WorldWideScience

Sample records for dependent random variables

  1. Bootstrap for dependent Hilbert space-valued random variables with application to von Mises statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Dehling, H.; Sharipov, O. Sh.; Wendler, M.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical methods for functional data are of interest for many applications. In this paper, we prove a central limit theorem for random variables taking their values in a Hilbert space. The random variables are assumed to be weakly dependent in the sense of near epoch dependence, where the underlying process fulfills some mixing conditions. As parametric inference in an infinite dimensional space is difficult, we show that the nonoverlapping block bootstrap is consistent. ...

  2. Weak laws of large numbers for arrays of rowwise negatively dependent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Taylor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak laws of large numbers for arrays of rowwise negatively dependent random variables are obtained in this paper. The more general hypothesis of negative dependence relaxes the usual assumption of independence. The moment conditions are similar to previous results, and the stochastic bounded condition also provides a generalization of the usual distributional assumptions.

  3. On the application of strong approximation to weak convergence of products of sums for dependent random variables

    OpenAIRE

    P.Matu?a; I.St?pie?

    2008-01-01

    We present the application of the strong approximation theorems to the study of weak convergence of products of sums of positive random variables. We focus our attention on sequences of dependent random variables such as associated and mixing sequences.

  4. Symmetric and centered binomial approximation of sums of locally dependent random variables

    CERN Document Server

    R"ollin, A

    2006-01-01

    Stein's method is used to approximate sums of discrete and locally dependent random variables by a centered and symmetric Binomial distribution. Under appropriate smoothness properties of the summands, the same order of accuracy as in the Berry-Essen Theorem is achieved. The approximation of the total number of points of a point processes is also considered. The results are applied to the exceedances of the $r$-scans process and to the Mat\\'ern hardcore point process type I.

  5. The Randomized Dependence Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Paz, David; Hennig, Philipp; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Randomized Dependence Coefficient (RDC), a measure of non-linear dependence between random variables of arbitrary dimension based on the Hirschfeld-Gebelein-R\\'enyi Maximum Correlation Coefficient. RDC is defined in terms of correlation of random non-linear copula projections; it is invariant with respect to marginal distribution transformations, has low computational cost and is easy to implement: just five lines of R code, included at the end of the paper.

  6. An edgeworth expansion for a sum of M-Dependent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Soo Rhee

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Given a sequence X1,X2,…,Xn of m-dependent random variables with moments of order 3+α (0<α≦1, we give an Edgeworth expansion of the distribution of Sσ−1(S=X1+X2+…+Xn, σ2=ES2 under the assumption that E[exp(it Sσ1] is small away from the origin. The result is of the best possible order.

  7. Association arrays in assessing forms of dependencies between bivariate random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, Samuel

    1983-01-01

    The bivariate distribution of pairs of random variables (X,Y) is said to be associated with respect to the classes of functions [unk] and [unk] if the product-moment correlation r[?(X),?(Y)] ? 0 for all ? € [unk] and ? € [unk]. In the case in which both [unk] = [unk] = [unk]* consist of all increasing functions, then the bivariate distribution of (X,Y) is said to be positive quadrant dependent. To apply the concept to data, I examine the correlations for classes of extremal functions that spa...

  8. Dependence among complex random variables as a fuel cell condition indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana; Boškoski, Pavle; Debenjak, Andrej; Juri?i?, ?ani

    2015-06-01

    As various faults alter the PEM fuel cell impedance characteristic over a broad frequency range, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is frequently employed for the purpose of condition monitoring. The proposed methodology treats the impedance components among different frequencies as dependent complex random variables. The information about fuel cell condition is incorporated into the dependence structure of these complex random variables. This dependence is described through the corresponding joint cumulative density function by employing copula functions. The benefits of such an approach are threefold: (i) the estimation of the joint cumulative density function requires only several measurements of a fuel cell in a fault-free condition, (ii) the procedure is computationally efficient, and (iii) the output of the copula function is directly used as an overall unit-free condition indicator. The approach was evaluated on a kW-range PEM fuel cell stack subjected to water management faults of various severities. The results show that the ci corresponds with the severity of the induced faults.

