approximating distribution. In this way, we offer sharp error estimates for a large range of values of the parameters. Finally, specific examples concerning appearances of rare runs in sequences of Bernoulli trials are presented by way of illustration.
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Anwer Khurshid
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.
Students' Misconceptions about Random Variables
Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias
2012-01-01
This article describes some misconceptions about random variables and related counter-examples, and makes suggestions about teaching initial topics on random variables in general form instead of doing it separately for discrete and continuous cases. The focus is on post-calculus probability courses. (Contains 2 figures.)
A Measure of Monotonicity of two Random Variables
Ilias Kachapov; Farida Kachapova
2012-01-01
Problem statement: When analyzing random variables it was useful to measure the degree of their monotone dependence or compare pairs of random variables with respect to their monotonicity. Existing coefficients measure general or linear dependence of random variables. Developing a measure of monotonicity was useful for practical applications as well as for general theory, since monotonicity was an important type of dependence. Approach: Existing measures of dependence are briefly reviewed. Th...
Randomness and Earth climate variability
Levinshtein, Michael E; Dmitriev, Alexander P; Shmakov, Pavel M
2015-01-01
Paleo-Sciences including palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology have accumulated numerous records related to climatic changes. The researchers have usually tried to identify periodic and quasi-periodic processes in these paleoscientific records. In this paper, we show that this analysis is incomplete. As follows from our results, random processes, namely processes with a single-time-constant (noise with a Lorentzian noise spectrum), play a very important and, perhaps, a decisive role in numerous natural phenomena. For several of very important natural phenomena the characteristic time constants are very similar and equal to (5-8)x10^3 years. However, this value is not universal. For example, the spectral density fluctuations of the atmospheric radiocarbon 14C are characterized by a Lorentzian with time constant 300 years. The frequency dependence of spectral density fluctuations for benthic 18O records contains two Lorentzians with time constans 8000 years and > 105 years.
A Measure of Monotonicity of two Random Variables
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Ilias Kachapov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: When analyzing random variables it was useful to measure the degree of their monotone dependence or compare pairs of random variables with respect to their monotonicity. Existing coefficients measure general or linear dependence of random variables. Developing a measure of monotonicity was useful for practical applications as well as for general theory, since monotonicity was an important type of dependence. Approach: Existing measures of dependence are briefly reviewed. The Reimann coefficient was generalized to arbitrary random variables with finite variances. Results: The article describes criteria for monotone dependence of two random variables and introduces a measure of this dependence-monotonicity coefficient. The advantages of this coefficient are shown in comparison with other global measures of dependence. It was shown that the monotonicity coefficient satisfies natural conditions for a monotonicity measure and that it had properties similar to the properties of the Pearson correlation; in particular, it equals 1 (-1 if and only if the pair X, Y was comonotonic (counter-monotonic. The monotonicity coefficient was calculated for some bivariate distributions and the sample version of the coefficient was defined. Conclusion/Recommendations: The monotonicity coefficient should be used to compare pairs of random variables (such as returns from financial assets with respect to their degree of monotone dependence. In the problems where the monotone relation of two variables has a random noise, the monotonicity coefficient can be used to estimate variance and other central moments of the noise. By calculating the sample version of the coefficient one will quickly find pairs of monotone dependent variables in a big dataset."
Conditional Variable Importance for Random Forests
Augustin Thomas; Kneib Thomas; Boulesteix Anne-Laure; Strobl Carolin; Zeileis Achim
2008-01-01
Abstract Background Random forests are becoming increasingly popular in many scientific fields because they can cope with "small n large p" problems, complex interactions and even highly correlated predictor variables. Their variable importance measures have recently been suggested as screening tools for, e.g., gene expression studies. However, these variable importance measures show a bias towards correlated predictor variables. Results We identify two mechanisms responsible for this finding...
Strong Decomposition of Random Variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann-JØrgensen, JØrgen; Kagan, Abram M.
2007-01-01
En stokastisk variabel X er stærkt dekombinerbar hvis X=Y+Z, hvor Y=?(X) og Z=X-?(X) er uafhængige og ikke-degenerede stokastiske variable (kaldet komponenterne). Det vises at mindst en af komponenterne nødvendigvis må være singulær, og der gives en nødvendig og tilstrækkelig betingelse for at en diskret stokastisk er stærkt dekombinerbar.
Unbalanced Bidding Problem with Fuzzy Random Variables
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Dongran Zang
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Unbalanced bidding problem with mixed uncertainty of fuzziness and randomness is considered in this paper, where the bidding engineering quantities of each activity are assumed to be fuzzy random variables. Two types of fuzzy random models as expected value maximization model and maximax chance-constrained model are built to satisfy different optimization requirements. Then a hybrid intelligent algorithm integrating fuzzy random simulations, neural network and genetic algorithm is designed to solve these models. Finally, a numerical experiment is given to illustrate its effectiveness of the algorithm. The results show that the algorithm is feasible and effective.
Promote the Use of Two-dimensional Continuous Random Variables Conditional Distribution
Feixue Huang; Cheng Li
2010-01-01
Conditional distribution reflects the dependency link among random variables, but two-dimensional random variables Conditional Distribution has some limitations. In order to rich the content of conditional distribution this paper gives the extension of conditional distribution and examples in the case of continuous random variables. For the given definition of conditional distribution of three-dimensional continuous random variables, it also gives the proof. This article obtains the extension...
Asymptotics for Associated Random Variables
Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo
2012-01-01
The book concerns the notion of association in probability and statistics. Association and some other positive dependence notions were introduced in 1966 and 1967 but received little attention from the probabilistic and statistics community. The interest in these dependence notions increased in the last 15 to 20 years, and many asymptotic results were proved and improved. Despite this increased interest, characterizations and results remained essentially scattered in the literature published in different journals. The goal of this book is to bring together the bulk of these results, presenting
Random forest automated supervised classification of Hipparcos periodic variable stars
Dubath, P.; Rimoldini, L.; Su?veges, M.; Blomme, J.; Lo?pez, M.; Sarro, L. M.; Ridder, J.; Cuypers, J.; Guy, L.; Lecoeur, I.; Nienartowicz, K.; Jan, A.; Beck, M.; Mowlavi, N.; Cat, P.
2011-01-01
We present an evaluation of the performance of an automated classification of the Hipparcos periodic variable stars into 26 types. The sub-sample with the most reliable variability types available in the literature is used to train supervised algorithms to characterize the type dependencies on a number of attributes. The most useful attributes evaluated with the random forest methodology include, in decreasing order of importance, the period, the amplitude, the V-I colour in...
Probabilistic graphs using coupled random variables
Kenric P. Nelson; Barbu, Madalina; Brian J. Scannell
2014-01-01
Neural network design has utilized flexible nonlinear processes which can mimic biological systems, but has suffered from a lack of traceability in the resulting network. Graphical probabilistic models ground network design in probabilistic reasoning, but the restrictions reduce the expressive capability of each node making network designs complex. The ability to model coupled random variables using the calculus of nonextensive statistical mechanics provides a neural node de...
Cardinality-dependent Variability in Orthogonal Variability Models
Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
2011-01-01
During our work on developing and running a software product line for eco-sustainable greenhouse-production software tools, which currently have three products members we have identified a need for extending the notation of the Orthogonal Variability Model (OVM) to support what we refer to as cardinality range dependencies. The cardinality-range-dependency type enables expressing that the binding of a certain number of variants to a variation point can influence variability in other places in...
Probability, random variables, and random processes theory and signal processing applications
Shynk, John J
2012-01-01
Probability, Random Variables, and Random Processes is a comprehensive textbook on probability theory for engineers that provides a more rigorous mathematical framework than is usually encountered in undergraduate courses. It is intended for first-year graduate students who have some familiarity with probability and random variables, though not necessarily of random processes and systems that operate on random signals. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate students who have a strong mathematical background. The book has the following features: Several app
A comparison inequality for sums of independent random variables
Montgomery-Smith, S J; Montgomery-Smith, Stephen; Pruss, Alexander R.
1998-01-01
We give a comparison inequality that allows one to estimate the tail probabilities of sums of independent Banach space valued random variables in terms of those of independent identically distributed random variables. More precisely, let X_1,...,X_n be independent Banach-valued random variables. Let I be a random variable independent of X_1,...,X_n and uniformly distributed over {1,...,n}. Put Z_1 = X_I, and let Z_2,...,Z_n be independent identically distributed copies of Z_1. Then, P(||X_1+...+X_n|| > t) t/c), for all t>0, where c is an absolute constant.
A comparison inequality for sums of independent random variables
Montgomery-smith, Stephen; Pruss, Alexander R.
1998-01-01
We give a comparison inequality that allows one to estimate the tail probabilities of sums of independent Banach space valued random variables in terms of those of independent identically distributed random variables. More precisely, let X_1,...,X_n be independent Banach-valued random variables. Let I be a random variable independent of X_1,...,X_n and uniformly distributed over {1,...,n}. Put Z_1 = X_I, and let Z_2,...,Z_n be independent identically distributed copies of Z_...
COVAL - A computer code for random variables - How to use
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
COVAL CODE computes the probability distribution of a function of random variables given the probability distribution of these variables. The code is divided in two steps. The first step COVAL 1, computes functions in which each variable is contained only once. The second step COVAL 2, computes functions in which variables can be repeated
Nonparametric regression for binary dependent variables
Markus Froelich
2004-01-01
revised version of Discussion paper 2001-12#### Finite-sample properties of nonparametric regression for binary dependent variables are analyzed. Nonparametric regression is generally considered as highly variable in small samples when the number of regressors is large. In binary choice models, however, it may be more reliable since its variance is bounded. The precision in estimating conditional means as well as marginal effects is investigated in settings with many explanatory variables (14...
Quantifying Redundant Information in Predicting a Target Random Variable
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Virgil Griffith
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of defining a measure of redundant information that quantifies how much common information two or more random variables specify about a target random variable. We discussed desired properties of such a measure, and propose new measures with some desirable properties.
Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations
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Houchmandzadeh Bahram
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.
Evolution variable dependence of jet substructure
Sakaki, Yasuhito
2015-01-01
Studies on jet substructure have evolved significantly in recent years. Jet substructure is essentially determined by QCD radiations and non-perturbative effects. Predictions of jet substructure are usually different among Monte Carlo event generators, and are governed by the parton shower algorithm implemented. For leading logarithmic parton shower, even though one of the core variables is the evolution variable, its choice is not unique. We examine evolution variable dependence of the jet substructure by developing a parton shower generator that interpolates between different evolution variables using a parameter $\\alpha$. Jet shape variables and associated jet rates for quark and gluon jets are used to demonstrate the $\\alpha$-dependence of the jet substructure. We find angular ordered shower predicts wider jets, while relative transverse momentum ($p_{\\bot}$) ordered shower predicts narrower jets. This is qualitatively in agreement with the missing phase space of $p_{\\bot}$ ordered showers. Such differenc...
Environment-dependent continuous time random walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A generalized continuous time random walk model which is dependent on environmental damping is proposed in which the two key parameters of the usual random walk theory: the jumping distance and the waiting time, are replaced by two new ones: the pulse velocity and the flight time. The anomalous diffusion of a free particle which is characterized by the asymptotical mean square displacement 2(t)> ? t? is realized numerically and analysed theoretically, where the value of the power index ? is in a region of 0 < ? < 2. Particularly, the damping leads to a sub-diffusion when the impact velocities are drawn from a Gaussian density function and the super-diffusive effect is related to statistical extremes, which are called rare-though-dominant events. (general)
Lower bounds for tails of sums of independent symmetric random variables
Mattner, L
2006-01-01
The approach of Kleitman (1970) and Kanter (1976) to multivariate concentration function inequalities is generalized in order to obtain for deviation probabilities of sums of independent symmetric random variables a lower bound depending only on deviation probabilities of the terms of the sum. This bound is optimal up to discretization effects, improves on a result of Nagaev (2001), and complements the comparison theorems of Birnbaum (1948) and Pruss (1997). Birnbaum's theorem for unimodal random variables is extended to the lattice case.
Tail Triviality for Sums of Stationary Random Variables:
Berbee, H. C. P.; Den Hollander, F.
1988-01-01
We study tail $\\sigma$-fields and loss of memory associated with sums of stationary integer-valued random variables. An application concerns convergence in distribution of interarrival times in zero-one sequences.
Large distortion dimension reduction using random variable
Dmitriyuk, Alon; Gordon, Yehoram
2013-01-01
Consider a random matrix $H:\\mathbb{R}^n\\longrightarrow\\mathbb{R}^m$. Let $D\\geq2$ and let $\\{W_l\\}_{l=1}^{p}$ be a set of $k$-dimensional affine subspaces of $\\mathbb{R}^n$. We ask what is the probability that for all $1\\leq l\\leq p$ and $x,y\\in W_l$, \\[ \\|x-y\\|_2\\leq\\|Hx-Hy\\|_2\\leq D\\|x-y\\|_2. \\] We show that for $m=O\\big(k+\\frac{\\ln{p}}{\\ln{D}}\\big)$ and a variety of different classes of random matrices $H$, which include the class of Gaussian matrices, existence is ...
Problems Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables
Leatham, Keith R.
2012-01-01
This paper discusses one step from the scientific method--that of identifying independent and dependent variables--from both scientific and mathematical perspectives. It begins by analyzing an episode from a middle school mathematics classroom that illustrates the need for students and teachers alike to develop a robust understanding of…
Central Limit for the Product of Free Random Variables
Ho, Keang-po
2011-01-01
The central limit for the product of free random variables are studied by evaluating all the moments of the limit distribution. The logarithm of the central limit is found to be the same as the sum of two independent free random variables: one semicircularly distributed and another uniformly distributed. The logarithm of central limit has a moment-generating function of $\\exp(\\xi^2 s/2) {_{1}F_{1}}\\left(1-s; 2; -\\xi^2 s \\right)$.
Parameter Learning in PRISM Programs with Continuous Random Variables
Islam, Muhammad Asiful; Ramakrishnan, C. R.; Ramakrishnan, I. V.
2012-01-01
Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP), exemplified by Sato and Kameya's PRISM, Poole's ICL, De Raedt et al's ProbLog and Vennekens et al's LPAD, combines statistical and logical knowledge representation and inference. Inference in these languages is based on enumerative construction of proofs over logic programs. Consequently, these languages permit very limited use of random variables with continuous distributions. In this paper, we extend PRISM with Gaussian random variabl...
Exponential Inequalities for Positively Associated Random Variables and Applications
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Yang Shanchao
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We establish some exponential inequalities for positively associated random variables without the boundedness assumption. These inequalities improve the corresponding results obtained by Oliveira (2005. By one of the inequalities, we obtain the convergence rate for the case of geometrically decreasing covariances, which closes to the optimal achievable convergence rate for independent random variables under the Hartman-Wintner law of the iterated logarithm and improves the convergence rate derived by Oliveira (2005 for the above case.
New Results On the Sum of Two Generalized Gaussian Random Variables
Soury, Hamza
2015-01-01
We propose in this paper a new method to compute the characteristic function (CF) of generalized Gaussian (GG) random variable in terms of the Fox H function. The CF of the sum of two independent GG random variables is then deduced. Based on this results, the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum distribution are obtained. These functions are expressed in terms of the bivariate Fox H function. Next, the statistics of the distribution of the sum, such as the moments, the cumulant, and the kurtosis, are analyzed and computed. Due to the complexity of bivariate Fox H function, a solution to reduce such complexity is to approximate the sum of two independent GG random variables by one GG random variable with suitable shape factor. The approximation method depends on the utility of the system so three methods of estimate the shape factor are studied and presented.
Random walks in random environment with Markov dependence on time
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C.Boldrighini
2008-06-01
Full Text Available We consider a simple model of discrete-time random walk on ??, ?=1,2,... in a random environment independent in space and with Markov evolution in time. We focus on the application of methods based on the properties of the transfer matrix and on spectral analysis. In section 2 we give a new simple proof of the existence of invariant subspaces, with an explicit condition on the parameters. The remaining part is devoted to a review of the results obtained so far for the quenched random walk and the environment from the point of view of the random walk, with a brief discussion of the methods.
Communication Requirements for Generating Correlated Random Variables
Cuff, Paul
2008-01-01
Two familiar notions of correlation are rediscovered as extreme operating points for simulating a discrete memoryless channel, in which a channel output is generated based only on a description of the channel input. Wyner's "common information" coincides with the minimum description rate needed. However, when common randomness independent of the input is available, the necessary description rate reduces to Shannon's mutual information. This work characterizes the optimal tra...
Concentrated Hitting Times of Randomized Search Heuristics with Variable Drift
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten
2014-01-01
Drift analysis is one of the state-of-the-art techniques for the runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics (RSHs) such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), simulated annealing etc. The vast majority of existing drift theorems yield bounds on the expected value of the hitting time for a target state, e. g., the set of optimal solutions, without making additional statements on the distribution of this time. We address this lack by providing a general drift theorem that includes bounds on the upper and lower tail of the hitting time distribution. The new tail bounds are applied to prove very precise sharp-concentration results on the running time of a simple EA on standard benchmark problems, including the class of general linear functions. The usefulness of the theorem outside the theory of RSHs is demonstrated by deriving tail bounds on the number of cycles in random permutations. All these results handle a position-dependent (variable) drift that was not covered by previous drift theorems with tail bounds. Moreover, our theorem can be specialized into virtually all existing drift theorems with drift towards the target from the literature. Finally, user-friendly specializations of the general drift theorem are given.
Cardinality-dependent Variability in Orthogonal Variability Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mærsk-MØller, Hans Martin; JØrgensen, Bo NØrregaard
2012-01-01
During our work on developing and running a software product line for eco-sustainable greenhouse-production software tools, which currently have three products members we have identified a need for extending the notation of the Orthogonal Variability Model (OVM) to support what we refer to as cardinality range dependencies. The cardinality-rangedependency type enables expressing that the binding of a certain number of variants to a variation point can influence variability in other places in the model. In other words, we acknowledge that variability can be influenced, not necessarily by the specific variants being bound, but by their sheer numbers. This paper contributes with an extension to the meta-model underlying the OVM notation, suggesting a notation for the new type of dependency and shows its applicability. The specific case, which initially required this extension, will work as running example throughout the paper and underline the need for the extension. Finally, the paper evaluates and discusses the general applicability of the proposed notation extension and future perspectives.
IS QUASAR OPTICAL VARIABILITY A DAMPED RANDOM WALK?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zu Ying; Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kozlowski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej, E-mail: yingzu@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)
2013-03-10
The damped random walk (DRW) model is increasingly used to model the variability in quasar optical light curves, but it is still uncertain whether the DRW model provides an adequate description of quasar optical variability across all timescales. Using a sample of OGLE quasar light curves, we consider four modifications to the DRW model by introducing additional parameters into the covariance function to search for deviations from the DRW model on both short and long timescales. We find good agreement with the DRW model on timescales that are well sampled by the data (from a month to a few years), possibly with some intrinsic scatter in the additional parameters, but this conclusion depends on the statistical test employed and is sensitive to whether the estimates of the photometric errors are correct to within {approx}10%. On very short timescales (below a few months), we see some evidence of the existence of a cutoff below which the correlation is stronger than the DRW model, echoing the recent finding of Mushotzky et al. using quasar light curves from Kepler. On very long timescales (>a few years), the light curves do not constrain models well, but are consistent with the DRW model.
On the freezing of variables in random constraint satisfaction problems
Semerjian, Guilhem
2008-01-01
The set of solutions of random constraint satisfaction problems (zero energy groundstates of mean-field diluted spin glasses) undergoes several structural phase transitions as the amount of constraints is increased. This set first breaks down into a large number of well separated clusters. At the freezing transition, which is in general distinct from the clustering one, some variables (spins) take the same value in all solutions of a given cluster. In this paper we study the critical behavior around the freezing transition, which appears in the unfrozen phase as the divergence of the sizes of the rearrangements induced in response to the modification of a variable. The formalism is developed on generic constraint satisfaction problems and applied in particular to the random satisfiability of boolean formulas and to the coloring of random graphs. The computation is first performed in random tree ensembles, for which we underline a connection with percolation models and with the reconstruction problem of inform...
Estimation of Probability Density Function of a Random Variable for Small Samples
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V.S. Srinivasan
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A theoretical method of estimating the most general form of probability density functions of random variables has been described. The estimated probability density function depends on themean value of exponential dimrbut~ono f the lnlt~arla ndom variable. By the most general form of the probability density function, it is meant that the survivor functions are of exp (-A P or exp (-y P or combinations of these functions for different values of h and y.
Variable selection with Random Forests for missing data
Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Ulm, Kurt
2013-01-01
Variable selection has been suggested for Random Forests to improve their efficiency of data prediction and interpretation. However, its basic element, i.e. variable importance measures, can not be computed straightforward when there is missing data. Therefore an extensive simulation study has been conducted to explore possible solutions, i.e. multiple imputation, complete case analysis and a newly suggested importance measure for several missing data generating processes. The ability to dist...
Laws of Large Numbers for Asymmetrical Cauchy Random Variables
André Adler
2007-01-01
We generalize the Cauchy distribution so that we can have asymmetrical tails. This allows us to obtain unusual laws of large numbers involving weighted sums of these random variables. Unusual in the sense that even though in every case E|X|=?, we can still obtain a nonzero limit for these weighted sums.
ADORAVA - A computer code to sum random variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ADORAVA computer code was carried out aiming to determine the moments of random variable sum distribution when moments are known. The ADORAVA computer code was developed to be applied in probabilistic safety analysis, more specifically for uncertainty propagation in fault trees. The description of ADORAVA algorithm, input, examples and the output of compiled code are presented. (M.C.K.)
Limit theorems for multi-indexed sums of random variables
Klesov, Oleg
2014-01-01
Presenting the first unified treatment of limit theorems for multiple sums of independent random variables, this volume fills an important gap in the field. Several new results are introduced, even in the classical setting, as well as some new approaches that are simpler than those already established in the literature. In particular, new proofs of the strong law of large numbers and the Hajek-Renyi inequality are detailed. Applications of the described theory include Gibbs fields, spin glasses, polymer models, image analysis and random shapes. Limit theorems form the backbone of probability theory and statistical theory alike. The theory of multiple sums of random variables is a direct generalization of the classical study of limit theorems, whose importance and wide application in science is unquestionable. However, to date, the subject of multiple sums has only been treated in journals. The results described in this book will be of interest to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers who ...
Parameter Learning in PRISM Programs with Continuous Random Variables
Islam, Muhammad Asiful; Ramakrishnan, I V
2012-01-01
Probabilistic Logic Programming (PLP), exemplified by Sato and Kameya's PRISM, Poole's ICL, De Raedt et al's ProbLog and Vennekens et al's LPAD, combines statistical and logical knowledge representation and inference. Inference in these languages is based on enumerative construction of proofs over logic programs. Consequently, these languages permit very limited use of random variables with continuous distributions. In this paper, we extend PRISM with Gaussian random variables and linear equality constraints, and consider the problem of parameter learning in the extended language. Many statistical models such as finite mixture models and Kalman filter can be encoded in extended PRISM. Our EM-based learning algorithm uses a symbolic inference procedure that represents sets of derivations without enumeration. This permits us to learn the distribution parameters of extended PRISM programs with discrete as well as Gaussian variables. The learning algorithm naturally generalizes the ones used for PRISM and Hybrid ...
Random variability explains apparent global clustering of large earthquakes
Michael, A.J.
2011-01-01
The occurrence of 5 Mw ? 8.5 earthquakes since 2004 has created a debate over whether or not we are in a global cluster of large earthquakes, temporarily raising risks above long-term levels. I use three classes of statistical tests to determine if the record of M ? 7 earthquakes since 1900 can reject a null hypothesis of independent random events with a constant rate plus localized aftershock sequences. The data cannot reject this null hypothesis. Thus, the temporal distribution of large global earthquakes is well-described by a random process, plus localized aftershocks, and apparent clustering is due to random variability. Therefore the risk of future events has not increased, except within ongoing aftershock sequences, and should be estimated from the longest possible record of events.
On the Linear Combination of Exponential and Gamma Random Variables
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Samuel Kotz
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The exact distribution of the linear combination ÃŽÂ± X + ÃŽÂ² Y is derived when X and Y are exponential and gamma random variables distributed independently of each other. A measure of entropy of the linear combination is investigated. We also provide computer programs for generating tabulations of the percentage points associated with the linear combination. The work is motivated by examples in automation, control, fuzzy sets, neurocomputing and other areas of computer science.
Bayesian inference with dependent normalized completely random measures
Lijoi, Antonio; Nipoti, Bernardo; Prünster, Igor
2014-01-01
The proposal and study of dependent prior processes has been a major research focus in the recent Bayesian nonparametric literature. In this paper, we introduce a flexible class of dependent nonparametric priors, investigate their properties and derive a suitable sampling scheme which allows their concrete implementation. The proposed class is obtained by normalizing dependent completely random measures, where the dependence arises by virtue of a suitable construction of the...
Strong Law of Large Numbers for Weighted Sum of Exchangeable Random Variables
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Zhaoxia Huang
2009-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the Marcinkiewicz type theorem is extended to the case of exchangeable random variables. As a generalization,we also obtain two strong laws of large numbers on the weighted sum of exchangeable random variables
Lower bounds for tails of sums of independent symmetric random variables
Mattner, Lutz
2006-01-01
The approach of Kleitman (1970) and Kanter (1976) to multivariate concentration function inequalities is generalized in order to obtain for deviation probabilities of sums of independent symmetric random variables a lower bound depending only on deviation probabilities of the terms of the sum. This bound is optimal up to discretization effects, improves on a result of Nagaev (2001), and complements the comparison theorems of Birnbaum (1948) and Pruss (1997). Birnbaum's theor...
Partial summations of stationary sequences of non-Gaussian random variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mohr, Gunnar; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
1996-01-01
The distribution of the sum of a finite number of identically distributed random variables is in many cases easily determined given that the variables are independent. The moments of any order of the sum can always be expressed by the moments of the single term without computational problems. However, in the case of dependency between the terms even calculation of a few of the first moments of the sum presents serious computational problems. By use of computerized symbol manipulations it is practicable to obtain exact moments of partial sums of stationary sequences of mutually dependent lognormal variables or polynomials of standard Gaussian variables. The dependency structure is induced by specifying the autocorrelation structure of the sequence of standard Gaussian variables. Particularly useful polynomials are the Winterstein approximations that distributionally fit with non-Gaussian variables up to the moments of the fourth order [Winterstein, S. R. Nonlinear vibration models for extremes and fatigue. J. Engng Mech. ASCE 114 (1988) 1772-1790](1). A method to obtain the Winterstein approximation to a partial sum of a sequence of Winterstein approximations is explained and results are given for different autocorrelation functions of the generic Gaussian sequence. The primary purpose of the investigation is to provide a tool for judging the validity of the central limit theorem argument in specific applicational situations occurring in stochastic mechanics, that is, to judge the speed of convergence of the distribution of a sum (or an integral) of mutually dependent random variables to the Gaussian distribution. The paper is closely related to the work in Ditlevsen el al. [Ditlevsen, O., Mohr, G. & Hoffmeyer, P. Integration of non-Gaussian fields. Prob. Engng Mech 11 (1996) 15-23](2).
Spherically symmetric random walks. II. Dimensionally dependent critical behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A recently developed model of random walks on a D-dimensional hyperspherical lattice, where D is not restricted to integer values, is extended to include the possibility of creating and annihilating random walkers. Steady-state distributions of random walkers are obtained for all dimensions D approx-gt 0 by solving a discrete eigenvalue problem. These distributions exhibit dimensionally dependent critical behavior as a function of the birth rate. This remarkably simple model exhibits a second-order phase transition with a universal, nontrivial critical exponent for all dimensions D approx-gt 0. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Extracting randomness and dependencies via a matrix polarization
Abbe, Emmanuel
2011-01-01
The basic polarization phenomenon for i.i.d. sources is extended to a framework allowing dependencies within and between multiple sources. In particular, it is shown that taking the polar transform of a random matrix with i.i.d. columns of arbitrary (correlated) distribution allows to extract the randomness and dependencies. This result is the used to develop polar coding schemes (having low complexity) for: (1) distributed data compression, i.e., Slepian-Wolf coding (without decomposing the problem into single-user problems), (2) compression of sources with memory, (3) compression of sources on finite fields, extending the polarization phenomenon for alphabets of prime cardinality to powers of primes.
Radio variability and random walk noise properties of four blazars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the results of a time series analysis of the long-term radio light curves of four blazars: 3C 279, 3C 345, 3C 446, and BL Lacertae. We exploit the database of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory monitoring program which provides densely sampled light curves spanning 32 years in time in three frequency bands located at 4.8, 8, and 14.5 GHz. Our sources show mostly flat or inverted (spectral indices –0.5 ? ? ? 0) spectra, in agreement with optically thick emission. All light curves show strong variability on all timescales. Analyzing the time lags between the light curves from different frequency bands, we find that we can distinguish high-peaking flares and low-peaking flares in accordance with the classification of Valtaoja et al. The periodograms (temporal power spectra) of the observed light curves are consistent with random-walk power-law noise without any indication of (quasi-)periodic variability. The fact that all four sources studied are in agreement with being random-walk noise emitters at radio wavelengths suggests that such behavior is a general property of blazars.
Do?bler, Christian
2012-01-01
We show, how the classical Berry-Esseen theorem for normal approximation may be used to derive rates of convergence for random sums of centerd, real-valued random variables with respect to a certain class of probability metrics, including the Kolmogorov and the Wasserstein distances. This technique is applied to several examples, including the approximation by a Laplace distribution of a geometric sum of centered random variables with finite third moment, where a concrete Be...
Generalized linear models for categorical and continuous limited dependent variables
Smithson, Michael
2013-01-01
Introduction and OverviewThe Nature of Limited Dependent VariablesOverview of GLMsEstimation Methods and Model EvaluationOrganization of This BookDiscrete VariablesBinary VariablesLogistic RegressionThe Binomial GLMEstimation Methods and IssuesAnalyses in R and StataExercisesNominal Polytomous VariablesMultinomial Logit ModelConditional Logit and Choice ModelsMultinomial Processing Tree ModelsEstimation Methods and Model EvaluationAnalyses in R and StataExercisesOrdinal Categorical VariablesModeling Ordinal Variables: Common Practice versus Best PracticeOrdinal Model AlternativesCumulative Mod
Likelihood Ratio and Strong Limit Theorems for the Discrete Random Variable
Wenhan Li; Wei Wang,; Zhiqiang Liu
2012-01-01
This in virtue of the notion of likelihood ratio and the tool of moment generating function, the limit properties of the sequences of random discrete random variables are studied, and a class of strong deviation theorems which represented by inequalities between random variables and their expectation are obtained. As a result, we obtain some strong deviation theorems for Poisson distribution and binomial distribution.
On solutions analysis of quadratic programming with fuzzy random coefficients and variables
Ammar, E. E.
2005-01-01
In this paper, we study a quadratic programming problem having fuzzy random coefficients matrix in the objective and constraints and the decision vector is a fuzzy pseudorandom variable. The first results show the fact that a fuzzy pseudorandom (random) optimal solution of a fuzzy random quadratic programming may be resolved into a series of pseudorandom (random) optimal solutions of relative random quadratic programming. Also we show that a fuzzy pseudorandom (fuzzy random) optimal solution of relative random quadratic programming is structured by a class of pseudorandom (random) optimal solutions of relative random quadratic programming. Illustrative examples are given.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lotfi Tadj
1992-03-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a bulk queueing system with a single server processing groups of customers of a variable size. If upon completion of service the queueing level is at least r the server takes a batch of size r and processes it a random time arbitrarily distributed. If the queueing level is less than r the server idles until the queue accumulates r customers in total. Then the server capacity is generated by a random number equals the batch size taken for service which lasts an arbitrarily distributed time dependent on the batch size.
Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables
Jardak, Seifallah
2012-11-01
The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.
RETRACTED: The transformation of Random Variables under symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.T. Uddin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Reason(s: The authors have plagiarized a scientific research report entitled “On the symmetrizing transformation of random variables”. The corresponding author Mr. M.T. Uddin was a former student of Professor Chaubey’s but that Mr. Uddin’s studies at Concordia ended on or about 2002. One of the conditions for submission of a paper is that authors declare explicity that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on the matter and we apologize to reader of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process. We thank Professor Yogendra Chaubey and Concordial University for bringing this plagiarism to our attention.
Automatic Probabilistic Program Verification through Random Variable Abstraction
Barsotti, Damián; 10.4204/EPTCS.28.3
2010-01-01
The weakest pre-expectation calculus has been proved to be a mature theory to analyze quantitative properties of probabilistic and nondeterministic programs. We present an automatic method for proving quantitative linear properties on any denumerable state space using iterative backwards fixed point calculation in the general framework of abstract interpretation. In order to accomplish this task we present the technique of random variable abstraction (RVA) and we also postulate a sufficient condition to achieve exact fixed point computation in the abstract domain. The feasibility of our approach is shown with two examples, one obtaining the expected running time of a probabilistic program, and the other the expected gain of a gambling strategy. Our method works on general guarded probabilistic and nondeterministic transition systems instead of plain pGCL programs, allowing us to easily model a wide range of systems including distributed ones and unstructured programs. We present the operational and weakest pr...
Polarization dependent Brillouin gain in randomly birefringent fibers
Ursini, Leonora; Palmieri, Luca
2009-01-01
An extensive study of the alignment between the pump, the signal and the polarization dependent gain (PDG) vectors in stimulated Brillouin amplification in randomly birefringent fibers is realized by numerically integrating the equations governing the propagation. At the fiber output, the signal tends to align to the PDG vector for large pump power because of the nonlinear polarization pulling effect. The PDG vector, for large random birefringence, aligns to a state that has the same linear component of the pump but opposite circular component.
Some Strong Limit Theorems for Weighted Product Sums of -Mixing Sequences of Random Variables
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Wu Qunying
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study almost sure convergence for -mixing sequences of random variables. Many of the previous results are our special cases. For example, the authors extend and improve the corresponding results of Chen et al. (1996 and Wu and Jiang (2008. We extend the classical Jamison convergence theorem and the Marcinkiewicz strong law of large numbers for independent sequences of random variables to -mixing sequences of random variables without necessarily adding any extra conditions.
Testing dependence among serially correlated multi-category variables
Pesaran, Mohammad Hashem; Timmermann, Allan
2006-01-01
The contingency table literature on tests for dependence among discrete multi-category variables is extensive. Existing tests assume, however, that draws are independent, and there are no tests that account for serial dependencies - a problem that is particularly important in economics and finance. This paper proposes a new test of independence based on the maximum canonical correlation between pairs of discrete variables. We also propose a trace canonical correlation test using dynamically a...
On the dimensions of conformal repellers. Randomness and parameter dependency
Rugh, H H
2004-01-01
Bowen's formula relates the Hausdorff dimension of a conformal repeller to the zero of a `pressure' function. We present an elementary, self-contained proof which bypasses measure theory and the Thermodynamic Formalism to show that Bowen's formula holds for $C^1$ conformal repellers. We consider time-dependent conformal repellers obtained as invariant subsets for sequences of conformally expanding maps within a suitable class. We show that Bowen's formula generalizes to such a repeller and that if the sequence is picked at random then the Hausdorff dimension of the repeller almost surely agrees with its upper and lower Box dimensions and is given by a natural generalization of Bowen's formula. For a random uniformly hyperbolic Julia set on the Riemann sphere we show that if the family of maps and the probability law depend real-analytically on parameters then so does its almost sure Hausdorff dimension.
The dependence of quasar variability on black hole mass
Wold, M; Shang, Z
2006-01-01
In order to investigate the dependence of quasar variability on fundamental physical parameters like black hole mass, we have matched quasars from the QUEST1 Variability Survey with broad-lined objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The matched sample contains approximately 100 quasars, and the Sloan spectra are used to estimate black hole masses and bolometric luminosities. Variability amplitudes are measured from the QUEST1 light curves. We find that black hole mass correlates with several measures of the variability amplitude at the 99% significance level or better. The correlation does not appear to be caused by obvious selection effects inherent to flux-limited quasar samples, host galaxy contamination or other well-known correlations between quasar variability and luminosity/redshift. We evaluate variability as a function of rest-frame time lag using structure functions, and find further support for the variability--black hole mass correlation. The correlation is strongest for time lags of the order...
Automatic Probabilistic Program Verification through Random Variable Abstraction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damián Barsotti
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The weakest pre-expectation calculus has been proved to be a mature theory to analyze quantitative properties of probabilistic and nondeterministic programs. We present an automatic method for proving quantitative linear properties on any denumerable state space using iterative backwards fixed point calculation in the general framework of abstract interpretation. In order to accomplish this task we present the technique of random variable abstraction (RVA and we also postulate a sufficient condition to achieve exact fixed point computation in the abstract domain. The feasibility of our approach is shown with two examples, one obtaining the expected running time of a probabilistic program, and the other the expected gain of a gambling strategy. Our method works on general guarded probabilistic and nondeterministic transition systems instead of plain pGCL programs, allowing us to easily model a wide range of systems including distributed ones and unstructured programs. We present the operational and weakest precondition semantics for this programs and prove its equivalence.
Explaining the dark energy, baryon and dark matter coincidence via domain-dependent random densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dark energy, dark matter and baryon densities in the Universe are observed to be similar, with a factor of no more than 20 between the largest and smallest densities. We show that this coincidence can be understood via superhorizon domains of randomly varying densities when the baryon density at initial collapse of galaxy-forming perturbations is determined by anthropic selection. The baryon and dark matter densities are assumed to be dependent on random variables ?d and ?b according to ?dm??d? and ?b??b?, while the effectively constant dark energy density is dependent upon a random variable ?Q according to ?Q??Qn. The ratio of the baryon density to the dark energy density at initial collapse, rQ, and the baryon-to-dark matter ratio, r, are then determined purely statistically, with no dependence on the anthropically-preferred baryon density. We compute the probability distribution for rQ and r and show that the observed values of rQ and r can be naturally understood within this framework. In particular, for the case ? = 2, ? = 1 and n = 4, which can be physically realized via a combination of axion dark matter, Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and frozen quintessence with a ?Q4 potential, the range of rQ and r which corresponds to the observed Universe is a quite natural, with a probability which is broadly similar to other ranges of rQ and r
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdan Gheorghe Munteanu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using the stochastic approximations, in this paper it was studiedthe convergence in distribution of the fractional parts of the sum of random variables to the truncated exponential distribution with parameter lambda. This fact is feasible by means of the Fourier-Stieltjes sequence (FSS of the random variable.
Array Variate Elliptical Random Variables with Multiway Kronecker Delta Covariance Matrix Structure
Akdemir, Deniz
2011-01-01
Standard statistical methods applied to matrix random variables often fail to describe the underlying structure in multiway data sets. In this paper we will discuss the concept of an array variate random variable and introduce a class of elliptical array densities which have elliptical contours.
Raw and Central Moments of Binomial Random Variables via Stirling Numbers
Griffiths, Martin
2013-01-01
We consider here the problem of calculating the moments of binomial random variables. It is shown how formulae for both the raw and the central moments of such random variables may be obtained in a recursive manner utilizing Stirling numbers of the first kind. Suggestions are also provided as to how students might be encouraged to explore this…
ESEARCH OF THE LAW OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE RANDOM VARIABLE OF THE COMPRESSION
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I. Sarayeva
2011-01-01
Full Text Available At research of diagnosing the process of modern automobile engines by means of methods of mathematical statistics the experimental data of the random variable of compression are analysed and it is proved that the random variable of compression has the form of the normal law of distribution.
Likelihood Ratio and Strong Limit Theorems for the Discrete Random Variable
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenhan Li
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This in virtue of the notion of likelihood ratio and the tool of moment generating function, the limit properties of the sequences of random discrete random variables are studied, and a class of strong deviation theorems which represented by inequalities between random variables and their expectation are obtained. As a result, we obtain some strong deviation theorems for Poisson distribution and binomial distribution.
Sampling designs dependent on sample parameters of auxiliary variables
Wywia?, Janusz L
2015-01-01
The book offers a valuable resource for students and statisticians whose work involves survey sampling. An estimation of the population parameters in finite and fixed populations assisted by auxiliary variables is considered. New sampling designs dependent on moments or quantiles of auxiliary variables are presented on the background of the classical methods. Accuracies of the estimators based on original sampling design are compared with classical estimation procedures. Specific conditional sampling designs are applied to problems of small area estimation as well as to estimation of quantiles of variables under study. .
Grouped variable importance with random forests and application to multiple functional data analysis
Gregorutti, Baptiste; Michel, Bertrand; Saint-Pierre, Philippe
2014-01-01
The selection of grouped variables using the random forest algorithm is considered. First a new importance measure adapted for groups of variables is proposed. Theoretical insights into this criterion are given for additive regression models. Second, an original method for selecting functional variables based on the grouped variable importance measure is developed. Using a wavelet basis, it is proposed to regroup all of the wavelet coefficients for a given functional variabl...
Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K -satisfiability
Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik
2015-01-01
We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed.
Schölzel, C.; Friederichs, P.
2008-10-01
Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.
Nonlinear random wave field in shallow water: variable Korteweg-de Vries framework
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A. Sergeeva
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The transformation of a random wave field in shallow water of variable depth is analyzed within the framework of the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation. The characteristic wave height varies with depth according to Green's law, and this follows rigorously from the theoretical model. The skewness and kurtosis are computed, and it is shown that they increase when the depth decreases, and simultaneously the wave state deviates from the Gaussian. The probability of large-amplitude (rogue waves increases within the transition zone. The characteristics of this process depend on the wave steepness, which is characterized in terms of the Ursell parameter. The results obtained show that the number of rogue waves may deviate significantly from the value expected for a flat bottom of a given depth. If the random wave field is represented as a soliton gas, the probabilities of soliton amplitudes increase to a high-amplitude range and the number of large-amplitude (rogue solitons increases when the water shallows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Farrukh Yaqub
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for single phase variable voltage inverter based on Random Pulse Width Modulation. In Random Pulse Width Modulation based inverter, the frequency spectrum of the output current and voltage waveforms becomes continuous because of the randomization of the switching function of the devices controlling the output voltages. This paper establishes a theory that if the distributions of the random numbers generated by the random source are kept within certain limit with respect to the peak value of reference sinusoidal waveform, the frequency spectrum can be controlled. On the basis of the results, a novel drive using variable tap changing transformer (optional and adaptive random number generator, to control the ratio between the numbers generated by the random source and the reference waveform has been suggested that will guarantee a better power quality profile for a broad range of output voltages.
On mean square displacement behaviors of anomalous diffusions with variable and random orders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mean square displacement (MSD) is used to characterize anomalous diffusion. Recently, models of anomalous diffusion with variable-order and random-order were proposed, but no MSD analysis has been given so far. The purpose of this Letter is to offer a concise derivation of MSD functions for the variable-order model and the random-order model. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the analytical results. In addition, we show how to establish a variable-random-order model for a given MSD function which has clear application potentials.