  9. A Bayesian alternative to mutual information for the hierarchical clustering of dependent random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Marrelec, Guillaume; Messé, Arnaud; Bellec, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The use of mutual information as a similarity measure in agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) raises an important issue: some correction needs to be applied for the dimensionality of variables. In this work, we formulate the decision of merging dependent multivariate normal variables in an AHC procedure as a Bayesian model comparison. We found that the Bayesian formulation naturally shrinks the empirical covariance matrix towards a matrix set a priori (e.g., the identity), provides an ...

  10. Heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzlin, Ana Isabel; Siepmann, Timo; Illigens, Ben Min-Woo; Weidner, Kerstin; Siepmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective In patients with alcohol dependence, ethyl-toxic damage of vasomotor and cardiac autonomic nerve fibers leads to autonomic imbalance with neurovascular and cardiac dysfunction, the latter resulting in reduced heart rate variability (HRV). Autonomic imbalance is linked to increased craving and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to assess the effects of HRV biofeedback training on HRV, vasomotor function, craving, and anxiety. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled study in 48 patients (14 females, ages 25–59 years) undergoing inpatient rehabilitation treatment. In the treatment group, patients (n=24) attended six sessions of HRV biofeedback over 2 weeks in addition to standard rehabilitative care, whereas, in the control group, subjects received standard care only. Psychometric testing for craving (Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale), anxiety (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), HRV assessment using coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVNN) analysis, and vasomotor function assessment using laser Doppler flowmetry were performed at baseline, immediately after completion of treatment or control period, and 3 and 6 weeks afterward (follow-ups 1 and 2). Results Psychometric testing showed decreased craving in the biofeedback group immediately postintervention (OCDS scores: 8.6±7.9 post-biofeedback versus 13.7±11.0 baseline [mean ± standard deviation], P<0.05), whereas craving was unchanged at this time point in the control group. Anxiety was reduced at follow-ups 1 and 2 post-biofeedback, but was unchanged in the control group (P<0.05). Following biofeedback, CVNN tended to be increased (10.3%±2.8% post-biofeedback, 10.1%±3.5% follow-up 1, 10.1%±2.9% follow-up 2 versus 9.7%±3.6% baseline; P=not significant). There was no such trend in the control group. Vasomotor function assessed using the mean duration to 50% vasoconstriction of cutaneous vessels after deep inspiration was improved following biofeedback immediately postintervention and was unchanged in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Our data indicate that HRV biofeedback might be useful to decrease anxiety, increase HRV, and improve vasomotor function in patients with alcohol dependence when complementing standard rehabilitative inpatient care. PMID:26557753

  11. Heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzlin AI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ana Isabel Penzlin,1 Timo Siepmann,2 Ben Min-Woo Illigens,3 Kerstin Weidner,4 Martin Siepmann4 1Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, 2Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany Background and objective: In patients with alcohol dependence, ethyl-toxic damage of vasomotor and cardiac autonomic nerve fibers leads to autonomic imbalance with neurovascular and cardiac dysfunction, the latter resulting in reduced heart rate variability (HRV. Autonomic imbalance is linked to increased craving and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to assess the effects of HRV biofeedback training on HRV, vasomotor function, craving, and anxiety. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled study in 48 patients (14 females, ages 25–59 years undergoing inpatient rehabilitation treatment. In the treatment group, patients (n=24 attended six sessions of HRV biofeedback over 2 weeks in addition to standard rehabilitative care, whereas, in the control group, subjects received standard care only. Psychometric testing for craving (Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, anxiety (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, HRV assessment using coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVNN analysis, and vasomotor function assessment using laser Doppler flowmetry were performed at baseline, immediately after completion of treatment or control period, and 3 and 6 weeks afterward (follow-ups 1 and 2. Results: Psychometric testing showed decreased craving in the biofeedback group immediately postintervention (OCDS scores: 8.6±7.9 post-biofeedback versus 13.7±11.0 baseline [mean ± standard deviation], P<0.05, whereas craving was unchanged at this time point in the control group. Anxiety was reduced at follow-ups 1 and 2 post-biofeedback, but was unchanged in the control group (P<0.05. Following biofeedback, CVNN tended to be increased (10.3%±2.8% post-biofeedback, 10.1%±3.5% follow-up 1, 10.1%±2.9% follow-up 2 versus 9.7%±3.6% baseline; P=not significant. There was no such trend in the control group. Vasomotor function assessed using the mean duration to 50% vasoconstriction of cutaneous vessels after deep inspiration was improved following biofeedback immediately postintervention and was unchanged in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Our data indicate that HRV biofeedback might be useful to decrease anxiety, increase HRV, and improve vasomotor function in patients with alcohol dependence when complementing standard rehabilitative inpatient care. Keywords: HRV, CVNN, alcohol addiction, rehabilitation, craving, laser Doppler flowmetry

  12. On Complex Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Anwer Khurshid; Zuhair A. Al-Hemari; Shahid Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian posit...

  13. A Bayesian Alternative to Mutual Information for the Hierarchical Clustering of Dependent Random Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelec, Guillaume; Messé, Arnaud; Bellec, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The use of mutual information as a similarity measure in agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) raises an important issue: some correction needs to be applied for the dimensionality of variables. In this work, we formulate the decision of merging dependent multivariate normal variables in an AHC procedure as a Bayesian model comparison. We found that the Bayesian formulation naturally shrinks the empirical covariance matrix towards a matrix set a priori (e.g., the identity), provides an automated stopping rule, and corrects for dimensionality using a term that scales up the measure as a function of the dimensionality of the variables. Also, the resulting log Bayes factor is asymptotically proportional to the plug-in estimate of mutual information, with an additive correction for dimensionality in agreement with the Bayesian information criterion. We investigated the behavior of these Bayesian alternatives (in exact and asymptotic forms) to mutual information on simulated and real data. An encouraging result was first derived on simulations: the hierarchical clustering based on the log Bayes factor outperformed off-the-shelf clustering techniques as well as raw and normalized mutual information in terms of classification accuracy. On a toy example, we found that the Bayesian approaches led to results that were similar to those of mutual information clustering techniques, with the advantage of an automated thresholding. On real functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets measuring brain activity, it identified clusters consistent with the established outcome of standard procedures. On this application, normalized mutual information had a highly atypical behavior, in the sense that it systematically favored very large clusters. These initial experiments suggest that the proposed Bayesian alternatives to mutual information are a useful new tool for hierarchical clustering. PMID:26406245

  14. Students' Misconceptions about Random Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    This article describes some misconceptions about random variables and related counter-examples, and makes suggestions about teaching initial topics on random variables in general form instead of doing it separately for discrete and continuous cases. The focus is on post-calculus probability courses. (Contains 2 figures.)

  15. Symmetrization of binary random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Abram; Mallows, Colin L.; Shepp, Larry A.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Vardi, Yehuda

    1999-01-01

    A random variable [math] is called an independent symmetrizer of a given random variable [math] if (a) it is independent of [math] and (b) the distribution of [math] is symmetric about [math] . In cases where the distribution of [math] is symmetric about its mean, it is easy to see that the constant random variable [math] is a minimum-variance independent symmetrizer. Taking [math] to have the same distribution as [math] clearly produces a symmetric sum, but it may not be of minimum variance....

  16. A random number generator for continuous random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, V. M.; Tapia, R. A.; Thompson, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 routine is given which may be used to generate random observations of a continuous real valued random variable. Normal distribution of F(x), X, E(akimas), and E(linear) is presented in tabular form.

  17. Randomness and Earth climate variability

    CERN Document Server

    Levinshtein, Michael E; Dmitriev, Alexander P; Shmakov, Pavel M

    2015-01-01

    Paleo-Sciences including palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology have accumulated numerous records related to climatic changes. The researchers have usually tried to identify periodic and quasi-periodic processes in these paleoscientific records. In this paper, we show that this analysis is incomplete. As follows from our results, random processes, namely processes with a single-time-constant (noise with a Lorentzian noise spectrum), play a very important and, perhaps, a decisive role in numerous natural phenomena. For several of very important natural phenomena the characteristic time constants are very similar and equal to (5-8)x10^3 years. However, this value is not universal. For example, the spectral density fluctuations of the atmospheric radiocarbon 14C are characterized by a Lorentzian with time constant 300 years. The frequency dependence of spectral density fluctuations for benthic 18O records contains two Lorentzians with time constans 8000 years and > 105 years.