Large deviations for correlated random variables described by a matrix product ansatz
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the large deviations of sums of correlated random variables described by a matrix product ansatz, which generalizes the product structure of independent random variables to matrices whose non-commutativity is the source of correlations. We show with specific examples that different large deviation behaviors can be found with this ansatz. In particular, it is possible to construct sums of correlated random variables that violate the law of large numbers, the central limit theorem, as well as sums that have nonconvex rate functions or rate functions with linear parts or plateaux. (paper)
The Discovery of Timescale-Dependent Color Variability of Quasars
Sun, Yu-Han; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Zheng, Zhen-Ya
2014-01-01
Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical, and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using SDSS g and r band photometric monitoring data of quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ~ 10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5, thus can not be due to contaminations to broadband photometry from emission lines which do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component, such as the h...
Detection probabilities for random inspections in variable flow situations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of verification of inventory changes are necessary at certain nuclear facilities, for example low enriched uranium fuel fabrication facilities. The IAEA Safeguards Criteria suggest performing interim verifications of inventory changes by random inspections. The paper describes random inspection schemes for inventory change verifications and evaluates the detection probabilities for realistic plant receipt and shipment schedules, and stratum residence times as a function of the inspection frequency and effort, and compares these with the existing inspection strategies. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs
Detection probabilities for random inspection in variable flow situations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of inventory-change verification are necessary at certain nuclear facilities, of which one example is low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facilities. The Safeguards Criteria suggested carrying out interim inventory-change verifications with randomized inspections. This paper describes randomized inspection schemes for inventory change verifications and evaluates the achievable detection probabilities for realistic plant receipt and shipment schedules and stratum residence times as a. function of the inspection frequency and effort and compares these with the existing inspection strategies
Explaining the dark energy, baryon and dark matter coincidence via domain-dependent random densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDonald, John, E-mail: j.mcdonald@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster-Manchester-Sheffield Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics Group, Dept. of Physics, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)
2013-05-01
The dark energy, dark matter and baryon densities in the Universe are observed to be similar, with a factor of no more than 20 between the largest and smallest densities. We show that this coincidence can be understood via superhorizon domains of randomly varying densities when the baryon density at initial collapse of galaxy-forming perturbations is determined by anthropic selection. The baryon and dark matter densities are assumed to be dependent on random variables ?{sub d} and ?{sub b} according to ?{sub dm}??{sub d}{sup ?} and ?{sub b}??{sub b}{sup ?}, while the effectively constant dark energy density is dependent upon a random variable ?{sub Q} according to ?{sub Q}??{sub Q}{sup n}. The ratio of the baryon density to the dark energy density at initial collapse, r{sub Q}, and the baryon-to-dark matter ratio, r, are then determined purely statistically, with no dependence on the anthropically-preferred baryon density. We compute the probability distribution for r{sub Q} and r and show that the observed values of r{sub Q} and r can be naturally understood within this framework. In particular, for the case ? = 2, ? = 1 and n = 4, which can be physically realized via a combination of axion dark matter, Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and frozen quintessence with a ?{sub Q}{sup 4} potential, the range of r{sub Q} and r which corresponds to the observed Universe is a quite natural, with a probability which is broadly similar to other ranges of r{sub Q} and r.
SCORE: a computer program for the systematic combination of random variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer code SCORE combines random variables. It applies a numerical method which is mainly based on representing each distribution by a histogram with equal probability intervals. The method is an improvement of the Monte Carlo technique. The input random variables are to be defined by their density or by a histogram. The report describes the method, the code SCORE and the use of the code
Nakagawa, Kenji
2006-01-01
We give a sufficient condition for the exponential decay of the tail probability of a non-negative random variable. We consider the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the probability distribution function of the random variable. We present a theorem, according to which if the abscissa of convergence of the LS transform is negative finite and the real point on the axis of convergence is a pole of the LS transform, then the tail probability decays exponentially. For the proof of t...
Moderate deviations for stationary sequences of Hilbert valued bounded random variables
Dede, Sophie
2009-01-01
In this paper, we derive the moderate deviation principle for stationary sequences of bounded random variables with values in a Hilbert space. The conditions obtained are expressed in terms of martingale-type conditions. The main tools are martingale approximations and a new Hoeffding inequality for non adpated sequences of Hilbert-valued random variables. Applications to Cramer-Von Mises statistics, functions of linear processes and stable Markov chains are given.
Moderate deviations for stationary sequences of Hilbert valued bounded random variables
Dede, Sophie
2008-01-01
In this paper, we derive the moderate deviation principle for stationary sequences of bounded random variables with values in a Hilbert space. The conditions obtained are expressed in terms of martingale-type conditions. The main tools are martingale approximations and a new Hoeffding inequality for non adpated sequences of Hilbert-valued random variables. Applications to Cramer-Von Mises statistics, functions of linear processes and stable Markov chains are given.
Modelling the statistical dependence of rainfall event variables by a trivariate copula function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Balistrocchi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In many hydrological models, such as those derived by analytical probabilistic methods, the precipitation stochastic process is represented by means of individual storm random variables which are supposed to be independent of each other. However, several proposals were advanced to develop joint probability distributions able to account for the observed statistical dependence. The traditional technique of the multivariate statistics is nevertheless affected by several drawbacks, whose most evident issue is the unavoidable subordination of the dependence structure assessment to the marginal distribution fitting. Conversely, the copula approach can overcome this limitation, by splitting the problem in two distinct items. Furthermore, goodness-of-fit tests were recently made available and a significant improvement in the function selection reliability has been achieved. Herein a trivariate probability distribution of the rainfall event volume, the wet weather duration and the interevent time is proposed and verified by test statistics with regard to three long time series recorded in different Italian climates. The function was developed by applying a mixing technique to bivariate copulas, which were formerly obtained by analyzing the random variables in pairs. A unique probabilistic model seems to be suitable for representing the dependence structure, despite the sensitivity shown by the dependence parameters towards the threshold utilized in the procedure for extracting the independent events. The joint probability function was finally developed by adopting a Weibull model for the marginal distributions.
The first descent in samples of geometric random variables and permutations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnold Knopfmacher
2006-01-01
Full Text Available For words of length n, generated by independent geometric random variables, we study the average initial and end heights of the first descent in the word. Higher moments and limiting distributions are also derived. In addition we compute the average initial and end height of the first descent for a random permutation of n letters.
The first descent in samples of geometric random variables and permutations
Arnold Knopfmacher; Helmut Prodinger
2006-01-01
For words of length n, generated by independent geometric random variables, we study the average initial and end heights of the first descent in the word. Higher moments and limiting distributions are also derived. In addition we compute the average initial and end height of the first descent for a random permutation of n letters.
Robust Estimation in Nonlinear Regression and Limited Dependent Variable Models
?ížek, Pavel
2001-01-01
Classical parametric estimation methods applied to nonlinear regression and limited-dependent-variable models are very sensitive to misspecification and data errors. On the other hand, semiparametric and nonparametric methods, which are not restricted by parametric assumptions, require more data and are less efficient. A third possible estimation approach is based on the theory of robust statistics, which builds upon parametric specification, but provides a methodology for designing misspecif...
Ostrovsky, E.; Sirota, L.
2014-01-01
We give in this short report a very simple proof that arbitrary random variable with Borelian distribution in separable Banach space belongs with probability one to a pre-image of some linear compact non-random operator.
Estimation of sums of random variables: Examples and information bounds
Zhang, C H
2005-01-01
This paper concerns the estimation of sums of functions of observable and unobservable variables. Lower bounds for the asymptotic variance and a convolution theorem are derived in general finite- and infinite-dimensional models. An explicit relationship is established between efficient influence functions for the estimation of sums of variables and the estimation of their means. Certain ``plug-in'' estimators are proved to be asymptotically efficient in finite-dimensional models, while ``$u,v$'' estimators of Robbins are proved to be efficient in infinite-dimensional mixture models. Examples include certain species, network and data confidentiality problems.
Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros
Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.
2008-01-01
Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…
Couso, Inés; Sánchez, Luciano
2014-01-01
This short book provides a unified view of the history and theory of random sets and fuzzy random variables, with special emphasis on its use for representing higher-order non-statistical uncertainty about statistical experiments. The authors lay bare the existence of two streams of works using the same mathematical ground, but differing form their use of sets, according to whether they represent objects of interest naturally taking the form of sets, or imprecise knowledge about such objects. Random (fuzzy) sets can be used in many fields ranging from mathematical morphology, economics, artificial intelligence, information processing and statistics per se, especially in areas where the outcomes of random experiments cannot be observed with full precision. This book also emphasizes the link between random sets and fuzzy sets with some techniques related to the theory of imprecise probabilities. This small book is intended for graduate and doctoral students in mathematics or engineering, but also provides an i...
Scalable statistics of correlated random variables and extremes applied to deep borehole porosities
Guadagnini, A.; Neuman, S. P.; Nan, T.; Riva, M.; Winter, C. L.
2015-02-01
We analyze scale-dependent statistics of correlated random hydrogeological variables and their extremes using neutron porosity data from six deep boreholes, in three diverse depositional environments, as example. We show that key statistics of porosity increments behave and scale in manners typical of many earth and environmental (as well as other) variables. These scaling behaviors include a tendency of increments to have symmetric, non-Gaussian frequency distributions characterized by heavy tails that decay with separation distance or lag; power-law scaling of sample structure functions (statistical moments of absolute increments) in midranges of lags; linear relationships between log structure functions of successive orders at all lags, known as extended self-similarity or ESS; and nonlinear scaling of structure function power-law exponents with function order, a phenomenon commonly attributed in the literature to multifractals. Elsewhere we proposed, explored and demonstrated a new method of geostatistical inference that captures all of these phenomena within a unified theoretical framework. The framework views data as samples from random fields constituting scale mixtures of truncated (monofractal) fractional Brownian motion (tfBm) or fractional Gaussian noise (tfGn). Important questions not addressed in previous studies concern the distribution and statistical scaling of extreme incremental values. Of special interest in hydrology (and many other areas) are statistics of absolute increments exceeding given thresholds, known as peaks over threshold or POTs. In this paper we explore the statistical scaling of data and, for the first time, corresponding POTs associated with samples from scale mixtures of tfBm or tfGn. We demonstrate that porosity data we analyze possess properties of such samples and thus follow the theory we proposed. The porosity data are of additional value in revealing a remarkable cross-over from one scaling regime to another at certain lags. The phenomena we uncover are of key importance for the analysis of fluid flow and solute as well as particulate transport in complex hydrogeologic environments.
Epoch-dependent absorption line profile variability in lambda Cep
Uuh-Sonda, J M; Eenens, P; Mahy, L; Palate, M; Gosset, E; Flores, C A
2014-01-01
We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6Ief star lambda Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star. Our data reveal a much more complex situation. The frequency content of the power spectrum considerably changes from one epoch to the other. We find no stable frequency that can unambiguously be attributed to pulsations. The epoch-dependence of the frequencies and variability patterns are similar to what is seen in the wind emission lines of this and other Oef stars, suggesting that both phenomena likely have the same, currently still unknown, origin.
Fatigue and creep at variable temperature. Time dependence forecasting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Structure materials for nuclear reactors undergo different types of mechanical and thermal stresses for period reaching 300 000 hours. Rapid change of temperature, stress, frequency can occurs in case of accident. Determination of mechanical properties (elongation, creep, fatigue...) of materials for structure dimensioning requires extrapolation of fatigue and creep tests. The comparison of results obtained on steel 316 shows that for creep forecastings agreement is good between the different methods but it is not the case for creep fatigue. For creep in variable conditions, agreement between experiments and calculus is good only in some cases. For fatigue test with samples previously tested for creep, or vice versa, results depend upon the damage evaluation
On the use of fractional calculus for the probabilistic characterization of random variables
Cottone, Giulio; 10.1016/j.probengmech.2008.08.002
2013-01-01
In this paper, the classical problem of the probabilistic characterization of a random variable is re-examined. A random variable is usually described by the probability density function (PDF) or by its Fourier transform, namely the characteristic function (CF). The CF can be further expressed by a Taylor series involving the moments of the random variable. However, in some circumstances, the moments do not exist and the Taylor expansion of the CF is useless. This happens for example in the case of $\\alpha$--stable random variables. Here, the problem of representing the CF or the PDF of random variables (r.vs) is examined by introducing fractional calculus. Two very remarkable results are obtained. Firstly, it is shown that the fractional derivatives of the CF in zero coincide with fractional moments. This is true also in case of CF not derivable in zero (like the CF of $\\alpha$--stable r.vs). Moreover, it is shown that the CF may be represented by a generalized Taylor expansion involving fractional moments. ...
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Sergio, Velásquez; Ronny, Velásquez.
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el Modelado Con Variables Aleatorias En Simulink Utilizando Simulación Montecarlo, muchos modelos de sistemas reales contienen elementos que precisan o admiten un modelado estadístico, Sistemas de comunicaciones, Sistemas de conmutación, Sistemas sensores, Modelado toma forma [...] definiendo, Variables aleatorias que rigen ciertos comportamientos del sistema Procesos estocásticos para modelar variación de entradas en el tiempo, como lo son las fluctuaciones en la bolsa de valores e ciertos productos. Se deben definir métodos para generar muestras de variables aleatorias y muestras de procesos estocásticos. Entre ellos está el método de Montecarlo, el modelo implementado mostro la capacidad proponer precios optativos al precio de mercado ante cambios en el precio de un producto. Las simulaciones permitieron conocer con mayor exactitud la versatilidad del Método ante otros Métodos usados, prediciendo con gran exactitud las fluctuaciones de precios ocurridas en el producto de prueba. Abstract in english This article presents the model with random variables in Monte CarloSimulation Using Simulink, many models of real systems contain elements that require or permit a statistical modeling, communication systems,switching systems, sensor systems, modeling takes definite shape, random variables governin [...] g certain stochastic processes system behavior modelinginputs change over time, as are the fluctiaciones in the stock market andsome products. You must define methods to generate samples of random variables and stochastic samples. Among them is the Monte Carlo method, the implemented model showed the ability to propose optional pricing to the market price to changes in the price of a product. The simulations allowed to know more precisely the versatility of the method to other methods used, predicting with great accuracy the price fluctuations that occurred in the trial product.
Structural Fatigue Reliability Based on Extension of Random Loads into Interval Variables
Qiangfeng Wang; Jianjun Li; Shengli Zhang
2013-01-01
According to the problem that for a structure under random loads, the structural fatigue life cant be directly calculated out by S-N curves and linear Miner cumulative damage rule. Owing to the uncertainty of loads, and the problem of the inaccuracy of calculated structural reliability index for the existence of deviation between measured data in projects and real data, the research method for structural fatigue reliability based on extension of random loads into interval variables is propose...
Ould Aly, Sidi Mohamed
2013-01-01
We study the Tauberian relations between the moment generating function (MGF) and the complementary cumulative distribution function of a variable whose MGF is finite only on part of the real line. We relate the right tail behavior of the cumulative distribution function of such a random variable to the behavior of its MGF near the critical moment. We apply our results to an arbitrary superposition of a CIR process and the time-integral of this process.
Funclust: a curves clustering method using functional random variables density approximation
Jacques, Julien; Preda, Cristian
2013-01-01
A new method for clustering functional data is proposed under the name Funclust. This method relies on the approximation of the notion of probability density for functional random variables, which generally does not exists. Using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of a stochastic process, this approximation leads to define an approximation for the density of functional variables. Based on this density approximation, a parametric mixture model is proposed. The parameter estimation is carried out by ...
Nonlinear random wave field in shallow water: variable Korteweg-de Vries framework
Sergeeva, A.; Pelinovsky, E.; Talipova, T.
2011-01-01
The transformation of a random wave field in shallow water of variable depth is analyzed within the framework of the variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation. The characteristic wave height varies with depth according to Green's law, and this follows rigorously from the theoretical model. The skewness and kurtosis are computed, and it is shown that they increase when the depth decreases, and simultaneously the wave state deviates from the Gaussian. The probability of large-amplitude (r...
A Simple Linear Ranking Algorithm Using Query Dependent Intercept Variables
Ailon, Nir
2008-01-01
The LETOR website contains three information retrieval datasets used as a benchmark for testing machine learning ideas for ranking. Algorithms participating in the challenge are required to assign score values to search results for a collection of queries, and are measured using standard IR ranking measures (NDCG, precision, MAP) that depend only the relative score-induced order of the results. Similarly to many of the ideas proposed in the participating algorithms, we train a linear classifier. In contrast with other participating algorithms, we define an additional free variable (intercept, or benchmark) for each query. This allows expressing the fact that results for different queries are incomparable for the purpose of determining relevance. The cost of this idea is the addition of relatively few nuisance parameters. Our approach is simple, and we used a standard logistic regression library to test it. The results beat the reported participating algorithms. Hence, it seems promising to combine our approac...
Efficient Estimation of Mutual Information for Strongly Dependent Variables
Gao, Shuyang; Galstyan, Aram
2014-01-01
We demonstrate that a popular class of nonparametric mutual information (MI) estimators based on k-nearest-neighbor graphs requires number of samples that scales exponentially with the true MI. Consequently, accurate estimation of MI between two strongly dependent variables is possible only for prohibitively large sample size. This important yet overlooked shortcoming of the existing estimators is due to their implicit reliance on local uniformity of the underlying joint distribution. We introduce a new estimator that is robust to local non-uniformity, works well with limited data, and is able to capture relationship strengths over many orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed estimator on both synthetic and real-world data.
Event-controlled constructions of random fields of maxima with non-max-stable dependence
Raschke, Mathias
2014-01-01
Max-stable random fields can be constructed according to Schlather (2002) with a random function or a stationary process and a kind of random event magnitude. These are applied for the modelling of natural hazards. We simply extend these event-controlled constructions to random fields of maxima with non-max-stable dependence structure (copula). The theory for the variant with a stationary process is obvious; the parameter(s) of its correlation function is/are determined by the event magnitude. The introduced variant with random functions can only be researched numerically. The scaling of the random function is exponentially determined by the event magnitude. The location parameter of the Gumbel margins depends only on this exponential function in the researched examples; the scale parameter of the margins is normalized. In addition, we propose a method for the parameter estimation for such constructions by using Kendall's tau. The spatial dependence in relation to the block size is considered therein. Finally...
Geluk, J. L.; Peng, L.; Vries, C. G.
1999-01-01
The paper characterizes first and second order tail behavior of convolutions of i.i.d. heavy tailed random variables with support on the real line. The result is applied to the problem of risk diversification in portfolio analysis and to the estimation of the parameter in a MA(1) model.
Universal dependence on disorder of 2D randomly diluted and random-bond +-J Ising models
Hasenbusch, M.; Toldin, F. Parisen; Pelissetto, A.; Vicari, E.
2008-01-01
We consider the two-dimensional randomly site diluted Ising model and the random-bond +-J Ising model (also called Edwards-Anderson model), and study their critical behavior at the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition. The critical behavior of thermodynamic quantities can be derived from a set of renormalization-group equations, in which disorder is a marginally irrelevant perturbation at the two-dimensional Ising fixed point. We discuss their solutions, focusing in particu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the case wherein nonlinear seismic response analyses are carried out, the response values vary due to the variations in materials and modeling. In this paper, nonlinear analyses of several random variables are carried out using: i. a conventional method; ii. a two-point estimation method (i. and ii. are simplified methods); and iii. Monte Carlo simulation (detailed method) to examine the variability of the response in the excessive nonlinear range for seismic responses of shear walls. The analyses are performed to a PWR-3 loop type reactor building which is one of the most typical reactor buildings in Japan. The variations are considered in specified compressive strength of concrete, concrete damping factor, shear wave velocity of soil and shapes of shear stress-strain relation curves of shear walls. As the results by the two simplified methods closely matched the Monte Carlo simulation results, the appropriateness for applying the simplified methods to nonlinear analyses of several random variables was ascertained. (author)
Local hidden variable models for entangled quantum States using finite shared randomness.
Bowles, Joseph; Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Brunner, Nicolas
2015-03-27
The statistics of local measurements performed on certain entangled states can be reproduced using a local hidden variable (LHV) model. While all known models make use of an infinite amount of shared randomness, we show that essentially all entangled states admitting a LHV model can be simulated with finite shared randomness. Our most economical model simulates noisy two-qubit Werner states using only log_{2}(12)?3.58 bits of shared randomness. We also discuss the case of positive operator valued measures, and the simulation of nonlocal states with finite shared randomness and finite communication. Our work represents a first step towards quantifying the cost of LHV models for entangled quantum states. PMID:25860723
Structural Fatigue Reliability Based on Extension of Random Loads into Interval Variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiangfeng Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available According to the problem that for a structure under random loads, the structural fatigue life cant be directly calculated out by S-N curves and linear Miner cumulative damage rule. Owing to the uncertainty of loads, and the problem of the inaccuracy of calculated structural reliability index for the existence of deviation between measured data in projects and real data, the research method for structural fatigue reliability based on extension of random loads into interval variables is proposed. The innovation is that we can accurately calculate out the interval of the structural fatigue life and reliability index of a structure according to the probability density function of stress level of random loads and the coefficient of variation of measured loads. By practical calculation example, it is proved that this method is more suitable to practical engineering comparing to traditional methods. It will provide a perfect research approach for reliability analysis of the structure under random loads.
Maximum likelihood algorithm for PET image reconstruction based on fuzzy random variable.
Zhu, H Q; Shu, H Z; Zhou, J; Luo, L M
2004-01-01
This work presents a new iterative method for reconstructing positron emission tomography (PET) images. Unlike conventional maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (MLEM), this method intends to introduce the fuzzy set principle to MLEM algorithm. In this work, the noncognitive uncertainty of the observed projection data are described by their probability density function; whereas the cognitive uncertainty of a random variable can be described by the membership function for its fuzziness. The mean of the observed projection data are regard as fuzzy random variables because of the complexity of system. The fuzzy random variable can be represented by a triangular membership function. We establish a joint probability density function that includes the effects of both fuzziness and randomness. The maximum likelihood approach is used to estimate the image vector. The order subset (OS), rescaled block-iterative (RBI), and row-action (RA) techniques are applied to our PET reconstructed method to speed up the convergence rate and to decrease the iteration numbers. PMID:17271945
Epoch-dependent absorption line profile variability in ? Cep
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
J.M., Uuh-Sonda; G., Rauw; P., Eenens; L., Mahy; M., Palate; E., Gosset; C.A., Flores.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Reportamos el análisis de una campaña de monitoreo espectroscópico multiépoca de la estrella O6 Ief ? Cep. Observaciones previas habían reportado la existencia de dos modos de pulsaciones no-radiales en esta estrella. Nuestros datos revelan una situación considerablemente más compleja. Las frequenci [...] as contenidas en el espectro de potencia cambian considerablemente de una época a otra. No encontramos ninguna frecuencia estable que pueda ser atribuida inequívocamente a pulsaciones. La dependencia temporal de las frequencias y los patrones devariabilidad son similares a los observados en las líneas de emisión del viento en esta y otras estrellas Oef, lo cual sugiere que ambos fenómenos tienen probablemente el mismo origen, aunque éste siga todavía sin conocerse. Abstract in english We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6Iefstar ? Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star. Our data reveal a much more complex situation. The frequency content of the power spectrum considerably [...] changes from one epoch to the other. We find no stable frequency that can unambiguously be attributed to pulsations. The epoch-dependence of the frequencies and variability patterns are similar to what is seen in the wind emission lines of this and other Oef stars, suggesting that both phenomena likely have the same, currently still unknown, origin.
Ultraviolet variability of quasars: dependence on the accretion rate
Meusinger, H
2013-01-01
We compiled a catalogue of about 4000 SDSS quasars including individual estimators V for the variability strength, virial black hole masses M, and mass accretion rates dM/dt from the Davis-Laor scaling relation. We confirm significant anti-correlations between V and dM/dt, the Eddington ratio, and the bolometric luminosity L, respectively. A weak, statistically not significant positive trend is indicated for the dependence of V on M. As a side product, we find a strong correlation of the radiative efficiency with M and show that this trend is most likely produced by selection effects in combination with the mass errors and the use of the scaling relation for dM/dt. The anti-correlations found for V cannot be explained in such a way. The strongest anti-correlation is found with dM/dt. However, it is difficult to decide which of the quantities (L, Eddington ratio, dM/dt) is intrinsically correlated with V and which of the observed correlations are produced by the relations between these quantities. A V-dM/dt an...
A nonlinear random walk approach to concentration-dependent contaminant transport in porous media
Zoia, Andrea; Latrille, Christelle; Cartalade, Alain
2008-01-01
We propose a nonlinear random walk model to describe the dynamics of dense contaminant plumes in porous media. A coupling between concentration and velocity fields is found, so that transport displays non-Fickian features. The qualitative behavior of the pollutant spatial profiles and moments is explored with the help of Monte Carlo simulation, within a Continuous Time Random Walk approach. Model outcomes are then compared with experimental measurements of variable-density c...
Are the Variability Properties of the Kepler AGN Light Curves Consistent with a Damped Random Walk?
Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.
2015-01-01
We test the consistency of active galactic nuclei (AGN) optical flux variability with the \\textit{damped random walk} (DRW) model. Our sample consists of 20 multi-quarter \\textit{Kepler} AGN light curves including both Type 1 and 2 Seyferts, radio-loud and -quiet AGN, quasars, and blazars. \\textit{Kepler} observations of AGN light curves offer a unique insight into the variability properties of AGN light curves because of the very rapid ($11.6-28.6$ min) and highly uniform r...
The Discovery of Timescale-Dependent Color Variability of Quasars
Sun, Yu-Han; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Zheng, Zhen-Ya
2014-01-01
Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical, and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using SDSS g and r band photometric monitoring data of quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ~ 10 days, but...
A cellular automata model of traffic flow with variable probability of randomization
Zheng, Wei-Fan; Zhang, Ji-Ye
2015-05-01
Research on the stochastic behavior of traffic flow is important to understand the intrinsic evolution rules of a traffic system. By introducing an interactional potential of vehicles into the randomization step, an improved cellular automata traffic flow model with variable probability of randomization is proposed in this paper. In the proposed model, the driver is affected by the interactional potential of vehicles before him, and his decision-making process is related to the interactional potential. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the modeling is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process based on the vehicle and traffic situations in front of him in actual traffic. From the improved model, the fundamental diagram (flow–density relationship) is obtained, and the detailed high-density traffic phenomenon is reproduced through numerical simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172247, 61273021, 61373009, and 61100118).
The Distribution of the Sum of Mixed Independent Random Variables Pertaining to Special Functions
V. B. L. Chaurasia; Jagdev Singh
2010-01-01
The aim of this paper is to obtain the distribution of mixed sum of two independent random variables with different probability density functions. One with probability density function defined in finite range and the other with probability density function defined in infinite range and associated with product of general class ofpolynomials and H-function. The method used is based on Laplace transform and its inverse. The result obtained here is quite general in nature and is capable of yieldi...
Some One Parameter Models for Continuous Random Variables Defined on the Interval [0, 1
John J. Wiorkowski
2013-01-01
The Beta Distribution is almost exclusively used for situations, after range normalization, wherein a continuous random variable is defined on the closed range [0, 1]. Since the beta distribution is intrinsically a two parameter distribution, this creates problems in some applications where specification of more than one parameter is difficult. In this note, two new classes of single parameter continuous probability distributions on a closed interval are introduced. These distributions remov...
Johnson, Kyler S.; Kozdron, Michael J.
2015-01-01
We study quantum random variables and generalize several classical limit results to the quantum setting. We prove a quantum analogue of Lebesgue's dominated convergence theorem and use it to prove a quantum martingale convergence theorem. This quantum martingale convergence theorem is of particular interest since it exhibits non-classical behaviour; even though the limit of the martingale exists and is unique, it is not explicitly identifiable. However, we provide a partial ...
Tail Probability and Singularity of Laplace-Stieltjes Transform of a Heavy Tailed Random Variable
Nakagawa, Kenji
2009-01-01
In this paper, we will give a sufficient condition for a non-negative random variable $X$ to be heavy tailed by investigating the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the probability distribution function. We focus on the relation between the singularity at the real point of the axis of convergence and the asymptotic decay of the tail probability. Our theorem is a kind of Tauberian theorems.
A continuous time random walk model of transport in variably saturated heterogeneous porous media
Zoia, Andrea; Ne?el, Marie-christine; Cortis, Andrea
2009-01-01
We propose a unified physical framework for transport in variably saturated porous media. This approach allows fluid flow and solute migration to be treated as ensemble averages of fluid and solute particles, respectively. We consider the cases of homogeneous and heterogeneous porous materials. Within a fractal mobile-immobile (MIM) continuous time random walk framework, the heterogeneity will be characterized by algebraically decaying particle retention-times. We derive the...
Kang, Hyunseung; Zhang, Anru; Cai, T. Tony; Small, Dylan S
2014-01-01
Instrumental variables have been widely used for estimating the causal effect between exposure and outcome. Conventional estimation methods require complete knowledge about all the instruments' validity; a valid instrument must not have a direct effect on the outcome and not be related to unmeasured confounders. Often, this is impractical as highlighted by Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments and complete knowledge about instruments' ...
The master field for rainbow diagrams and free non-commutative random variables
Accardi, L; Volovich, I V
1995-01-01
The master field for a subclass of planar diagrams, so called rainbow diagrams, for higher dimensional large N theories is considered. An explicit representation for the master field in terms of noncommutative random variables in the modified interaction representation in the Boltzmannian Fock space is given. A natural interaction in the Boltzmannian Fock space is formulated by means of a rational function of the interaction Lagrangian instead of the ordinary exponential function in the standard Fock space.
Exact lower bounds on the exponential moments of Winsorized and truncated random variables
Pinelis, Iosif
2010-01-01
Exact lower bounds on the exponential moments of min(y,X) and XI{X
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Correchel Vladia
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.
St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.
2015-04-01
The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25–2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high-pass filter time constants shorter than about ? = 38 h, all datasets exhibit a correlation length ? that falls at least as fast as {{? }-1} . Since the inter-site separation needed for statistical independence falls for shorter time scales, higher-rate fluctuations can be effectively smoothed by aggregating wind plants over areas smaller than otherwise estimated.
Extended q -Gaussian and q -exponential distributions from gamma random variables
Budini, Adrián A.
2015-05-01
The family of q -Gaussian and q -exponential probability densities fit the statistical behavior of diverse complex self-similar nonequilibrium systems. These distributions, independently of the underlying dynamics, can rigorously be obtained by maximizing Tsallis "nonextensive" entropy under appropriate constraints, as well as from superstatistical models. In this paper we provide an alternative and complementary scheme for deriving these objects. We show that q -Gaussian and q -exponential random variables can always be expressed as a function of two statistically independent gamma random variables with the same scale parameter. Their shape index determines the complexity q parameter. This result also allows us to define an extended family of asymmetric q -Gaussian and modified q -exponential densities, which reduce to the standard ones when the shape parameters are the same. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a simple change of variables always allows relating any of these distributions with a beta stochastic variable. The extended distributions are applied in the statistical description of different complex dynamics such as log-return signals in financial markets and motion of point defects in a fluid flow.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
KrØigård, Thomas; Gaist, David
2014-01-01
SUMMARY: The reproducibility of variables commonly included in studies of peripheral nerve conduction in healthy individuals has not previously been analyzed using a random effects regression model. We examined the temporal changes and variability of standard nerve conduction measures in the leg. Peroneal nerve distal motor latency, motor conduction velocity, and compound motor action potential amplitude; sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and sensory conduction velocity; and tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency were examined in 51 healthy subjects, aged 40 to 67 years. They were reexamined after 2 and 26 weeks. There was no change in the variables except for a minor decrease in sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and a minor increase in tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency. Reproducibility was best for peroneal nerve distal motor latency and motor conduction velocity, sural nerve sensory conduction velocity, and tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency. Between-subject variability was greaterthan within-subject variability. Sample sizes ranging from 21 to 128 would be required to show changes twice the magnitude of the spontaneous changes observed in this study. Nerve conduction studies have a high reproducibility, and variables are mainly unaltered during 6 months. This study provides a solid basis for the planning of future clinical trials assessing changes in nerve conduction.
Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Quiles, Clélia; Fond, Guillaume; Cermolacce, Michel; Vion-Dury, Jean
2014-05-01
This methodological article proposes a framework for analysing the relationship between cognitive processes and brain activity using variables measured by neurofeedback (NF) carried out by functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI NF). Cognitive processes and brain activity variables can be analysed as either the dependant variable or the independent variable. Firstly, we propose two traditional approaches, defined in the article as the "neuropsychological" approach (NP) and the "psychophysiology" approach (PP), to extract dependent and independent variables in NF protocols. Secondly, we suggest that NF can be inspired by the style of inquiry used in neurophenomenology. fMRI NF allows participants to experiment with his or her own cognitive processes and their effects on brain region of interest (ROI) activations simultaneously. Thus, we suggest that fMRI NF could be improved by implementing "the elicitation interview method", which allows the investigator to gather relevant verbatim from participants' introspection on subjective experiences. PMID:24755406
Frequency and temperature dependent mobility of a charged carrier and randomly interrupted strand
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randomly interrupted strand model of a one-dimensional conductor is considered. Exact analytical expression is obtained for the temperature dependent as mobility for a finite segment drawn at random, taking into account the reflecting barriers at the two open ends. The real part of mobility shows a broad resonance as a function of both frequency and tempeature, and vanishes quadratically in the dc limit. The frequency (temperature) maximum shifts to higher values for higher temperatures (frequencies). (author)
Arnedt, J. Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A.; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J.
2011-01-01
In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia to improve sleep and daytime symptoms, and to reduce relapse in recovering alcohol dependent (AD) participants. Seventeen abstinent AD patients with insomnia (6 women, mean age 46.2 ± 10.1 years) were randomized to 8 sessions of cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia for AD (CBTI-AD, n=9) or to a behavioral placebo treatment (BPT, n=8). Subjective measures of sleep, daytime consequ...
Regression Methods for Categorical Dependent Variables: Effects on a Model of Student College Choice
Rapp, Kelly E.
2012-01-01
The use of categorical dependent variables with the classical linear regression model (CLRM) violates many of the model's assumptions and may result in biased estimates (Long, 1997; O'Connell, Goldstein, Rogers, & Peng, 2008). Many dependent variables of interest to educational researchers (e.g., professorial rank, educational…
Convergence of Weighted Linear Process for ÃÂ-Mixing Random Variables
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Guang-Hui Cai
2007-04-01
Full Text Available A central limit theorem and a functional central limit theorem are obtained for weighted linear process of ÃÂ-mixing sequences for the Xt=Ã¢ÂˆÂ‘i=0Ã¢ÂˆÂžaiYtÃ¢ÂˆÂ’i, where {Yi,0Ã¢Â‰Â¤i<Ã¢ÂˆÂž} is a sequence of ÃÂ-mixing random variables with EYi=0,0
On the Law of Large Numbers for Nonmeasurable Identically Distributed Random Variables
Pruss, Alexander R.
2012-01-01
Let $\\Omega$ be a countable infinite product $\\Omega^\\N$ of copies of the same probability space $\\Omega_1$, and let ${\\Xi_n}$ be the sequence of the coordinate projection functions from $\\Omega$ to $\\Omega_1$. Let $\\Psi$ be a possibly nonmeasurable function from $\\Omega_1$ to $\\R$, and let $X_n(\\omega) = \\Psi(\\Xi_n(\\omega))$. Then we can think of ${X_n}$ as a sequence of independent but possibly nonmeasurable random variables on $\\Omega$. Let $S_n = X_1+...+X_n$. By the ord...
Genuer, Robin; Toussile, Wilson
2011-01-01
Malaria control strategies aiming at reducing disease transmission intensity may impact both oocyst intensity and infection prevalence in the mosquito vector. Thus far, mathematical models failed to identify a clear relationship between Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and their infectiousness to mosquitoes. Natural isolates of gametocytes are genetically diverse and biologically complex. Infectiousness to mosquitoes relies on multiple parameters such as density, sex-ratio, maturity, parasite genotypes and host immune factors. In this article, we investigated how density and genetic diversity of gametocytes impact on the success of transmission in the mosquito vector. We analyzed data for which the number of covariates plus attendant interactions is at least of order of the sample size, precluding usage of classical models such as general linear models. We then considered the variable importance from random forests to address the problem of selecting the most influent variables. The selected covariates were ...
Nutrition education intervention for dependent patients: protocol of a randomized controlled trial
Arija Victoria; Martín Núria; Canela Teresa; Anguera Carme; Castelao Ana I; García-Barco Montserrat; García-Campo Antoni; González-Bravo Ana I; Lucena Carme; Martínez Teresa; Fernández-Barrés Silvia; Pedret Roser; Badia Waleska; Basora Josep
2012-01-01
Abstract Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of t...
Events of Borel Sets, Construction of Borel Sets and Random Variables for Stochastic Finance
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Jaeger Peter
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We consider special events of Borel sets with the aim to prove, that the set of the irrational numbers is an event of the Borel sets. The set of the natural numbers, the set of the integer numbers and the set of the rational numbers are countable, so we can use the literature [10] (pp. 78-81 as a basis for the similar construction of the proof. Next we prove, that different sets can construct the Borel sets [16] (pp. 9-10. Literature [16] (pp. 9-10 and [11] (pp. 11-12 gives an overview, that there exists some other sets for this construction. Last we define special functions as random variables for stochastic finance in discrete time. The relevant functions are implemented in the article [15], see [9] (p. 4. The aim is to construct events and random variables, which can easily be used with a probability measure. See as an example theorems (10 and (14 in [20]. Then the formalization is more similar to the presentation used in the book [9]. As a background, further literatures is [3] (pp. 9-12, [13] (pp. 17-20, and [8] (pp.32-35.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TysonHHolmes
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The HIV risk-taking behavior scale (HRBS is an 11-item instrument designed to assess the risks of HIV infection due self-reported injection drug use and sexual behavior. A retrospective analysis was performed on HRBS data collected from approximately 1,000 participants pooled across seven clinical trials of pharmacotherapies for either the treatment of cocaine-dependence or methamphetamine-dependence. Analysis faced three important challenges. The sample contained a high proportion of missing assessments after randomization. Also, the HRBS scale consists of two distinct behavioral components which may or may not coincide in response patterns. In addition, distributions of responses on the subscales were highly concentrated at just a few values (e.g., 0, 6. To address these challenges, a single probit regression model was fit to three outcomes variables simultaneously—the two subscale totals plus an indicator variable for assessments not obtained (non-response. This joint-outcome regression model was able to identify that those who left assessment early had higher self-reported risk of injection-drug use and lower self-reported risky sexual behavior because the model was able to draw on information on associations among the three outcomes collectively. These findings were not identified in analyses performed on each outcome separately. No evidence for an effect of pharmacotherapies was observed, except to reduce missing assessments. Univariate-outcome modeling is not recommended for the HRBS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Specially constructed fast reactivity oscillator was stimulating the zero power reactor by a stimulus which caused pseudo-random reactivity changes. Measuring system included stochastic oscillator BCR-1 supplied by pseudo-random pulses from noise generator GBS-16, instrumental tape-recorder, system for data acquisition and digital computer ZUSE-Z-23. For measuring the spatially dependent transfer function, reactor response was measured at a number of different positions of stochastic oscillator and ionization chamber. In order to keep the reactor system linear, experiment was limited to small reactivity fluctuations. Experimental results were compared to theoretical ones
BERNOULLI REGRESSION MODELS: RE-EXAMINING STATISTICAL MODELS WITH BINARY DEPENDENT VARIABLES
The classical approach for specifying statistical models with binary dependent variables in econometrics using latent variables or threshold models can leave the model misspecified, resulting in biased and inconsistent estimates as well as erroneous inferences. Furthermore, methods for trying to all...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Observation structure of many variables can be analyzed using correlation calculation. The analysis of dependence variable structure of each variable is done in order to be able to map a certain rule for the dependence variable. A problem we meet in one of the applications of image processing concerning variable dependence structure when one independent variable observation corresponds with k variables in n observations. The mapping of variable dependence structure will be more complex, i.e. structure in n-dimensions with a subspace of k-dimensions. In the problem of the structure simplification, it is recommended to use component principle technique where its methodology is based on the average of fitting planes by orthogonal least square, but developed for partical purpose of analyzing correlation structures. The eigenanalysis computation and singular value decomposition used to develop a similar decomposition for observations data. Singular value decomposition is the first step then used in component principle analyses. The next computation, developed the component principle vector wich will be used for location mapping in more simply dimension space
Normal approximation for random sums
Barbour, A. D.; Xia, A.
2006-01-01
In this paper, we adapt the very effective Berry-Esseen theorems of Chen and Shao (2004), which apply to sums of locally dependent random variables, for use with randomly indexed sums. Our particular interest is in random variables resulting from integrating a random field with respect to a point process. We illustrate the use of our theorems in three examples: in a rather general model of the insurance collective; in problems in geometrical probability involving stabilizing functionals; and ...
Chan, H P; Chan, Hock Peng; Lai, Tze Leung
2004-01-01
Several classical results on boundary-crossing probabilities of Brownian motion and random walks are extended to asymptotically Gaussian random fields, which include sums of i.i.d. random variables with multidimensional indices, multivariate empirical processes, and scan statistics in change-point and signal detection as special cases. Some key ingredients in these extensions are moderate deviation approximations to marginal tail probabilities and weak convergence of the conditional distributions of certain ``clumps'' around high-level crossings. We also discuss how these results are related to the Poisson clumping heuristic and tube formulas of Gaussian random fields, and describe their applications to laws of the iterated logarithm in the form of the Kolmogorov--Erdos--Feller integral tests.
Records and sequences of records from random variables with a linear trend
Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim
2010-01-01
We consider records and sequences of records drawn from discrete time series of the form $X_{n}=Y_{n}+cn$, where the $Y_{n}$ are independent and identically distributed random variables and $c$ is a constant drift. For very small and very large drift velocities, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the probability $p_n(c)$ of a record occurring in the $n$th step and the probability $P_N(c)$ that all $N$ entries are records, i.e. that $X_1 < X_2 < ... < X_N$. Our work is motivated by the analysis of temperature time series in climatology, and by the study of mutational pathways in evolutionary biology.
Dynamical properties of a randomly diluted neural network with variable activity
Grosskinsky, S
1999-01-01
The subject of study is a neural network with binary neurons, randomly diluted synapses and variable pattern activity. We look at the system with parallel updating using a probabilistic approach to solve the one step dynamics with one condensed pattern. We derive restrictions on the storage capacity and the mutual information content occuring during the retrieval process. Special focus is on the constraints on the threshold for optimal performance. We also look at the effect of noisy updating, giving a dynamical version of the critical temperature, the corresponding threshold and an approximation for the time evolution for small temperatures. The description is applicable to the whole retrieval process in the limit of strong dilution. The analysis is carried out as exactly as possible and over the full parameter ranges, generalizing some former results.
Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; Wilson, Monique E.; Schwartz, Robert P.; O’Grady, Kevin E.
2013-01-01
The primary focus of the current study is to examine whether gender and other baseline characteristics were significantly associated with more severe patterns of drug use. It involves data from 260 male and female pre-release prison inmates with pre-incarceration heroin dependence who enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine. Three outcomes are examined: 1) Lifetime Intravenous drug use; 2) Lifetime number of drugs used; and 3) Heroin use in prison. Regarding lifetime intravenous drug use; race (p = .0001), education (p = .009), age (p = .0001), and psychological treatment (p = .028) were significant. Concerning lifetime number of drugs used; race (p =.0001) and age of first crime (p = .001) were significant. Finally, gender (p = .004), was the only significant variable in terms of using heroin while in prison. All of these differences may have important clinical, treatment, and research implications, which are discussed. PMID:23997546
Rodin, Andrei S; Litvinenko, Anatoliy; Klos, Kathy; Morrison, Alanna C; Woodage, Trevor; Coresh, Josef; Boerwinkle, Eric
2009-12-01
Modern large-scale genetic association studies generate increasingly high-dimensional datasets. Therefore, some variable selection procedure should be performed before the application of traditional data analysis methods, for reasons of both computational efficiency and problems related to overfitting. We describe here a "wrapper" strategy (SIZEFIT) for variable selection that uses a Random Forests classifier, coupled with various local search/optimization algorithms. We apply it to a large dataset consisting of 2,425 African-American and non-Hispanic white individuals genotyped for 4,869 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a coronary heart disease (CHD) case-cohort association study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), using incident CHD and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels as the dependent variables. We show that most SNPs can be safely removed from the dataset without compromising the predictive (classification) accuracy, with only a small number of SNPs (sometimes less than 100) containing any predictive signal. A statistical (SUMSTAT) approach is also applied to the dataset for comparison purposes. We describe a novel method for refining the subset of signal-containing SNPs (FIXFIT), based on an Extremal Optimization algorithm. Finally, we compare the top SNP rankings obtained by different methods and devise practical guidelines for researchers trying to generate a compact subset of predictive SNPs from genome-wide association datasets. Interestingly, there is a significant amount of overlap between seemingly very heterogeneous rankings. We conclude by constructing compact optimal predictive SNP subsets for CHD (less than 150 SNPs) and LDL (less than 300 SNPs) phenotypes, and by comparing various rankings for two well-known positive control SNPs for LDL in the apolipoprotein E gene. PMID:20047492
Koyama, Tamio; Takemura, Akimichi
2015-01-01
We apply the holonomic gradient method to compute the distribution function of a weighted sum of independent noncentral chi-square random variables. It is the distribution function of the squared length of a multivariate normal random vector. We treat this distribution as an integral of the normalizing constant of the Fisher-Bingham distribution on the unit sphere and make use of the partial differential equations for the Fisher-Bingham distribution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linear combinations of chi square random variables occur in a wide range of fields. Unfortunately, a closed, analytic expression for the probability density function is not yet known. Starting out from an analytic expression for the density of the sum of two gamma variables, a computationally efficient algorithm to numerically calculate the linear combination of chi square random variables is developed. An explicit expression for the error bound is obtained. The proposed technique is shown to be computationally efficient, i.e. only polynomial in growth in the number of terms compared to the exponential growth of most other methods. It provides a vast improvement in accuracy and shows only logarithmic growth in the required precision. In addition, it is applicable to a much greater number of terms and currently the only way of computing the distribution for hundreds of terms. As an application, the exponential dependence of the eigenvalue fluctuation probability of a random matrix model for 4D supergravity with N scalar fields is found to be of the asymptotic form exp(?0.35N). (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Moser, Martin
2013-01-01
We investigate the maximum increment of a random walk with heavy-tailed jump size distribution. Here heavy-tailedness is understood as regular variation of the finite-dimensional distributions. The jump sizes constitute a strictly stationary sequence. Using a continuous mapping argument acting on the point processes of the normalized jump sizes, we prove that the maximum increment of the random walk converges in distribution to a Fréchet distributed random variable.
Quantum diffusion of a relativistic particle in a time-dependent random potential.
Sepehrinia, Reza
2015-04-01
We present a rigorous study of quantum diffusion of a relativistic particle subjected to a time-dependent random potential with ? correlation in time. We find that in the asymptotic time limit the particle wave packet spreads ballistically in contrast with the nonrelativistic case, which in the same situation exhibits superballistic diffusion. The relativistic suppression of wave packet diffusion is discussed in connection with statistical conservation laws that follow from relativistic dynamics. PMID:25974441
Time-dependent neutron transport in a semi-infinite random medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The time-dependent neutron transport in a semi-infinite random medium of binary Markovian mixture with linear anisotropic scattering is proposed. A formalism, developed to treat radiative transfer in statistical mixtures, is used to obtain the ensemble-averaged solution. The average reflectivity, radiant energy and net flux are computed for specular-reflecting boundary. Results are obtained for isotropic and anisotropic scattering
Quantum diffusion of a relativistic particle in a time-dependent random potential
Sepehrinia, Reza
2015-04-01
We present a rigorous study of quantum diffusion of a relativistic particle subjected to a time-dependent random potential with ? correlation in time. We find that in the asymptotic time limit the particle wave packet spreads ballistically in contrast with the nonrelativistic case, which in the same situation exhibits superballistic diffusion. The relativistic suppression of wave packet diffusion is discussed in connection with statistical conservation laws that follow from relativistic dynamics.
Are the Variability Properties of the Kepler AGN Light Curves Consistent with a Damped Random Walk?
Kasliwal, Vishal P; Richards, Gordon T
2015-01-01
We test the consistency of active galactic nuclei (AGN) optical flux variability with the \\textit{damped random walk} (DRW) model. Our sample consists of 20 multi-quarter \\textit{Kepler} AGN light curves including both Type 1 and 2 Seyferts, radio-loud and -quiet AGN, quasars, and blazars. \\textit{Kepler} observations of AGN light curves offer a unique insight into the variability properties of AGN light curves because of the very rapid ($11.6-28.6$ min) and highly uniform rest-frame sampling combined with a photometric precision of $1$ part in $10^{5}$ over a period of 3.5 yr. We categorize the light curves of all 20 objects based on visual similarities and find that the light curves fall into 5 broad categories. We measure the first order structure function of these light curves and model the observed light curve with a general broken power-law PSD characterized by a short-timescale power-law index $\\gamma$ and turnover timescale $\\tau$. We find that less than half the objects are consistent with a DRW and ...
Rodin, Andrei S; Litvinenko, Anatoliy; Klos, Kathy; MORRISON, Alanna C.; Woodage, Trevor; Coresh, Josef; BOERWINKLE, ERIC
2009-01-01
Modern large-scale genetic association studies generate increasingly high-dimensional datasets. Therefore, some variable selection procedure should be performed before the application of traditional data analysis methods, for reasons of both computational efficiency and problems related to overfitting. We describe here a “wrapper” strategy (SIZEFIT) for variable selection that uses a Random Forests classifier, coupled with various local search/optimization algorithms. We apply it to a large d...
Random field theory to interpret the spatial variability of lacustrine soils
Russo, Savino; Vessia, Giovanna
2015-04-01
The lacustrine soils are quaternary soils, dated from Pleistocene to Holocene periods, generated in low-energy depositional environments and characterized by soil mixture of clays, sands and silts with alternations of finer and coarser grain size layers. They are often met at shallow depth filling several tens of meters of tectonic or erosive basins typically placed in internal Appenine areas. The lacustrine deposits are often locally interbedded by detritic soils resulting from the failure of surrounding reliefs. Their heterogeneous lithology is associated with high spatial variability of physical and mechanical properties both along horizontal and vertical directions. The deterministic approach is still commonly adopted to accomplish the mechanical characterization of these heterogeneous soils where undisturbed sampling is practically not feasible (if the incoherent fraction is prevalent) or not spatially representative (if the cohesive fraction prevails). The deterministic approach consists on performing in situ tests, like Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) or Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) and deriving design parameters through "expert judgment" interpretation of the measure profiles. These readings of tip and lateral resistances (Rp and RL respectively) are almost continuous but highly variable in soil classification according to Schmertmann (1978). Thus, neglecting the spatial variability cannot be the best strategy to estimated spatial representative values of physical and mechanical parameters of lacustrine soils to be used for engineering applications. Hereafter, a method to draw the spatial variability structure of the aforementioned measure profiles is presented. It is based on the theory of the Random Fields (Vanmarcke 1984) applied to vertical readings of Rp measures from mechanical CPTs. The proposed method relies on the application of the regression analysis, by which the spatial mean trend and fluctuations about this trend are derived. Moreover, the scale of fluctuation is calculated to measure the maximum length beyond which profiles of measures are independent. The spatial mean trend can be used to identify "quasi-homogeneous" soil layers where the standard deviation and the scale of fluctuation can be calculated. In this study, five Rp profiles performed in the lacustrine deposits of the high River Pescara Valley have been analyzed. There, silty clay deposits with thickness ranging from a few meters to about 60m, and locally rich in sands and peats, are investigated. In this study, vertical trends of Rp profiles have been derived to be converted into design parameter mean trends. Furthermore, the variability structure derived from Rp readings can be propagated to design parameters to calculate the "characteristic values" requested by the European building codes. References Schmertmann J.H. 1978. Guidelines for Cone Penetration Test, Performance and Design. Report No. FHWA-TS-78-209, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., pp. 145. Vanmarcke E.H. 1984. Random Fields, analysis and synthesis. Cambridge (USA): MIT Press.
Okamoto, Kiyomi
2013-01-01
We investigate the temperature dependence of the finite-field magnetization of the S=1/2 bond-alternating XY model in the Random magnetic field along the z-direction having the Lorentzian distribution. The random-averaged free energy can be exactly calculated, which enables us to obtain the thermodynamical quantities. The temperature dependence of the finite-field magnetization shows various behaviors depending on the parameters $\\delta$ and $\\Gamma$, where $\\delta$ and $\\Ga...
Baseline-Dependent Effect of Noise-Enhanced Insoles on Gait Variability in Healthy Elderly Walkers
Stephen, Damian G.; Wilcox, Bethany; Niemi, James B.; Franz, Jason; Kerrigan, D. Casey; D’Andrea, Susan E.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine whether providing subsensory stochastic-resonance mechanical vibration to the foot soles of elderly walkers could decrease gait variability. In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, twenty nine (29) subjects engaged in treadmill walking while wearing sandals customized with three (3) actuators capable of producing stochastic-resonance mechanical vibration embedded in each sole. For each subject, we determined a subsensory level of vibration sti...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Li
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Past studies on soil moisture spatial variability have been mainly conducted at catchment scales where soil moisture is often sampled over a short time period; as a result, the observed soil moisture often exhibited smaller dynamic ranges, which prevented the complete revelation of soil moisture spatial variability as a function of mean soil moisture. In this study, spatial statistics (mean, spatial variability and skewness of in situ soil moisture, modeled and satellite-retrieved soil moisture obtained in a warm season (198 days were examined over three large climate regions in the US. The study found that spatial moments of in situ measurements strongly depend on climates, with distinct mean, spatial variability and skewness observed in each climate zone. In addition, an upward convex shape, which was revealed in several smaller scale studies, was observed for the relationship between spatial variability of in situ soil moisture and its spatial mean when statistics from dry, intermediate, and wet climates were combined. This upward convex shape was vaguely or partially observable in modeled and satellite-retrieved soil moisture estimates due to their smaller dynamic ranges. Despite different environmental controls on large-scale soil moisture spatial variability, the correlation between spatial variability and mean soil moisture remained similar to that observed at small scales, which is attributed to the boundedness of soil moisture. From the smaller support (effective area or volume represented by a measurement or estimate to larger ones, soil moisture spatial variability decreased in each climate region. The scale dependency of spatial variability all followed the power law, but data with large supports showed stronger scale dependency than those with smaller supports. The scale dependency of soil moisture variability also varied with climates, which may be linked to the scale dependency of precipitation spatial variability. Influences of environmental controls on soil moisture spatial variability at large scales are discussed. The results of this study should be useful for diagnosing large scale soil moisture estimates and for improving the estimation of land surface processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.Manikandan
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The Wide-expansion of mobile telecommunication technology mobile banking emerged as a new type of financial services and can provide efficient and effective financial services for clients. Mobile banking is a way for the customer to perform banking actions on his or her cell phone or other mobile device. It is a quite popular method of banking that fits in well with a busy, technologically oriented lifestyle. Framework conditions for mobile banking services differ from country to country but one thing is certain: the future of mobile banking depends on getting the security right. In this paper, we present a new way of securing mobile banking. We introduce a system which makes use of Elliptic curve cryptography and RGB Intensity Based Randomized pixels with variable Bits image Steganography [5]. Elliptic Curve Cryptography suites well for resources constraint devices like mobile phones and PDA, because of its less computation time, short key’s length, fast digital signature, flexibility and less resource consumption
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Anita Sharma
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Blinking statistics of quantum dot has attracted much attraction in recent years. Various experiments were conducted and various theories have been given to explain this phenomenon. However, the problem is not yet resolved. The weak temperature dependence of the power law parameters have complicated the phenomena. We have simulated the blinking statistics of quantum dot based on the random walk model. We have shown that three-dimensional biased Levy random walk of electrons, the bias being the Columbic interaction between electrons and ionized atoms can explain the observed experimental results. We have simulated the blinking properties of quantum dots in a broad temperature range (10-300 K. The distributions exhibit power law behavior for a wide range of temperature, but the power law parameter increases marginally with temperature. The trend of change is independent of the size of the quantum dots as confirmed from the simulation.
Universal spin-dependent variable range hopping in wide-band-gap oxide ferromagnetic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper proposes a universal spin-dependent variable range hopping theoretical model to describe various experimental transport phenomena observed in wide-band-gap oxide ferromagnetic semiconductors with high transition metal concentration. The contributions of the 'hard gap' energy, Coulomb interaction, correlation energy, and exchange interaction to the electrical transport are considered in the universal variable range hopping theoretical model. By fitting the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the experimental sheet resistance to the theoretical model, the spin polarization ratio of electrical carriers near the Fermi level and interactions between electrical carriers can be obtained
Bell-Boole Inequality: Nonlocality or Probabilistic Incompatibility of Random Variables?
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Andrei Khrennikov
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The main aim of this report is to inform the quantum information community about investigations on the problem of probabilistic compatibility of a family of random variables: a possibility to realize such a family on the basis of a single probability measure (to construct a single Kolmogorov probability space. These investigations were started hundred of years ago by J. Boole (who invented Boolean algebras. The complete solution of the problem was obtained by Soviet mathematician Vorobjev in 60th. Surprisingly probabilists and statisticians obtained inequalities for probabilities and correlations among which one can find the famous BellÃ¢Â€Â™s inequality and its generalizations. Such inequalities appeared simply as constraints for probabilistic compatibility. In this framework one can not see a priori any link to such problems as nonlocality and Ã¢Â€Âœdeath of realityÃ¢Â€Â which are typically linked to BellÃ¢Â€Â™s type inequalities in physical literature. We analyze the difference between positions of mathematicians and quantum physicists. In particular, we found that one of the most reasonable explanations of probabilistic incompatibility is mixing in BellÃ¢Â€Â™s type inequalities statistical data from a number of experiments performed under different experimental contexts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum interference causes a wavefunction to have sensitive spatial dependence, and this has a significant effect on quantum transport. For example, in a quantum-dot system, the conductance can depend on the lead positions. We investigate, for graphene quantum dots, the conductance variations with the lead positions. Since for graphene the types of boundaries, e.g., zigzag and armchair, can fundamentally affect the quantum transport characteristics, we focus on rectangular graphene quantum dots, for which the effects of boundaries can be systematically studied. For both zigzag and armchair horizontal boundaries, we find that changing the positions of the leads can induce significant conductance variations. Depending on the Fermi energy, the variations can be either regular oscillations or random conductance fluctuations. We develop a physical theory to elucidate the origin of the conductance oscillation/fluctuation patterns. In particular, quantum interference leads to standing-wave-like-patterns in the quantum dot which, in the absence of leads, are regulated by the energy-band structure of the corresponding vertical graphene ribbon. The observed ‘coexistence’ of regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can be exploited for the development of graphene-based nanodevices. (paper)
Variability of Fiber Elastic Moduli in Composite Random Fiber Networks Makes the Network Softer
Ban, Ehsan; Picu, Catalin
2015-03-01
Athermal fiber networks are assemblies of beams or trusses. They have been used to model mechanics of fibrous materials such as biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Elasticity of these networks has been studied in terms of various microstructural parameters such as the stiffness of their constituent fibers. In this work we investigate the elasticity of composite fiber networks made from fibers with moduli sampled from a distribution function. We use finite elements simulations to study networks made by 3D Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations. The resulting data collapse to power laws showing that variability in fiber stiffness makes fiber networks softer. We also support the findings by analytical arguments. Finally, we apply these results to a network with curved fibers to explain the dependence of the network's modulus on the variation of its structural parameters.
Manzardo, Ann M; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G
2013-12-01
Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analog, benfotiamine (BF), and BF's effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, -611 ± 380 standard drinks; PL: N=11, -159 ± 562 standard drinks, p-value=0.02). BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649
Excitation-dependent diffuse super-reflection from a random laser
Uppu, Ravitej; Mujumdar, Sushil
2015-05-01
Enhancement of the diffusive albedo from a random amplifying medium is discussed. A pump-probe setup is used to study the amplification of the reflected probe pulse light outside the backscattering cone. Strong super-reflection is measured and its dependence on the disorder strength is studied. An optimal disorder strength is observed at high excitation energy wherein the super-reflection is maximal. The origins of this behavior are traced to the interplay between the out-coupling and amplification from a disordered amplifying medium with an inhomogeneous distribution of gain.
The optimization of variable cross-section spines with temperature dependent thermal parameters
Reardon, J.; Razani, A.
1992-08-01
An optimization method based on a temperature correlated profile is expanded upon for the optimization of pin fins with variable cross-sections including the temperature dependence of thermal parameters. The application of this method to optimization of fin arrays is discussed. The validity of the optimization method for a single fin is demonstrated by comparison to analytical results of a special case. An example demonstrates the importance of considering temperature dependence of thermal parameters when optimizing a heat sink.
A note on the Marchenko-Pastur law for a class of random matrices with dependent entries
O'Rourke, Sean
2012-01-01
We consider a class of real random matrices with dependent entries and show that the limiting empirical spectral distribution is given by the Marchenko-Pastur law. Additionally, we establish a rate of convergence of the expected empirical spectral distribution.
Cryptography based on chaotic random maps with position dependent weighting probabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaotic cryptology has been widely investigated recently. A common feature in the most recent developments of chaotic cryptosystems is the use of a single dynamical rule in the encoding-decoding process. The main objective of this paper is to provide a set of chaotic systems instead of a single one for cryptography. In this paper, we introduce a chaotic cryptosystem based on the symbolic dynamics of random maps with position dependent weighting probabilities. The random maps model is a deterministic dynamical system in a finite phase space with n points. The maps that establish the dynamics of the system are chosen randomly for every point. The essential idea of this paper is that, given two dynamical systems that behave in a certain way, it is possible to combine them (by composing) into a new dynamical system. This dynamically composed system behaves in a completely different way compared to the constituent systems. The proposed scheme exploits the symbolic dynamics of a set of chaotic maps in order to encode the binary information. The performance of the new cryptosystem based on chaotic dynamical systems properties is examined. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm using symbolic dynamics achieves the optimal security criteria.
Quantum treatment of the time-dependent coupled oscillators under the action of a random force
Abdalla, M. Sebawe; Nassar, M. M.
2009-03-01
In this communication we introduce the problem of time-dependent frequency converter under the action of external random force. We have assumed that the coupling parameter and the phase pump are explicitly time dependent. Using the equations of motion in the Heisenberg picture the dynamical operators are obtained, however, under a certain integrability condition. When the system is initially prepared in the even coherent states the squeezing phenomenon is discussed. The correlation function is also considered and it has been shown that the nonclassical properties are apparent and sensitive to any variation in the integrability parameter. Furthermore, the wave function in Schrödinger picture is calculated and used it to derive the wave function in the coherent states. The accurate definition of the creation and annihilation operators are also introduced and employed to diagonalize the Hamiltonian system.
Maximal averages along a planar vector field depending on one variable
Bateman, Michael
2011-01-01
We prove (essentially) sharp $L^2$ estimates for a restricted maximal operator associated to a planar vector field that depends only on the horizontal variable. The proof combines an understanding of such vector fields from earlier work of the author with a result of Nets Katz on directional maximal operators.
A normal distribution for tensor-valued random variables: applications to diffusion tensor MRI.
Basser, Peter J; Pajevic, Sinisa
2003-07-01
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) provides a statistical estimate of a symmetric, second-order diffusion tensor of water, D, in each voxel within an imaging volume. We propose a new normal distribution, p(D) alpha exp(-1/2 D: A: D), which describes the variability of D in an ideal DT-MRI experiment. The scalar invariant, D : A : D, is the contraction of a positive definite symmetric, fourth-order precision tensor, A, and D. A correspondence is established between D: A: D and the elastic strain energy density function in continuum mechanics--specifically between D and the second-order infinitesimal strain tensor, and between A and the fourth-order tensor of elastic coefficients. We show that A can be further classified according to different classical elastic symmetries (i.e., isotropy, transverse isotropy, orthotropy, planar symmetry, and anisotropy). When A is an isotropic fourth-order tensor, we derive an explicit analytic expression for p(D), and for the distribution of the three eigenvalues of D, p(gamma1, gamma2, gamma3), which are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. We show how A can be estimated from either real or synthetic DT-MRI data for any given experimental design. Here we propose a new criterion for an optimal experimental design: that A be an isotropic fourth-order tensor. This condition ensures that the statistical properties of D (and quantities derived from it) are rotationally invariant. We also investigate the degree of isotropy of several DT-MRI experimental designs. Finally, we show that the univariate and multivariate distributions are special cases of the more general tensor-variate normal distribution, and suggest how to generalize p(D) to treat normal random tensor variables that are of third- (or higher) order. We expect that this new distribution, p(D), should be useful in feature extraction; in developing a hypothesis testing framework for segmenting and classifying noisy, discrete tensor data; and in designing experiments to measure tensor quantities. PMID:12906233
Position-dependent effective mass system in a variable potential: displacement operator method
Vubangsi, M.; Tchoffo, M.; Fai, L. C.
2014-02-01
Within the framework of the translation operator for a quantum system with position-dependent mass, we examine the quantum state of a position-dependent mass system in a variable potential. By imposing conditions of resolvability, we arrive at a potential with a quartic and a quadratic term. It emerges naturally that the energy eigen states of the system are negative. We have found the quantum mechanical quantities: energy spectrum, eigen functions and uncertainty relation. These quantities depend on the parameters of the potential.
A hidden variables model for interference phenomena based on $p$-adic random dynamical systems
Dubischar, Daniel; Steinkamp, Oliver; Khrennikov, Andrei
2009-01-01
We propose a model based on random dynamical systems (RDS) in information spaces (realized as rings of $p$-adic integers) which supports Buonomano's non-ergodic interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this model the memory system of an equipment works as a dynamical system perturbed by noise. Interference patterns correspond to attractors of RDS. There exists a large class of $p$-adic RDS for which interference patterns cannot be disturbed by noise. Therefore, if the equipment is described by such a RDS then the result of statistical experiment does not depend on noise in the equipment. On the one hand, we support the corpuscular model, because a quantum particle can be described as a corpuscular object. On the other hand, our model does not differ strongly from the wave model, because a quantum particle interacts with the whole equipment. Hence the interaction has nonlocal character. For example, in the two slit experiment a quantum particle interacts with both slits (but it passes only one of them).
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DIYAH MARTANTI
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Amorphophallus muelleri Blume (Araceae is valued for its glucomanan content for use in food industry (healthy diet food, paper industry, pharmacy and cosmetics. The species is triploid (2n=3x=39 and the seed is developed apomictically. The present research is aimed to identify genetic variability of six population of A. muelleri from Java (consisted of 50 accessions using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The six populations of the species are: East Java: (1 Silo-Jember, (2 Saradan-Madiun, (3 IPB (cultivated, from Saradan-Madiun, (4 Panti-Jember, (5 Probolinggo; and Central Java: (6 Cilacap. The results showed that five RAPD primers generated 42 scorable bands of which 29 (69.05% were polymorphic. Size of the bands varied from 300bp to 1.5kbp. The 50 accessions of A. muelleri were divided into two main clusters, some of them were grouped based on their populations, and some others were not. The range of individual genetic dissimilarity was from 0.02 to 0.36. The results showed that among six populations investigated, Saradan population showed the highest levels of genetic variation with mean values of na = 1.500+ 0.5061, ne = 1.3174 + 0.3841, PLP = 50% and He = 0, 0.1832+0.2054, whereas Silo-Jember population showed the lowest levels of genetic variation with mean values na = 1.2619+ 0.4450, ne = 1.1890 + 0.3507, PLP = 26.19% and He = 0.1048+0.1887. Efforts to conserve, domesticate, cultivate and improve genetically should be based on the genetic properties of each population and individual within population, especially Saradan population which has the highest levels of genetic variation, need more attention for its conservation.
Rosenblum, Michael; van der Laan, Mark J
2010-01-01
Models, such as logistic regression and Poisson regression models, are often used to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials. These models leverage information in variables collected before randomization, in order to obtain more precise estimates of treatment effects. However, there is the danger that model misspecification will lead to bias. We show that certain easy to compute, model-based estimators are asymptotically unbiased even when the working model used is arbitrarily misspecified. Furthermore, these estimators are locally efficient. As a special case of our main result, we consider a simple Poisson working model containing only main terms; in this case, we prove the maximum likelihood estimate of the coefficient corresponding to the treatment variable is an asymptotically unbiased estimator of the marginal log rate ratio, even when the working model is arbitrarily misspecified. This is the log-linear analog of ANCOVA for linear models. Our results demonstrate one application of targeted maximum likelihood estimation. PMID:20628636
Glazunov, Andrés Alayón; ZHANG Jie
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss the representation of the joint probability density function of perfectly correlated continuous random variables, i.e., with correlation coefficients $\\rho=pm1$, by Dirac's $\\delta$-function. We also show how this representation allows to define Dirac's $\\delta$-function as the ratio between bivariate distributions and the marginal distribution in the limit $\\rho\\rightarrow \\pm1$, whenever this limit exists. We illustrate this with the example of the...
Glazunov, Andrés Alayón
2012-01-01
In this paper we discuss the representation of the joint probability density function of perfectly correlated continuous random variables, i.e., with correlation coefficients $\\rho=pm1$, by Dirac's $\\delta$-function. We also show how this representation allows to define Dirac's $\\delta$-function as the ratio between bivariate distributions and the marginal distribution in the limit $\\rho\\rightarrow \\pm1$, whenever this limit exists. We illustrate this with the example of the bivariate Rice distribution
Royen, Thomas
2010-01-01
The exact distribution of the square sum of Dirichlet random variables is given by two different univariate integral representations. Alternatively, three representations by orthogonal series with Jacobi or Legendre polynomials are derived. As a special case the distribution of the square sum of spacings - also called Greenwood's statistic - is obtained. Nine quantiles of this statistic are tabulated with eight digits where the number of squares ranges from 10 to 100.
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Rajesh Tailor
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a ratio-cum-product estimator of finite population mean in stratified random sampling using information on population means of two auxiliary variables. The bias and mean squared error expressions are derived under large sample approximations. Proposed estimator has been compared with usual unbiased estimator in stratified sampling, combined ratio estimator and combined product estimator theoretically as well as empirically.
Scales of variability of black carbon plumes and their dependence on resolution of ECHAM6-HAM
Weigum, Natalie; Stier, Philip; Schutgens, Nick; Kipling, Zak
2015-04-01
Prediction of the aerosol effect on climate depends on the ability of three-dimensional numerical models to accurately estimate aerosol properties. However, a limitation of traditional grid-based models is their inability to resolve variability on scales smaller than a grid box. Past research has shown that significant aerosol variability exists on scales smaller than these grid-boxes, which can lead to discrepancies between observations and aerosol models. The aim of this study is to understand how a global climate model's (GCM) inability to resolve sub-grid scale variability affects simulations of important aerosol features. This problem is addressed by comparing observed black carbon (BC) plume scales from the HIPPO aircraft campaign to those simulated by ECHAM-HAM GCM, and testing how model resolution affects these scales. This study additionally investigates how model resolution affects BC variability in remote and near-source regions. These issues are examined using three different approaches: comparison of observed and simulated along-flight-track plume scales, two-dimensional autocorrelation analysis, and 3-dimensional plume analysis. We find that the degree to which GCMs resolve variability can have a significant impact on the scales of BC plumes, and it is important for models to capture the scales of aerosol plume structures, which account for a large degree of aerosol variability. In this presentation, we will provide further results from the three analysis techniques along with a summary of the implication of these results on future aerosol model development.
Sattler, Christian; Wolf, Sandro; Fersch, Julia; Goetz, Stefan; Rother, Michael
2013-09-01
Methane is a key intermediate in the carbon cycle and biologically produced by methanogenic archaea. Most methanogens are able to conserve energy by reducing CO2 to methane using molecular hydrogen as electron donor (hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis), but several hydrogenotrophic methanogens can also use formate as electron donor for methanogenesis. Formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) oxidizes formate to CO2 and is involved in funneling reducing equivalents into the methanogenic pathway, but details on other factors relevant for formate-dependent physiology of methanogens are not available. To learn more about the factors involved in formate-dependent growth of Methanococcus maripaludis strain JJ, we used a recently developed system for random in vitro mutagenesis, which is based on a modified insect transposable element to create 2,865 chromosomal transposon mutants and screened them for impaired growth on formate. Of 12 M. maripaludis transposon-induced mutants exhibiting this phenotype, the transposon insertion sites in the chromosome were mapped. Among the genes, apparently affecting formate-dependent growth were those encoding archaeal transcription factor S, a regulator of ion transport, and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase. Interestingly, in seven of the mutants, transposons were localized in a 10.2?kb region where Fdh1, one of two Fdh isoforms in the organism, is encoded. Two transcription start sites within the 10.2 kb region could be mapped, and quantification of transcripts revealed that transposon insertion in this region diminished fdhA1 expression due to polar effects. PMID:23801407
Asymptotic analysis of a random walk with a history-dependent step length
Dickman, R; Fontenele-Araujo, F; Dickman, Ronald; Jr., Francisco Fontenele Araujo; ben-Avraham, Daniel
2002-01-01
We study an unbiased, discrete time random walk on the nonnegative integers, with the origin absorbing. The process has a history-dependent step length: the walker takes steps of length v while in a region which has been visited before, and steps of length n when entering a region that has never been visited. The process provides a simplified model of spreading in systems with an infinite number of absorbing configurations. Asymptotic analysis of the probability generating function shows that, for large t, the survival probability decays as S(t) \\sim t^{-delta}, with delta = v/2n. Our expression for the decay exponent is in agreement with results obtained via numerical iteration of the transition matrix.
Di Pietro, Riccardo; Venkateshvaran, Deepak; Klug, Andreas; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.; Facchetti, Antonio; Sirringhaus, Henning; Neher, Dieter
2014-05-01
A model for the extraction of the charge density dependent mobility and variable contact resistance in thin film transistors is proposed by performing a full derivation of the current-voltage characteristics both in the linear and saturation regime of operation. The calculated values are validated against the ones obtained from direct experimental methods. This approach allows unambiguous determination of gate voltage dependent contact and channel resistance from the analysis of a single device. It solves the inconsistencies in the commonly accepted mobility extraction methods and provides additional possibilities for the analysis of the injection and transport processes in semiconducting materials.
Magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering on random anisotropy ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on the recently developed technique of magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with attention to bulk ferromagnets exhibiting random magnetic anisotropy. In these materials, the various magnetic anisotropy fields (magnetocrystalline, magnetoelastic, and/or magnetostatic in origin) perturb the perfectly parallel spin alignment of the idealized ferromagnetic state. By varying the applied magnetic field, one can control one of the ordering terms which competes with the above-mentioned perturbing fields. Experiments which explore the ensuing reaction of the magnetization will therefore provide information not only on the field-dependent spin structure but, importantly, on the underlying magnetic interaction terms. This strategy, which underlies conventional studies of hysteresis loops in magnetometry, is here combined with magnetic SANS. While magnetometry generally records only a single scalar quantity, the integral magnetization, SANS provides access to a vastly richer data set, the Fourier spectrum of the response of the spin system as a function of the magnitude and orientation of the wave vector. The required data-analysis procedures have recently been established, and experiments on a number of magnetic materials, mostly nanocrystalline or nanocomposite metals, have been reported. Here, we summarize the theory of magnetic-field-dependent SANS along with the underlying description of random anisotropy magnets by micromagnetic theory.nisotropy magnets by micromagnetic theory. We review experiments which have explored the magnetic interaction parameters, the value of the exchange-stiffness constant as well as the Fourier components of the magnetic anisotropy field and of the magnetostatic stray field. A model-independent approach, based on the experimental autocorrelation function of the spin misalignment, provides access to the characteristic length of the spin misalignment. The field dependence of this quantity is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of micromagnetic theory. Experiments on nanocomposite ferromagnets reveal that the jump of the magnetization at internal phase boundaries leads to a significant magnetostatic perturbing field, with an unusual 'clover-leaf' SANS pattern as the experimental signature. Furthermore, SANS experiments have been used to monitor the orientation of magnetic domains as well as the length scale of intradomain spin misalignment
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Savka I.Ya.
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In the Cartesian product of a time segment and a spatial multidimensional torus, we investigate nonlocal two-point problem with dependent coefficients on a smooth curve in conditions for typeless partial differential equation of the second order in time variable. Conditions for the one-valued solvability of the problem are established. Metric theorem on lower bound of small denominators on smooth curve are proved.
Savka I.Ya.
2010-01-01
In the Cartesian product of a time segment and a spatial multidimensional torus, we investigate nonlocal two-point problem with dependent coefficients on a smooth curve in conditions for typeless partial differential equation of the second order in time variable. Conditions for the one-valued solvability of the problem are established. Metric theorem on lower bound of small denominators on smooth curve are proved.
Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method and apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor in response to a variable average reactor coolant temperature set point is disclosed. The set point is dependent upon percent of full power load demand. A manually-actuated ''droop mode'' of control is provided whereby the reactor coolant temperature is allowed to drop below the set point temperature a predetermined amount wherein the control is switched from reactor control rods exclusively to feedwater flow
Dependence of the average to-node distance on the node degree for random graphs and growing networks
Malarz, K.; Kulakowski, K.
2004-01-01
In a graph, nodes can be characterized locally (with their degree $k$) or globally (e.g. with their average length path $\\xi$ to other nodes). Here we investigate how $\\xi$ depends on $k$. Our earlier algorithm of the construction of the distance matrix is applied to the random graphs. Numerical calculations are performed for the random graphs and the growing networks: the scale-free ones and the exponential ones. The results are relevant for search strategies in different n...
Vijaya M. Musini; Wright, James M.
2009-01-01
Systematic reviews can often reveal much more than the original objective of the work. The objectives of this retrospective analysis were to answer three basic questions about blood pressure variability: 1) Does blood pressure entry criterion have an effect on baseline blood pressure variability? 2) Do thiazide diuretics have a significant effect on blood pressure variability? and 3) Does systolic blood pressure vary to the same degree as diastolic blood pressure? This analysis of blood press...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on simple random sampling (SRS), we propose a Monte Carlo method for the faster computation of the smoothed part of the density of nuclear states. To test the applicability of the SRS approach we study in this framework the excitation energy (E), angular momentum (J) and parity dependence of nuclear level densities for an independent particle system. As an illustrative example, we consider a pf-shell nucleus, 48Cr. It is found that the values of a few lower order moments for the state density I(E) calculated using SRS and combinatorial (or direct counting) methods are almost the same and a locally smoothed part of the state density can be constructed using these moments in a univariate Edgeworth expansion. We calculate the energy dependent spin-cutoff factor and parity asymmetry and find that for both cases the SRS approach works quite well. We use the SRS moments to construct different forms of the bivariate distribution for I(E,M) (M is the z-component of J) namely (a) a bivariate Edgeworth expansion, (b) a product of the univariate Edgeworth expansion (I(E)) and a Gaussian form for conditional M distribution I(M vertical stroke E) and (c) a product of the univariate Edgeworth expansions for both I(E) and I(M vertical stroke E) and compare the resulting fixed-J level density Il(E,J) with the corresponding combinatorial results. (orig.)
Barato, Andre C
2015-01-01
We derive expressions for the dispersion for two classes of random variables in Markov processes. Random variables like current and activity pertain to the first class, which is composed by random variables that change whenever a jump in the stochastic trajectory occurs. The second class corresponds to the time the trajectory spends in a state (or cluster of states). While the expression for the first class follows straightforwardly from known results in the literature, we show that a similar formalism can be used to derive an expression for the second class. As an application, we use this formalism to analyze a cellular two-component network estimating an external ligand concentration. The uncertainty related to this external concentration is calculated by monitoring different random variables related to an internal protein. We show that, inter alia, monitoring the time spent in the phosphorylated state of the protein leads to a finite uncertainty only if there is dissipation, whereas the uncertainty obtaine...
A functional limit theorem for a 2D-random walk with dependent marginals
Guillotin-Plantard, Nadine
2007-01-01
We prove a non-standard functional limit theorem for a two dimensional simple random walk on some randomly oriented lattices. This random walk, already known to be transient, has different horizontal and vertical fluctuations leading to different normalizations in the functional limit theorem, with a non-Gaussian horizontal behavior. We also prove that the horizontal and vertical components are not asymptotically independent.
Random functions and turbulence
Panchev, S
1971-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random
Persistent random walks, variable length Markov chains and piecewise deterministic Markov processes
Cenac, Peggy; Chauvin, Brigitte; Herrmann, Samuel; Vallois, Pierre
2012-01-01
A classical random walk $(S_t, t\\in\\mathbb{N})$ is defined by $S_t:=\\displaystyle\\sum_{n=0}^t X_n$, where $(X_n)$ are i.i.d. When the increments $(X_n)_{n\\in\\mathbb{N}}$ are a one-order Markov chain, a short memory is introduced in the dynamics of $(S_t)$. This so-called "persistent" random walk is nolonger Markovian and, under suitable conditions, the rescaled process converges towards the integrated telegraph noise (ITN) as the time-scale and space-scale parameters tend to...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several problems related to the application of the theory of random by means of state variables are studied. The well-known equations that define the propagation of the mean and the variance for linear and non-linear systems are first presented. The Monte Carlo method is next resorted to in order to determine the applicability of the hypothesis of a normally distributed output in case of linear systems subjected to non-Gaussian excitations. Finally, attention is focused on the properties of linear filters and modulation functions proposed to simulate seismic excitations as non stationary random processes. Acceleration spectra obtained by multiplying rms spectra by a constant factor are compared with design spectra suggested by several authors for various soil conditions. In every case, filter properties are given. (Author)
Improved Estimators of Population Mean Using Two Auxiliary Variables in Stratified random Sampling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajesh Singh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An exponential family of estimators, which use the information of two auxiliary variables in the stratified sampling, is proposed to estimate the population mean of the variable under study. The mean-squared error of the suggested family of estimators are derived under large sample approximation. The family of estimators in its optimum case is carried out to show the properties of the proposed estimators.
Using computer-generated data calculated with known amounts of random error (E = 1, 5 & 10%) associated with calculated qPCR cycle number (C ) at four jth 1:10 dilutions, we found that the “efficiency” (eff) associated with each population distribution of n = 10,000 measurements varied from 0.95 to ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Singh Jagdev
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain the distribution of mixed sum of two independent random variables with different probability density functions. One with probability density function defined in finite range and the other with probability density function defined in infinite range and associated with product of Srivastava's polynomials and H-function. We use the Laplace transform and its inverse to obtain our main result. The result obtained here is quite general in nature and is capable of yielding a large number of corresponding new and known results merely by specializing the parameters involved therein. To illustrate, some special cases of our main result are also given.
Veillette, Mark S.; Taqqu, Murad S.
2010-01-01
Consider the sum $Z = \\sum_{n=1}^\\infty \\lambda_n (\\eta_n - \\mathbb{E}\\eta_n)$, where $\\eta_n$ are i.i.d.~gamma random variables with shape parameter $r > 0$, and the $\\lambda_n$'s are predetermined weights. We study the asymptotic behavior of the tail $\\sum_{n=M}^\\infty \\lambda_n (\\eta_n - \\mathbb{E}\\eta_n)$ which is asymptotically normal under certain conditions. We derive a Berry-Essen bound and Edgeworth expansions for its distribution function. We illustrate the effecti...
Veillette, Mark S
2010-01-01
Consider the sum $Z = \\sum_{n=1}^\\infty \\lambda_n (\\eta_n - \\mathbb{E}\\eta_n)$, where $\\eta_n$ are i.i.d.~gamma random variables with shape parameter $r > 0$, and the $\\lambda_n$'s are predetermined weights. We study the asymptotic behavior of the tail $\\sum_{n=M}^\\infty \\lambda_n (\\eta_n - \\mathbb{E}\\eta_n)$ which is asymptotically normal under certain conditions. We derive a Berry-Essen bound and Edgeworth expansions for its distribution function. We illustrate the effectiveness of these expansions on an infinite sum of weighted chi-squared distributions.
Pruss, Alexander R.
1998-01-01
Let $X_1,X_2,...$ be a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables, and put $S_n=X_1+...+X_n$. Under some conditions on the positive sequence $\\tau_n$ and the positive increasing sequence $a_n$, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the convergence of $\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty \\tau_n P(|S_n|\\ge \\epsilon a_n)$ for all $\\epsilon>0$, generalizing Baum and Katz's (1965) generalization of the Hsu-Robbins-Erdos (1947, 1949) law of large numbers, also al...
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Cronin, C C
2012-02-03
Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.
Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Hu, Chengcheng
2015-08-30
We consider the situation of estimating the marginal survival distribution from censored data subject to dependent censoring using auxiliary variables. We had previously developed a nonparametric multiple imputation approach. The method used two working proportional hazards (PH) models, one for the event times and the other for the censoring times, to define a nearest neighbor imputing risk set. This risk set was then used to impute failure times for censored observations. Here, we adapt the method to the situation where the event and censoring times follow accelerated failure time models and propose to use the Buckley-James estimator as the two working models. Besides studying the performances of the proposed method, we also compare the proposed method with two popular methods for handling dependent censoring through the use of auxiliary variables, inverse probability of censoring weighted and parametric multiple imputation methods, to shed light on the use of them. In a simulation study with time-independent auxiliary variables, we show that all approaches can reduce bias due to dependent censoring. The proposed method is robust to misspecification of either one of the two working models and their link function. This indicates that a working proportional hazards model is preferred because it is more cumbersome to fit an accelerated failure time model. In contrast, the inverse probability of censoring weighted method is not robust to misspecification of the link function of the censoring time model. The parametric imputation methods rely on the specification of the event time model. The approaches are applied to a prostate cancer dataset. Copyright © 2015?John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25999295
An Investigation of Quasar Variability as a Damped Random Walk in the PanSTARRS-1 Medium Deep Fields
Cunningham, Virginia; Green, Paul J.; Morganson, Eric; Shen, Yue
2015-01-01
We model the lightcurves of 755 optically varying quasars from the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Field 7 r band using a Damped Random Walk (DRW) model. The DRW describes quasar variability by its characteristic timescale, ?, and its variability at infinite time, V?. We use Monte Carlo techniques to fit our data as a DRW. The model parameters are compared to physical properties of the quasars such as black hole mass, Eddington ratio, and bolometric luminosity. We find that bolometric luminosity, Eddington ratio, and black hole mass are positively correlated with V? and negatively correlated with ?. Quasars of greater luminosity, black hole mass, or Eddington ratio generally display smaller variations, and on longer timescales as estimated in the DRW model framework. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.
Global existence of critical nonlinear wave equation with time dependent variable coefficients
Zhou, Yi; Lai, Ning-An
2010-01-01
In this paper, we establish global existence of smooth solutions for the Cauchy problem of the critical nonlinear wave equation with time dependent variable coefficients in three space dimensions {equation}\\partial_{tt}\\phi-\\partial_{x_i}\\big(g^{ij}(t,x)\\partial_{x_j}\\phi\\big)+\\phi^5=0, mathbb{R}_t \\times \\mathbb{R}_x^3,{equation} where $\\big(g_{ij}(t,x)\\big)$ is a regular function valued in the spacetime of $3\\times3$ positive definite matrix and $\\big(g^{ij}(t,x)\\big)$ its...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors give a new method for solving the energy-dependent transport equation in plane geometry by separating the space, lethargy, and angle variables. The method reduces the solution of the transport equation to the solution of a coupled pair of one-speed and slowing down equations. As these two equations have been studied in detail, their solution procedures are utilized to solve the more complicated energy-dependent equation. The method of this paper is thus basically promising, though it is not clear at the present how it can be implemented for general scattering anisotropy. The fundamental separation constant of the method is a continuous parameter, and the solution is in the form of an integral over this parameter. Suitable discretization of this separation constant reduces the solution to an infinite sum. The authors compare their solution to the exact, though formal, singular eigenfunction-Laplace transform technique and establish a correspondence between the two approaches
Zied, Hajej; Dellagi, Sofiene; Rezg, Nidhal
2011-01-01
Abstract This paper deals with combined production and maintenance plans for a manufacturing system satisfying a random demand. We first establish an optimal production plan which minimizes the average total inventory and production cost. Secondly, using this optimal production plan, and taking into account the deterioration of the machine according to its production rate, we derive an optimal maintenance schedule which minimizes the maintenance cost. A numerical example illustrate...
Pruss, A R
1998-01-01
Let X_1,X_2,... be a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables, and put S_n=X_1+...+X_n. Under some conditions on the positive sequence tau_n and the positive increasing sequence a_n, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the convergence of sum_{n=1}^infty tau_n P(|S_n|>t a_n) for all t>0, generalizing Baum and Katz's (1965) generalization of the Hsu-Robbins-Erdos (1947, 1949) law of large numbers, also allowing us to characterize the convergence of the above series in the case where tau_n=1/n and a_n=(n log n)^{1/2} for n>1, thereby answering a question of Spataru. Moreover, some results for non-identically distributed independent random variables are obtained by a recent comparison inequality. Our basic method is to use a central limit theorem estimate of Nagaev (1965) combined with the Hoffman-Jorgensen inequality(1974).
Pruss, A R
2002-01-01
Let $X_1,X_2,...$ be a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables, and put $S_n=X_1+...+X_n$. Under some conditions on the positive sequence $\\tau_n$ and the positive increasing sequence $a_n$, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the convergence of $\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty \\tau_n P(|S_n|\\ge \\epsilon a_n)$ for all $\\epsilon>0$, generalizing Baum and Katz's (1965) generalization of the Hsu-Robbins-Erdos (1947, 1949) law of large numbers, also allowing us to characterize the convergence of the above series in the case where $\\tau_n=n^{-1}$ and $a_n=(n\\log n)^{1/2}$ for $n\\ge 2$, thereby answering a question of Spataru. Moreover, some results for non-identically distributed independent random variables are obtained by a recent comparison inequality. Our basic method is to use a central limit theorem estimate of Nagaev (1965) combined with the Hoffman-Jorgensen inequality (1974).
A shape-dependent variability metric for evaluating panel segmentations with a case study on LIDC
Siena, Stephen; Zinoveva, Olga; Raicu, Daniela; Furst, Jacob; Armato, Samuel, III
2010-03-01
The segmentation of medical images is challenging because a ground truth is often not available. Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) systems are dependent on ground truth as a means of comparison; however, in many cases the ground truth is derived from only experts' opinions. When the experts disagree, it becomes impossible to discern one ground truth. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to measure the disagreement among radiologist's delineated boundaries. The algorithm accounts for both the overlap and shape of the boundaries in determining the variability of a panel segmentation. After calculating the variability of 3788 thoracic computed tomography (CT) slices in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC), we found that the radiologists have a high consensus in a majority of lung nodule segmentations. However, our algorithm identified a number of segmentations that the radiologists significantly disagreed on. Our proposed method of measuring disagreement can assist others in determining the reliability of panel segmentations. We also demonstrate that it is superior to simply using overlap, which is currently one of the most common ways of measuring segmentation agreement. The variability metric presented has applications to panel segmentations, and also has potential uses in CAD systems.
Spectral variability of deciduous leaves depending on the developmental stages and tree condition
Song, Y.; Ryu, Y.
2013-12-01
Foliar spectral characteristics could be the key information in modeling forest ecosystem and the remote sensing of vegetation identification. But it is not easy to determine a typical leaf spectrum of a species in a standardized state. That is because of variables critically influencing on the spectral property of leaves, such as inter- and intra-species features, phenological phase, or biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, we attempted to quantify the spectral variability of leaves depending on species, developmental stages, and the condition of trees. The contribution of these factors to the spectral variation was analyzed at the single leaf level, with a large number of samples from deciduous plants in the urban forested area. First, we collected tens of leaf-samples at every biweekly fieldwork in the growing season, for the selected 5 tree species popular in urban parks; Acer palmatum, Carpinus laxiflora, Prunus yedoensis, Quercus acutissima, and Zelkova serrata. And absorbance, reflectance and transmittance spectra of the leaves were acquired at the short-visible (400-700 nm) to infrared (700-2500 nm) spectral region with 1 nm interval. Seasonality in these leaf-spectra was used to understand the inter-species variation depending on developmental stages. Second, as a benchmark for testing intra-species variability and differences by tree condition, we additionally analyzed the spectral reflectance of 504 ripe leaves from 56 cherry trees (Cerasus × yedoensis) collected in the middle of summer. Last, using ANOVA (analysis of variance) and general linear model, we assessed the influence of our tested variables (i.e., species, developmental stage, and tree condition) on the spectral characteristics and their vegetation indices. As a result, we clarified that the changes in leaf-spectra was apparent across all the tested species during the growing season from May to June, indicating the increasing trend of absorbance in photosynthetically active radiation region (400 to 700 nm; PAR) and reflectance in the near infrared region (700 to 1300 nm; NIR). Inter-species variability still appeared substantial and those inherit spectral characteristics was difficult to be described in a single universal vegetation index. The reflectance values of leaves were significantly differed in good and poor tree condition, which could be the other important consideration in the representative scheme of leaf sampling. More discussions will be present about the effect of species, developmental stage, and tree condition to the leaf-spectra and the published vegetation indices.
Mata, Maria Augusta; Pimentel, Maria Helena; Pereira, Fernando
2012-01-01
In order to examine what is the best set of predictive variables of overall change in caregiver burden, along with 232 informal caregivers of dependent elderly people residing in the district of Braganc;a in Portugal, were selected as independent variables to loneliness, stereotypes about people elderly and caregiver self-efficacy, and appealed to the multiple linear regression analysis by Backward method. It was found that when loneliness as the variable that best pre...
A new mean estimator using auxiliary variables for randomized response models
Ozgul, Nilgun; Cingi, Hulya
2013-10-01
Randomized response models are commonly used in surveys dealing with sensitive questions such as abortion, alcoholism, sexual orientation, drug taking, annual income, tax evasion to ensure interviewee anonymity and reduce nonrespondents rates and biased responses. Starting from the pioneering work of Warner [7], many versions of RRM have been developed that can deal with quantitative responses. In this study, new mean estimator is suggested for RRM including quantitative responses. The mean square error is derived and a simulation study is performed to show the efficiency of the proposed estimator to other existing estimators in RRM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Min, Byung Jo; Kim, Hag Bae [Yonsei University (Korea); Yi, Seok Joo [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (Korea)
2000-07-01
To flexibly evaluate performance and reliability of an electric power system in the aspect of the real-time system which is intrinsically characterized by stringent timing constraints fails catastrophically if its control input is not updated by its digital controller computer within a certain time limit called the hard deadline, we propose fuzzy-random variables and build a discrete event model embedded with fuzzy-random variables. Also, we adapt fuzzy-variables to a path-space approach, which derives the upper and lower bounds of reliability by using a semi-Markov model that explicitly contains the deadline information. Consequently, we propose certain formulas of state automata properly transformed by fuzzy-random variables, and present numerical examples applying the formulas as well. (author). 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Felipe, Vázquez-Guillén; Gabriel, Auvinet-Guichard.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Los campos aleatorios se usan comúnmente en ingeniería civil para describir la variación espacial de las propiedades de los materiales. En este artículo se emplea un modelo de cópulas para simular campos aleatorios con dependencia no multi-Gaussiana. Se generan simulaciones de distintos campos aleat [...] orios siguiendo la metodología propuesta y luego se examinan las correspondientes cópulas empíricas bivariadas. Se muestra que los resultados son satisfactorios en términos de la reproducción de las correspondientes cópulas teóricas. Con este simulador es posible incorporar un mayor grado de realismo en el modelo de variabilidad espacial, por ejemplo en problemas de flujo de agua en suelos donde la presencia de zonas continuas más permeables gobierna el comportamiento hidráulico de la masa de suelo, o bien, en problemas de estabilidad de taludes donde la extensión de la superficie de falla puede ser controlada por la presencia de zonas continuas más débiles, por mencionar solo algunos. Abstract in english Random fields are models commonly used in civil engineering to describe spatial variability of material properties. A copula model is used in this paper to simulate random fields with non multi-Gaussian dependence. Simulations of several random fields are conducted following the proposed methodology [...] and bivariate empirical copulas are then examined. Satisfactory results are obtained in terms of the reproduction of the corresponding theoretical copulas. By means of such simulator, it is possible to incorporate a higher degree of realism in the spatial variability model, for example in seepage flow problems wherein the presence of higher permeable continuous zones control the hydraulic behavior of the soil mass or in slope stability problems where the extension of failure surfaces may be controlled by the presence of weaker continuous zones, to mention only a few.
Random variables in forest policy: A systematic sensitivity analysis using CGE models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are extensively used to simulate economic impacts of forest policies. Parameter values used in these models often play a central role in their outcome. Since econometric studies and best guesses are the main sources of these parameters, some randomness exists about the 'true' values of these parameters. Failure to incorporate this randomness into these models may limit the degree of confidence in the validity of the results. In this study, we conduct a systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) to assess the economic impacts of: 1) a 1 % increase in tax on Canadian lumber and wood products exports to the United States (US), and 2) a 1% decrease in technical change in the lumber and wood products and pulp and paper sectors of the US and Canada. We achieve this task by using an aggregated version of global trade model developed by Hertel (1997) and the automated SSA procedure developed by Arndt and Pearson (1996). The estimated means and standard deviations suggest that certain impacts are more likely than others. For example, an increase in export tax is likely to cause a decrease in Canadian income, while an increase in US income is unlikely. On the other hand, a decrease in US welfare is likely, while an increase in Canadian welfare is unlikely, in response to an increase in tax. It is likely that income and welfare both fall in Canada and the US in response to a decrease in the technical change in lumber and wood products and pl change in lumber and wood products and pulp and paper sectors 21 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs
Complexity of two-variable Dependence Logic and IF-Logic
Kontinen, Juha; Lohmann, Peter; Virtema, Jonni
2011-01-01
We study the two-variable fragments D^2 and IF^2 of dependence logic and independence-friendly logic. We consider the satisfiability and finite satisfiability problems of these logics and show that for D^2, both problems are NEXPTIME-complete, whereas for IF^2, the problems are undecidable. We also show that D^2 is strictly less expressive than IF^2 and that already in D^2, equicardinality of two unary predicates and infinity can be expressed (the latter in the presence of a constant symbol). This is an extended version of a publication in the proceedings of the 26th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science (LICS 2011).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge, N.
1996-04-01
Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in the absence of food to define the influence of significant variables of the frying process, i.e. oil unsaturation, temperature, surface-to-oil volume ratio, type of heating and dimethylpolysiloxane (DMPS addition. Special emphasis was placed on clarifying the action of the addition of low concentrations of DMPS to frying oils. From statistical evaluation based on the content of polar compounds, the strong influence of the variables surface-to-oil volume ratio, DMPS addition and oil unsaturation was deduced. However, changes due to 10ºC difference in temperature were not significant. Analysis of two-way interactions demonstrated that interactions between type of heating/DMPS addition, type of heating/oil unsaturation, surface-to-oil volume ratio/DMPS addition and surface-to-oiI volume ratio/oil unsaturation were significant, thus indicating the complexity of the frying process. Finally, it was found that increase in specific groups of compounds formed through oxidative polymerization as well as loss of natural antioxidants depended mainly on the total content of polar compounds and, at a second level, on the oil unsaturation.
Difference prophet inequalities for [0,1]-valued i.i.d. random variables with cost for observations
Kosters, Holger
2005-01-01
Let X_1,X_2,... be a sequence of [0,1]-valued i.i.d. random variables, let c\\geq 0 be a sampling cost for each observation and let Y_i=X_i-ic, i=1,2,.... For n=1,2,..., let M(Y_1,...,Y_n)=E(max_{1\\leq i\\leq n}Y_i) and V(Y_1,...,Y_n)=sup_{\\tau \\in C^n}E(Y_{\\tau}), where C^n denotes the set of all stopping rules for Y_1,...,Y_n. Sharp upper bounds for the difference M(Y_1,...,Y_n)-V(Y_1,...,Y_n) are given under various restrictions on c and n.
Ball, Samuel A.; Maccarelli, Lisa M.; Lapaglia, Donna M.; Ostrowski, Mark J.
2011-01-01
We conducted a randomized comparison of Dual Focus Schema Therapy with Individual Drug Counseling as enhancements to residential treatment for 105 substance dependent patients with versus without specific personality disorders. Both therapies were manual-guided and delivered for 6 months by experienced psychotherapists intensively trained and supervised with independent fidelity assessment. Using Cox Proportional Hazards, we found no psychotherapy differences in retention (days in treatment)....
Pechacek, Tomas; Karas, Vladimir; Czerny, Bozena; Dovciak, Michal
2013-01-01
We study some general properties of accretion disc variability in the context of stationary random processes. In particular, we are interested in mathematical constraints that can be imposed on the functional form of the Fourier power-spectrum density (PSD) that exhibits a multiply broken shape and several local maxima. We develop a methodology for determining the regions of the model parameter space that can in principle reproduce a PSD shape with a given number and position of local peaks and breaks of the PSD slope. Given the vast space of possible parameters, it is an important requirement that the method is fast in estimating the PSD shape for a given parameter set of the model. We generated and discuss the theoretical PSD profiles of a shot-noise-type random process with exponentially decaying flares. Then we determined conditions under which one, two, or more breaks or local maxima occur in the PSD. We calculated positions of these features and determined the changing slope of the model PSD. Furthermor...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on algebraic dynamics and the concept of the concurrence of the entanglement, we investigate the evolutive properties of the two-qubit entanglement that formed by Heisenberg XXX models under a time-depending external held. For this system, the property of the concurrence that is only dependent on the coupling constant J and total values of the external field is proved. Furthermore, we found that the thermal concurrence of the system under a static random external field is a function of the coupling constant J, temperature T, and the magnitude of external held. (general)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Wagner
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We present computational results on the shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dustlike aerosol particles that were modeled as randomly oriented spheroids. Shape dependent variations in the extinction cross sections are largest in the size regime that is governed by the interference structure. Elongated spheroids best fitted measured extinction spectra of re-dispersed Saharan dust samples. For dust particles smaller than 1.5 ?m in diameter and low absorption potential, shape effects on the absorption cross sections are very small.
Lin, I-Mei; Fan, Sheng-Yu; Lu, Hsueh-Chen; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Lee, Chee-Siong; Lu, Ye-Hsu
2015-07-01
Hostility is a psychosocial risk factor that may decrease heart rate variability (HRV) in coronary artery disease (CAD) through cardiac autonomic imbalance. Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) increases HRV indices and baroreflex gain. This study examines the effectiveness of HRV-BF in restoring cardiac autonomic balance and decreasing hostility among patients with CAD. One hundred and fifty-four patients with CAD were assigned randomly to receive 6 weeks of HRV-BF, in addition to the standard medical care received by the wait-list control (WLC) group. A 5-min electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and hostility were assessed pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 1-month follow-up. The standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), low frequency (LF), and log LF at post-intervention was significantly higher than that at pre-intervention in the HRV-BF group. Baseline log LF was significantly higher post-intervention and at follow-up after HRV-BF training than at pre-intervention. The treatment curve of log LF pre-session increased significantly after session 2, which was maintained to post-intervention. Expressive hostility, suppressive hostility, and hostility total score at post-intervention and one-month follow-up after HRV-BF were significantly lower than at pre-intervention. This study showed increased HRV and decreased expressive and suppressive hostility behavior in patients with CAD following HRV-BF. PMID:25978746
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skouby, Sven O; Pan, Kaijie
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effects of conjugated estrogens (CE)/bazedoxifene (BZA) on lipid and coagulation variables in a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled phase 3 study of nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women. METHODS: The Selective estrogens, Menopause, And Response to Therapy (SMART)-5 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of CE/BZA in postmenopausal women (N = 1,843) with menopausal symptoms. Lipid (N = 1,843) and coagulation (N = 590) variables were assessed in women receiving daily CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg, CE 0.625 mg/BZA 20 mg, BZA 20 mg, CE 0.45 mg/medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 1.5 mg, or placebo for 12 months. RESULTS: At 12 months, CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg, CE 0.625 mg/BZA 20 mg, BZA 20 mg, and CE 0.45 mg/MPA 1.5 mg decreased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with placebo (P < 0.01 for all). Both CE/BZA doses and CE/MPA increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with placebo (P < 0.05 for all). CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg had a neutral effect on triglycerides; CE 0.625 mg/BZA 20 mg and CE/MPA increased triglycerides compared with placebo (P < 0.05). Both CE/BZA doses were associated with small but significant effects on hemostasis variables, including reductions in antithrombin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and fibrinogen activity, and an increase in plasminogen activity relative to placebo at 12 months. Incidences of cardiovascular and venous thromboembolic events were similar among treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides reassurance that CE/BZA does not adversely affect lipid metabolism or hemostatic balance. In accordance, the incidences of venous thromboembolic events and cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women are similar to those observed with placebo.
Khan, A. U.; S. MuA`zu; R. Wusirika; B.Y. Abubakar; A.K. Adamu
2011-01-01
To investigate genetic variability in Moringa oleifera Lam., 75 accessions from the Sudan and Guinea savanna zones in Nigeria were taxonomically analysed using Random Amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The electrophoresis bands were analysed using NTSYSpc software and the result of their matrices indicated different variability in the accessions. High degrees of polymorphism (74%) among the accessions were observed in terms of genetic relationship and were grouped into five clusters. T...
Random walks in dynamic random environments
Avena, Luca
2010-01-01
Random walks in dynamic random environments are random walks evolving according to a random transition kernel, i.e., their transition probabilities depend on a stochastic process called dynamic random environment. In this thesis, we study asymptotic properties of such random walks on the integer lattice, in which the dynamic random environment is given by an interacting particle system.
Time-dependence in relativistic collisionless shocks: theory of the variable
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spitkovsky, A
2004-02-05
We describe results from time-dependent numerical modeling of the collisionless reverse shock terminating the pulsar wind in the Crab Nebula. We treat the upstream relativistic wind as composed of ions and electron-positron plasma embedded in a toroidal magnetic field, flowing radially outward from the pulsar in a sector around the rotational equator. The relativistic cyclotron instability of the ion gyrational orbit downstream of the leading shock in the electron-positron pairs launches outward propagating magnetosonic waves. Because of the fresh supply of ions crossing the shock, this time-dependent process achieves a limit-cycle, in which the waves are launched with periodicity on the order of the ion Larmor time. Compressions in the magnetic field and pair density associated with these waves, as well as their propagation speed, semi-quantitatively reproduce the behavior of the wisp and ring features described in recent observations obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. By selecting the parameters of the ion orbits to fit the spatial separation of the wisps, we predict the period of time variability of the wisps that is consistent with the data. When coupled with a mechanism for non-thermal acceleration of the pairs, the compressions in the magnetic field and plasma density associated with the optical wisp structure naturally account for the location of X-ray features in the Crab. We also discuss the origin of the high energy ions and their acceleration in the equatorial current sheet of the pulsar wind.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Korsunenko
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Recently we applied randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting to detect clonal variability among individual cercariae within daughter sporocysts and rediae of 10 digenean trematodes (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda. The most variable RAPD patterns were obtained for Schistosomatidae representative-avian schistosome Trichobilharzia szidati. In this work, 50 polymorphic DNA fragments of approximately 300-1500 bp from RAPD patterns of individual T. szidati cercariae were cloned and sequenced. As a result genomic DNA sequences (total length of approximately 41,000 bp revealing clonal variability in T. szidati cercariae were obtained and analyzed. The analysis indicated that these sequences contained tandem, inverted and dispersed repeats as well as regions homological to retroelements of two human parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum. Tandem and inverted repeats constituted 8.9% and 22.1% respectively, while the percentage of dispersed repeats was 21.0%. The average content of these components was 41.7% with the average AT content being 59.0%. About 40% of sequences included regions ranging in length from 96 to 1005 bp which displayed amino acid homology with open reading frame pol products of S. mansoni and S. japonicum retroelements: non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (nLTRs, 76%, long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTRs, 14%, and Penelope-like elements (PLEs, 10%. Most of these regions (86.4% contained frameshifts, gaps, and stop-codons. The largest portion of them was homological to nLTRs of the RTE clade (67%. The number of sequences homologous to the members of CR1 lineage was 7 times smaller (9%. Homology with LTRs of Gypsy/Ty3 and BEL clades was revealed in 5% and 9% of cases respectively. We assume that the repetitive elements including retroelement-like sequences described in the current study may serve as the source of clonal variability detected previously in T. szidati and other digenean trematodes. Such genome regions rapidly accumulate mutations and thus may play an important functional role in the life history of the species.
Radial dependence of line profile variability in seven O9-B0.5 stars
Martins, F.; Marcolino, W.; Hillier, D. J.; Donati, J.-F.; Bouret, J.-C.
2015-02-01
Context. Massive stars show a variety of spectral variabilities: discrete absorption components in UV P-Cygni profiles, optical line profile variability, X-ray variability, and radial velocity modulations. Aims: Our goal is to study the spectral variability of single OB stars to better understand the relation between photospheric and wind variability. For that, we rely on high spectral resolution and on high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra collected with the spectrograph NARVAL on the Télescope Bernard Lyot at Pic du Midi. Methods: We investigated the variability of twelve spectral lines by means of the temporal variance spectrum. The selected lines probe the radial structure of the atmosphere from the photosphere to the outer wind. We also performed a spectroscopic analysis with atmosphere models to derive the stellar and wind properties and to constrain the formation region of the selected lines. Results: We show that variability is observed in the wind lines of all bright giants and supergiants on a daily timescale. Lines formed in the photosphere are sometimes variable, sometimes not. The dwarf stars do not show any sign of variability. If variability is observed on a daily timescale, it can also (but not always) be observed on hourly timescales, albeit with lower amplitude. There is a very clear correlation between amplitude of the variability and fraction of the line formed in the wind. Strong anti-correlations between the different parts of the temporal variance spectrum are observed. Conclusions: Our results indicate that variability is stronger in lines formed in the wind. A link between photospheric and wind variability is not obvious from our study, since wind variability is observed regardless of the level of photospheric variability. Different photospheric lines also show different degrees of variability. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Thermal radiation effects on the time-dependent MHD permeable flow having variable viscosity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present work is devoted to the impacts of thermal radiation on the unsteady laminar convective MHD flow of a viscous electrically conducting fluid having a temperature-dependent viscosity over a rotating porous disk of infinite extend impulsively set into motion. The fluid is subjected to an external uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the disk. The governing Navier-Stokes and Maxwell equations of the hydromagnetic fluid, together with the energy equation, are reduced into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations via the Von Karman similarity transformations. Due to the radiation effect and variable viscosity property the equations are highly coupled. These equations are then solved numerically by using a technique based on the spectral Chebyshev collocation in the direction normal to the disk and forward marching in time. Transient effects are discussed first. Later a parametric study of all parameters involved is performed and a representative set of results incorporating the effects of Prandtl number, the viscosity variation parameter, the magnetic interaction parameter, the radiation parameter, the uniform suction/blowing parameter, the relative temperature difference parameter and the Eckert number on physically meaningful quantities such as the radial and tangential skin friction coefficients, the torque, the vertical wall suction and the rate of heat transfer from the disk surface are illustrated graphically and discussed. (autllustrated graphically and discussed. (author)
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Radiative transfer problem for pure-triplet scattering, in participating half-space random medium is proposed. The medium is assumed to be random with binary Markovian mixtures (e.g. radiation transfer in astrophysical contexts where the clouds and clear sky play and two-phase medium) described by Markovian statistics. The specular reflectivity of the boundary is angular-dependent described by the Fresnel's reflection probability function. The problem is solved at first in the deterministic case, and then the solution is averaged using the formalism developed by Levermore and Pomraning, to treat particles transport problems in statistical mixtures. Some physical quantities of interest such as the reflectivity of the boundary, average radiant energy, and average net flux are computed for various values of refractive index of the boundary
Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Wong, Conrad J; Diemer, Karly; Needham, Mick; Hampton, Jacqueline; FINGERHOOD, MICHAEL; Svikis, Dace S; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth
2011-01-01
Aims: To assess the efficacy of the Therapeutic Workplace, a substance abuse intervention that promotes abstinence while simultaneously addressing the issues of poverty and lack of job skills, in promoting abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics. Methods: Participants (n = 124) were randomly assigned to conditions either requiring abstinence from alcohol to engage in paid job skills training (Contingent Paid Training group), offering paid job skills training with no abstinence con...
Alaskan soil carbon stocks: spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U. Mishra
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC changes in response to climate change depend on the spatial and vertical distributions of SOC. We estimated spatially-resolved SOC stocks from surface to C horizon, distinguishing active-layer and permafrost-layer stocks, based on geospatial analysis of 472 soil profiles and spatially referenced environmental variables for Alaska. Total Alaska state-wide SOC stock was estimated to be 77 Pg, with 61% in the active-layer, 27% in permafrost, and 12% in non-permafrost soils. Prediction accuracy was highest for the active-layer as demonstrated by highest ratio of performance to deviation (1.5. Large spatial variability was predicted, with whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer stocks ranging from 1–296 kg C m^{?2}, 2–166 kg m^{?2}, and 0–232 kg m^{?2}, respectively. Temperature and soil wetness were found to be primary controllers of whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer SOC stocks. Secondary controllers, in order of importance, were: land cover type, topographic attributes, and bedrock geology. The observed importance of soil wetness rather than precipitation on SOC stocks implies that the poor representation of high-latitude soil wetness in Earth System Models may lead to large uncertainty in predicted SOC stocks under future climate change scenarios. Under strict caveats described in the text and assuming temperature changes from the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenario, our geospatial model indicates that the equilibrium average 2100 Alaska active-layer depth could deepen by 11 cm, resulting in a thawing of 13 Pg C currently in permafrost. The equilibrium SOC loss associated with this warming would be highest under continuous permafrost (31%, followed by discontinuous (28%, isolated (24.3%, and sporadic (23.6% permafrost areas. Our high resolution mapping of soil carbon stock reveals the potential vulnerability of high-latitude soil carbon and can be used as a basis for future studies of anthropogenic and climatic perturbations.
Alaskan soil carbon stocks: spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U. Mishra
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC changes in response to climate change depend on the spatial and vertical distributions of SOC. We estimated spatially resolved SOC stocks from surface to C horizon, distinguishing active-layer and permafrost-layer stocks, based on geospatial analysis of 472 soil profiles and spatially referenced environmental variables for Alaska. Total Alaska state-wide SOC stock was estimated to be 77 Pg, with 61% in the active-layer, 27% in permafrost, and 12% in non-permafrost soils. Prediction accuracy was highest for the active-layer as demonstrated by highest ratio of performance to deviation (1.5. Large spatial variability was predicted, with whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer stocks ranging from 1–296 kg C m^{?2}, 2–166 kg m^{?2}, and 0–232 kg m^{?2}, respectively. Temperature and soil wetness were found to be primary controllers of whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer SOC stocks. Secondary controllers, in order of importance, were found to be land cover type, topographic attributes, and bedrock geology. The observed importance of soil wetness rather than precipitation on SOC stocks implies that the poor representation of high-latitude soil wetness in Earth system models may lead to large uncertainty in predicted SOC stocks under future climate change scenarios. Under strict caveats described in the text and assuming temperature changes from the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenario, our geospatial model indicates that the equilibrium average 2100 Alaska active-layer depth could deepen by 11 cm, resulting in a thawing of 13 Pg C currently in permafrost. The equilibrium SOC loss associated with this warming would be highest under continuous permafrost (31%, followed by discontinuous (28%, isolated (24.3%, and sporadic (23.6% permafrost areas. Our high-resolution mapping of soil carbon stock reveals the potential vulnerability of high-latitude soil carbon and can be used as a basis for future studies of anthropogenic and climatic perturbations.
Schriemer, H. P.; Choo, C. H.; Taylor, D. R.
1999-04-01
The pinning and roughening of structural domain walls by random fields was studied in Tb(As0.15V0.85)O4 by measuring the intensities of laser light Bragg-scattered from orthorhombic twin interfaces as the sample was repeatedly warmed and cooled through its structural phase transition. Determination of the temperature-dependent roughness with submicron precision as well as its correlation length has shown that the domain walls are rougher than in pure TbVO4, has allowed the identification of a metastable microdomain state upon sample cooling, and has permitted investigation of the scaling of the roughness with order parameter.
Garland, Eric L; Gaylord, Susan A; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Howard, Matthew O.
2010-01-01
Mindfulness training may disrupt the risk chain of stress-precipitated alcohol relapse. In 2008, 53 alcohol-dependent adults (mean age = 40.3) recruited from a therapeutic community located in the urban southeastern U.S. were randomized to mindfulness training or a support group. Most participants were male (79.2%), African American (60.4%), and earned < $20,000 annually (52.8%). Self-report measures, psychophysiological cue-reactivity, and alcohol attentional bias were analyzed via repeated ...
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Joshi Meesha
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed. Methods Twenty-two volunteers (group average age ± S.D, 31.5 ± 7.5 years; all of them were males were randomly assigned to two groups, yoga and a non-yoga wait-list control group. The yoga group practiced yoga for an hour daily while the control group continued with their routine activities. Both groups' heart rate variability, breath rate, and four symptoms of emotional distress using visual analog scales, were assessed on the first and eighth day of the program. Results There was a significant decrease in sadness in the yoga group (p Conclusions A week of yoga can reduce feelings of sadness and possibly prevent an increase in anxiety in flood survivors a month after the calamity. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2009/091/000285
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The available experimental data on the relative thermoluminescent efficiency of the LiF:Mg,Ti dosimetric peaks for protons are contradictory. There are several reports showing that the efficiency exceeds unity by even more than 30%, however, many others show the efficiency close to unity or even lower. These contradictory data might be a result of the real variability of TLD properties or of not perfectly reproduced experimental conditions. In an attempt to resolve this issue, the efficiency of 16 batches of LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) detectors for 60 MeV protons produced at the IFJ Kraków over the last 20 years was measured. All values of the relative TL efficiency were found to exceed unity significantly, with an average of 1.09. Dispersion between different batches was very low, all data were within 4% of the mean value. In second part of experiment the dependence of the relative efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors on proton energy was determined. The efficiency for LiF:Mg,Ti dosimetric peaks was found to have a maximum of 1.20 at about 20 MeV. For LiF:Mg,Cu,P the relative efficiency decreases systematically with decreasing proton energy, from 0.96 at 56 MeV, to 0.61 at 11 MeV. -- Highlights: ? We compared the relative TL efficiency to protons of 16 different LiF:Mg,Ti batches. ? Efficiency values are larger than 1 and show only minimal scatter between batches. ? LiF:Mg,Ti efficiency shows a maximum of 1.2 for about 20 MeV protons. ? LiF:Mg,Cu,P efficiency decreases with decreasing proton energy
Li, B.; Rodell, M.
2012-01-01
Past studies on soil moisture spatial variability have been mainly conducted in catchment scales where soil moisture is often sampled over a short time period. Because of limited climate and weather conditions, the observed soil moisture often exhibited smaller dynamic ranges which prevented the complete revelation of soil moisture spatial variability as a function of mean soil moisture. In this study, spatial statistics (mean, spatial variability and skewness) of in situ soil moisture...
Uncertainty of Random Variables.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fabián, Zden?k
Chania, 2010 - (Skiadas, C.). s. 32-32 [SMTDA 2010. Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Data Analysiserence on Robust Statistics. International Conference. 08.06.2010-11.06.2010, Chania] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : entropy * information * scalar score Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research
Uncertainty of Random Variables.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fabián, Zden?k
Chania, 2010, s. 251-258. [SMTDA 2010. Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Data Analysiserence on Robust Statistics. International Conference. Chania (GR), 08.06.2010-11.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : entropy * information * scalar score Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research
Kyle Siegrist
This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates a number of probability distributions, including the normal, gamma, chi-square, student t, beta, Pareto, F, extreme value, Weibull, logistic, and lognormal distributions.
Time-dependent correlation functions for random walks on bond disordered cubic lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For hopping models on cubic lattices with a fraction c of impurity bonds, time-dependent transport properties and correlation functions (long-time tails) are calculated through a systematic c-expansion (in the percolation literature referred to as high-density expansion), using a method developed in an earlier paper. The time-dependent diffusion coefficient, velocity autocorrelation function (VACF), and Burnett functions are calculated exact to O(c) for all t, and exact to O(c2) for long times only. A comparison is made with the results of the effective medium approximation, and numerical results are given for the square lattice
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The minimum applied field HSW required to reverse the magnetic moment of the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic storage layer of a thermally assisted magnetic random access memory (TA-MRAM) device during the application of a heating electric pulse is investigated as a function of pulse power PHP and duration ?. For the same power of the heating pulse PHP (or, equivalently, for the same temperature of the storage layer), HSW increases with decreasing heating time ?. This behavior is consistently interpreted by a thermally activated propagating domain-wall switching model, corroborated by a real-time study of switching. The increase of HSW with decreasing pulse width introduces a constraint for the minimum power consumption of a TA-MRAM where writing combines heating and magnetic field application.
Curbelo, Jezabel
2014-01-01
This article discusses the performance of several spectral numerical methods to solve the time evolution of a convection problem with viscosity strongly dependent on temperature. The setup is a 2D domain with periodic boundary conditions along the horizontal coordinate. The numerical schemes are based on a primitive variable formulation and we compare the efficiency of several boundary conditions for pressure. Various numerical examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the different methods. As a result we find that time transients are best resolved by a semi-implicit method with variable time step and improved boundary conditions for pressure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lippman, Thomas; Moler, Kathryn A.
2012-07-20
Microscopic variations in composition or structure can lead to nanoscale inhomogeneity in superconducting properties such as the magnetic penetration depth, but measurements of these properties are usually made on longer length scales. We solve a generalized London equation with a non-uniform penetration depth {lambda}(r), obtaining an approximate solution for the disorder-averaged Meissner screening. We find that the effective penetration depth is different from the average penetration depth and is sensitive to the details of the disorder. These results indicate the need for caution when interpreting measurements of the penetration depth and its temperature dependence in systems which may be inhomogeneous.
Kardaras, Constantinos
2012-01-01
We introduce the concepts of max-closedness and outer support points of convex sets in the nonnegative orthant of the topological vector space of all random variables built over a probability space, equipped with a topology consistent with convergence of sequences in probability. Max-closedness asks that maximal elements of the closure of a set already lie on the set. We show that outer support points arise naturally as optimizers of concave monotone maximization problems. It is further shown that the set of outer support points of a convex, max-closed and bounded set of nonnegative random variables is dense in the set of its maximal elements, which can be regarded as a version of the celebrated Bishop-Phelps theorem in a space that even fails to be locally convex.
Rajavel, K.; Verma, S.; Asokan, K.; Rajendra Kumar, R. T.
2014-09-01
Field and temperature dependent electron transport properties of random network single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated and compared. The electrical characterizations of drop casted CNT samples were done by two probe measurements by varying temperatures from 80 K to 300 K in the field region 1-400 V cm-1. The charge transport mechanisms at low (3.5 V) fields were analyzed from measured I-V characteristic curves at various temperatures (<300 K) with respect to applied field. At low field, the ohmic behavior was observed and at high field the charge transport appears to be Poole-Frenkel type in both types of CNTs network. Electron-electron and electron-phonon scatterings in the localized defect states dominate in SWCNTs, whereas in MWCNTs the delocalization of charge carriers as well as the scattering centers is responsible due to the presence of inner shells. Because of the different nature of chirality in random network, the SWCNTs displayed lower conduction when compared to MWCNTs. The variation in Poole-Frenkel co-efficient (?) (SWCNTs-0.193 × 10-22 MWCNTs-0.089 07 × 10-22 J V1/2 cm-1/2), activation energy (SWCNTs-90 meV; MWCNTs-60 meV for field of 7\\;{{V}^{1/2}}\\;c{{m}^{-1/2}}) and trap energy levels (SWCNTs-109 meV; MWCNTs-37 meV) are discussed for both SWCNTs and MWCNTs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A modified generalized, rational harmonic balance method is used to construct approximate frequency-amplitude relations for a conservative nonlinear singular oscillator in which the restoring force is inversely proportional to the dependent variable. The procedure is used to solve the nonlinear differential equation approximately. The approximate frequency obtained using this procedure is more accurate than those obtained using other approximate methods and the discrepancy between the approximate frequency and the exact one is lower than 0.40%
Physically-based internal variable model for rate-dependent plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A unified model is developed for creep and plasticity in metals, using internal state variables to reflect the current microstructure. The inelastic flow rule is taken to be a power function incorporating a kinematic and an isotropic internal variable, where the microstructural origins of these properties are dislocation pileups and dislocation obstacle interaction, respectively. The model is generalized for three-dimensional deformation and evolutionary functions are developed for the internal variables to account for strain hardening and thermal recovery. An experimental test and data reduction procedure is presented which allows all the material constants to be determined for materials which exhibit secondary creep. The procedure is applied to pure aluminum. This generalized model provides a physical basis for predicting mechanical response along arbitrary deformation paths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Influences of the thickness variability and bidirectional material heterogeneity on the thermal buckling of the cylindrical shells have not been investigated so far. In the present paper, nonlinear thermal buckling and postbuckling analyses of imperfect, variable thickness cylindrical shells made of bidirectional functionally graded materials undergoing uniform temperature rises are accomplished for the first time, employing a third-order shear-deformation theory, von Karman-type kinematic nonlinearity, and a nonlinear finite element method. Material properties may vary in both radial and axial directions and can be temperature-dependent. Buckling temperature is detected by a modified Budiansky's criterion. The results reveal that temperature-dependency of the material properties reduces the buckling temperature. Moreover, effects of the volume fraction index on decreasing the buckling temperature are more remarkable for higher radius to thickness ratios. Furthermore, effects of reduction of the thickness in the axial direction may be compensated by an appropriate distribution of the material properties. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear thermal postbuckling of imperfect FGM cylindrical shells is investigated. • Material properties of the shell may vary in both radial and axial directions. • Geometric imperfections and thickness variability are also taken into account. • Material properties are considered to be temperature-dependent. • The nonlinear governing equations are solved by an updating finite element scheme
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Chang Dennis
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic work-related stress is a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and associated mortality, particularly when compounded by a sedentary work environment. Heart rate variability (HRV provides an estimate of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic control, and can serve as a marker of physiological stress. Hatha yoga is a physically demanding practice that can help to reduce stress; however, time constraints incurred by work and family life may limit participation. The purpose of the present study is to determine if a 10-week, worksite-based yoga program delivered during lunch hour can improve resting HRV and related physical and psychological parameters in sedentary office workers. Methods and design This is a parallel-arm RCT that will compare the outcomes of participants assigned to the experimental treatment group (yoga to those assigned to a no-treatment control group. Participants randomized to the experimental condition will engage in a 10-week yoga program delivered at their place of work. The yoga sessions will be group-based, prescribed three times per week during lunch hour, and will be led by an experienced yoga instructor. The program will involve teaching beginner students safely and progressively over 10 weeks a yoga sequence that incorporates asanas (poses and postures, vinyasa (exercises, pranayama (breathing control and meditation. The primary outcome of this study is the high frequency (HF spectral power component of HRV (measured in absolute units; i.e. ms2, a measure of parasympathetic autonomic control. Secondary outcomes include additional frequency and time domains of HRV, and measures of physical functioning and psychological health status. Measures will be collected prior to and following the intervention period, and at 6 months follow-up to determine the effect of intervention withdrawal. Discussion This study will determine the effect of worksite-based yoga practice on HRV and physical and psychological health status. The findings may assist in implementing practical interventions, such as yoga, into the workplace to mitigate stress, enhance health status and reduce the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Trial Registration ACTRN12611000536965 URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611000536965.aspx
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: We sought to compare the prognostic value of early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test-based variables for the 802 eligible patients treated in the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.01 randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Patients in this trial had T2b, T2c, T3, and T4 N0 prostate cancer and were randomized to 0, 3, or 6 months of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NADT) prior to and during radiation treatment at 66 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The early PSA test-based variables evaluated were the pretreatment initial PSA (iPSA) value, PSA values at 2 and 4 months into NADT, the PSA nadir (nPSA) value after radiation in all patients, and PSA response signatures in men receiving radiation. Comparisons of endpoints were made using Cox models of local progression-free survival, distant failure-free survival, biochemical failure-free survival, and prostate cancer-specific survival. Results: The nPSA value was a powerful predictor of all endpoints regardless of whether NADT was given before radiation. PSA response signatures also predicted all endpoints in men treated by radiation alone. iPSA and PSA results at 2 and 4 months into NADT predicted biochemical failure-free survival but not any of the clinical endpoints. nPSA values correlated with those of iPSA, Gleason grade, and T stage and were significantly higher in men receiving radiation alone than in those receiving NADT. Conclusions: The postradiation nPSA value is the strongese postradiation nPSA value is the strongest prognostic indicator of all early PSA-based variables. However, its use as a surrogate endpoint needs to take into account its dependence on pretreatment variables and treatment method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review the recent progress in our understanding of the effect of B-site randomness on Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PIN) from the experimental and theoretical viewpoints. PIN is one of the ideal systems for investigating the effect of perovskite B-site randomness on relaxor formation, because it can be in the antiferroelectric (AFE), ferroelectric (FE), or relaxor state depending on B-site randomness. Lattice dynamics measured in ordered and disordered PINs indicates the existence of FE instability regardless of the B-site randomness of PIN. AFE is stabilized when the B-site is spatially ordered, overwhelming FE instability. The hidden FE state starts to appear as B-site randomness becomes stronger and suppresses AFE instability. Ultimately, the randomness competes with the development of FE regions and blocks long-range FE ordering, which yields polar nanoregions (PNRs) resulting in relaxor behavior. In order to investigate the interesting behavior of PIN, we constructed a minimal model that includes dipolar interaction and easy-axis anisotropy which depends on B-site randomness. The results from Monte Carlo simulations show that the model well reproduces the phase diagram and dielectric constant of PIN qualitatively. (author)
Generalised extreme value statistics and sum of correlated variables
Bertin, Eric; Clusel, Maxime
2006-01-01
We show that generalised extreme value statistics -the statistics of the k-th largest value among a large set of random variables- can be mapped onto a problem of random sums. This allows us to identify classes of non-identical and (generally) correlated random variables with a sum distributed according to one of the three (k-dependent) asymptotic distributions of extreme value statistics, namely the Gumbel, Frechet and Weibull distributions. These classes, as well as the li...
Kwako, Laura E; Spagnolo, Primavera A; Schwandt, Melanie L; Thorsell, Annika; George, David T; Momenan, Reza; Rio, Daniel E; Huestis, Marilyn; Anizan, Sebastien; Concheiro, Marta; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus
2015-04-01
Extensive preclinical data implicate corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), acting through its CRH1 receptor, in stress- and dependence-induced alcohol seeking. We evaluated pexacerfont, an orally available, brain penetrant CRH1 antagonist for its ability to suppress stress-induced alcohol craving and brain responses in treatment seeking alcohol-dependent patients in early abstinence. Fifty-four anxious alcohol-dependent participants were admitted to an inpatient unit at the NIH Clinical Center, completed withdrawal treatment, and were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with pexacerfont (300?mg/day for 7 days, followed by 100?mg/day for 23 days). After reaching steady state, participants were assessed for alcohol craving in response to stressful or alcohol-related cues, neuroendocrine responses to these stimuli, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to alcohol-related stimuli or stimuli with positive or negative emotional valence. A separate group of 10 patients received open-label pexacerfont following the same dosing regimen and had cerebrospinal fluid sampled to estimate central nervous system exposure. Pexacerfont treatment had no effect on alcohol craving, emotional responses, or anxiety. There was no effect of pexacerfont on neural responses to alcohol-related or affective stimuli. These results were obtained despite drug levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that predict close to 90% central CRH1 receptor occupancy. CRH1 antagonists have been grouped based on their receptor dissociation kinetics, with pexacerfont falling in a category characterized by fast dissociation. Our results may indicate that antagonists with slow offset are required for therapeutic efficacy. Alternatively, the extensive preclinical data on CRH1 antagonism as a mechanism to suppress alcohol seeking may not translate to humans. PMID:25409596
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Croghan Ivana T
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylphenidate blocks the re-uptake of dopamine by binding to the dopamine transporter in the presynaptic cell membrane and increases extracellular dopamine levels. Similarities in neuropsychologic effects between nicotine and methylphenidate make it an intriguing potential therapeutic option. Previous research of methylphenidate in smokers has suggested a possible beneficial effect for the relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, but showed no efficacy in helping smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD to stop smoking. Methods To investigate potential efficacy for relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and promoting smoking abstinence, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study of once-a-day osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH, Concerta® at a target dose of 54-mg/day for 8 weeks compared with placebo in 80 adult cigarette smokers. Results Of the 80 randomized subjects and median smoking rate was 20 cigarettes per day. At the end of the medication phase, the biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was 10% (4/40 for the placebo group and 2.5% (1/40 for the OROS-MPH group. Nicotine withdrawal was not found to differ significantly between treatment groups during the first 14 days following the start of medication prior to the target quit date (p = 0.464 or during the first 14 days following the target quit date (p = 0.786. Conclusion We observed no evidence of efficacy of OROS-MPH to aid smokers to stop smoking. Although there are biologically plausible hypotheses that support the use of OROS-MPH for treating tobacco dependence, we found no evidence to support such hypotheses. In addition to no increase in smoking abstinence, we saw no effect of OROS-MPH for tobacco withdrawal symptom relief and no change in smoking rates was observed in the OROS-MPH group compared to the placebo group.
Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This invention provides a method and apparatus for nuclear reactor control using a variable reactor coolant temperature set point which is a function of power load demand. The set point has a constant temperature at the mid range of power load and a decreasing temperature at the higher range. A manual control is provided which is based exclusively on feedwater flow and allows power changes of up to 5 percent full power a minute with less boron concentration change than would otherwise be required
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe a technique for constructing a symplectic transfer map for a charged particle moving through an accelerator component with arbitrary three-dimensional static magnetic field. The transfer map is constructed by symplectic integration; by representing the map at each step of the integration by a mixed-variable generating function, exact symplecticity is ensured. By using an appropriate integration algorithm, there is no necessity to make the paraxial approximation. The technique is illustrated by application (in one degree of freedom) to a quadrupole magnet with strong octupole component and fringe field.
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A. Määttänen
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Recent datasets on heterogeneous deposition mode ice nucleation have revealed a strong dependence of the contact parameter m on temperature, ranging from linear to exponential, depending on the experiments. We analyze recent datasets using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method with the full classical nucleation theory including spherical and planar geometry. The method we use allows us to test models of the temperature dependence of the contact parameter and evaluate their performance. We estimate the applicability of different forms of contact parameter temperature dependence, including a new well-behaved suggestion. Such a function has a more physical behavior at high and low temperatures and might thus be more easily applicable in atmospheric modeling. However, because of their limited temperature range, the present datasets are unable to reveal the behavior of the contact parameter in low temperatures, and we are unable to fully validate the proposed function. We thus call for more heterogeneous nucleation experiments reaching low temperatures (<170 K. Such datasets may be significant for studies on, for example, polar mesospheric clouds, Mars ice clouds, and perhaps exoplanet clouds. This work provides a new framework, valid even for very small ice nucleus sizes, for analyzing heterogeneous nucleation datasets.
Sozcu, Omer Faruk
2014-01-01
This study examines the relationships between cognitive styles of field dependent learners with their attitudes towards e-learning (distance education) and instructional behavior in e-learning instruction. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and the attitude survey (for students' preferences) towards e-learning instruction as distance…
Self-efficacy as a mediating variable of informal caregiver burden for dependent elderly.
Mata, Maria Augusta; Teresa Rodriguez, Maria
2012-01-01
The informal caregivers of dependent elders, plays a crucial role in maintaining the elderly in the family and community, but its work can be reflected negatively in their physical and emotional health, especially anxiety and depreSSion, loneliness, lack of free time, health effects and deterioration of the family economy. Several factors may be involved in its development, including stereotypes about the elderly, loneliness and self-efficacy of caregivers. In order to...
Manatsa, D.; Matarira, C. H.
2009-10-01
A novel approach of using variability as a major descriptive parameter for observational time series is adopted to investigate how southeastern African (Zimbabwe) summer rainfall may have been forced by the El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and/or the Indian Ocean dipole/zonal mode (IODZM), concurrently with the changing sea surface temperature (SST) background of the Indo-Pacific region. The period is from 1901 to 2007. Wavelet power spectrum and linear statistical analysis, including simple and partial correlation techniques, are utilized to achieve this end. The results reveal epochal changes in teleconnections and other statistical properties linking southeastern African rainfall variability to the Indo-Pacific SSTs. These epochs conspicuously exhibit the period around 1945/1946, 1960/1961, 1972/1973, and 1997/1998 as demarcating distinct systematic climate turning points during the century. The role of the 1976/1977 climate regime shift seems not to be that apparent but instead, 1960/1961 and 1997/1998 appear to be the major turning points, both in the teleconnections and Indo-Pacific SST temporal characteristics. From the early 1960s to 1997, as much as 28% of the rainfall variability was linearly related to the IODZM while the ENSO hardly explained a quarter of this value. During this period, droughts are especially strongly connected to the positive IODZM events but insignificantly linked to El Niño, thus contradicting the conventional knowledge attributing most of regional rainfall suppression to the warm ENSO phase. However, the post 1997 epoch saw the reversal of the two climate modes’ influences. ENSO influence evidently became activated, attaining the previously assumed dominant role which had proved elusive during the earlier epochs. But this increased ENSO control is attributed to only less than 12% of the rainfall variance while IODZM seem to be largely decoupled from the local rainfall influencing processes by hardly explaining a drastically reduced 1% of the rainfall variance. This transformation occurred despite of neither ENSO nor IODZM SST anomalies showing any statistically significant changes. As far as could be established, this epochal behavior may not be forced by the frequency and magnitude of ENSO and IODZM events but most probably by the slow processes inherent in the SST background, especially of the tropical Indian Ocean. Thus, the apparent simultaneous decoupling of the IODZM and coupling of the ENSO to the regional rainfall controlling mechanisms seems to be the result of the unprecedented warming of the intervening tropical western Indian Ocean SSTs in the last decade. Consequently, the knowledge of the states of epochal Indian Ocean SST background variability should be an important regional scientific issue, since these epochal variations may dictate the nature (and successful prediction) of interannual as well as decadal climate fluctuations over southeastern Africa.
Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T.
2008-03-01
Understanding how changes in the boreal fire regime will affect high latitude climate requires knowledge of the sensitivity of the surface energy budget to shifts in vegetation cover. We measured components of the surface energy budget in three ecosystems that were part of a fire chronosequence in interior Alaska for 3 years. Our sites were within the perimeter of stand-replacing fires that occurred in 1999, 1987, and ˜1920 (hereafter referred to as the 1999-burn, the 1987-burn, and the control). Vegetation cover consisted primarily of sparse short grasses at the 1999-burn, aspen and willow (deciduous trees and shrubs) at the 1987-burn, and black spruce (evergreen conifer trees) at the control. Averaged over the 3 years of our study, annual net radiation decreased by approximately 25% at the 1999-burn and 30% at the 1987-burn, relative to the control. Sensible heat decreased by an even larger amount, by approximately 57% for the 1999-burn and 44% for the 1987-burn as compared with the control. Climate during spring and summer varied considerably among the 3 years. The three stands responded differently to this climate variability with consequences for surface energy exchange. As a result of earlier snow cover loss in 2003 and 2004, net radiation during spring increased substantially in the recently disturbed stands, but not in the control. In response to a sustained summer drought in 2004, latent heat decreased more in the 1987-burn during August than in the control. Our results imply that a shift in plant functional types expected to accompany increases in boreal fire activity may amplify interannual climate variability during both spring and summer.
Brown, E Sherwood; Sunderajan, Prabha; Hu, Lisa T; Sowell, Sharon M; Carmody, Thomas J
2012-01-01
Bipolar disorder is associated with very high rates of substance dependence. Cocaine use is particularly common. However, limited data are available on the treatment of this population. A 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of lamotrigine was conducted in 120 outpatients with bipolar disorder, depressed or mixed mood state, and cocaine dependence. Other substance use was not exclusionary. Cocaine use was quantified weekly by urine drug screens and participant report us...
Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB080310
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vreeswijk, P.M.; De Cia, A.
2013-01-01
We model the time-variable absorption of Feii, Feiii, Siii, Cii and Crii detected in Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080310, with the afterglow radiation exciting and ionizing the interstellar medium in the host galaxy at a redshift of z = 2.42743. To estimate the rest-frame afterglow brightness as a function of time, we use a combination of the optical VRI photometry obtained by the RAPTOR-T telescope array, which is presented in this paper, and Swift's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations. Excitation alone, which has been successfully applied for a handful of other GRBs, fails to describe the observed column density evolution in the case of GRB080310. Inclusion of ionization is required to explain the column density decrease of all observed Feii levels (including the ground state D) and increase of the Feiii S level. The large population of ions in this latter level (up to 10% of all Feiii) can only be explained through ionization of Feii, as a large fraction of the ionized Feii ions (we calculate 31% using the Flexible Atomic and Cowan codes) initially populate the S level of Feiii rather than the ground state. This channel for producing a significant Feiii S level population may be relevant for other objects in which absorption lines from this level, the UV34 triplet, are observed, such as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and ¿ Carinae. This provides conclusive evidence for time-variable ionization in the circumburst medium, which to date has not been convincingly detected. However, the best-fit distance of the neutral absorbing cloud to the GRB is 200-400 pc, i.e. similar to GRB-absorber distance estimates for GRBs without any evidence for ionization. We find that the presence of time-varying ionization in GRB080310 is likely due to a combination of the super-solar iron abundance ([Fe/H] = +0.2) and the low Hi column density (log N(Hi) = 18.7) in the host of GRB080310. Finally, the modelling provides indications for the presence of an additional cloud at 10 50 pc from the GRB with log N(Hi) ~ 19 20 before the burst, which became fully ionized by the radiation released during the first few tens of minutes after the GRB. © 2012 ESO.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the cooling concepts of the high-temperature corium melt which may form in a core meltdown accident relies on sufficiently homogeneous spreading. The conditions under which complete spreading can be expected are the objects of current theoretical and experimental studies. The lubrication approximation for low Reynolds number flows leads to an equation for which self-similar solutions for various conditions have been found by many authors. This paper offers self-similar solutions for the spreading of a volume of liquid which increases as a power law of time. The effect of cooling on the viscosity is represented by the time-dependent viscosity. A variety of spreading experiments have been performed within many international programs. The initial conditions and boundary conditions used are more complex than those for which self-similar solutions are known explicitly. Based on the asymptotic behavior, as t??, of solutions of the Cauchy problem for a quite general class of initial data, approximate solutions are given describing the spreading of finite volume with a time dependent flux release, and some of the high-temperature experiments are analyzed. The effect of bubbles on rheology in spreading experiments with water and shear-thinning fluids is investigated
Chen, Xuhui; Liang, Edison; Boettcher, Markus
2011-01-01
(abridged) We present a new time-dependent multi-zone radiative transfer code and its application to study the SSC emission of Mrk 421. The code couples Fokker-Planck and Monte Carlo methods, in a 2D geometry. For the first time all the light travel time effects (LCTE) are fully considered, along with a proper treatment of Compton cooling, which depends on them. We study a set of simple scenarios where the variability is produced by injection of relativistic electrons as a `shock front' crosses the emission region. We consider emission from two components, with the second one either being pre-existing and co-spatial and participating in the evolution of the active region, or spatially separated and independent, only diluting the observed variability. Temporal and spectral results of the simulation are compared to the multiwavelength observations of Mrk 421 in March 2001. We find parameters that can adequately fit the observed SEDs and multiwavelength light curves and correlations. There remain however a few o...
Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Liqiong; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jianping
2015-01-01
Objective. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate effect of Chinese medicine combined with conventional therapy on blood pressure variability (BPV) in hypertension patients. Methods. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing Chinese medicine with no intervention or placebo on the basis of conventional therapy were included. Data extraction, analyses, and quality assessment were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Results. We included 13 RCTs and assessed risk of bias for all the trials. Chinese medicine has a significant effect in lowering blood pressure (BP), reducing BPV in the form of standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variability (CV), improving nighttime BP decreased rate, and reversing abnormal rhythm of BP. Conclusions. Chinese medicine was safe and showed beneficial effects on BPV in hypertension patients. However, more rigorous trials with high quality are warranted to give high level of evidence before recommending Chinese medicine as an alternative or complementary medicine to improve BPV in hypertension patients.
Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB 080310
Vreeswijk, P M; Raassen, A J J; Smette, A; De Cia, A; Wo?niak, P R; Fox, A J; Vestrand, W T; Jakobsson, P
2012-01-01
We model the time-variable absorption of FeII, FeIII, SiII, CII and CrII detected in UVES spectra of GRB 080310, with the afterglow radiation exciting and ionizing the interstellar medium in the host galaxy at a redshift of z=2.42743. To estimate the rest-frame afterglow brightness as a function of time, we use a combination of the optical VRI photometry obtained by the RAPTOR-T telescope array -- which are presented in this paper -- and Swift's X-Ray Telescope observations. Excitation alone, which has been successfully applied for a handful of other GRBs, fails to describe the observed column-density evolution in the case of GRB 080310. Inclusion of ionization is required to explain the column-density decrease of all observed FeII levels (including the ground state 6D9/2) and increase of the FeIII 7S3 level. The large population of ions in this latter level (up to 10% of all FeIII) can only be explained through ionization of FeII, whereby a large fraction of the ionized FeII ions -- we calculate 31% using th...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dinesh Sharma
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The coecient of determinant, also known as the R2 statistic, is widely used as a measure of theproportion of explained variation in the context of a linear regression model. In many real lifeevents, interests may lie on measuring the proportion of explained variation, rho^2, of a latent scaledependent variable U which follows a multiple regression model. But in practice, U may not beobservable and is represented by its binary proxy. In such situations, use of logistic regressionanalysis is a popular choice. Many analogues to R2 type statistics have been proposed to measureexplained variation in the context of logistic regression. McFadden's R2 measure stands out fromothers because of its intuitive interpretation and its independence on the proportion of successin the sample. It, however, severely underestimates the proportion of explained variation of theunderlying linear model. In this research we present a method for estimating the explained variationfor the underlying linear model using the McFadden's R2 statistics. When used in a real lifedataset, our method estimated rho^2 of the underlying model within an acceptable margin of error.
Nevin, J A; Randolph; Holland, S.; McLean, A. P.
2001-01-01
Two experiments asked whether resistance to change depended on variable-ratio as opposed to variable-interval contingencies of reinforcement and the different response rates they establish. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained on multiple random-ratio random-interval schedules with equated reinforcer rates. Baseline response rates were disrupted by intercomponent food, extinction, and prefeeding. Resistance to change relative to baseline was greater in the interval component, and the differe...
Zannou, A.; Agbicodo, E.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Struik, P. C.; Ahanchédé, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Sanni, A.
2009-01-01
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important food and cash crop in the Guinea-Sudan zone of Benin. The genetic diversity of about 70 cultivars of Dioscorea cayenensis/Dioscorea rotundata (Guinea yam) and about 20 cultivars of Dioscorea alata (water yam) was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The amplified bands revealed high polymorphism. These polymorphic DNA fragments were used to construct dendrograms, clustering all accessions into 18 groups: 12 for D. cayenensis/D. rotundata...
Roosta-khorasani, Farbod; Sze?kely, Ga?bor J.; Ascher, Uri
2014-01-01
This article considers stochastic algorithms for efficiently solving a class of large scale non-linear least squares (NLS) problems which frequently arise in applications. We propose eight variants of a practical randomized algorithm where the uncertainties in the major stochastic steps are quantified. Such stochastic steps involve approximating the NLS objective function using Monte-Carlo methods, and this is equivalent to the estimation of the trace of corresponding symmet...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helmut Prodinger
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In words, generated by independent geometrically distributed random variables, we study the l th descent, which is, roughly speaking, the l th occurrence of a neighbouring pair ab with a>b. The value a is called the initial height, and b the end height. We study these two random variables (and some similar ones by combinatorial and probabilistic tools. We find in all instances a generating function ?(v,u, where the coefficient of v j u i refers to the j th descent (ascent, and i to the initial (end height. From this, various conclusions can be drawn, in particular expected values. In the probabilistic part, a Markov chain model is used, which allows to get explicit expressions for the heights of the second descent. In principle, one could go further, but the complexity of the results forbids it. This is extended to permutations of a large number of elements. Methods from q-analysis are used to simplify the expressions. This is the reason that we confine ourselves to the geometric distribution only. For general discrete distributions, no such tools are available.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The concentration of a contaminant measured in a particular medium might be distributed as a positive random variable when it is present, but it may not always be present. If there is a level below which the concentration cannot be distinguished from zero by the analytical apparatus, a sample from such a population will be censored on the left. The presence of both zeros and positive values in the censored portion of such samples complicates the problem of estimating the parameters of the underlying positive random variable and the probability of a zero observation. Using the method of maximum likelihood, it is shown that the solution to this estimation problem reduces largely to that of estimating the parameters of the distribution truncated at the point of censorship. The maximum likelihood estimate of the proportion of zero values follows directly. The derivation of the maximum likelihood estimates for a lognormal population with zeros is given in detail, and the asymptotic properties of the estimates are examined. The estimation method was used to fit several different distributions to a set of severely censored 85Kr monitoring data from six locations at the Savannah River Plant chemical separations facilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne V
2011-01-01
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25(OH)D), but the dose-response relationship and the importance of dose rate is unclear. Of 172 fair-skinned persons screened for 25(OH)D, 55 with insufficient baseline 25(OH)D=50 nm (mean 31.2 nm) were selected and randomized to one of 11 groups of five participants. Each group was exposed to one of four different UV-B doses: 0.375, 0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 standard erythema dose (SED) for 1, 5, 10 or 20 min. All participants had four UV-B sessions with 2- to 3-day interval with 24% of their skin exposed. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D were measured before and after the irradiations. The increase in 25(OH)D after UV-B exposure (adjusted for baseline 25(OH)D) was positively correlated with the UV-B dose (P=0.001; R(2) =0.176) but not to dose rate (1-20 min). 25(OH)D increased in response to four UV-B treatments of 3 SED with 24.8 nm on average and 14.2 nm after four UV-B treatments of just 0.375 SED. In conclusion, the increase in 25(OH)D after UV-B exposure depends on the dose but not on the dose rate (1-20 min). Further, a significant increase in 25(OH)D was achieved with a very low UV-B dose.
Kushnir, Yochanan; Wallace, John M.
1989-10-01
Low-frequency variability in wintertime 500 mb height is examined, with emphasis on its structure, geographical distribution, and frequency dependence. A 39-year record of 500 mb geopotential height fields from the NMC analyses is time filtered to partition the fluctuations into frequency bands corresponding to periods of 10-60 days, 60-180 days and > 180 days. Winter is defined as the six month period November through April. Variance, teleconnectivity, and anisotropy fields, and selected loading vectors derived from orthogonal and oblique rotations of the eigenvectors of the temporal correlation matrix for each band are shown and discussed.The variability in all frequency bands exhibits substantial anistropy, with meridionally elongated features arranged as zonally oriented wave trains prevailing over the continents and zonally elongated features organized in the form of north-south oriented dipole patterns prevailing over the oceanic sectors of the hemisphere. The wave trains are most pronounced in the 10-60 day variability, while the dipoles are most pronounced at lower frequencies. Eastward energy dispersion is apparent in the wave trains, but there is no evidence of phase propagation.Most of the `teleconnection patterns' identified in previous studies appear among the more prominent loading vectors. However, in most cases the loading vectors occur in pairs, in which the two patterns are in spatial quadrature with one another and account for comparable fractions of the hemispherically integrated variance. It is argued that such patterns should be interpreted as basis functions that can be linearly combined to form a continuum of anisotropic structures. Evidence of the existence of discrete `modal structures' is found only in the interannual (> 180-day period) variability, where two patterns stand out clearly above the background continuum: the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). These patterns leave clear imprints upon the climatological mean variance of the 500 mb height field and the anisotropy tensor of the 500 mb wine field. The western Atlantic (WA) pattern stands out somewhat above the background continuum in the month-to-month (60-180 day period) variability.
Joshi Meesha; Singh Nilkamal; Telles Shirley; Balkrishna Acharya
2010-01-01
Abstract Background An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed. Methods Twenty-two volunteers (group average age ± S.D, 31.5 ± 7.5 years; all of them were males) were randomly a...
Kawaguchi, T
1998-01-01
Number of monitoring observations of continuum emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) have been made in optical--X-ray bands. The results obtained so far show (i) random up and down on timescales longer than decades, (ii) no typical timescales of variability on shorter timescales and (iii) decreasing amplitudes as timescales become shorter. The second feature indicates that any successful model must produce a wide variety of shot-amplitudes and -durations over a few orders in their light curves. In this sense, we conclude that the disk instability model is favored over the starburst model, since fluctuations on days are hard to produce by the latter model. Inter-band correlations and time lags also impose great constraints on models. Thus, constructing wavelength and time dependent models remains as a future work.
Non independent continuous-time random walks
Montero Torralbo, Miquel; Masoliver, Jaume
2007-01-01
The usual development of the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) assumes that jumps and time intervals are a two-dimensional set of independent and identically distributed random variables. In this paper, we address the theoretical setting of nonindependent CTRWs where consecutive jumps and/or time intervals are correlated. An exact solution to the problem is obtained for the special but relevant case in which the correlation solely depends on the signs of consecutive jumps. Even in this simpl...
Non-independent continuous time random walks
Montero, Miquel; Masoliver, Jaume
2007-01-01
The usual development of the continuous time random walk (CTRW) assumes that jumps and time intervals are a two-dimensional set of independent and identically distributed random variables. In this paper we address the theoretical setting of non-independent CTRW's where consecutive jumps and/or time intervals are correlated. An exact solution to the problem is obtained for the special but relevant case in which the correlation solely depends on the signs of consecutive jumps....
Chang Dennis; Marshall Paul W; Cheema Birinder S; Colagiuri Ben; Machliss Bianca
2011-01-01
Abstract Background Chronic work-related stress is a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and associated mortality, particularly when compounded by a sedentary work environment. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides an estimate of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic control, and can serve as a marker of physiological stress. Hatha yoga is a physically demanding practice that can help to reduce stress; however, time constraints incurred by wor...
The Harris-Luck criterion for random lattices
Janke, Wolfhard; Weigel, Martin
2003-01-01
The Harris-Luck criterion judges the relevance of (potentially) spatially correlated, quenched disorder induced by, e.g., random bonds, randomly diluted sites or a quasi-periodicity of the lattice, for altering the critical behavior of a coupled matter system. We investigate the applicability of this type of criterion to the case of spin variables coupled to random lattices. Their aptitude to alter critical behavior depends on the degree of spatial correlations present, whic...
WU, LI-TZY; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G; Tai, Betty; Stitzer, Maxine L; WOODY, GEORGE E.
2010-01-01
This study applies a latent variable approach to examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in cocaine dependence, determine the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) or item-response bias to diagnostic questions of cocaine dependence, and explore the effects of DIF on the predictor analysis of cocaine dependence. The analysis sample included 682 cocaine users enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Participant...
Chen, Xuhui; Liang, Edison; Boettcher, Markus
2012-01-01
[abridged] We present results of modeling the SED and multiwavelength variability of the bright FSRQ PKS1510-089 with our time-dependent multizone Monte Carlo/Fokker-Planck code (Chen et al. 2001). As primary source of seed photons for inverse Compton scattering, we consider radiation from the broad line region (BLR), from the molecular torus, and the local synchrotron radiation (SSC). Different scenarios are assessed by comparing simulated light curves and SEDs with one of the best flares by PKS1510-089, in March 2009. The time-dependence of our code and its correct handling of light travel time effects allow us to fully take into account the effect of the finite size of the active region, and in turn to fully exploit the information carried by time resolved observed SEDs, increasingly available since the launch of Fermi. We confirm that the spectrum adopted for the external radiation has an important impact on the modeling of the SED, in particular for the lower energy end of the Compton component, observed...
Coelho, Carlos A.; Arnold, Barry C.
2012-09-01
The authors show how we may, through the use of some extended product expressions for the Gamma function and some detailed work on the characteristic functions of the negative logarithm of the product of particular independent Beta random variables, whose second parameters are rational, obtain in a single shot (i) simple expressions for both the probability density and cumulative distribution functions of this product, as well as, concomitantly (ii) very simple and easy to compute alternative finite form expressions for instances of the Meijer G and Fox H functions. These alternative expressions are based on the expressions for the probability density and cumulative distribution functions of the Generalized Integer Gamma distribution and they are not used or recognized by the available software.
An Introduction to Conditional Random Fields
Sutton, Charles; McCallum, Andrew
2010-01-01
Often we wish to predict a large number of variables that depend on each other as well as on other observed variables. Structured prediction methods are essentially a combination of classification and graphical modeling, combining the ability of graphical models to compactly model multivariate data with the ability of classification methods to perform prediction using large sets of input features. This tutorial describes conditional random fields, a popular probabilistic met...
Randomized random walk on a random walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time according to the occurrences of a stochastic point process. The probability of finding the particle in a particular position at a certain instant is obtained explicitly in the transform domain. It is found that the asymptotic behaviour for large time of the mean-square displacement of the particle depends critically on the assumed structure of the basic random walk, giving a diffusion-like term for an asymmetric walk or a square root law if the walk is symmetric. Many results are obtained in closed form for the Poisson process case, and these agree with those given previously by Kehr and Kunter. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ?G0, the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = ??G0 + G/sub a/0M(?). Here ? is the Bronsted slope, ? = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(?G0/RT), G/sub a/0 is independent of ?G0 and M(?), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of ?. For small changes in ?G0, the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = ? delta ?G0. It is concluded from general considerations that M(?) is considerations that M(?) is a symmetric, convex function of ? and hence that ? is a monotonically increasing function of ?G0. Experimental data appear to conform well to the form ? = 1/[1 + exp(-?G0/G/sub s/0)]. A simple interpretation of the ?G0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references
Papp, T; Vastag, M; Michailides, T J; Ferenczy, L; Vágvölgyi, C
2001-12-01
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and isoenzyme polymorphisms among 16 isolates of the postharvest pathogen Gilbertella persicaria were examined. Six different 10-bp primers were used to determine the extent of intraspecific genetic variability. Nine composite amplification types were identified. RAPD markers were obtained which correlated with the mating types of the G. persicaria isolates. The variability of the isoenzyme patterns was very low and no correlation was found between the isoenzyme markers and the mating abilities. When 80 single carbon substrates were tested in utilization assays, most of them were utilized uniformly by the 16 G. persicaria strains. However, some compounds elicited differences between the isolates representing the two mating types. Beta-alanine (0.2%) has little effect on the germination of the sporangiospores of the (+) isolates, but inhibited the germination of (-) sporangiospores. Glycerol-1-monoacetate supported the growth of both mating types, but at concentrations higher than 4% this was accompanied with a compact (colonial) growth for plus mating type isolates only. PMID:11827216
Goren, Yael; Davrath, Linda R; Pinhas, Itzhak; Toledo, Eran; Akselrod, Solange
2006-01-01
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a major noninvasive technique for evaluating the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Use of time-frequency approach to analyze HRV allows investigating the ANS behavior from the power integrals, as a function of time, in both steady-state and non steady-state. Power integrals are examined mainly in the low-frequency and the high-frequency bands. Traditionally, constant boundaries are chosen to determine the frequency bands of interest. However, these ranges are individual, and can be strongly affected by physiologic conditions (body position, breathing frequency). In order to determine the dynamic boundaries of the frequency bands more accurately, especially during autonomic challenges, we developed an algorithm for the detection of individual time-dependent spectral boundaries (ITSB). The ITSB was tested on recordings from a series of standard autonomic maneuvers with rest periods between them, and the response to stand was compared to the known physiological response. A major advantage of the ITSB is the ability to reliably define the mid-frequency range, which provides the potential to investigate the physiologic importance of this range. PMID:16402601
Variability Measures of Positive Random Variables.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Koš?ál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr; Pokora, Ond?ej
2011-01-01
Ro?. 6, ?. 7 (2011), e21998. ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ?R(CZ) GAP103/11/0282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : interspike interval * coefficient of variation * entropy * Fisher information Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011
Fujii, Hiroyuki; Okawa, Shinpei; Yamada, Yukio; Hoshi, Yoko
2014-11-01
Numerical modeling of light propagation in random media has been an important issue for biomedical imaging, including diffuse optical tomography (DOT). For high resolution DOT, accurate and fast computation of light propagation in biological tissue is desirable. This paper proposes a space-time hybrid model for numerical modeling based on the radiative transfer and diffusion equations (RTE and DE, respectively) in random media under refractive-index mismatching. In the proposed model, the RTE and DE regions are separated into space and time by using a crossover length and the time from the ballistic regime to the diffusive regime, ?DA~10/?t? and tDA~20/v?t? where ?t? and v represent a reduced transport coefficient and light velocity, respectively. The present model succeeds in describing light propagation accurately and reduces computational load by a quarter compared with full computation of the RTE.
Tomita, Toshihiro; Miyaji, Kousuke
2015-04-01
The dependence of spatial and statistical distribution of random telegraph noise (RTN) in a 30 nm NAND flash memory on channel doping concentration NA and cell program state Vth is comprehensively investigated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo device simulation considering random dopant fluctuation (RDF). It is found that single trap RTN amplitude ?Vth is larger at the center of the channel region in the NAND flash memory, which is closer to the jellium (uniform) doping results since NA is relatively low to suppress junction leakage current. In addition, ?Vth peak at the center of the channel decreases in the higher Vth state due to the current concentration at the shallow trench isolation (STI) edges induced by the high vertical electrical field through the fringing capacitance between the channel and control gate. In such cases, ?Vth distribution slope ? cannot be determined by only considering RDF and single trap.
Menouar, Salah; Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2010-01-01
A general treatment of the quantal time-dependent coupled oscillators in presence of the variable magnetic field is presented. The treatment is based on the use of an alternative canonical transformations, time-dependent unitary transformations and the invariant methods. Exact wave functions for Schr\\"{o}dinger equations of this system are constructed.We applied our theory to a particular case and, co,sequently, showed that our results recovers to the perviously known one.
Ranganath, Rajesh; Blei, David
2015-01-01
We develop correlated random measures, random measures where the atom weights can exhibit a flexible pattern of dependence, and use them to develop powerful hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models are usually built from completely random measures, a Poisson-process based construction in which the atom weights are independent. Completely random measures imply strong independence assumptions in the corresponding hierarchical model...
Sacanna, S.; Rossi, L.; Wouterse, A.; Philipse, A. P.
2007-09-01
We have measured the random packing density of monodisperse colloidal silica ellipsoids with a well-defined shape, gradually deviating from a sphere shape up to prolates with aspect ratios of about 5, to find for a colloidal system the first experimental observation for the density maximum (at an aspect ratio near 1.6) previously found only in computer simulations of granular packings. Confocal microscopy of ellipsoid packings, prepared by rapidly quenching ellipsoid fluids via ultra-centrifugation, demonstrates the absence of orientational order and yields pair correlation functions very much like those for random sphere packings. The density maximum, about 12% above the Bernal random sphere packing density, also manifests itself as a maximum in the hydrodynamic friction that resists the swelling osmotic pressure of the ellipsoid packings. The existence of the density maximum is also predicted to strongly effect the dynamics of colloidal non-sphere glasses: slightly perturbing the sphere shape in a sphere glass will cause it to melt.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have measured the random packing density of monodisperse colloidal silica ellipsoids with a well-defined shape, gradually deviating from a sphere shape up to prolates with aspect ratios of about 5, to find for a colloidal system the first experimental observation for the density maximum (at an aspect ratio near 1.6) previously found only in computer simulations of granular packings. Confocal microscopy of ellipsoid packings, prepared by rapidly quenching ellipsoid fluids via ultra-centrifugation, demonstrates the absence of orientational order and yields pair correlation functions very much like those for random sphere packings. The density maximum, about 12% above the Bernal random sphere packing density, also manifests itself as a maximum in the hydrodynamic friction that resists the swelling osmotic pressure of the ellipsoid packings. The existence of the density maximum is also predicted to strongly effect the dynamics of colloidal non-sphere glasses: slightly perturbing the sphere shape in a sphere glass will cause it to melt
Self-Intersection Times for Random Walk, and Random Walk in Random Scenery
Asselah, Amine; Castell, Fabienne
2005-01-01
We consider Random Walk in Random Scenery , denoted $X_n$, where the random walk is symmetric on $Z^d$, with $d>4$, and the random field is made up of i.i.d random variables with a stretched exponential tail decay, with exponent $\\alpha$ with $1n^{\\beta}\\}$ for $1/2
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Gonzalo, Nápoles; Isel, Grau; Marilyn, Bello; Rafael, Bello.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) es un método de búsqueda no directo para la optimización numérica. Las principales ventajas de esta meta-heurística están relacionadas principalmente con su simplicidad, pocos parámetros y alta tasa de convergencia. En el PSO canónico usando una topología totalmente [...] conectada, una partícula ajusta su posición usando dos atractores: el mejor registro almacenado por el individuo y el mejor punto descubierto por la bandada completa. Este esquema conduce a un alto factor de convergencia, pero también deteriora la diversidad de la población progresivamente. Como resultado la bandada de partículas frecuentemente es atraída por puntos sub-óptimos. Una vez que las partículas han sido atraídas hacia un óptimo local, ellas continúan el proceso de búsqueda dentro de una región muy pequeña del espacio de soluciones, reduciendo las capacidades de exploración del algoritmo. Para tratar esta situación este artículo presenta una variante del procedimiento Random Sampling in Variable Neighborhoods (RSVN) usando una distribución de Lévy. Este algoritmo es capaz de mejorar notablemente la capacidad de búsqueda de los algoritmos PSO en problemas multimodales de optimización. Abstract in english Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a non-direct search method for numerical optimization. The key advantages of this metaheuristic are principally associated to its simplicity, few parameters and high convergence rate. In the canonical PSO using a fully connected topology, a particle adjusts its p [...] osition by using two attractors: the best record stored for the current agent, and the best point discovered for the entire swarm. It leads to a high convergence rate, but also progressively deteriorates the swarm diversity. As a result, the particle swarm frequently gets attracted by sub-optimal points. Once the particles have been attracted to a local optimum, they continue the search process within a small region of the solution space, thus reducing the algorithm exploration. To deal with this issue, this paper presents a variant of the Random Sampling in Variable Neighborhoods (RSVN) procedure using a Lévy distribution, which is able to notably improve the PSO search ability in multimodal problems.
Labruye?re, Rob; Hedel, Hubertus J. A.
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND Task-specific locomotor training has been promoted to improve walking-related outcome after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, there is also evidence that lower extremity strength training might lead to such improvements. The aim of this randomized cross-over pilot study was to compare changes in a broad spectrum of walking-related outcome measures and pain between robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) and strength training in patients with chronic iSCI, who depended on ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using computer-aided design three-dimensional simulation technology, the supply voltage scaled dependency of the recovery of single event upset and charge collection in static random-access memory cells are investigated. It reveals that the recovery linear energy transfer threshold decreases with the supply voltage reducing, which is quite attractive for dynamic voltage scaling and subthreshold circuit radiation-hardened design. Additionally, the effect of supply voltage on charge collection is also investigated. It is concluded that the supply voltage mainly affects the bipolar gain of the parasitical bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and the existence of the source plays an important role in supply voltage variation. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Vladia, Correchel; Osny Oliveira Santos, Bacchi; Klaus, Reichardt; Isabella Clerici, De Maria.
2005-04-01
Full Text Available A precisão da técnica de análise da redistribuição do "fallout" do 137Cs nas avaliações das taxas de erosão são fortemente dependentes da qualidade de um inventário médio tomado em uma área de referência representativa. O conhecimento das fontes e do grau de variação da distribuição do "fallout" do [...] 137Cs desempenham um importante papel na aplicação desta técnica. Quatro áreas de referência foram selecionadas na região Sudeste do Brasil, sendo estas caracterizadas quanto aos aspectos físicos, químicos, mineralógicos do solo, assim como a variabilidade espacial dos inventários de 137Cs. Houve algumas diferenças importantes no padrão da distribuição do 137Cs em profundidade nos perfis de solo dos diferentes locais que, provavelmente, estão associadas às diferenças químicas, físicas, mineralógicas e biológicas dos solos estudados. Mas muitas questões ainda permanecem abertas para futuras investigações, principalmente em relação à adsorção e à dinâmica do 137Cs no perfil dos solos tropicais. A variabilidade espacial randômica (dentro de cada local de referência) foi maior do que a variabilidade espacial sistemática (entre áreas de referência), porém as causas disto não foram claramente identificadas, talvez em conseqüência da variabilidade química, física e/ou mineralógica bem como da precipitação. Abstract in english The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distrib [...] ution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site) was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites) but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.
Nonlinear Schroedinger equations under random nonlinearity management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider effects of random time modulation of the nonlinearity coefficient on the dynamics of one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) solitary waves in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE). In particular, the cases of a single Gaussian random variable, and a temporally correlated Gaussian process are considered. In the 1D case, we demonstrate the robustness of solitons against the random nonlinearity management. In the 2D case, the share (percentage) of realizations that lead to collapse of a localized pulse is computed, in order to quantify the effect of the randomness in preventing the collapse. Dependences of this share on the mean value, standard deviation, and correlation length of the random process are obtained, and, whenever possible, compared to analytical predictions
Bello, F J; Segura, N A; Ruiz-Garcia, M
2014-01-01
Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito, which is an efficient vector of the virus causing epidemic-epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Colombia. This study used 9 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to analyze the mosquito's genetic variability and genetic structure of 122 specimens in 7 populations from the Colombian Atlantic coast. Assuming that all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, diversity statistics and analyses were performed. The average number of amplified fragments for each primer was 8.3, and the size of these fragments ranged from 350 to 3600 bp. The expected average heterozygosity was 0.358 ± 0.103. The genetic heterogeneity among the populations studied was small (GST = 0.05 ± 0.01); meanwhile, the gene flow estimates (Nm = 7.32 ± 1.35) were high. In an identical way, the Nei's genetic distances obtained yielded very small values amongst the populations that were studied in this Colombian region. Furthermore, a spatial autocorrelation analysis with Moran's I index revealed a very weak, or inexistent, spatial genetic structure among these populations. The comparison of these results with those performed for other markers (isoenzymes and microsatellites) in populations of this same mosquito from the Colombian Atlantic coast was discussed. The results of our RAPD analysis showed scarce genetic differentiation among the mosquito populations on the Colombian Atlantic coast, which was probably determined by high gene flow levels. PMID:24938703
Agrawal, P; Rai, V; Singh, R B
1996-09-01
Experimental studies on albino rats reported that leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum album (holy basil) had hypoglycemic effect. To explore further evidence we studied the effects of treatment with holy basil leaves on fasting and postprandial blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels in humans through randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover single blind trial. Results indicated a significant decrease in fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels during treatment with holy basil leaves compared to during treatment with placebo leaves. Fasting blood glucose fell by 21.0 mg/dl, confidence interval of difference -31.4 - (-)11.2 (p basil treatment period. The findings from this study suggest that basil leaves may be prescribed as adjunct to dietary therapy and drug treatment in mild to moderate NIDDM. PMID:8880292
Bonten, Tobias N; Snoep, Jaapjan D; Assendelft, Willem J J; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Eikenboom, Jeroen; Huisman, Menno V; Rosendaal, Frits R; van der Bom, Johanna G
2015-04-01
Aspirin is used for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention by millions of patients on a daily basis. Previous studies suggested that aspirin intake at bedtime reduces blood pressure compared with intake on awakening. This has never been studied in patients with CVD. Moreover, platelet reactivity and CVD incidence is highest during morning hours. Bedtime aspirin intake may attenuate morning platelet reactivity. This clinical trial examined the effect of bedtime aspirin intake compared with intake on awakening on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement and morning platelet reactivity in patients using aspirin for CVD prevention. In this randomized open-label crossover trial, 290 patients were randomized to take 100 mg aspirin on awakening or at bedtime during 2 periods of 3 months. At the end of each period, 24-hour blood pressure and morning platelet reactivity were measured. The primary analysis population comprised 263 (blood pressure) and 133 (platelet reactivity) patients. Aspirin intake at bedtime did not reduce blood pressure compared with intake on awakening (difference systolic/diastolic: -0.1 [95% confidence interval, -1.0, 0.9]/-0.6 [95% confidence interval, -1.2, 0.0] mm?Hg). Platelet reactivity during morning hours was reduced with bedtime aspirin intake (difference: -22 aspirin reaction units [95% confidence interval, -35, -9]). The intake of low-dose aspirin at bedtime compared with intake on awakening did not reduce blood pressure of patients with CVD. However, bedtime aspirin reduced morning platelet reactivity. Future studies are needed to assess the effect of this promising simple intervention on the excess of cardiovascular events during the high risk morning hours. PMID:25691622
Operant Variability: Some Random Thoughts
Marr, M. Jackson
2012-01-01
Barba's (2012) paper is a serious and thoughtful analysis of a vexing problem in behavior analysis: Just what should count as an operant class and how do people know? The slippery issue of a "generalized operant" or functional response class illustrates one aspect of this problem, and "variation" or "novelty" as an operant appears to fall into…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coll-de-Tuero Gabriel
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is associated with an increased total mortality and cardiovascular morbimortality in the general population and in patients with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of kidney disease and different types of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Methods Cross-sectional study in a random sample of 2,642 T2DM patients cared for in primary care during 2007. Studied variables: demographic and clinical characteristics, pharmacological treatments and T2DM complications (diabetic foot, retinopathy, coronary heart disease and stroke. Variables of renal function were defined as follows: 1 Microalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 30 mg/g or 3.5 mg/mmol, 2 Macroalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 300 mg/g or 35 mg/mmol, 3 Kidney disease (KD: glomerular filtration rate according to Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 2 and/or the presence of albuminuria, 4 Renal impairment (RI: glomerular filtration rate 2, 5 Nonalbuminuric RI: glomerular filtration rate 2 without albuminuria and, 5 Diabetic nephropathy (DN: macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria plus diabetic retinopathy. Results The prevalence of different types of renal disease in patients was: 34.1% KD, 22.9% RI, 19.5% albuminuria and 16.4% diabetic nephropathy (DN. The prevalence of albuminuria without RI (13.5% and nonalbuminuric RI (14.7% was similar. After adjusting per age, BMI, cholesterol, blood pressure and macrovascular disease, RI was significantly associated with the female gender (OR 2.20; CI 95% 1.86–2.59, microvascular disease (OR 2.14; CI 95% 1.8–2.54 and insulin treatment (OR 1.82; CI 95% 1.39–2.38, and inversely associated with HbA1c (OR 0.85 for every 1% increase; CI 95% 0.80–0.91. Albuminuria without RI was inversely associated with the female gender (OR 0.27; CI 95% 0.21–0.35, duration of diabetes (OR 0.94 per year; CI 95% 0.91–0.97 and directly associated with HbA1c (OR 1.19 for every 1% increase; CI 95% 1.09–1.3. Conclusions One-third of the sample population in this study has KD. The presence or absence of albuminuria identifies two subgroups with different characteristics related to gender, the duration of diabetes and metabolic status of the patient. It is important to determine both albuminuria and GFR estimation to diagnose KD.
Hoering, Antje; Crowley, John; Shaughnessy, John D.; Hollmig, Klaus; Alsayed, Yazan; Szymonifka, Jackie; Waheed, Sarah; Nair, Bijay; Rhee, Frits; Anaissie, Elias; Barlogie, Bart
2009-01-01
Landmark analyses are used to investigate the importance for survival of achieving complete response (CR), an important initial goal of myeloma therapy. With median times to CR in Total Therapy (TT) trials of approximately 1 year, this approach excludes a sizeable fraction of patients dying before such a landmark. To permit inclusion of all trial participants, we investigated the prognostic implications of both onset and duration of CR as time-dependent variables. Superseding the adverse effe...
Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio F; de Souza, Eberton A; de Freitas, Victor H; de Moraes, Solange M F; Leicht, Anthony S; Nakamura, Fábio Y
2014-10-01
The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing regular preseason futsal training with weekly sessions of repeated sprints (RS) training would have positive effects on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and field test performance. Thirteen players from a professional futsal team (22.6 ± 6.7 years, 72.8 ± 8.7 kg, 173.2 ± 6.2 cm) were divided randomly into 2 groups (AddT: n = 6 and normal training group: n = 7). Both groups performed a RSA test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYo IR1), squat (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), body composition, and heart rate variability (HRV) measures at rest before and after 4 weeks of preseason training. Athletes weekly stress symptoms were recorded by psychometric responses using the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire and subjective ratings of well-being scale, respectively. The daily training load (arbitrary units) was assessed using the session of rating perceived exertion method. After the preseason training, there were no significant changes for body composition, SJ, CMJ, and RSAbest. The YoYo IR1, RSAmean, RSAworst, and RSAdecreament were significantly improved for both groups (p ? 0.05). The HRV parameters improved significantly within both groups (p ? 0.05) except for high frequency (HF, absolute and normalized units, [n.u.]), low frequency (LF) (n.u.), and the LF/HF ratio. A moderate effect size for the AddT group was observed for resting heart rate and several HRV measures. Training load and psychometric responses were similar between both groups. Additional RS training resulted in slightly greater positive changes for vagal-related HRV with similar improvements in performance and training stress during the preseason training in futsal players. PMID:24662230
Time dependence of the UV resonance lines in the cataclysmic variables SU UMa, RX And and 0623+71
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present IUE observations of the dwarf novae SU UMa and RX And, and of the nova-like variable 0623 + 71. At the time of observation, SU UMa and RX And were in outburst. All three systems show variability in the wind-formed UV resonance lines of N v ? 1240, Si IV ? 1397 and C IV ? 1549 on timescale of hours. The amplitude of variation is smallest in RX And and largest in 0623 + 71. There is evidence that the variations observed in SU UMa's UV spectrum repeat on the orbital period. Our observations of SU UMa also reveal variability in the continuum flux during the decline from outburst maximum that is much more marked in the UV than at optical wavelengths. (author)
A Markov Random Field Topic Space Model for Document Retrieval
Hand, Scott
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a novel statistical approach to intelligent document retrieval. It seeks to offer a more structured and extensible mathematical approach to the term generalization done in the popular Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) approach to document indexing. A Markov Random Field (MRF) is presented that captures relationships between terms and documents as probabilistic dependence assumptions between random variables. From there, it uses the MRF-Gibbs equivalence to d...
Brown, E Sherwood; Sunderajan, Prabha; Hu, Lisa T; Sowell, Sharon M; Carmody, Thomas J
2012-01-01
Bipolar disorder is associated with very high rates of substance dependence. Cocaine use is particularly common. However, limited data are available on the treatment of this population. A 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of lamotrigine was conducted in 120 outpatients with bipolar disorder, depressed or mixed mood state, and cocaine dependence. Other substance use was not exclusionary. Cocaine use was quantified weekly by urine drug screens and participant report using the timeline follow-back method. Mood was assessed with the Hamilton rating scale for depression, quick inventory of depressive symptomatology self-report, and young mania rating scale. Cocaine craving was assessed with the cocaine-craving questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a random regression analysis that used all available data from participants with at least one postbaseline assessment (n=112). Lamotrigine and placebo groups were similar demographically (age 45.1±7.3 vs 43.5±10.0 years, 41.8% vs 38.6% women). Urine drug screens (primary outcome measure) and mood symptoms were not significantly different between groups. However, dollars spent on cocaine showed a significant initial (baseline to week 1, p=0.01) and by-week (weeks 1–10, p=0.05) decrease in dollars spent on cocaine, favoring lamotrigine. Few positive trials of medications for cocaine use, other than stimulant replacement, have been reported, and none have been reported for bipolar disorder. Reduction in amount of cocaine use by self-report with lamotrigine suggests that a standard treatment for bipolar disorder may reduce cocaine use. A study limitation was weekly assessment of urine drug screens that decreased the ability to detect between-group differences. PMID:22669171
The Satisfiability Threshold of Random 3-SAT Is at Least 3.52
Hajiaghayi, M T; Hajiaghayi, MohammadTaghi; Sorkin, Gregory B.
2003-01-01
We prove that a random 3-SAT instance with clause-to-variable density less than 3.52 is satisfiable with high probability. The proof comes through an algorithm which selects (and sets) a variable depending on its degree and that of its complement.
Random Walks in Varying Dimensions
Benjamini, Itai; Pemantle, Robin; Peres, Yuval
2004-01-01
We establish recurrence criteria for sums of independent random variables which take values in Euclidean lattices of varying dimension. In particular, we describe transient inhomogenous random walks in the plane which interlace two symmetric step distributions of bounded support.
Steland, Ansgar
2012-01-01
To detect changes in the mean of a time series, one may use previsible detection procedures based on nonparametric kernel prediction smoothers which cover various classic detection statistics as special cases. Bandwidth selection, particularly in a data-adaptive way, is a serious issue and not well studied for detection problems. To ensure data adaptation, we select the bandwidth by cross-validation, but in a sequential way leading to a functional estimation approach. This article provides the asymptotic theory for the method under fairly weak assumptions on the dependence structure of the error terms, which cover, e.g., GARCH($p,q$) processes, by establishing (sequential) functional central limit theorems for the cross-validation objective function and the associated bandwidth selector. It turns out that the proof can be based in a neat way on \\cite{KurtzProtter1996}'s results on the weak convergence of \\ito integrals and a diagonal argument. Our gradual change-point model covers multiple change-points in th...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brissette Suzanne
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Patient satisfaction with treatment has been associated with improved addiction treatment outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies evaluating patients' satisfaction with Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST. In the present study, participants' satisfaction with OST was evaluated at 3 and 12 months. We sought to test the relationship between satisfaction and patients' characteristics, the treatment modality received and treatment outcomes. Methods Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI, conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone vs. injectable diacetylmorphine over 12 months. A small sub-group of patients received injectable hydromorphone on a double blind basis with diacetylmorphine. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8 was used to measure satisfaction with treatment. CSQ-8 scores, as well as retention and response to treatment, did not differ between those receiving hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine at 3 or 12 months assessments; therefore, these two groups were analyzed together as the 'injectable' treatment group. Results A total of 232 (92% and 237 (94% participants completed the CSQ-8 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Participants in both groups were highly satisfied with treatment. Independent of treatment group, participants satisfied with treatment at 3 months were more likely to be retained at 12 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that satisfaction was greater among those randomized to the injection group after controlling for treatment effectiveness. Participants who were retained, responded to treatment, and had fewer psychological symptoms were more satisfied with treatment. Finally, open-ended comments were made by 149 (60.3% participants; concerns about the randomization process and the study ending were most commonly reported by participants receiving the oral and injectable medications, respectively. Conclusions The higher satisfaction among those receiving medically prescribed injectable diacetylmorphine (or hydromorphone supports current evidence regarding the attractiveness of this treatment for long-term, opioid-dependent individuals not benefiting sufficiently from other treatments. In addition, the measurement of treatment satisfaction provides valuable information about participants at risk of relapse and in need of additional services. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00175357
Griffin, Leslie Little
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of selected cognitive abilities and physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers. The cognitive abilities under investigation were: formal reasoning ability as measured by the Lawson Classroom Test of Formal Reasoning (Lawson, 1978); working memory capacity as measured by the Figural Intersection Test (Burtis & Pascual-Leone, 1974); verbal intelligence as measured by the Acorn National Academic Aptitude Test: Verbal Intelligence (Kobal, Wrightstone, & Kunze, 1944); and field dependence/independence as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin, Oltman, & Raskin, 1971). The number of physical science misconceptions held by preservice elementary teachers was measured by the Misconceptions in Science Questionnaire (Franklin, 1992). The data utilized in this investigation were obtained from 36 preservice elementary teachers enrolled in two sections of a science methods course at a small regional university in the southeastern United States. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The following conclusions were reached following an analysis of the data. The variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence were identified as having significant relationships, both individually and in combination, to the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Though the correlations were not high enough to yield strong predictors of physical science misconceptions or strong relationships, they were of sufficient magnitude to warrant further investigation. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted replicating this study with a larger sample size. In addition, experimental research should be implemented to explore the relationships suggested in this study between the cognitive variables of formal reasoning ability and verbal intelligence and the dependent variable of selected physical science misconceptions. Further research should also focus on the detection of a broad range of science misconceptions among preservice elementary teachers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There are a wide variety of searching problems from molecules seeking receptor sites to predators seeking prey. The optimal search strategy can depend on constraints on time, energy, supplies or other variables. We discuss a number of cases and especially remark on the usefulness of Levy walk search patterns when the targets of the search are scarce.
Phase Transition in Unrestricted Random SAT
Schuh, Bernd R
2012-01-01
For random CNF formulae with m clauses, n variables and an unrestricted number of literals per clause the transition from high to low satisfiability can be determined exactly for large n. The critical density m/n turns out to be strongly n-dependent, ccr = ln(2)/(1-p)^^n, where pn is the mean number of positive literals per clause.This is in contrast to restricted random SAT problems (random K-SAT), where the critical ratio m/n is a constant. All transition lines are calculated by the second moment method applied to the number of solutions N of a formula. In contrast to random K-SAT, the method does not fail for the unrestricted model, because long range interactions between solutions are not cut off by disorder.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effects of variable viscosity on the flow and heat transfer in a thin film on a horizontal porous stretching sheet are analyzed. The steady boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy are simplified by using similarity transformations. The resulted and coupled nonlinear differential equations are solved by Homotopy analysis method. The results are presented graphically to interpret various physical parameters appearing in the problem. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Kissling, Grace E.; Dertinger, Stephen; Hayashi, Makoto; Macgregor, James T.
2007-01-01
Until recently, the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay has been scored using microscopy. Because the frequency of micronucleated cells is typically low, cell counts are subject to substantial binomial counting error. Counting error, along with inter-animal variability, limit the sensitivity of this assay. Recently, flow cytometric methods have been developed for scoring micronucleated erythrocytes and these methods enable many more cells to be evaluated than is possible with microscopic s...
Non-independent continuous time random walks
Montero, Miquel
2007-01-01
The usual development of the continuous time random walk (CTRW) assumes that jumps and time intervals are independent (and identically distributed) random variables. In this paper we address the theoretical setting of non-independent CTRW's where jumps and/or time intervals are correlated. An exact solution to the problem is obtained for the special but relevant case in which the correlation solely depends on the signs of consecutive jumps. Even in this simple case some interesting features arise such as transitions from unimodal to bimodal distributions due to correlation. We also develop the necessary analytical techniques and approximations to handle more general situations that can appear in practice.
Buenzli, Esther; Morley, Caroline V; Flateau, Davin; Showman, Adam P; Burrows, Adam; Marley, Mark S; Lewis, Nikole K; Reid, I Neill
2012-01-01
Heterogeneous clouds or temperature perturbations in rotating brown dwarfs produce variability in the observed flux. We report time-resolved simultaneous observations of the variable T6.5 brown dwarf 2MASSJ22282889-431026 over the wavelength ranges 1.1-1.7 microns and broadband 4.5 microns. Spectroscopic observations were taken with Wide Field Camera 3 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope and photometry with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The object shows sinusoidal infrared variability with a period of 1.4 hours at most wavelengths with peak-to-peak amplitudes between 1.45% and 5.3% of the mean flux. While the light curve shapes are similar at all wavelengths, their phases differ from wavelength to wavelength with a maximum difference of more than half of a rotational period. We compare the spectra with atmospheric models of different cloud prescriptions, from which we determine the pressure levels probed at different wavelengths. We find that the phase lag increases with decreasing pressure level, or higher alt...
Dimensions of random affine code tree fractals
Järvenpää, Esa; Järvenpää, Maarit; Käenmäki, Antti; Koivusalo, Henna; Stenflo, Örjan; Suomala, Ville
2012-01-01
We calculate the almost sure Hausdorff dimension for a general class of random affine planar code tree fractals. The set of probability measures describing the randomness includes natural measures in random $V$-variable and homogeneous Markov constructions.
Palacios, C; Abecia, J A
2015-05-01
A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures (Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR (P?five meteorological variables presented OR >1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled. PMID:25056126
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2014-01-01
We investigate various approximations to the correlation energy of a H2 molecule in the dissociation limit, where the ground state is poorly described by a single Slater determinant. The correlation energies are derived from the density response function and it is shown that response functions derived from Hedin's equations (Random Phase Approximation (RPA), Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF), Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE), and Time-Dependent GW) all reproduce the correct dissociation limit. We also show that the BSE improves the correlation energies obtained within RPA and TDHF significantly for intermediate binding distances. A Hubbard model for the dimer allows us to obtain exact analytical results for the various approximations, which is readily compared with the exact diagonalization of the model. Moreover, the model is shown to reproduce all the qualitative results from the ab initio calculations and confirms that BSE greatly improves the RPA and TDHF results despite the fact that the BSE excitation spectrum breaks down in the dissociation limit. In contrast, second order screened exchange gives a poor description of the dissociation limit, which can be attributed to the fact that it cannot be derived from an irreducible response function. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S
2014-04-28
We investigate various approximations to the correlation energy of a H2 molecule in the dissociation limit, where the ground state is poorly described by a single Slater determinant. The correlation energies are derived from the density response function and it is shown that response functions derived from Hedin's equations (Random Phase Approximation (RPA), Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF), Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE), and Time-Dependent GW) all reproduce the correct dissociation limit. We also show that the BSE improves the correlation energies obtained within RPA and TDHF significantly for intermediate binding distances. A Hubbard model for the dimer allows us to obtain exact analytical results for the various approximations, which is readily compared with the exact diagonalization of the model. Moreover, the model is shown to reproduce all the qualitative results from the ab initio calculations and confirms that BSE greatly improves the RPA and TDHF results despite the fact that the BSE excitation spectrum breaks down in the dissociation limit. In contrast, second order screened exchange gives a poor description of the dissociation limit, which can be attributed to the fact that it cannot be derived from an irreducible response function. PMID:24784262
Kyle Siegrist
This resource consists of a Java applet and descriptive text. The applet illustrates a random walk on a discrete time interval from 0 to n. The time n and the probability of a step to the right can be varied. The random variables of interest are the final position, the maximum position, and the time of the last zero.
Pato, M. P.
2015-04-01
A revision is made of the effect, in the statistical properties of the matrices of random matrix theory, of dividing them by a positive random variable. As the method preserves unitary invariance analitical derivations are easily performed. It is shown that the same procedure applied to the adjacency matrices of random graphs gives rise to a family of graphs that interpolates between the Erdos-Renyiand the scale-free model. Previous applications and new ones are discussed.
Xiong, Bo; Wang, Chunbin; Yao, Yuanqing; Huang, Yuwen; Tan, Jie; Cao, Yin; Zou, Yanke; Huang, Jing
2015-01-01
Background Conflicting renal effects of nesiritide have been reported in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. To answer this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the influence of nesiritide on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Methods Articles were obtained from PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library and reference review. Randomized controlled studies that investigated the effects of continuous infusion of nesiritide on renal function in adult patients with acute decompensated heart failure were included and analyzed. Fixed-effect model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and weight mean difference (WMD). The quality assessment of each study, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were performed. Results Fifteen randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. Most of included studies had relatively high quality and no publication bias was found. Overall, compared to control therapies, nesiritide might increase the risk of worsening renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15, P = 0.023). In subgroup analysis, high-dose nesiritide strongly associated with renal dysfunction (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.19-2.00, P = 0.001), but no statistical differences were observed in standard-dose (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98-1.12, P = 0.213), low-dose groups (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.74-1.37, P = 0.968) and same results were identified in the subgroup analysis of placebo controlled trials. Peak mean change of serum creatinine from baseline was no significant difference (WMD -2.54, 95% CI -5.76-0.67, P = 0.121). Conclusions In our meta-analysis, nesiritide may have a dose-dependent effect on renal function in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. High-dose nesiritide is likely to increase the risk of worsening renal function, but standard-dose and low-dose nesiritide probably have no impact on renal function. These findings could be helpful to optimize the use of nesiritide in clinical practice. PMID:26107522
Claudia SANI; Grilli, Leonardo
2011-01-01
The performance of a school system can be evaluated through the learning levels of the pupils, usually summarized by school mean scores. The variability of the mean scores among schools is rarely studied in detail, though it is a crucial issue especially in primary schools: in fact, a high variability among schools raises doubts on the capacity of the system to guarantee equal educational opportunities. To investigate the patterns of variability in Italy, we analyse data from INVALSI, the Ita...
A Composite Likelihood Inference in Latent Variable Models for Ordinal Longitudinal Responses
Vasdekis, Vassilis G. S.; Cagnone, Silvia; Moustaki, Irini
2012-01-01
The paper proposes a composite likelihood estimation approach that uses bivariate instead of multivariate marginal probabilities for ordinal longitudinal responses using a latent variable model. The model considers time-dependent latent variables and item-specific random effects to be accountable for the interdependencies of the multivariate…
Do?mo?tor, Rudolf; Franke, Nikolaus; Hienerth, Christoph
2007-01-01
The quest for the "success factors" that drive a company's innovation performance has attracted a great deal of attention among both practitioners and academics. The underlying assumption is that certain critical activities impact the innovation performance of the company or the project. However, the findings of success factor studies lack convergence. It has been speculated that this may be due to the fact that extant studies have used many different measures of the dependent ...
Two-step Dirichlet random walks
Le Caër, Gérard
2015-07-01
Random walks of n steps taken into independent uniformly random directions in a d-dimensional Euclidean space (d ? 2) , which are characterized by a sum of step lengths which is fixed and taken to be 1 without loss of generality, are named "Dirichlet" when this constraint is realized via a Dirichlet law of step lengths. The latter continuous multivariate distribution, which depends on n positive parameters, generalizes the beta distribution (n = 2) . It is simply obtained from n independent gamma random variables with identical scale factors. Previous literature studies of these random walks dealt with symmetric Dirichlet distributions whose parameters are all equal to a value q which takes half-integer or integer values. In the present work, the probability density function of the distance from the endpoint to the origin is first made explicit for a symmetric Dirichlet random walk of two steps. It is valid for any positive value of q and for all d ? 2. The latter pdf is used in turn to express the related density of a random walk of two steps whose step length is distributed according to an asymmetric beta distribution which depends on two parameters, namely q and q + s where s is a positive integer.
Self-Intersection Times for Random Walk, and Random Walk in Random Scenery in dimensions d>4
Asselah, Amine; Castell, Fabienne
2005-01-01
We consider Random Walk in Random Scenery, denoted $X_n$, where the random walk is symmetric on $Z^d$, with $d>4$, and the random field is made up of i.i.d random variables with a stretched exponential tail decay, with exponent $\\alpha$ with $1n^{\\beta}\\}$ for $1/2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Al Mutairi Alya
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The random-sum Poisson-Weibull variable is the sum of a random sample from a Weibull distribution with a sample size that is an independent Poisson random variable. It has a wide range of applications. This random sum is complex and difficult to analyze. Saddlepoint approximations are powerful tools for obtaining accurate expressions for closed-form distribution functions for these complex distributions. The use of saddlepoint approximations almost outperforms other methods with respect to computational costs, though not necessarily with respect to accuracy. This study introduces saddlepoint approximations to the cumulative distribution function for the Poisson-Weibull model, from which we can obtain some important statistical measures of the central tendency of a cumulative distribution. We discuss approximations of a random-sum variable using dependent components, assuming the existence of a moment-generating function. Numerical examples of Poisson-Weibull random sums are presented.
Sani, Claudia; Grilli, Leonardo
2011-01-01
The performance of a school system can be evaluated through the learning levels of the pupils, usually summarized by school mean scores. The variability of the mean scores among schools is rarely studied in detail, though it is a crucial issue especially in primary schools: in fact, a high variability among schools raises doubts on the capacity of…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new time-dependent neutron transport method based on the method of characteristics (MOC) has been developed. Whereas most spatial kinetics methods treat time dependence through temporal discretization, this new method treats time dependence by defining the characteristics to span space and time. In this implementation regions are defined in space-time where the thickness of the region in time fulfills an analogous role to the time step in discretized methods. The time dependence of the local source is approximated using a truncated Taylor series expansion with high order derivatives approximated using backward differences, permitting the solution of the resulting space-time characteristic equation. To avoid a drastic increase in computational expense and memory requirements due to solving many discrete characteristics in the space-time planes, the temporal variation of the boundary source is similarly approximated. This allows the characteristics in the space-time plane to be represented analytically rather than discretely, resulting in an algorithm comparable in implementation and expense to one that arises from conventional time integration techniques. Furthermore, by defining the boundary flux time derivative in terms of the preceding local source time derivative and boundary flux time derivative, the need to store angularly-dependent data is avoided without approximating the angular dependence of the angular flux time derivative. The accuracy of this method is assessed through implementation in the neutron transport code DeCART. The method is employed with variable-order local source representation to model a TWIGL transient. The results demonstrate that this method is accurate and more efficient than the discretized method. (authors)
Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.
2015-05-01
A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR <1 (SR on AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.
Ray, S.; Viesca, R. C.
2014-12-01
Following laboratory rock friction experiments, fault strength under sub-seismic slip speeds is thought to depend on a slip rate- and state-dependent friction. Laboratory-measured temperature dependence of the frictional properties and their implied variation with depth form the basis for current models of the seismic cycle. However, scant attention has been paid to the role such heterogeneity has on determining the location and manner in which an earthquake nucleating slip instability develops. Recent work demonstrates that a slip instability on a fault with rate-and-state friction (in which state evolution follows the aging law) occurs as the attraction of a dynamical system towards a fixed point (Viesca, this meeting). Based on this development, we find that the location of that fixed point may be determined if a heterogeneous distribution of the relative rate-weakening parameter a/b is known. (Rate-weakening occurs for 01). That this arises can be deduced considering that (i) the problem that determines the fixed points is equivalent to finding the equilibrium solution for a linearly slip-weakening crack, and (ii) heterogeneities in the parameter a/b have analogy in the equivalent problem to heterogeneities in the background stress. Physically, instability develops where rate-weakening is strongest. We examined the influence such a heterogeneity has on the fixed point attractor (and hence on the instability development) by considering the scenario of a rate-weakening patch embedded within a rate-strengthening region with in-plane or anti-plane slip conditions. Specifically, we solve for fixed points under a rate-weakening heterogeneity within |x|1) outside. Additionally, a linear stability analysis reveals the effect of heterogeneity on the stability of the fixed points of the dynamical system. The heterogeneity parameters (a/b)m and H enter as bifurcation parameters indicating a transition in the classification of the fixed point from asymptotically stable to unstable at critical values of (a/b)m and H. The results are further verified by full numerical simulation of the system of slip acceleration and state evolution under this heterogeneity.
Empirical and sequential empirical copula processes under serial dependence
Bücher, Axel
2011-01-01
The empirical copula process plays a central role for statistical inference on copulas. Recently, Segers (2011) investigated the asymptotic behavior of this process under non-restrictive smoothness assumptions for the case of i.i.d. random variables. In the present paper we extend his main result to the case of serial dependent random variables by means of the powerful and elegant functional delta method. Moreover, we utilize the functional delta method in order to obtain conditional consistency of certain bootstrap procedures. Finally, we extend the results to the more general sequential empirical copula process under serial dependence.
Sapir-Pichhadze, Ruth; Wang, Yao; Famure, Olusegun; Li, Yanhong; Kim, S Joseph
2014-06-01
Wide variations in tacrolimus levels have been identified as a risk factor for inferior kidney allograft survival but past studies have not properly accounted for the dynamic nature of drug exposure over time. Here we evaluated whether time-varying exposure to tacrolimus increases the risk of long-term adverse outcomes in a retrospective cohort study in adult kidney transplant recipients on tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between the standard deviation of tacrolimus levels (TacSD) starting at 1-year post-transplant and the composite end point of late allograft rejection, transplant glomerulopathy, or total graft loss (including death). Among 356 patients, there was a significant 27% increase in the adjusted hazard of the composite end point for every 1-unit increase in TacSD (hazard ratio 1.27 (95% confidence interval 1.03, 1.56)). There was also a graded increase in the relative hazard for the composite end point by TacSD threshold (hazard ratios 1.33, 1.50, 1.84, and 2.56 for TacSD 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3, respectively). The results were similar for total graft loss and the composite end point excluding death. Thus, increased time-dependent TacSD may be an independent risk factor for adverse kidney transplant outcomes. TacSD may serve as a monitoring tool to identify high-risk patients. Whether interventions to decrease TacSD will improve outcomes requires further study. PMID:24336032
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oosterhoff, Peter; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard
2010-01-01
High-rate pacing may have an inhibitory effect on the initiation of Torsade de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP). However, permanent pacing is only indicated in high-risk patients. We performed a proof of concept study into automatic overdrive pacing for prevention of drug-induced TdP, using short-term variability of repolarization (STV) as a feedback parameter of arrhythmic risk. Methods and Results: The minimal signal sampling frequency required for measuring STV was determined through computer simulation. Arrhythmogenic response to dofetilide (25 µg/kg/5minutes) was tested at two different paced heart rates (60–65 bpm vs 100–110 bpm) in 7 dogs with chronic atrioventricular block, while recording right and left ventricular (LV) monophasic action potential (MAP) and LV electrogram (EGM). Simulations showed a sampling frequency of 500 Hz is sufficient to capture relevant STV values. High-rate pacing prevented dofetilide-induced TdP seen at the low rate (low: 6/7 vs high: 1/7). At the low rate, STV from LV MAP duration increased before occurrence of spontaneous, ectopic activity and TdP (1.7 ± 0.6–3.0 ± 1.8 ms, P < 0.05), but at the high-rate STV did not change significantly (0.9 ± 0.2–1.5 ± 1.4 ms, NS). Regression analysis showed a close relation between STV calculated from LV MAP and from LV EGM (R2= 0.71). Conclusions: High-rate pacing increases repolarization reserve in dogs with chronic atrioventricular block, preventing dofetilide-induced TdP. Changes in repolarization reserve are reflected in values of STV.
Random solutions of random problems...are not just random
Achlioptas, Dimitris
2008-01-01
Let I(n,m) denote a uniformly random instance of some constraint satisfaction problem CSP with n variables and m constraints. Assume that the density r=m/n is small enough so that with high probability I(n,m) has a solution, and consider the experiment of first choosing an instance I=I(n,m) at random, and then sampling a random solution sigma of I (if one exists). For many CSPs (e.g., k-SAT, k-NAE, or k-coloring), this experiment appears difficult both to implement and to analyze; in fact, for a large range of r, no efficient algorithm is known to even compute a single solution of I. In the present paper we show that for many CSPs the above experiment is essentially equivalent to first choosing a random assignment sigma to the n variables, and then drawing a random instance satisfied by sigma uniformly. In general, this second experiment is very easy to implement and amenable to a rigorous analysis. In fact, using this equivalence, we can analyze the solution space of random CSPs. Thus, we can achieve the lon...
Edgington, Eugene
2007-01-01
Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani
Mihailovic, Nenad
2007-01-01
We consider algorithmic randomness in the Cantor space C of the infinite binary sequences. By an algorithmic randomness concept one specifies a set of elements of C, each of which is assigned the property of being random. Miscellaneous notions from computability theory are used in the definitions of randomness concepts that are essentially rooted in the following three intuitive randomness requirements: the initial segments of a random sequence should be effectively incompressible, no random ...
A Stochastic Collocation Method for Elliptic Partial Differential Equations with Random Input Data
Babuška, Ivo
2010-01-01
This work proposes and analyzes a stochastic collocation method for solving elliptic partial differential equations with random coefficients and forcing terms. These input data are assumed to depend on a finite number of random variables. The method consists of a Galerkin approximation in space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space, and naturally leads to the solution of uncoupled deterministic problems as in the Monte Carlo approach. It treats easily a wide range of situations, such as input data that depend nonlinearly on the random variables, diffusivity coefficients with unbounded second moments, and random variables that are correlated or even unbounded. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate exponential convergence of the “probability error” with respect to the number of Gauss points in each direction of the probability space, under some regularity assumptions on the random input data. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the method. Finally, we include a section with developments posterior to the original publication of this work. There we review sparse grid stochastic collocation methods, which are effective collocation strategies for problems that depend on a moderately large number of random variables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Girón Sandra
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. Methods and design 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. Control group: usual prenatal care (PC and placebo (maltodextrine. 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg, selenium (70 ?g, vitamin A (400 ?g, alphatocopherol (30 mg, vitamin C (200 mg, and niacin (100 mg. 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Discussion Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. Trial registration NCT00872365.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Bhunia
2011-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a single item deterministic inventory model with two separate warehouses called owned warehouse/show-room (OW and rented warehouse (RW is developed. The proposed model of this paper also considers a realistic assumption regarding the storage capacity of the rented warehouse. Demand is a function of selling price, advertisement of an item and displayed inventory level in OW. The stocks of RW are shipped to OW under bulk release pattern where shortages are not allowed. We discuss different scenarios of the proposed model to address relative size of stock dependency parameters and the capacity of owned warehouse. For each scenario, the corresponding problem is formulated as a constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming problem with three integer and two non-integer variables and a real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA is developed to solve the resulted problem. The proposed model of the paper is also examined using some numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed.
Osborn, B.; Chapple, W.; Ewers, B. E.; Williams, D. G.
2014-12-01
The interaction between soil conditions and climate variability plays a central role in the ecohydrological functions of montane conifer forests. Although soil moisture availability to trees is largely dependent on climate, the depth and texture of soil exerts a key secondary influence. Multiple Pleistocene glacial events have shaped the landscape of the central Rocky Mountains creating a patchwork of soils differing in age and textural classification. This mosaic of soil conditions impacts hydrological properties, and montane conifer forests potentially respond to climate variability quite differently depending on the age of glacial till and soil development. We hypothesized that the age of glacial till and associated soil textural changes exert strong control on growth and photosynthetic gas exchange of lodgepole pine. We examined physiological and growth responses of lodgepole pine to interannual variation in maximum annual snow water equivalence (SWEmax) of montane snowpack and growing season air temperature (Tair) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across a chronosequence of Pleistocene glacial tills ranging in age from 700k to 12k years. Soil textural differences across the glacial tills illustrate the varying degrees of weathering with the most well developed soils with highest clay content on the oldest till surfaces. We show that sensitivity of growth and carbon isotope discrimination, an integrated measure of canopy gas exchange properties, to interannual variation SWEmax , Tair and VPD is greatest on young till surfaces, whereas trees on old glacial tills with well-developed soils are mostly insensitive to these interannual climate fluctuations. Tree-ring widths were most sensitive to changes in SWEmax on young glacial tills (p < 0.01), and less sensitive on the oldest till (p < 0.05). Tair correlates strongly with ?13C values on the oldest and youngest tills sites, but shows no significant relationship on the middle aged glacial till. It is clear that growth and photosynthetic gas exchange parameters are sensitive to glacial till surfaces, which is evident by the different responses to SWEmax and Tair across sites.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Elibet, Chávez; Emilio F, González; María del Carmen, Llanes; Merlin, Garí Llanes; Yosvany, Garc.
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Resumen Introducción: La relación entre la disfunción diastólica y la dispersión de la onda P (PWD) en el electrocardiograma se ha estudiado durante algún tiempo. En este sentido, la ecocardiografía se está convirtiendo en una herramienta de diagnóstico para mejorar la estratificación de riesgo en l [...] a hipertensión leve. Objetivo: Determinar la dependencia de las PWD en el electrocardiograma de las variables ecocardiográficas en una población pediátrica. Métodos: De un total de 565 niños de tres escuelas primarias, fueron estudiados 515 niños. Fueron excluidos del estudio, aquellos niños cuyos padres se negaron a participar, y los niños con enfermedades congénitas conocidas. Se les realizó electrocardiograma de superficie de 12 derivaciones y se realizaron 4 tomas de presión arterial. Fueron medidas las ondas P del electrocardiograma y calculada su dispersión. Se realizó ecocardiografía para medidas estructurales y Doppler pulsado del flujo mitral. Resultados Se demuestra correlación significativa entre la PWD y la tensión arterial media para prehipertensos e hipertensos r= 0.32, p Abstract in english Abstract Introduction: The relationship between diastolic dysfunction and P-wave dispersion (PWD) in the electrocardiogram has been studied for some time. In this regard, echocardiography is emerging as a diagnostic tool to improve risk stratification for mild hypertension. Objective: To determine t [...] he dependence of PWD on the electrocardiogram and on echocardiographic variables in a pediatric population. Methods: Five hundred and fifteen children from three elementary schools were studiedfrom a total of 565 children. Those whose parents did not want them to take part in the study, as well as those with known congenital diseases, were excluded. Tests including 12-lead surface ECGs and 4 blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed. Maximum and minimum P-values were measured, and the PWD on the electrocardiogram was calculated. Echocardiography for structural measurements and the pulsed Doppler of mitral flow were also performed. Results: A significant correlation in statistical variables was found between PWD and mean BP for pre-hypertensive and hypertensive children, i.e., r= 0.32, p
Bialuk, Izabela; Whitney, Stephen; Andresen, Vibeke; Florese, Ruth H.; Nacsa, Janos; Cecchinato, Valentina; Valeri, Valerio W.; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Gordon, Shari; Parks, Robyn Washington; Montefiori, David C.; Venzon, David; Demberg, Thorsten; Guroff, Marjorie Robert; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N.; Franchini, Genoveffa
2011-01-01
The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV89.6P replication in rhesus macaques. The vaccinated animal that had the highest titers of antibodies to the amino terminus portion of V1, prior to challenge, had secondary antibody responses that mediated cell killing by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as early as two weeks after infection and inhibited viral replication by antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), by four weeks after infection. There was a significant inverse correlation between virus level and binding antibody titers to the envelope protein, (R = -0.83, p 0.015), and ADCVI (R = -0.84 p=0.044). Genotyping of plasma virus demonstrated in vivo selection of three SHIV89.6P variants with changes in potential N-linked glycosylation sites in V1. We found a significant inverse correlation between virus levels and titers of antibodies that mediated ADCVI against all the identified V1 virus variants. A significant inverse correlation was also found between neutralizing antibody titers to SHIV89.6 and virus levels (R = -0.72 p =0.0050). However, passive inoculation of purified immunoglobulin from animal M316, the macaque that best controlled virus, to a naïve macaque, resulted in a low serum neutralizing antibodies and low ADCVI activity that failed to protect from SHIV89.6P challenge. Collectively, while our data suggest that anti-envelope antibodies with neutralizing and non-neutralizing Fc?R-dependent activities may be important in the control of SHIV replication, they also demonstrate that low levels of these antibodies alone are not sufficient to protect from infection. PMID:22037204
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM]) at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 ± 68.7 HU versus 295 ± 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantificatnced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Luanda A. C., Grecco; Natália A. C., Duarte; Nelci, Zanon; Manuela, Galli; Felipe, Fregni; Claudia S., Oliveira.
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Background: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been widely studied with the aim of enhancing local synaptic efficacy and modulating the electrical activity of the cortex in patients with neurological disorders. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the ef [...] fect of a single session of tDCS regarding immediate changes in spatiotemporal gait and oscillations of the center of pressure (30 seconds) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A randomized controlled trial with a blinded evaluator was conducted involving 20 children with CP between six and ten years of age. Gait and balance were evaluated three times: Evaluation 1 (before the stimulation), Evaluation 2 (immediately after stimulation), and Evaluation 3 (20 minutes after the stimulation). The protocol consisted of a 20-minute session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: experimental group - anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex; and control group - placebo transcranial stimulation. Results: Significant reductions were found in the experimental group regarding oscillations during standing in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and eyes closed in comparison with the control group (p
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosemann Thomas
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moeller, Niels C; Korsholm, Lars
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: Potentially, unit-specific in-vitro calibration of accelerometers could increase field data quality and study power. However, reduced inter-unit variability would only be important if random instrument variability contributes considerably to the total variation in field data. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to calculate and apply unit-specific calibration factors in multiple accelerometers in order to examine the impact on random output variation caused by inter-instrument variability. METHODS: Instrument-specific calibration factors were estimated in 25 MTI- and 53 CSA accelerometers in a mechanical setup using four different settings varying in frequencies and/or amplitudes. Calibration effect was analysed by comparing raw and calibrated data after applying unit-specific calibration factors to data obtained during quality checks in a mechanical setup and to data collected during free living conditions. RESULTS: Calibration reduced inter-instrument variability considerably in the mechanical setup, both in the MTI instruments (raw SDbetween units = 195 counts*min-1 vs. calibrated SDbetween units = 65 counts*min-1) and in the CSA instruments (raw SDbetween units = 343 counts*min-1 vs. calibrated SDbetween units = 67 counts*min-1). However, the effect of applying the derived calibration to children's and adolescents' free living physical activity data did not alter the coefficient of variation (CV) (children: CVraw = 30.2% vs. CVcalibrated = 30.4%, adolescents: CVraw = 36.3% vs. CVcalibrated = 35.7%). High correlations (r = 0.99 & r = 0.98, respectively) were observed between raw and calibrated field data, and the proportion of the total variation caused by the MTI- and CSA monitor was estimated to be only 1.1% and 4.2%, respectively. Compared to the CSA instruments, a significantly increased (9.95%) mean acceleration response was observed post hoc in the batch of MTI instruments, in which a significantly reduced inter-instrumental reliability was observed over time. CONCLUSION: The application of unit-specific calibration factors to data collected during free living conditions had no apparent effect on inter-instrument variability. In all probability, the effect of technical calibration was primarily attenuated in the field by other more dominant sources of variation. However, routine technical assessments are still very important for determining the acceleration responses in the batch of instruments being used and, if performed after every field use, for preventing decidedly broken instruments from being returned into the field repeatedly.
Randomization procedures in orthopaedic trials.
Randelli, Pietro; Arrigoni, Paolo; Lubowitz, James H; Cabitza, Paolo; Denti, Matteo
2008-07-01
Historically, the surgical literature has lacked in reports of randomized clinical trials. This deficit is now being addressed, but the best methods are not always followed. One opportunity for improvement is in the area of randomization. Randomization is of central importance in clinical trials because it reduces bias and represents a basis for ensuring the validity of data analysis using statistical testing. Randomization requires a table of random numbers. Simple randomization is adequate for large trials. Block randomization is a method of balancing equal numbers of patients in each treatment group. Stratification allows balanced distribution of one or more confounding prognostic variables among treatment groups to ensure that groups have similar prognoses (minimizing selection bias). Block randomization and stratification improve validity in trials with fewer patients. Commercially available computer software facilitates randomization. PMID:18589273
Randomized benchmarking with confidence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randomized benchmarking is a promising tool for characterizing the noise in experimental implementations of quantum systems. In this paper, we prove that the estimates produced by randomized benchmarking (both standard and interleaved) for arbitrary Markovian noise sources are remarkably precise by showing that the variance due to sampling random gate sequences is small. We discuss how to choose experimental parameters, in particular the number and lengths of random sequences, in order to characterize average gate errors with rigorous confidence bounds. We also show that randomized benchmarking can be used to reliably characterize time-dependent Markovian noise (e.g., when noise is due to a magnetic field with fluctuating strength). Moreover, we identify a necessary property for time-dependent noise that is violated by some sources of non-Markovian noise, which provides a test for non-Markovianity. (paper)
Wrigge, Hermann; Zinserling, Jörg; Neumann, Peter; Muders, Thomas; Magnusson, Anders; Putensen, Christian; Hedenstierna, Göran
2005-01-01
Introduction: Experimental and clinical studies have shown a reduction in intrapulmonary shunt with spontaneous breathing during airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in acute lung injury. This reduction was related to reduced atelectasis and increased aeration. We hypothesized that spontaneous breathing will result in better ventilation and aeration of dependent lung areas and in less cyclic collapse during the tidal breath.Methods: In this randomized controlled experimental trial, 22 p...
Non-Markovianity in Randomized Benchmarking
Ball, Harrison; Stace, Tom M.; Biercuk, Michael J.
2015-03-01
Randomized benchmarking is routinely employed to recover information about the fidelity of a quantum operation by exploiting probabilistic twirling errors over an implementation of the Clifford group. Standard assumptions of Markovianity in the underlying noise environment, however, remain at odds with realistic, correlated noise encountered in real systems. We model single-qubit randomized benchmarking experiments as a sequence of ideal Clifford operations interleaved with stochastic dephasing errors, implemented as unitary rotations about ?z. Successive error rotations map to a sequence of random variables whose correlations introduce non-Markovian effects emulating realistic colored-noise environments. The Markovian limit is recovered by turning off all correlations, reducing each error to an independent Gaussian-distributed random variable. We examine the dependence of the statistical distribution of fidelity outcomes on these noise correlations, deriving analytic expressions for probability density functions and related statistics for relevant fidelity metrics. This enables us to characterize and bear out the distinction between the Markovian and non-Markovian cases, with implications for interpretation and handling of experimental data.
A Berry-Esseen bound with applications to counts in the Erd\\"os-R\\'enyi random graph
Goldstein, Larry
2010-01-01
Size bias couplings of a nonnegative random variable $Y$ with positive finite mean $\\mu$, to a random variable $Y^s$ having the $Y$-size biased distribution, that is, to a random variable that satisfies
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Hooi, Paul
2013-01-01
To determine how the variability in biaxial flexure strength of a soda-lime glass analogue for a PLV and DBC material was influenced by precementation operative variables and following resin-cement coating.
Behaviors Predicting Foot Lesions in Patients with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Suico, Jeffrey G.; Marriott, Deanna J.; Vinicor, Frank; Litzelman, Debra K.
1998-01-01
Associations between specific foot-care behaviors and foot lesions in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were prospectively investigated. Data from a randomized controlled trial for preventing diabetic foot lesions were analyzed as a prospective cohort using logistic regression. Independent variables included foot-care behaviors, patient self-foot examination, going barefoot, availability of foot-care assistance, and visits to health-care providers. The dependent variable w...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliana Petrini
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de multicolinearidade e identificar as variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes. Foram utilizados dados de peso ao nascimento (n=141.567, peso ao ano (n=58.124 e perímetro escrotal (n=20.371 de bovinos de corte compostos Montana Tropical. O diagnóstico de multicolinearidade foi baseado no fator de inflação de variância (VIF e no exame dos índices de condição e dos autovalores da matriz de correlações entre as variáveis explanatórias. O primeiro modelo estudado (RM incluiu o efeito fixo de classe de idade da mãe ao parto e as covariáveis associadas aos efeitos aditivos e não aditivos diretos e maternos. O segundo modelo (R incluiu todos os efeitos do RM, exceto os efeitos aditivos maternos. Detectou-se multicolinearidade em ambos os modelos para todas as características consideradas, com valores de VIF de 1,03 - 70,20, para RM, e de 1,03 - 60,70, para R. As colinearidades aumentaram com o aumento de variáveis no modelo e com a redução no volume de observações, e foram classificadas como fracas, com valores de índice de condição entre 10,00 e 26,77. Em geral, as variáveis associadas aos efeitos aditivos e não aditivos estiveram envolvidas em multicolinearidade, parcialmente em razão da ligação natural entre essas covariáveis como frações dos tipos biológicos na composição racial.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Juliana, Petrini; Raphael Antonio Prado, Dias; Simone Fernanda Nedel, Pertile; Joanir Pereira, Eler; José Bento Sterman, Ferraz; Gerson Barreto, Mourão.
1743-17-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de multicolinearidade e identificar as variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes. Foram utilizados dados de peso ao nascimento (n=141.567), peso ao ano (n=58.124) e perímetro escrotal (n=20.371) de bovinos de corte compostos [...] Montana Tropical. O diagnóstico de multicolinearidade foi baseado no fator de inflação de variância (VIF) e no exame dos índices de condição e dos autovalores da matriz de correlações entre as variáveis explanatórias. O primeiro modelo estudado (RM) incluiu o efeito fixo de classe de idade da mãe ao parto e as covariáveis associadas aos efeitos aditivos e não aditivos diretos e maternos. O segundo modelo (R) incluiu todos os efeitos do RM, exceto os efeitos aditivos maternos. Detectou-se multicolinearidade em ambos os modelos para todas as características consideradas, com valores de VIF de 1,03 - 70,20, para RM, e de 1,03 - 60,70, para R. As colinearidades aumentaram com o aumento de variáveis no modelo e com a redução no volume de observações, e foram classificadas como fracas, com valores de índice de condição entre 10,00 e 26,77. Em geral, as variáveis associadas aos efeitos aditivos e não aditivos estiveram envolvidas em multicolinearidade, parcialmente em razão da ligação natural entre essas covariáveis como frações dos tipos biológicos na composição racial. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567), yearling weight (n=58,124), and scrotal circumference (n=20,371) of Montana Tropical composite [...] cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF) and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM) included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R) included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.
Limit theorems for associated random fields and related systems
Bulinski, Alexander
2007-01-01
This volume is devoted to the study of asymptotic properties of wide classes of stochastic systems arising in mathematical statistics, percolation theory, statistical physics and reliability theory. Attention is paid not only to positive and negative associations introduced in the pioneering papers by Harris, Lehmann, Esary, Proschan, Walkup, Fortuin, Kasteleyn and Ginibre, but also to new and more general dependence conditions. Naturally, this scope comprises families of independent real-valued random variables. A variety of important results and examples of Markov processes, random measures,
Positioning empty containers under dependent demand process
Dang, Quang-vinh; Yun, Won-young; Kopfer, Herbert
2011-01-01
Owing to trade imbalance, shipping companies position empty containers between ports or depots periodically. The most difficult problem for positioning is that it is not possible to know the exact amounts of empty containers required in the future. The paper deals with the problem of positioning empty containers in a port area with multiple depots. Customer demands and returning containers in depots per unit time period are assumed to be serially-correlated and dependent random variables. Thr...
Equivalent random propagation time for coaxial cables
Lacaze, Bernard
2012-01-01
Propagation of monochromatic electromagnetic waves in free space results in a widening of the spectral line. On the contrary, propagation preserves monochromaticity in the case of acoustic waves. In this case, the propagation can be modelled by a linear invariant filter leading to attenuations and phases changes. Due to the Beer-Lambert law, the associated transfer function is an exponential of power functions with frequency-dependent parameters. In recent papers, we have proved that the acoustic propagation time can be modelled as a random variable following a stable probability distribution. In this paper, we show that the same model can be applied to the propagation in coaxial cables.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers were utilized to detect polymorphism between pure lines and commercially available Basmati rice varieties to assess variation which may be helpful in quality control and varietal identification (Basmati-370 and derived radiation induced mutants), differentiation of mutants and parents, and identification of RAPD markers co-segregating with important agronomic traits including plant height, days to flower and grain quality. Basmati varieties were distinguished from non-Basmati varieties with the help of five diagnostic markers which will be useful for detecting mixing of non-Basmati and Basmati rices, currently a serious marketing problem. Different Basmati cultivars were identified with the help of diagnostic RAPD markers which can be used in quality control as well as for ''fingerprinting'' of cultivars. Different radiation induced mutants were also successfully distinguished from the parents on the basis of variety specific and mutant specific markers which will be useful for varietal identification. In addition to this, other markers were also identified which can differentiate mutants from each other and are being, used for the fingerprinting of different mutants, particularly the dwarf mutants having similar appearance but different parentage. For identification of RAPD markers co-segregating with plant height and days to flower, 50 F2 plants and four F3 families were studied from a reciprocal cross made between Kashmir Basmati (tall and early) and Basmati-198 (dwarf and late). Segregating bands were observed within these populations, and indicating the possible use of RAPD markers for tagging gene(s) of agronomic importance in rice. (author)
Distortion risk measures for sums of dependent losses
Brahimi, Brahim; Necir, Abdelhakim
2011-01-01
We discuss two distinct approaches, for distorting risk measures of sums of dependent random variables, which preserve the property of coherence. The first, based on distorted expectations, operates on the survival function of the sum. The second, simultaneously applies the distortion on the survival function of the sum and the dependence structure of risks, represented by copulas. Our goal is to propose risk measures that take into account the fluctuations of losses and possible correlations between risk components.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The twinning activity in random textured cast magnesium during monotonic, room temperature tension and compression tests was monitored by acoustic emission (AE) and neutron diffraction (ND). The AE detected higher twin nucleation activity in tension than in compression. The correlation of AE with the ND data indicates that in compression the nucleation of twins is followed by rapid growth, unlike in tension in which twin variants with limited growth were observed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Mendoza
2012-01-01
Full Text Available En la práctica normal de ingeniería de cimentaciones se calcula la capacidad de carga de un micropilote sin tener en cuenta que el proceso constructivo puede afectar la geometría del problema. En este trabajo se cuantifica la influencia tanto del proceso constructivo como de la variabilidad inherente de las propiedades del suelo en la capacidad de carga de un micropilote autoperforante e inyectado, a través de simulaciones de la excavación con elementos finitos aleatorios. Se obtiene que al no tener en cuenta el método constructivo del micropilote y la variabilidad de las propiedades del suelo, se sobreestima en un factor entre dos y tres la capacidad de carga por fuste. Por lo tanto, se presenta una explicación racional al factor de seguridad que se debe aplicar para obtener la capacidad de carga de diseño. Finalmente, se presenta un procedimiento para generar cartas de diseño de micropilotes autoperforantes materializado en uno que resalta la importancia de considerar la variabilidad inherente de las propiedades del suelo y el método constructivo.IIn the normal practice of foundation engineering the bearing capacity of micropiles is calculated without taking into account that the construction processes may affect the problem geometry. This work quantifies the influence of both, construction processes and the inherent variability of soil properties in the bearing capacity of a selfbored and gravitationally grouted micropile by means of simulations with random finite element method. When the construction process and the inherent variability are not taken into account, the shaft bearing capacity is overestimated in a factor between two and three. Therefore, a rational explanation of the safety factor is presented in order to calculate the design capacity load. Lastly, a procedure to generating design charts for selfbored and grouted micropiles is presented and its application shows the importance of considerate the inherent variability of the soil properties and the construction process.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Christian, Mendoza; Alfonso M, Ramos; Renato, Cunha; Arcesio, Lizcano.
Full Text Available En la práctica normal de ingeniería de cimentaciones se calcula la capacidad de carga de un micropilote sin tener en cuenta que el proceso constructivo puede afectar la geometría del problema. En este trabajo se cuantifica la influencia tanto del proceso constructivo como de la variabilidad inherent [...] e de las propiedades del suelo en la capacidad de carga de un micropilote autoperforante e inyectado, a través de simulaciones de la excavación con elementos finitos aleatorios. Se obtiene que al no tener en cuenta el método constructivo del micropilote y la variabilidad de las propiedades del suelo, se sobreestima en un factor entre dos y tres la capacidad de carga por fuste. Por lo tanto, se presenta una explicación racional al factor de seguridad que se debe aplicar para obtener la capacidad de carga de diseño. Finalmente, se presenta un procedimiento para generar cartas de diseño de micropilotes autoperforantes materializado en uno que resalta la importancia de considerar la variabilidad inherente de las propiedades del suelo y el método constructivo. Abstract in english IIn the normal practice of foundation engineering the bearing capacity of micropiles is calculated without taking into account that the construction processes may affect the problem geometry. This work quantifies the influence of both, construction processes and the inherent variability of soil prop [...] erties in the bearing capacity of a selfbored and gravitationally grouted micropile by means of simulations with random finite element method. When the construction process and the inherent variability are not taken into account, the shaft bearing capacity is overestimated in a factor between two and three. Therefore, a rational explanation of the safety factor is presented in order to calculate the design capacity load. Lastly, a procedure to generating design charts for selfbored and grouted micropiles is presented and its application shows the importance of considerate the inherent variability of the soil properties and the construction process.
Decompounding random sums: A nonparametric approach
Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.
2006-01-01
Observations from sums of random variables with a random number of summands, known as random, compound or stopped sums arise within many areas of engineering and science. Quite often it is desirable to infer properties of the distribution of the terms in the random sum. In the present paper we review a number of applications and consider the nonlinear inverse problem of inferring the cumulative distribution function of the components in the random sum. We review the existing literature on non...
Random MAX SAT, Random MAX CUT, and Their Phase Transitions
Coppersmith, Don; Gamarnik, David; Hajiaghayi, Mohammad; Sorkin, Gregory B.
2003-01-01
Given a 2-SAT formula $F$ consisting of $n$ variables and $\\cn$ random clauses, what is the largest number of clauses $\\max F$ satisfiable by a single assignment of the variables? We bound the answer away from the trivial bounds of $(3/4)cn$ and $cn$. We prove that for $c
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Madigan, Kevin
2013-01-01
Patients who experience the onset of psychotic illness with a comorbid diagnosis of cannabis dependence experience poor clinical outcomes. Few studies have identified interventions that reduce cannabis use and improve clinical outcome in this population.
Magnetic field dependence of magnetic clusters in the random magnet Fe65(Ni0.78Mn0.22)35
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A neutron scattering study on a concentrated spin-glass alloy Fe65(Ni0.78Mn0.22)35 has been performed under magnetic field. The amplitude of the magnetic diffuse scattering pattern arising from short-range ferromagnetic correlations is markedly reduced by increasing magnetic field. On the other hand, the effect of external field on the diffuse scattering pattern arising from antiferromagnetic short-range correlations is small. These results show that the regions of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic short-range correlations (ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic clusters) coexist separately in this random magnetic materials. (author)
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Ana Cristina Zanon, Yagui; Luciana Assis Pires Andrade, Vale; Luciana Branco, Haddad; Cristiane, Prado; Felipe de Souza, Rossi; Alice D' Agostini, Deutsch; Celso Moura, Rebello.
2011-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança da pressão positiva contínua na via aérea (CPAP) utilizando aparelhos de fluxo variável e fluxo contínuo em selo d'água, quanto a falha do CPAP, ocorrência de escape de ar, tempo de uso de CPAP e de oxigênio e tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensi [...] va e hospitalar em neonatos com desconforto respiratório (DR) moderado e peso de nascimento (PN) > 1.500 g. MÉTODOS: Quarenta recém-nascidos que necessitavam de CPAP foram randomizados em dois grupos: um grupo tratado com fluxo variável (FV) e outro com fluxo contínuo (FC). O estudo foi realizado entre outubro de 2008 e abril de 2010. Foram registrados dados demográficos, falha do CPAP, ocorrência de escape de ar, tempo de uso de CPAP e de oxigênio, entre outros. Os desfechos categóricos foram analisados com o teste do qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e as variáveis contínuas com o teste de Mann-Whitney, com significância de p 1.500 g e DR moderado, o CPAP nasal com fluxo contínuo apresentou os mesmos benefícios do CPAP nasal com fluxo variável. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) using devices with variable flow or bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) regarding CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, total CPAP and oxygen time, and length of intensive care unit and h [...] ospital stay in neonates with moderate respiratory distress (RD) and birth weight (BW) > 1,500 g. METHODS: Forty newborns requiring NCPAP were randomized into two study groups: variable flow group (VF) and continuous flow group (CF). The study was conducted between October 2008 and April 2010. Demographic data, CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, and total CPAP and oxygen time were recorded. Categorical outcomes were tested using the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test. Continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The level of significance was set at p 1,500 g and moderate RD, the use of continuous flow NCPAP showed the same benefits as the use of variable flow NCPAP.
A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
You-Wei, Zhang; Yan, Zhao; Jia-Hao, Lin; W.P., Howson; F.W., Williams.
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). Starting from the equatio [...] n of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.
Localization-delocalization phenomena for random interfaces
Bolthausen, E.
2003-01-01
We consider d-dimensional random surface models which for d=1 are the standard (tied-down) random walks (considered as a random ``string''). In higher dimensions, the one-dimensional (discrete) time parameter of the random walk is replaced by the d-dimensional lattice \\Z^d, or a finite subset of it. The random surface is represented by real-valued random variables \\phi_i, where i is in \\Z^d. A class of natural generalizations of the standard random walk are gradient models w...
Correlation Decay in Random Decision Networks
Gamarnik, David; Weber, Theophane
2009-01-01
We consider a decision network on an undirected graph in which each node corresponds to a decision variable, and each node and edge of the graph is associated with a reward function whose value depends only on the variables of the corresponding nodes. The goal is to construct a decision vector which maximizes the total reward. This decision problem encompasses a variety of models, including maximum-likelihood inference in graphical models (Markov Random Fields), combinatorial optimization on graphs, economic team theory and statistical physics. The network is endowed with a probabilistic structure in which costs are sampled from a distribution. Our aim is to identify sufficient conditions to guarantee average-case polynomiality of the underlying optimization problem. We construct a new decentralized algorithm called Cavity Expansion and establish its theoretical performance for a variety of models. Specifically, for certain classes of models we prove that our algorithm is able to find near optimal solutions w...
Qunibi, Wajeh Y.; Martinez, Carlos; Smith, Mark; Benjamin, Joseph; Mangione, Antoinette; Roger, Simon D.
2010-01-01
Background. Iron deficiency is a common cause of anaemia and hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients. Current intravenous iron agents cannot be administered in a single high dose because of adverse effects. Ferric carboxymaltose, a non-dextran parenteral iron preparation, can be rapidly administered in high doses.
Complex Obtuse Random Walks and their Continuous-Time Limits
Attal, Ste?phane; Deschamps, Julien; Pellegrini, Cle?ment
2013-01-01
We study a particular class of complex-valued random variables and their associated random walks: the complex obtuse random variables. They are the generalization to the complex case of the real-valued obtuse random variables which were introduced in \\cite{A-E} in order to understand the structure of normal martingales in $\\RR^n$.The extension to the complex case is mainly motivated by considerations from Quantum Statistical Mechanics, in particular for the seek of a charact...
Random Lasing Action from Randomly Assembled ZnS Nanosheets
Yan J; Ld, Zhang; Hy, Yang; Sf, Yu
2010-01-01
Abstract Lasing characteristics of randomly assembled ZnS nanosheets are studied at room temperature. Under 266-nm optical excitation, sharp lasing peaks emitted at around 332 nm with a linewidth less than 0.4 nm are observed in all directions. In addition, the dependence of lasing threshold intensity with the excitation area is shown in good agreement with the random laser theory. Hence, it is verified that the lasing characteristics of randomly assembled ZnS nanosheets are attributed to coh...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quasicrystalline phase in the two-dimensional model explored by Widom, Strandburg, and Swendsen is shown by analysis of size dependence to be very well described by a random-tiling model in which a class of configurations corresponding to tilings of the plane with rhombuses are assumed to occur with equal weight. The existence of the quasicrystalline phase in this system is thus due to entropic effects. Despite the inherent phason disorder, the system is shown to possess quasi-long-range translational order. The phason elastic constant is obtained from the simulation and is temperature independent to within our statistical errors within the quasicrystalline phase. The value is in good agreement with transfer-matrix calculations for the appropriate random tilings and with Monte Carlo simulations for random tilings. The behavior of the system for temperatures above and below the random-tiling phase is briefly discussed
A Markov Random Field Topic Space Model for Document Retrieval
Hand, Scott
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a novel statistical approach to intelligent document retrieval. It seeks to offer a more structured and extensible mathematical approach to the term generalization done in the popular Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) approach to document indexing. A Markov Random Field (MRF) is presented that captures relationships between terms and documents as probabilistic dependence assumptions between random variables. From there, it uses the MRF-Gibbs equivalence to derive joint probabilities as well as local probabilities for document variables. A parameter learning method is proposed that utilizes rank reduction with singular value decomposition in a matter similar to LSA to reduce dimensionality of document-term relationships to that of a latent topic space. Experimental results confirm the ability of this approach to effectively and efficiently retrieve documents from substantial data sets.
Brissette Suzanne; Guh Daphne; Oviedo-Joekes Eugenia; Marchand Kirsten I; Marsh David C; Schechter Martin T
2011-01-01
Abstract Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone) has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Patient satisfaction with treatment has been associated with improved addiction treatment outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies evaluating patients' satisfaction with Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST). In the present study, participants' satisfaction with OST was evaluated at 3 and 12 months. We sought to test the relationship bet...
Barra, Orazio A
2013-01-01
Although HRV (Heart Rate Variability) analyses have been carried out for several decades, several limiting factors still make these analyses useless from a clinical point of view. The present paper aims at overcoming some of these limits by introducing the "Life Potential" (BMP), a new mathematical algorithm which seems to exhibit surprising cognitive and predictive capabilities. BMP is defined as a linear combination of five HRV Non-Linear Variables, in turn derived from the thermodynamic formalism of chaotic dynamic systems. The paper presents experimental measurements of BMP (Average Values and Standard Deviations) derived from 1048 Holter tests, matched in age and gender, including a control group of 356 healthy subjects. The main results are: (a) BMP always decreases when the age increases, and its dependence on age and gender is well established; (b) the shape of the age dependence within "healthy people" is different from that found in the general group: this behavior provides evidence of possible illn...
Tail Approximations of Integrals of Gaussian Random Fields
Liu, Jingchen
2010-01-01
This paper develops asymptotic approximations of $P(\\int_T e^{f(t)}dt > b)$ as $b\\rightarrow \\infty$ for homogeneous smooth Gaussian random field, $f$, living on a compact $d$-dimensional Jordan measurable set $T$. The integral of exponent of Gaussian random field is an important random variable for many generic models in spatial point processes, portfolio risk analysis, asset pricing and so forth. The analysis technique consists of two steps: 1. evaluate the tail probability $P(\\int_\\Delta e^{f(t)}dt > b)$ over a small domain $\\Delta$ depending on $b$, where $mes(\\Delta) \\rightarrow 0$ as $b\\rightarrow \\infty$ and $mes(\\cdot)$ is the Lebesgue measure; 2. with $\\Delta$ appropriately chosen, we show that $P(\\int_T e^{f(t)}dt > b) =(1+o(1)) mes(T) mes^{-1}(\\Delta) P(\\int_\\Delta e^{f(t)}dt > b)$.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Cameron-Smith
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of resistance exercise with the ingestion of supplementary protein on the activation of the mTOR cascade, in human skeletal muscle has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the impact of a single bout of resistance exercise, immediately followed by a single dose of whey protein isolate (WPI or placebo supplement, on the activation of mTOR signalling was analyzed. Young untrained men completed a maximal single-legged knee extension exercise bout and were randomized to ingest either WPI supplement (n = 7 or the placebo (n = 7. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before, and 2, 4 and 24 hr post-exercise. WPI or placebo ingestion consumed immediately post-exercise had no impact on the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473. However, WPI significantly enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448, 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46 and p70S6K (Thr389 at 2 hr post-exercise. This study demonstrates that a single dose of WPI, when consumed in modest quantities, taken immediately after resistance exercise elicits an acute and transient activation of translation initiation within the exercised skeletal muscle.
Berry-Esseen for Free Random Variables
Kargin, Vladislav
2006-01-01
An analogue of the Berry-Esseen inequality is proved for the speed of convergence of free additive convolutions of bounded probability measures. The obtained rate of convergence is of the order n^{-1/2}, the same as in the classical case. An example with binomial measures shows that this estimate cannot be improved without imposing further restrictions on convolved measures.
Generating Random Sampling Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chatter Singh
1987-07-01
Full Text Available Simulation experiments with the help of random numbers are increasing in various Defence application areas. Some authors have brought out autocorrelations in the sequences generated by the computer methods. To overcome this defect, a new algorithm based on the concept of random sampling (with replacement from a finite population has been developed. The constants in the linear congruential relation are chosen so that (a the proportion of distinct numbers in the generation compares with the theoretical expectation and (b the period of the generator covers almost the edtire population of 16-bit numbers. The criteria suggest to choose the variable multiplier (ai =2ai-1 +' 1 with initial value a. = 2^9+ 5 or 2^10 + 3. The randomness of the generation has been compared with that of a Bernoullian sequence.
The Randomized Causation Coefficient
Lopez-paz, David; Muandet, Krikamol; Recht, Benjamin
2014-01-01
We are interested in learning causal relationships between pairs of random variables, purely from observational data. To effectively address this task, the state-of-the-art relies on strong assumptions regarding the mechanisms mapping causes to effects, such as invertibility or the existence of additive noise, which only hold in limited situations. On the contrary, this short paper proposes to learn how to perform causal inference directly from data, and without the need of ...
Random Walk in Markovian Enviroment
Dolgopyat, D; Liverani, C; Dolgopyat, Dmitry; Keller, Gerhard; Liverani, Carlangelo
2007-01-01
We prove a quenched central limit theorem for random walks with bounded increments in a randomly evolving environment on Zd. We assume that the transition probabilities of the walk depend not too strongly on the environment and that the evolution of the environment is Markovian with strong spatial and temporal mixing properties.
Heiss, Christian; Sansone, Roberto; Karimi, Hakima; Krabbe, Moritz; Schuler, Dominik; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Kraemer, Thomas; Cortese-Krott, Miriam Margherita; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte
2015-06-01
Increased vascular stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, and isolated systolic hypertension are hallmarks of vascular aging. Regular cocoa flavanol (CF) intake can improve vascular function in healthy young and elderly at-risk individuals. However, the mechanisms underlying CF bioactivity remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of CF intake on cardiovascular function in healthy young and elderly individuals without history, signs, or symptoms of cardiovascular disease by applying particular focus on functional endpoints relevant to cardiovascular aging. In a randomized, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial, 22 young (<35 years) and 20 elderly (50-80 year) healthy, male non-smokers consumed either a CF-containing drink (450 mg CF) or nutrient-matched, CF-free control drink bi-daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint was endothelial function as measured by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Secondary endpoints included cardiac output, vascular stiffness, conductance of conduit and resistance arteries, and perfusion in the microcirculation. Following 2 weeks of CF intake, FMD improved in young (6.1 ± 0.7 vs. 7.6 ± 0.7 %, p < 0.001) and elderly (4.9 ± 0.6 vs. 6.3 ± 0.9 %, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes demonstrated in both groups that CF intake decreased pulse wave velocity and lowered total peripheral resistance, and increased arteriolar and microvascular vasodilator capacity, red cell deformability, and diastolic blood pressure, while cardiac output remained affected. In the elderly, baseline systolic blood pressure was elevated, driven by an arterial-stiffness-related augmentation. CF intake decreased aortic augmentation index (-9 %) and thus systolic blood pressure (-7 mmHg; Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01639781). CF intake reverses age-related burden of cardiovascular risk in healthy elderly, highlighting the potential of dietary flavanols to maintain cardiovascular health. PMID:26013912
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wilson Alexander F
2006-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of model-based linkage analysis show that trait or marker model misspecification leads to decreasing power or increasing Type I error rate. An increase in Type I error rate is seen when marker related parameters (e.g., allele frequencies are misspecified and ascertainment is through the trait, but lod-score methods are expected to be robust when ascertainment is random (as is often the case in linkage studies of quantitative traits. In previous studies, the power of lod-score linkage analysis using the "correct" generating model for the trait was found to increase when the marker allele frequencies were misspecified and parental data were missing. An investigation of Type I error rates, conducted in the absence of parental genotype data and with misspecification of marker allele frequencies, showed that an inflation in Type I error rate was the cause of at least part of this apparent increased power. To investigate whether the observed inflation in Type I error rate in model-based LOD score linkage was due to sampling variation, the trait model was estimated from each sample using REGCHUNT, an automated segregation analysis program used to fit models by maximum likelihood using many different sets of initial parameter estimates. Results The Type I error rates observed using the trait models generated by REGCHUNT were usually closer to the nominal levels than those obtained when assuming the generating trait model. Conclusion This suggests that the observed inflation of Type I error upon misspecification of marker allele frequencies is at least partially due to sampling variation. Thus, with missing parental genotype data, lod-score linkage is not as robust to misspecification of marker allele frequencies as has been commonly thought.
A Graphical View of Bayesian Variable Selection
Fang, Zaili; Kim, Inyoung
2012-01-01
In recent years, Ising prior with the network information for the "in" or "out" binary random variable in Bayesian variable selections has received more and more attentions. In this paper, we discover that even without the informative prior a Bayesian variable selection problem itself can be considered as a complete graph and described by a Ising model with random interactions. There are many advantages of treating variable selection as a graphical model, such as it is easy ...
Random walks in random environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Random walks in random environments and their diffusion analogues have been a source of surprising phenomena and challenging problems, especially in the non-reversible situation, since they began to be studied in the 1970s. We review the model, available results and techniques, and point out several gaps in the understanding of these processes. (topical review)
A New Method for Local Dependence Map and Its Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burcu H. ÜÇER
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: This work introduces a new method to construct local dependence map based on the estimate for the linear local dependence function H(x,y, which is generalization of Pearson correlation coefficient. The new local dependence map demonstrates a practical tool for local dependence structure between two random variables. The analysis of theoretical concepts is verified by an application based on real datasets in endocrinology. Material and Methods: The method, local dependence map, requires the estimation new local dependence function which is based on regression concepts. After this local dependence function must be converted with local permutation tests in local dependence map which make the local dependence function more interpretable by identifying the regions of positive, negative and zero local dependence. Results: Based on the proposed method and we give two examples based on the real data C-peptide, insulin and TSH, FT3, FT4 from endocrinology in order to show the advantageous of the current dependence maps. They show interesting local dependence features on the other hand overall correlation coefficient is not much informative. Conclusion: Scalar dependence measures such as correlation coefficient are often used as a measure of dependence for data in medical and biological science. However, they cannot reflect the complex dependence structure of two variables. Hence we are now concerned exclusively with the statistical aspects of the dependence structure in dependence maps that will be constructed for the dataset. In this work a new method to construct local dependence map based on the regression concept for the linear local dependence function H(x,y, which is generalization of Pearson correlation coefficient, is established. The proposed new local dependence map is devoted to two examples based on the real data C-peptide, insulin and TSH, FT3, FT4 from endocrinology in order to illustrate the usefulness of the current dependence maps. They show interesting local dependence features on the other hand overall correlation coefficient is not much informative.
Effect of large arteries on blood pressure variability.
Avolio, Alberto P; Xu, Ke; Butlin, Mark
2013-01-01
Blood pressure (BP) variability is generally considered to be due to neurogenic influences on arterioles modulating peripheral resistance, as well as variations in stroke volume (SV). However, for a given change in peripheral resistance or SV, the degree of BP variability is modulated by the stiffness of large conduit arteries. Recent epidemiological evidence shows that cardiovascular risk is not only related to the average arterial pressure, but also to the degree of diurnal variability. In addition, short-term variability has been shown to be related to aortic stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity, a strong independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This study addresses the relation between large artery stiffness and BP variability using a lumped parameter model of the systemic circulation described by total arterial compliance, total peripheral resistance (TPR) and aortic characteristic impedance. The variability in TPR is simulated using a random function with a Gaussian distribution and changes in arterial stiffness are simulated by variation in compliance, where compliance is either linear (pressure independent) or nonlinear (pressure dependent). Simulation results show that (i) BP variability is greater when due to changes in TPR compared to similar relative changes in SV, (ii) pressure dependency of arterial stiffness results in a curvilinear relation between systolic BP variability and mean arterial pressure (MAP), such that a critical mean pressure (MAPc) exists for minimal BP variability, (iii) increase in arterial stiffness (as occurs with aging) result in a higher MAPc for minimal BP variability, or increased BP variability at older age for similar values of MAP. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing BP variability will need to consider large artery stiffness for optimal efficacy. PMID:24110628
Dynamical Localization of Quantum Walks in Random Environments
Joye, Alain
2010-01-01
The dynamics of a one dimensional quantum walker on the lattice with two internal degrees of freedom, the coin states, is considered. The discrete time unitary dynamics is determined by the repeated action of a coin operator in U(2) on the internal degrees of freedom followed by a one step shift to the right or left, conditioned on the state of the coin. For a fixed coin operator, the dynamics is known to be ballistic. We prove that when the coin operator depends on the position of the walker and is given by a certain i.i.d. random process, the phenomenon of Anderson localization takes place in its dynamical form. When the coin operator depends on the time variable only and is determined by an i.i.d. random process, the averaged motion is known to be diffusive and we compute the diffusion constants for all moments of the position.
Marginalization in Random Nonlinear Neural Networks
Vasudeva Raju, Rajkumar; Pitkow, Xaq
2015-03-01
Computations involved in tasks like causal reasoning in the brain require a type of probabilistic inference known as marginalization. Marginalization corresponds to averaging over irrelevant variables to obtain the probability of the variables of interest. This is a fundamental operation that arises whenever input stimuli depend on several variables, but only some are task-relevant. Animals often exhibit behavior consistent with marginalizing over some variables, but the neural substrate of this computation is unknown. It has been previously shown (Beck et al. 2011) that marginalization can be performed optimally by a deterministic nonlinear network that implements a quadratic interaction of neural activity with divisive normalization. We show that a simpler network can perform essentially the same computation. These Random Nonlinear Networks (RNN) are feedforward networks with one hidden layer, sigmoidal activation functions, and normally-distributed weights connecting the input and hidden layers. We train the output weights connecting the hidden units to an output population, such that the output model accurately represents a desired marginal probability distribution without significant information loss compared to optimal marginalization. Simulations for the case of linear coordinate transformations show that the RNN model has good marginalization performance, except for highly uncertain inputs that have low amplitude population responses. Behavioral experiments, based on these results, could then be used to identify if this model does indeed explain how the brain performs marginalization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhijie Xu
2014-07-01
We present a new stochastic analysis for steady and transient one-dimensional heat conduction problem based on the homogenization approach. Thermal conductivity is assumed to be a random field K consisting of random variables of a total number N. Both steady and transient solutions T are expressed in terms of the homogenized solution (symbol) and its spatial derivatives (equation), where homogenized solution (symbol) is obtained by solving the homogenized equation with effective thermal conductivity. Both mean and variance of stochastic solutions can be obtained analytically for K field consisting of independent identically distributed (i.i.d) random variables. The mean and variance of T are shown to be dependent only on the mean and variance of these i.i.d variables, not the particular form of probability distribution function of i.i.d variables. Variance of temperature field T can be separated into two contributions: the ensemble contribution (through the homogenized temperature (symbol)); and the configurational contribution (through the random variable Ln(x)Ln(x)). The configurational contribution is shown to be proportional to the local gradient of (symbol). Large uncertainty of T field was found at locations with large gradient of (symbol) due to the significant configurational contributions at these locations. Numerical simulations were implemented based on a direct Monte Carlo method and good agreement is obtained between numerical Monte Carlo results and the proposed stochastic analysis.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Róbinson, Ramírez-Vélez; Mildrey, Mosquera; José G, Ortega; Isabella, Echeverri; Blanca, Salazar; Patricio, López-Jaramillo; Ana C, Aguilar de Plata.
2010-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico en la función dependiente del endotelio (VDE) y en el consumo de oxígeno en mujeres primigestantes. MÉTODOS: ensayo clínico controlado, enmascarado y aleatorizado, llevado a cabo en 67 mujeres saludables, primigestantes, entre 16 a 20 semanas de ges [...] tación. Grupo de intervención: ejercicio aeróbico entre 50% y 65% de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, durante 45 minutos, tres veces por semana, durante dieciséis semanas. Grupo control: actividad física habitual. Mediciones: VDE: vasodilatación mediada por flujo (VMF), consumo de oxígeno VO2max: prueba de caminata de seis minutos; antropometría: peso y talla. RESULTADOS: en las mediciones iniciales no se encontraron diferencias entre grupos en ninguna de las variables. Al finalizar la intervención, las participantes que realizaron ejercicio tenían mayor capacidad física, medida por la distancia recorrida en el test de caminata (p=0,043) y por el VO2max (p=0,023). Además, el grupo de ejercicio tuvo menor frecuencia cardiaca en reposo y mayor VMF que el grupo control (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent function (EDF) and oxygen consumption in primigravida. METHODS: double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial carried out in primigravida between 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. The intervention group had aerobic exercise [...] between 50% to 65% of the maximum heart rate during 45 minutes, three times a week for sixteen weeks. The control group had habitual physical activity. MEASUREMENTS REALIZED: EDF: flow-mediated dilation (FMD), oxygen consumption VO2max: 6 minute walking test, anthropometry: weight and size. RESULTS: no differences were found between the two groups in any variables in the initial measurements. At the end of the intervention, participants who exercised had greater physical capacity, measured by the distance covered in walking test (p = 0.043) and VO2max (p = 0.023). In addition, the exercise group had lower resting heart rate and increased FMD than the control group (p
Kaschube, Matthias; Wolf, Fred; Puhlmann, Mathias; Rathjen, Stefan; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Geisel, Theo; Löwel, Siegrid
2003-12-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of the intrinsic variability of the periodicity of ocular dominance columns in cat primary visual cortex (area 17) and its relationship to genetic background and visual experience. We characterized the intra-areal and interindividual variability of column spacing in a large set (n = 49) of ocular dominance patterns adapting a recently developed technique for the two-dimensional analysis of orientation column patterns. Patterns were obtained from three different cat colonies (termed F, M and D), the cats having either normal visual experience or experimentally induced strabismus. Two-dimensional maps of local column spacing were calculated for every pattern. In individual cortices, local column spacings varied by > 50% with the majority of column spacings ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 mm in different animals. In animals from colonies F and M (n = 29), the mean column spacing ranged between 1.03 and 1.27 mm and exhibited no significant differences, either between the two breeds or between strabismic and normal animals. The mean spacing was moderately clustered in the left and right brain hemisphere of individual animals but not in littermates. In animals from colony D (n = 2), average column spacing ranged between 0.73 and 0.95 mm, and was thus significantly different from the distribution of spacings in animals from breeds F and M, suggesting an influence of genetic factors on the layout of ocular dominance columns. Local column spacing exhibited a considerable systematic intra-areal variation, with largest spacings along the representation of the horizontal meridian and smallest spacings along the peripheral representation of the vertical meridian. The total variability of ocular dominance column spacing comprised 24% systematic intra-areal variation, 18% interindividual differences of mean column spacing and 58% nonsystematic intra-areal variability. PMID:14686899
Yeni, Yener N.; Zinno, Matthew J.; Yerramshetty, Janardhan S.; Zauel, Roger; Fyhrie, David P
2011-01-01
Cancellous bone microstructure is an important determinant of the mechanical integrity of vertebrae. The numerous microstructural parameters that have been studied extensively are generally represented as a single value obtained as an average over a sample. The range of the intra-sample variability of cancellous microstructure and its effect on the mechanical properties of bone are less well-understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate the extent to which human cancellous bone...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Daniel; Flateau, Davin [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Reid, I. Neill, E-mail: ebuenzli@email.arizona.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2012-12-01
Heterogeneous clouds or temperature perturbations in rotating brown dwarfs produce variability in the observed flux. We report time-resolved simultaneous observations of the variable T6.5 brown dwarf 2MASS J22282889-431026 over the wavelength ranges 1.1-1.7 {mu}m and broadband 4.5 {mu}m. Spectroscopic observations were taken with Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope and photometry with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The object shows sinusoidal infrared variability with a period of 1.4 hr at most wavelengths with peak-to-peak amplitudes between 1.45% and 5.3% of the mean flux. While the light curve shapes are similar at all wavelengths, their phases differ from wavelength to wavelength with a maximum difference of more than half of a rotational period. We compare the spectra with atmospheric models of different cloud prescriptions, from which we determine the pressure levels probed at different wavelengths. We find that the phase lag increases with decreasing pressure level, or higher altitude. We discuss a number of plausible scenarios that could cause this trend of light curve phase with probed pressure level. These observations are the first to probe heterogeneity in an ultracool atmosphere in both horizontal and vertical directions, and thus are an ideal test case for realistic three-dimensional simulations of the atmospheric structure with clouds in brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heterogeneous clouds or temperature perturbations in rotating brown dwarfs produce variability in the observed flux. We report time-resolved simultaneous observations of the variable T6.5 brown dwarf 2MASS J22282889–431026 over the wavelength ranges 1.1-1.7 ?m and broadband 4.5 ?m. Spectroscopic observations were taken with Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope and photometry with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The object shows sinusoidal infrared variability with a period of 1.4 hr at most wavelengths with peak-to-peak amplitudes between 1.45% and 5.3% of the mean flux. While the light curve shapes are similar at all wavelengths, their phases differ from wavelength to wavelength with a maximum difference of more than half of a rotational period. We compare the spectra with atmospheric models of different cloud prescriptions, from which we determine the pressure levels probed at different wavelengths. We find that the phase lag increases with decreasing pressure level, or higher altitude. We discuss a number of plausible scenarios that could cause this trend of light curve phase with probed pressure level. These observations are the first to probe heterogeneity in an ultracool atmosphere in both horizontal and vertical directions, and thus are an ideal test case for realistic three-dimensional simulations of the atmospheric structure with clouds in brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets.
van der Meijden, Wisse P; Fronczek, Rolf; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert; Thijs, Roland D
2015-04-01
Narcolepsy with hypocretin deficiency is known to alter cardiovascular control during sleep, but its aetiology is disputed. As cardiovascular control differs between sleep states, and narcolepsy affects sleep architecture, controlling for both duration and transitions of sleep states is necessary. This study therefore aimed to assess heart rate and its variability in narcolepsy during sleep taking these factors into account. The study included 12 medication-naïve patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency (11 male, 16-53 years old), and 12 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (11 male, 19-55 years). All subjects underwent 1-night ambulatory polysomnography recording. Cardiovascular parameters were calculated for each 30-s epoch. Heart rate was significantly higher in patients with narcolepsy than in controls in all sleep states and during wakefulness prior to sleep. Groups did not differ in heart rate variability measures. The effects of sleep state duration on heart rate and its variability were similar between patients and controls. In conclusion, heart rate was consistently higher in patients with narcolepsy than controls, independent of sleep stage and sleep fragmentation. A direct effect of hypocretin deficiency therefore seems probable. PMID:25382307
Generalized extreme value statistics and sum of correlated variables
Bertin, Eric; Clusel, Maxime
2006-06-01
We show that generalized extreme value statistics—the statistics of the kth largest value among a large set of random variables—can be mapped onto a problem of random sums. This allows us to identify classes of non-identical and (generally) correlated random variables with a sum distributed according to one of the three (k-dependent) asymptotic distributions of extreme value statistics, namely the Gumbel, Fréchet and Weibull distributions. These classes, as well as the limit distributions, are naturally extended to real values of k, thus providing a clear interpretation to the onset of Gumbel distributions with non-integer index k in the statistics of global observables. This is one of the very few known generalizations of the central limit theorem to non-independent random variables. Finally, in the context of a simple physical model, we relate the index k to the ratio of the correlation length to the system size, which remains finite in strongly correlated systems.
Generalised extreme value statistics and sum of correlated variables
Bertin, E; Bertin, Eric; Clusel, Maxime
2006-01-01
We show that generalised extreme value statistics -the statistics of the k-th largest value among a large set of random variables- can be mapped onto a problem of random sums. This allows us to identify classes of non-identical and (generally) correlated random variables with a sum distributed according to one of the three (k-dependent) asymptotic distributions of extreme value statistics, namely the Gumbel, Frechet and Weibull distributions. These classes, as well as the limit distributions, are naturally extended to real values of k, thus providing a clear interpretation to the onset of Gumbel distributions with non-integer index k in the statistics of global observables. This is one of the very few known generalisations of the central limit theorem to non-independent random variables. Finally, in the context of a simple physical model, we relate the index k to the ratio of the correlation length to the system size, which remains finite in strongly correlated systems.
Arcusin, Nitay
2011-01-01
Let $D\\subset R^d$ be a bounded domain and let $\\mathcal P(D)$ denote the space of probability measures on $D$. Consider a Brownian motion in $D$ which is killed at the boundary and which, while alive, jumps instantaneously according to a spatially dependent exponential clock with intensity $\\gamma V$ to a new point, according to a distribution $\\mu\\in\\mathcal P(D)$. From its new position after the jump, the process repeats the above behavior independently of what has transpired previously. The generator of this process is an extension of the operator $-L_{\\gamma,\\mu}$, defined by L_{\\gamma,\\mu}u\\equiv -\\frac12\\Delta u+\\gamma V C_\\mu(u), with the Dirichlet boundary condition, where $C_\\mu$ is the "$\\mu$-centering" operator defined by C_\\mu(u)=u-\\int_Du d\\mu. The principal eigenvalue, $\\lambda_0(\\gamma,\\mu)$, of $L_{\\gamma,\\mu}$ governs the exponential rate of decay of the probability of not exiting $D$ for large time. We study the asymptotic behavior of $\\lambda_0(\\gamma,\\mu)$ as $\\gamma\\to\\infty$. In particu...
Random sums of random vectors and multitype families of productive individuals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Muttlak
2004-04-01
Full Text Available We prove limit theorems for a family of random vectors whose coordinates are a special form of random sums of Bernoulli random variables. Applying these limit theorems, we study the number of productive individuals in n-type indecomposable critical branching stochastic processes with types of individuals T1,Ã¢Â€Â¦,Tn.
Reliability analysis using high dimensional model representation for mixed uncertain variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The reliability estimation of a structural system depends on the type of uncertain parameters considered. If all the uncertain parameters are defined as random variables, then the reliability can be estimated by using probability theory. However, when modeling uncertain variables with limited information as intervals with upper and lower bounds, the entire range of these bounds should be explored. When dealing with the combination of both random and interval variables, as every combination of interval variables demands one probabilistic based analysis, the computational cost involved in estimating the reliability of the system increases exponentially. Therefore in this paper, high dimensional model representation (HDMR) is used to approximate the failure function accurately, and fast Fourier transform techniques are applied to solve the convolution integral. The proposed methodology demonstrates the improvement in computational efficiency and accuracy in the estimation of the reliability bounds using numerical examples.
Variable Synthetic Capacitance
Kleinberg, L. L.
1986-01-01
Feedback amplifier circuit synthesizes electronically variable capacitance. Variable Synthetic Capacitor is amplifier circuit with follower/feedback configuration. Effective input capacitance depends on input set current. If synthetic capacitor is connected across resonant element of oscillator, oscillator frequency controlled via input set current. Circuit especially suitable for fine frequency adjustments of piezoelectric-crystal or inductor/capacitor resonant oscillators.
Simulating the time-dependent diffusion coefficient in mixed-pore-size materials
Zhang, Zhigang; Johnson, David L.; Schwartz, Lawrence M
2011-01-01
Porous media with a wide distribution of pore sizes are quite common. We show that variable-step-size random walk simulations can be used to model the time-dependent diffusion coefficient D(t) in such porous media. The issue to be overcome is that, in variable-step-size walks, each walker carries its own “clock,” and its position is known only at a random set of times. Thus, a direct ensemble-average calculation of (delta r[superscript 2](t))(the mean-square distance traveled at time t) i...
Weissman, David E.
1990-01-01
The purpose of this investigation was to study the ability of theoretical radar cross section (RCS) models to predict the absolute magnitude of the ocean radar cross section under a wide variety of sea and atmospheric conditions. The dependence of the RCS on wind stress (as opposed to wind speed) was also studied. An extensive amount of experimental data was acquired during the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment. Measurements across an ocean front demonstrated that the vertical polarization and horizontal polarization radar cross section were more strongly dependent on wind stress than on wind magnitude. Current theoretical models for the RCS, based on stress, were tested with this data. In situations where the Bragg scattering theory does not agree with the measured radar cross section (magnitude and angle dependence), revisions are hypothesized and evaluated.
Intersection Information Based on Common Randomness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Virgil Griffith
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The introduction of the partial information decomposition generated a flurry of proposals for defining an intersection information that quantifies how much of “the same information” two or more random variables specify about a target random variable. As of yet, none is wholly satisfactory. A palatable measure of intersection information would provide a principled way to quantify slippery concepts, such as synergy. Here, we introduce an intersection information measure based on the Gács-Körner common random variable that is the first to satisfy the coveted target monotonicity property. Our measure is imperfect, too, and we suggest directions for improvement.
A Generalized ANOVA Dimensional Decomposition for Dependent Probability Measures
Rahman, Sharif
2014-01-01
This article explores the generalized analysis-of-variance or ANOVA dimensional decomposition (ADD) for multivariate functions of dependent random variables. Two notable properties, stemming from weakened annihilating conditions, reveal that the component functions of the generalized ADD have \\emph{zero} means and are hierarchically orthogonal. By exploiting these properties, a simple, alternative approach is presented to derive a coupled system of equations that the general...
Limit theorems for kernel density estimators under dependent samples
Zhao, Yuexu; Lin, Zhengyan
2013-01-01
In this paper, we construct a moment inequality for mixing dependent random variables, it is of independent interest. As applications, the consistency of the kernel density estimation is investigated. Several limit theorems are established: First, the central limit theorems for the kernel density estimator $f_{n,K}(x)$ and its distribution function are constructed. Also, the convergence rates of $\\|f_{n,K}(x)-Ef_{n,K}(x)\\|_{p}$ in sup-norm loss and integral $L^{p}$-norm loss...
On asymptotic normality for m-dependent U-statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wansoo T. Rhee
1988-03-01
Full Text Available Let (Xn be a sequence of m-dependent random variables, not necessarily equally distributed. We give a Berry-Esseen estimate of the convergence to normality of a suitable normalization of a U-statistic of the (Xn. This bound holds under moment assumptions quite weaker than the existence of third moments for the kernel. Since we obtain the sharpest bound, the order of the bound can not be improved.
On asymptotic normality for m-dependent U-statistics
Rhee, Wansoo T.
1988-01-01
Let (Xn) be a sequence of m-dependent random variables, not necessarily equally distributed. We give a Berry-Esseen estimate of the convergence to normality of a suitable normalization of a U-statistic of the (Xn). This bound holds under moment assumptions quite weaker than the existence of third moments for the kernel. Since we obtain the sharpest bound, the order of the bound can not be improved.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Marcelo E., Ochiai; Euler C.O., Brancalhão; Raphael S. N., Puig; Kelly R.N., Vieira; Juliano N., Cardoso; Múcio Tavares de, Oliveira-Jr; Antonio C.P., Barretto.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate angiotensin receptor blocker add-on therapy in patients with low cardiac output during decompensated heart failure. METHODS: We selected patients with decompensated heart failure, low cardiac output, dobutamine dependence, and an ejection fraction [...] ceiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The patients were randomized to losartan or placebo and underwent invasive hemodynamic and B-type natriuretic peptide measurements at baseline and on the seventh day after intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01857999. RESULTS: We studied 10 patients in the losartan group and 11 patients in the placebo group. The patient characteristics were as follows: age 52.7 years, ejection fraction 21.3%, dobutamine infusion 8.5 mcg/kg.min, indexed systemic vascular resistance 1918.0 dynes.sec/cm5.m2, cardiac index 2.8 L/min.m2, and B-type natriuretic peptide 1,403 pg/mL. After 7 days of intervention, there was a 37.4% reduction in the B-type natriuretic peptide levels in the losartan group compared with an 11.9% increase in the placebo group (mean difference, -49.1%; 95% confidence interval: -88.1 to -9.8%, p?=?0.018). No significant difference was observed in the hemodynamic measurements. CONCLUSION: Short-term add-on therapy with losartan reduced B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients hospitalized for decompensated severe heart failure and low cardiac output with inotrope dependence.
Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.
2005-01-01
This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined system as well as in random ones (e.g. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' we find the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author)
Lal Mehta, Madan
1990-01-01
Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined systems as well as in random ones (e.q. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system are found. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author)
Empirical process of long-range dependent sequences when parameters are estimated
Kulik, R
2007-01-01
In this paper we study the asymptotic behaviour of empirical processes when parameters are estimated, assuming that the underlying sequence of random variables is long-range dependent. We show completely different phenomena compared to i.i.d. situation, as well as compared to ordinary empirical processes of long range dependent sequences. Applications include Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Cramer-Smirnov-von Mises goodness-of-fit statistics.
A Random Matrix Approach to Dynamic Factors in macroeconomic data
Snarska, Ma?gorzata
2012-01-01
We show how random matrix theory can be applied to develop new algorithms to extract dynamic factors from macroeconomic time series. In particular, we consider a limit where the number of random variables N and the number of consecutive time measurements T are large but the ratio N / T is fixed. In this regime the underlying random matrices are asymptotically equivalent to Free Random Variables (FRV).Application of these methods for macroeconomic indicators for Poland economy is also presented.
Random Sum of Mixtures of Sum of Bivariate Exponential Distributions
Abd-El-Moneim A.M. Teamah; Ahmed M.T.A. El-Ba
2009-01-01
Problem statement: The distributions of R = X+Y and W = X/(X+Y), where X and Y follow Lawrance and Lewis`s bivariate exponential distribution, is generalized. Approach: In this research we found mixtures of sum of bivariate exponential random variables. Results: Also we calculated the probability density function (pdf) of the random sum of mixtures of sum of bivariate exponential random variables. Conclusion/Recommendations: In this study we investigated the pdf of random sum of mixtures of s...
Schultheiss, Nathan W.; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Jaeger, Dieter
2012-01-01
A neuron’s phase response curve (PRC) shows how inputs arriving at different times during the spike cycle differentially affect the timing of subsequent spikes. Using a full morphological model of a globus pallidus (GP) neuron, we previously demonstrated that dendritic conductances shape the PRC in a spike frequency dependent manner, suggesting different functional roles of perisomatic and distal dendritic synapses in the control of patterned network activity. In the present study we extend...
Neutron Transport in Finite Random Media with Pure-Triplet Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The solution of the one-speed neutron transport equation in a finite slab random medium with pure-triplet anisotropic scattering is studied. The stochastic medium is assumed to consist of two randomly mixed immiscible fluids. The cross section and the scattering kernel are treated as discrete random variables, which obey the same statistics as Markovian processes and exponential chord length statistics. The medium boundaries are considered to have specular reflectivities with angular-dependent externally incident flux. The deterministic solution is obtained by using Pomraning-Eddington approximation. Numerical results are calculated for the average reflectivity and average transmissivity for different values of the single scattering albedo and varying the parameters which characterize the random medium. Compared to the results obtained by Adams et al. in case of isotropic scattering that based on the Monte Carlo technique, it can be seen that we have good comparable data
Linear Phase Transition in Random Linear Constraint Satisfaction Problem
Gamarnik, David
2002-01-01
Our model is a generalized linear programming relaxation of a much studied random K-SAT problem. Specifically, a set of linear constraints C on K variables is fixed. From a pool of n variables, K variables are chosen uniformly at random and a constraint is chosen from C also uniformly at random. This procedure is repeated m times independently. We ask the following question: is the resulting linear programming problem feasible? We show that the feasibility property experienc...
Mazenko, Gene F.
2007-01-01
We study here the random diffusion model. This is a continuum model for a conserved scalar density field $\\phi$ driven by diffusive dynamics. The interesting feature of the dynamics is that the {\\it bare} diffusion coefficient $D$ is density dependent. In the simplest case $D=\\bar{D}+D_{1}\\delta \\phi $ where $\\bar{D}$ is the constant average diffusion constant. In the case where the driving effective Hamiltonian is quadratic the model can be treated using perturbation theory...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatma ?A?MAZ ÖREN
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this present study is to determine the level of knowledge of the science-technology teacher candidates on the issue of plant respiration and photosynthesis through concept cartoons. And, the knowledge level of the participants on the issue is examined in terms of different variables, such as grade level and type of education. The method of the study is the survey method, which is one of the qualitative research methods. For this purpose, the sample of the study consists of 192 science and technology teacher candidates studying at Celal Bayar University. The concept cartoons test was used as the data gathering tool. When the findings of the study were examined, it was seen that teacher candidates’ level of knowledge was higher on the issues of “the required conditions for photosynthesis – light” and “plant respiration at night – the photosynthesis process”. In the light of these results, certain suggestions are made about the use of concept catooons.
Use of re-randomized data in meta-analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clark Otavio
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcomes collected in randomized clinical trials are observations of random variables that should be independent and identically distributed. However, in some trials, the patients are randomized more than once thus violating both of these assumptions. The probability of an event is not always the same when a patient is re-randomized; there is probably a non-zero covariance coming from observations on the same patient. This is of particular importance to the meta-analysts. Methods We developed a method to estimate the relative error in the risk differences with and without re-randomization of the patients. The relative error can be estimated by an expression depending on the percentage of the patients who were re-randomized, multipliers (how many times more likely it is to repeat an event for the probability of reoccurrences, and the ratio of the total events reported and the initial number of patients entering the trial. Results We illustrate our methods using two randomized trials testing growth factors in febrile neutropenia. We showed that under some circumstances the relative error of taking into account re-randomized patients was sufficiently small to allow using the results in the meta-analysis. Our findings indicate that if the study in question is of similar size to other studies included in the meta-analysis, the error introduced by re-randomization will only minimally affect meta-analytic summary point estimate. We also show that in our model the risk ratio remains constant during the re-randomization, and therefore, if a meta-analyst is concerned about the effect of re-randomization on the meta-analysis, one way to sidestep the issue and still obtain reliable results is to use risk ratio as the measure of interest. Conclusion Our method should be helpful in the understanding of the results of clinical trials and particularly helpful to the meta-analysts to assess if re-randomized patient data can be used in their analyses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: Gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model. (orig.)
Random Binomial Tree Models and Options
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamola Bayram
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the simplest random binomial tree model. Usual binomial tree model is prescribed by pair of numbers (u, d, where u denotes the increase rate of the stock over the fixed period of time and d denotes the decrease rate, with 0n, Dn, where {Un} and {Dn} be the sequences of independent, identically distributed random variables with Un>1 and 0nn for all n, is called a random environment and binomial tree model with random environment is called random binomial tree model. In this paper, we define and study European call option for such models.
Do?bler, Christian
2015-01-01
We prove abstract bounds on the Wasserstein and Kolmogorov distances between non-randomly centered random sums of real i.i.d. random variables with a finite third moment and the standard normal distribution. Except for the case of mean zero summands, these bounds involve a coupling of the summation index with its size biased distribution as was previously considered in \\cite{GolRin96} for the normal approximation of nonnegative random variables. When being specialized to con...
Ay?e Binnur Erba?ci; Necat Yilmaz; Irfan Kutlar
1999-01-01
Information on menstrual cycle dependent variation of tumor markers in healthy women is a subject of diagnostic efficiency and has an impact in elucidating the normal function of these markers. In this study midfollicular and midluteal concentrations of serum CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3 and their relations with LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone were evaluated during ovulatory cycles in a group of 23 healthy female individuals. Samples were collected on the 7th and 21st day...
Bouman, N.; Borst, Sc; Boxma, Oj; Leeuwaarden, Jsh
2013-01-01
We consider a broad class of queueing models with random state-dependent vacation periods, which arise in the analysis of queue-based back-off algorithms in wireless random-access networks. In contrast to conventional models, the vacation periods may be initiated after each service completion, and can be randomly terminated with certain probabilities that depend on the queue length. We examine the scaled queue length and delay in a heavy-traffic regime, and demonstrate a sha...
Randomized First Passage Times
Jaimungal, Sebastian; Valov, Angelo
2009-01-01
In this article we study a problem related to the first passage and inverse first passage time problems for Brownian motions originally formulated by Jackson, Kreinin and Zhang (2009). Specifically, define $\\tau_X = \\inf\\{t>0:W_t + X \\le b(t) \\}$ where $W_t$ is a standard Brownian motion, then given a boundary function $b:[0,\\infty) \\to \\RR$ and a target measure $\\mu$ on $[0,\\infty)$, we seek the random variable $X$ such that the law of $\\tau_X$ is given by $\\mu$. We characterize the solutions, prove uniqueness and existence and provide several key examples associated with the linear boundary.
Randomized First Passage Times
Jaimungal, Sebastian; Kreinin, Alex; Valov, Angelo
2009-01-01
In this article we study a problem related to the first passage and inverse first passage time problems for Brownian motions originally formulated by Jackson, Kreinin and Zhang (2009). Specifically, define $\\tau_X = \\inf\\{t>0:W_t + X \\le b(t) \\}$ where $W_t$ is a standard Brownian motion, then given a boundary function $b:[0,\\infty) \\to \\RR$ and a target measure $\\mu$ on $[0,\\infty)$, we seek the random variable $X$ such that the law of $\\tau_X$ is given by $\\mu$. We charact...
Extremal dependence: some contributions
Ferreira, Helena; Ferreira, Marta
2011-01-01
Due to globalization and relaxed market regulation, we have assisted to an increasing of extremal dependence in international markets. As a consequence, several measures of tail dependence have been stated in literature in recent years, based on multivariate extreme-value theory. In this paper we present a tail dependence function and an extremal coefficient of dependence between two random vectors that extend existing ones. We shall see that in weakening the usual required ...
Ochiai, Marcelo E; Brancalhão, Euler C O; Puig, Raphael S. N.; Vieira, Kelly R N; Cardoso, Juliano N; de Oliveira-Jr, Múcio Tavares; Barretto, Antonio C P
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate angiotensin receptor blocker add-on therapy in patients with low cardiac output during decompensated heart failure. METHODS: We selected patients with decompensated heart failure, low cardiac output, dobutamine dependence, and an ejection fraction <0.45 who were receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The patients were randomized to losartan or placebo and underwent invasive hemodynamic and B-type natriuretic peptide measurements at baseline and on the seventh day after intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01857999. RESULTS: We studied 10 patients in the losartan group and 11 patients in the placebo group. The patient characteristics were as follows: age 52.7 years, ejection fraction 21.3%, dobutamine infusion 8.5 mcg/kg.min, indexed systemic vascular resistance 1918.0 dynes.sec/cm5.m2, cardiac index 2.8 L/min.m2, and B-type natriuretic peptide 1,403 pg/mL. After 7 days of intervention, there was a 37.4% reduction in the B-type natriuretic peptide levels in the losartan group compared with an 11.9% increase in the placebo group (mean difference, -49.1%; 95% confidence interval: -88.1 to -9.8%, p?=?0.018). No significant difference was observed in the hemodynamic measurements. CONCLUSION: Short-term add-on therapy with losartan reduced B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients hospitalized for decompensated severe heart failure and low cardiac output with inotrope dependence. PMID:24838894
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding is a modified type of common rotary friction welding processes. In this welding method parameters such as pressure, angular velocity and time of welding control temperature, stress, strain and their variations. These dependent factors play an important rule in defining optimum process parameters combinations in order to improve the design and manufacturing of welding machines and quality of welded parts. Thermo-mechanical simulation of friction welding has been carried out and it has been shown that, simulation is an important tool for prediction of generated heat and strain at the weld interface and can be used for prediction of microstructure and evaluation of quality of welds. For simulation of Hybrid Rotary Friction Welding, a commercial finite element program has been used and the effects of pressure and rotary velocity of rotary part on temperature and strain variations have been investigated
Kimura, Rina; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Miyashita, Kotaro; Otsubo, Ryoichi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Otsuki, Toshiho; Sakata, Toshiyuki; Nagura, Junko; Okayama, Akira; Minematsu, Kazuo; Naritomi, Hiroaki; Honda, Shigenori; Sato, Kiyoshi; Tomoike, Hitonobu; Miyata, Toshiyuki
2006-12-01
gamma-Glutamyl carboxylation, a reaction essential for the activity of vitamin K-dependent proteins, requires the concerted actions of gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), vitamin K 2, 3-epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1), and the chaperone calumenin (CALU). We evaluated the contribution of genetic polymorphisms in VKORC1, GGCX, and CALU to interindividual variation in the activities of plasma protein C and protein S. We sequenced these 3 genes in 96 Japanese individuals and geno-typed 9 representative single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 3655 Japanese individuals representative of the general population. The mean activity of protein C in women bearing the GG genotype of GGCX 8016G>A (130.8% +/- 1.5%, n = 156) was significantly greater (P = .002) than that of individuals with either the AG (126.8% +/- 0.7%, n = 728) or the AA (125.4% +/- 0.6%, n = 881) genotype, after adjusting for confounding factors. The GGCX 8016G>A change leads to the substitution of Gin for Arg at amino acid residue 325 (Arg 325 Gln). This effect was comparable to that of a previously defined polymorphism in the protein C promoter. Mean protein S activity was influenced by the VKORC1 3730G>A and CALU 20943T>A genotypes, after adjusting for confounding factors. Thus, polymorphisms in genes involved in the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation reaction influence interindividual variation in the activities of protein C and protein S in the general population. PMID:17189218
Fuzziness and randomness in an optimization framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a semi-infinite approach for linear programming in the presence of fuzzy random variable coefficients. As a byproduct a way for dealing with optimization problems including both fuzzy and random data is obtained. Numerical examples are provided for the sake of illustration. (author). 13 refs
A Kernel Independence Test for Random Processes
Chwialkowski, Kacper; Gretton, Arthur
2014-01-01
A new non parametric approach to the problem of testing the independence of two random process is developed. The test statistic is the Hilbert Schmidt Independence Criterion (HSIC), which was used previously in testing independence for i.i.d pairs of variables. The asymptotic behaviour of HSIC is established when computed from samples drawn from random processes. It is shown that earlier bootstrap procedures which worked in the i.i.d. case will fail for random processes, and...
Harman, Ciaran J.
2015-01-01
Transport processes and pathways through many hydrodynamic systems vary over time, often driven by variations in total water storage. This paper develops a very general approach to modeling unsteady transport through an arbitrary control volume (such as a watershed) that accounts for temporal variability in the underlying transport dynamics. Controls on the selection of discharge from stored water are encapsulated in probability distributions ?Q>(ST,t>) of age-ranked storage ST (the volume of water in storage ranked from youngest to oldest). This framework is applied to a long-term record of rainfall and streamflow chloride in a small, humid watershed at Plynlimon, UK. While a time-invariant gamma distribution for ?Q produced a good fit to data, the fit was significantly improved when the distribution was allowed to vary with catchment storage. However, the variation was inverse to that of a "well-mixed" system where storage has a pure dilution effect. Discharge at high storage was predicted to contain a larger fraction of recent event water than at low storage. The effective volume of storage involved in transport was 3411 mm at mean catchment wetness, but declined by 71 mm per 1 mm of additional catchment storage, while the fraction of event water in discharge increased by 1.4%. This "inverse storage effect" is sufficient to reproduce the observed long-memory 1/f fractal spectral structure of stream chloride. Metrics quantifying the strength and direction of storage effects are proposed as useful signatures, and point toward a unified framework for observing and modeling coupled watershed flow and transport.
Consistency under Sampling of Exponential Random Graph Models
Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla
2011-01-01
The growing availability of network data and of scientific interest in distributed systems has led to the rapid development of statistical models of network structure. Typically, however, these are models for the entire network, while the data consists only of a sampled sub-network. Parameters for the whole network, which is what is of interest, are estimated by applying the model to the sub-network. This assumes that the model is consistent under sampling, or, in terms of the theory of stochastic processes, that it defines a projective family. Focussing on the popular class of exponential random graph models (ERGMs), we show that this apparently trivial condition is in fact violated by many popular and scientifically appealing models, and that satisfying it drastically limits ERGM's expressive power. These results are actually special cases of more general ones about exponential families of dependent random variables, which we also prove. Using such results, we offer easily checked conditions for the consist...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wanscher, JØrgen Bundgaard; SØrensen, Majken Vildrik
2006-01-01
Random numbers are used for a great variety of applications in almost any field of computer and economic sciences today. Examples ranges from stock market forecasting in economics, through stochastic traffic modelling in operations research to photon and ray tracing in graphics. The construction of a model or a solution method requires certain characteristics of the random numbers used. This is usually a distribution classification, which the sequence of random numbers must fulfill; of these some are very hard to fulfill and others are next to impossible. Today mathematics allows us to transform distributions into others with most of the required characteristics. In essence, a uniform sequence which is transformed into a new sequence with the required distribution. The subject of this article is to consider the well known highly uniform Halton sequence and modifications to it. The intent is to generate highly uniform multidimensional draws, which are highly relevant for todays traffic models. This paper shows among others combined shuffling and scrambling seems needless, that scrambling gives the lowest correlation and that there are detectable differences between random numbers, dependent on their generation.
Random walks on random horospheric products
Kaimanovich, Vadim A.; Sobieczky, Florian
2011-01-01
By developing the entropy theory of random walks on equivalence relations and analyzing the asymptotic geometry of horospheric products we describe the Poisson boundary for random walks on random horospheric products of trees.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper concerns with a steady two-dimensional flow of an electrically conducting incompressible fluid over a vertical stretching surface. The flow is permeated by a uniform transverse magnetic field. The fluid viscosity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. A scaling group of transformations is applied to the governing equations. The system remains invariant due to some relations among the parameters of the transformations. After finding three absolute invariants a third-order ordinary differential equation corresponding to the momentum equation and two second-order ordinary differential equation corresponding to energy and diffusion equations are derived. The equations along with the boundary conditions are solved numerically. It is found that the decrease in the temperature-dependent fluid viscosity makes the velocity to decrease with the increasing distance of the stretching sheet. At a particular point of the sheet the fluid velocity decreases with the decreasing viscosity but the temperature increases in this case. It is found that with the increase of magnetic field intensity the fluid velocity decreases but the temperature increases at a particular point of the heated stretching surface. Impact of chemical reaction in the presence of thermal radiation plays an important role on the concentration boundary layer. The results thus obtained are presented graphically and discussed.
Extremal dependence: some contributions
Ferreira, Helena
2011-01-01
Due to globalization and relaxed market regulation, we have assisted to an increasing of extremal dependence in international markets. As a consequence, several measures of tail dependence have been stated in literature in recent years, based on multivariate extreme-value theory. In this paper we present a tail dependence function and an extremal coefficient of dependence between two random vectors that extend existing ones. We shall see that in weakening the usual required dependence allows to assess the amount of dependence in $d$-variate random vectors based on bidimensional techniques. Very simple estimators will be stated and can be applied to the well-known \\emph{stable tail dependence function}. Asymptotic normality and strong consistency will be derived too. An application to financial markets will be presented at the end.
Modelling the Dependence of Parametric Bivariate Extreme Value Copulas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Dossou-Gbete
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we consider the situation where contraints are made on the domains of two random variables whose joint copula is an extreme value model. We introduce a new measure which characterize these conditional dependence. We proved that every bivariate extreme value copulas is totally characterized by a conditional dependence function. Every two-dimensional distribution is also shown to be max-infinite divisible under a restriction on the new measure. The average and median values of the measure have been computed for the main bivariate families of parametric extreme value copulas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zemla, A; Lang, D; Kostova, T; Andino, R; Zhou, C
2010-11-29
Most of the currently used methods for protein function prediction rely on sequence-based comparisons between a query protein and those for which a functional annotation is provided. A serious limitation of sequence similarity-based approaches for identifying residue conservation among proteins is the low confidence in assigning residue-residue correspondences among proteins when the level of sequence identity between the compared proteins is poor. Multiple sequence alignment methods are more satisfactory - still, they cannot provide reliable results at low levels of sequence identity. Our goal in the current work was to develop an algorithm that could overcome these difficulties and facilitate the identification of structurally (and possibly functionally) relevant residue-residue correspondences between compared protein structures. Here we present StralSV, a new algorithm for detecting closely related structure fragments and quantifying residue frequency from tight local structure alignments. We apply StralSV in a study of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus and demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to determine regions of the protein that are relatively unique or that shared structural similarity with structures that are distantly related. By quantifying residue frequencies among many residue-residue pairs extracted from local alignments, one can infer potential structural or functional importance of specific residues that are determined to be highly conserved or that deviate from a consensus. We further demonstrate that considerable detailed structural and phylogenetic information can be derived from StralSV analyses. StralSV is a new structure-based algorithm for identifying and aligning structure fragments that have similarity to a reference protein. StralSV analysis can be used to quantify residue-residue correspondences and identify residues that may be of particular structural or functional importance, as well as unusual or unexpected residues at a given sequence position.
Siegrist, Kyle
Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on random samples. The author provides examples, exercises, and applets concerning many different topics. Some of these include: sample mean, law of large numbers, sample variance, partial sums, central limit theorem, special properties of normal samples, order statistics, and sample covariance and correlation. Additionally, the author provides links to external resources for students wanting to engage further with the topic. This is simply one of seventeen lessons. They are all easily accessible as the author has formatted his site much like an online textbook.
Modeling Shared Variables in VHDL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jan; Brage, Jens P.
1994-01-01
A set of concurrent processes communicating through shared variables is an often used model for hardware systems. This paper presents three modeling techniques for representing such shared variables in VHDL, depending on the acceptable constraints on accesses to the variables. Also a set of guidelines for handling atomic updates of multiple shared variables is given. 1 Introduction It is often desirable to partition a computational system into discrete functional units which cooperates to.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Róbinson Ramírez-Vélez
2010-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico en la función dependiente del endotelio (VDE y en el consumo de oxígeno en mujeres primigestantes. MÉTODOS: ensayo clínico controlado, enmascarado y aleatorizado, llevado a cabo en 67 mujeres saludables, primigestantes, entre 16 a 20 semanas de gestación. Grupo de intervención: ejercicio aeróbico entre 50% y 65% de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, durante 45 minutos, tres veces por semana, durante dieciséis semanas. Grupo control: actividad física habitual. Mediciones: VDE: vasodilatación mediada por flujo (VMF, consumo de oxígeno VO2max: prueba de caminata de seis minutos; antropometría: peso y talla. RESULTADOS: en las mediciones iniciales no se encontraron diferencias entre grupos en ninguna de las variables. Al finalizar la intervención, las participantes que realizaron ejercicio tenían mayor capacidad física, medida por la distancia recorrida en el test de caminata (p=0,043 y por el VO2max (p=0,023. Además, el grupo de ejercicio tuvo menor frecuencia cardiaca en reposo y mayor VMF que el grupo control (pOBJECTIVE: evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent function (EDF and oxygen consumption in primigravida. METHODS: double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial carried out in primigravida between 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. The intervention group had aerobic exercise between 50% to 65% of the maximum heart rate during 45 minutes, three times a week for sixteen weeks. The control group had habitual physical activity. MEASUREMENTS REALIZED: EDF: flow-mediated dilation (FMD, oxygen consumption VO2max: 6 minute walking test, anthropometry: weight and size. RESULTS: no differences were found between the two groups in any variables in the initial measurements. At the end of the intervention, participants who exercised had greater physical capacity, measured by the distance covered in walking test (p = 0.043 and VO2max (p = 0.023. In addition, the exercise group had lower resting heart rate and increased FMD than the control group (p <0.05. Both groups increased the resting heart rate, basal diameter and post-hyperemia diameter of the brachial artery at the end of the intervention (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: regular practice of controlled aerobic exercise improves endothelial function and physical capacity in primigravida. For this reason, interventions like this could be an early and effective alternative to strengthen prevention of pathologies associated with endothelial dysfunction during pregnancy.
Valuing travel time variability: Characteristics of the travel time distribution on an urban road
Fosgerau, Mogens; Fukuda, Daisuke
2010-01-01
Fosgerau and Karlstrom [The value of reliability. Transportation Research Part B, Vol. 43 (8–9), pp. 813–820, 2010] presented a derivation of the value of travel time variability (VTTV) with a number of desirable properties. This definition of the VTTV depends on certain properties of the distribution of random travel times that require empirical verification. This paper therefore provides a detailed empirical investigation of the distribution of travel times on an urban road. Applying...
Sample path properties of fractional Riesz-Bessel field of variable order
Lim, S. C.; Teo, L. P.
2008-01-01
In this paper we consider fractional Riesz-Bessel field of variable order, which is also known as multifractional Riesz-Bessel field. Sample path properties of this random field such as local regularity, locally self-similar property, Hausdorff dimension of the graph, and long/short range dependent property are studied. The relationship between the multifractional Riesz-Bessel field and the multifractional Brownian field is also established.
Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.
2014-12-01
Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently dipping mudstones. Despite more than 18 years of pump and treat (P&T) remediation, and natural attenuation processes, CVOC concentrations in aqueous samples pumped from these deeper strata remain elevated in isolated intervals. DNAPL was detected in one borehole during coring at a depth of 27 m. In contrast to core samples from the weathered zone, concentrations in core samples from deeper unweathered and unfractured strata are typically below detection. However, high CVOC concentrations were found in isolated samples from fissile black carbon-rich strata and fractured gray laminated strata. Aqueous-phase concentrations were correspondingly high in samples pumped from these strata via short-interval wells or packer-isolated zones in long boreholes. A refined conceptual site model considers that prior to P&T remediation groundwater flow was primarily subhorizontal in the higher-permeability near surface strata, and the bulk of contaminant mass was shallow. CVOCs diffused into these fractured and weathered mudstones. DNAPL and high concentrations of CVOCs migrated slowly down in deeper unweathered strata, primarily along isolated dipping bedding-plane fractures. After P&T began in 1995, using wells open to both shallow and deep strata, downward transport of dissolved CVOCs accelerated. Diffusion of TCE and other CVOCs from deeper fractures penetrated only a few centimeters into the unweathered rock matrix, likely due to sorption of CVOCs on rock organic carbon. Remediation in the deep, unweathered strata may benefit from the relatively limited migration of CVOCs into the rock matrix. Synthesis of rock core sampling from closely spaced boreholes with geophysical logging and hydraulic testing improves understanding of the controls on CVOC delineation and informs remediation design and monitoring.
Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.
2014-01-01
Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently dipping mudstones. Despite more than 18 years of pump and treat (P&T) remediation, and natural attenuation processes, CVOC concentrations in aqueous samples pumped from these deeper strata remain elevated in isolated intervals. DNAPL was detected in one borehole during coring at a depth of 27 m. In contrast to core samples from the weathered zone, concentrations in core samples from deeper unweathered and unfractured strata are typically below detection. However, high CVOC concentrations were found in isolated samples from fissile black carbon-rich strata and fractured gray laminated strata. Aqueous-phase concentrations were correspondingly high in samples pumped from these strata via short-interval wells or packer-isolated zones in long boreholes. A refined conceptual site model considers that prior to P&T remediation groundwater flow was primarily subhorizontal in the higher-permeability near surface strata, and the bulk of contaminant mass was shallow. CVOCs diffused into these fractured and weathered mudstones. DNAPL and high concentrations of CVOCs migrated slowly down in deeper unweathered strata, primarily along isolated dipping bedding-plane fractures. After P&T began in 1995, using wells open to both shallow and deep strata, downward transport of dissolved CVOCs accelerated. Diffusion of TCE and other CVOCs from deeper fractures penetrated only a few centimeters into the unweathered rock matrix, likely due to sorption of CVOCs on rock organic carbon. Remediation in the deep, unweathered strata may benefit from the relatively limited migration of CVOCs into the rock matrix. Synthesis of rock core sampling from closely spaced boreholes with geophysical logging and hydraulic testing improves understanding of the controls on CVOC delineation and informs remediation design and monitoring.
Goode, Daniel J; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Lacombe, Pierre J
2014-12-15
Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently dipping mudstones. Despite more than 18 years of pump and treat (P&T) remediation, and natural attenuation processes, CVOC concentrations in aqueous samples pumped from these deeper strata remain elevated in isolated intervals. DNAPL was detected in one borehole during coring at a depth of 27 m. In contrast to core samples from the weathered zone, concentrations in core samples from deeper unweathered and unfractured strata are typically below detection. However, high CVOC concentrations were found in isolated samples from fissile black carbon-rich strata and fractured gray laminated strata. Aqueous-phase concentrations were correspondingly high in samples pumped from these strata via short-interval wells or packer-isolated zones in long boreholes. A refined conceptual site model considers that prior to P&T remediation groundwater flow was primarily subhorizontal in the higher-permeability near surface strata, and the bulk of contaminant mass was shallow. CVOCs diffused into these fractured and weathered mudstones. DNAPL and high concentrations of CVOCs migrated slowly down in deeper unweathered strata, primarily along isolated dipping bedding-plane fractures. After P&T began in 1995, using wells open to both shallow and deep strata, downward transport of dissolved CVOCs accelerated. Diffusion of TCE and other CVOCs from deeper fractures penetrated only a few centimeters into the unweathered rock matrix, likely due to sorption of CVOCs on rock organic carbon. Remediation in the deep, unweathered strata may benefit from the relatively limited migration of CVOCs into the rock matrix. Synthesis of rock core sampling from closely spaced boreholes with geophysical logging and hydraulic testing improves understanding of the controls on CVOC delineation and informs remediation design and monitoring. PMID:25461882
Random walks in random Dirichlet environment are transient in dimension $d\\ge 3$
Sabot, Christophe
2011-01-01
We consider random walks in random Dirichlet environment (RWDE) which is a special type of random walks in random environment where the exit probabilities at each site are i.i.d. Dirichlet random variables. On $\\Z^d$, RWDE are parameterized by a $2d$-uplet of positive reals. We prove that for all values of the parameters, RWDE are transient in dimension $d\\ge 3$. We also prove that the Green function has some finite moments and we characterize the finite moments. Our result ...
Conte, E.; Khrennikov , A.; Federici, A.; Zbilut, J. P.
2007-01-01
We developed a new method for analysis of fundamental brain waves as recorded by EEG. To this purpose we introduce a Fractal Variance Function that is based on the calculation of the variogram. The method is completed by using Random Matrix Theory. Some examples are given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)
Multiple Scattering in Random Mechanical Systems and Diffusion Approximation
Feres, Renato; Ng, Jasmine; Zhang, Hong-Kun
2013-10-01
This paper is concerned with stochastic processes that model multiple (or iterated) scattering in classical mechanical systems of billiard type, defined below. From a given (deterministic) system of billiard type, a random process with transition probabilities operator P is introduced by assuming that some of the dynamical variables are random with prescribed probability distributions. Of particular interest are systems with weak scattering, which are associated to parametric families of operators P h , depending on a geometric or mechanical parameter h, that approaches the identity as h goes to 0. It is shown that ( P h - I)/ h converges for small h to a second order elliptic differential operator on compactly supported functions and that the Markov chain process associated to P h converges to a diffusion with infinitesimal generator . Both P h and are self-adjoint (densely) defined on the space of square-integrable functions over the (lower) half-space in , where ? is a stationary measure. This measure's density is either (post-collision) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution or Knudsen cosine law, and the random processes with infinitesimal generator respectively correspond to what we call MB diffusion and (generalized) Legendre diffusion. Concrete examples of simple mechanical systems are given and illustrated by numerically simulating the random processes.
A message-passing approach to random constraint satisfaction problems with growing domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Message-passing algorithms based on belief propagation (BP) are implemented on a random constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) referred to as model RB, which is a prototype of hard random CSPs with growing domain size. In model RB, the number of candidate discrete values (the domain size) of each variable increases polynomially with the variable number N of the problem formula. Although the satisfiability threshold of model RB is exactly known, finding solutions for a single problem formula is quite challenging and attempts have been limited to cases of N ? 102. In this paper, we propose two different kinds of message-passing algorithms guided by BP for this problem. Numerical simulations demonstrate that these algorithms allow us to find a solution for random formulas of model RB with constraint tightness slightly less than pcr, the threshold value for the satisfiability phase transition. To evaluate the performance of these algorithms, we also provide a local search algorithm (random walk) as a comparison. Besides this, the simulated time dependence of the problem size N and the entropy of the variables for growing domain size are discussed
Buldyrev, Sergey
This site provides the description and instructions for as well as the link to "The Self-Avoiding Random Walk" applet. In the SAW applet, random walks start on a square lattice and then are discarded as soon as they self-intersect. If a random walk survives after N steps, we compute the square of the distance from the origin, sum it up, and divide by the number of survivals. This variable is plotted on the vertical axis of the graph, which is plotted to the right of the field where random walks travel.
How random is your heart beat?
Urbanowicz, K; Holyst, J A; Zebrowski, J J
2006-01-01
We measure the content of random uncorrelated noise in heart rate variability using a general method of noise level estimation using a coarse grained entropy. We show that usually - except for atrial fibrillation - the level of such noise is within 5 - 15% of the variance of the data and that the variability due to the linearly correlated processes is dominant in all cases analysed but atrial fibrillation. The nonlinear deterministic content of heart rate variability remains significant and may not be ignored.