  18. A Measure of Monotonicity of two Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Kachapov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: When analyzing random variables it was useful to measure the degree of their monotone dependence or compare pairs of random variables with respect to their monotonicity. Existing coefficients measure general or linear dependence of random variables. Developing a measure of monotonicity was useful for practical applications as well as for general theory, since monotonicity was an important type of dependence. Approach: Existing measures of dependence are briefly reviewed. The Reimann coefficient was generalized to arbitrary random variables with finite variances. Results: The article describes criteria for monotone dependence of two random variables and introduces a measure of this dependence-monotonicity coefficient. The advantages of this coefficient are shown in comparison with other global measures of dependence. It was shown that the monotonicity coefficient satisfies natural conditions for a monotonicity measure and that it had properties similar to the properties of the Pearson correlation; in particular, it equals 1 (-1 if and only if the pair X, Y was comonotonic (counter-monotonic. The monotonicity coefficient was calculated for some bivariate distributions and the sample version of the coefficient was defined. Conclusion/Recommendations: The monotonicity coefficient should be used to compare pairs of random variables (such as returns from financial assets with respect to their degree of monotone dependence. In the problems where the monotone relation of two variables has a random noise, the monotonicity coefficient can be used to estimate variance and other central moments of the noise. By calculating the sample version of the coefficient one will quickly find pairs of monotone dependent variables in a big dataset."

  19. Extreme value statistics of correlated random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Satya. N.; Pal, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Extreme value statistics (EVS) concerns the study of the statistics of the maximum or the minimum of a set of random variables. This is an important problem for any time-series and has applications in climate, finance, sports, all the way to physics of disordered systems where one is interested in the statistics of the ground state energy. While the EVS of uncorrelated variables are well understood, little is known for strongly correlated random variables. Only recently this...

  20. Spectra and Variance of Quantum Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Farenick, Douglas; Kozdron, Michael J.; Plosker, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    We study essentially bounded quantum random variables and show that the Gelfand spectrum of such a quantum random variable coincides with the hypoconvex hull of its essential range. Moreover, a notion of operator-valued variance is introduced, leading to a formulation of the moment problem in the context of quantum probability spaces in terms of operator-theoretic properties involving semi-invariant subspaces and spectral theory.

  1. Reduction of the Random Variables of the Turbulent Wind Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Applicability of the Probability Density Evolution Method (PDEM) for realizing evolution of the probability density for the wind turbines has rather strict bounds on the basic number of the random variables involved in the model. The efficiency of most of the Advanced Monte Carlo (AMC) methods, i.......e. Importance Sampling (IS) or Subset Simulation (SS), will be deteriorated on problems with many random variables. The problem with PDEM is that a multidimensional integral has to be carried out over the space defined by the random variables of the system. The numerical procedure requires discretization of the...... integral domain; this becomes increasingly difficult as the dimensions of the integral domain increase. On the other hand efficiency of the AMC methods is closely dependent on the design points of the problem. Presence of many random variables may increase the number of the design points, hence affects the...

  2. Random crossings in dependency trees

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the remarkably small number of crossings in real syntactic dependency trees is a side-effect of pressure for dependency length minimization. Here we answer a related important research question: what would be the expected number of crossings if the natural order of a sentence was lost? We show that that this number depends only on the number of vertices of the dependency tree (the sentence length) and the second moment of vertex degrees. The expected number of crossings is minimum for a star tree (no crossing is expected) and maximum for a linear tree (the number of crossings is of the order of the square of the sequence length).

  3. On exact sampling of nonnegative infinitely divisible random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Zhiyi

    2012-01-01

    Nonnegative infinitely divisible (i.d.) random variables form an important class of random variables. However, when this type of random variable is specified via Lévy densities that have infinite integrals on (0, ?), except for some special cases, exact sampling is unknown. We present a method that can sample a rather wide range of such i.d. random variables. A basic result is that, for any nonnegative i.d. random variable X with its Lévy density explicitly specified, if its...

  4. Nilpotent adjacency matrices, random graphs and quantum random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While a number of researchers have previously investigated the relationship between graph theory and quantum probability, the current work explores a new perspective. The approach of this paper is to begin with an arbitrary graph having no previously established relationship to quantum probability and to use that graph to construct a quantum probability space in which moments of quantum random variables reveal information about the graph's structure. Given an arbitrary finite graph and arbitrary odd integer m ? 3, fermion annihilation operators are used to construct a family of quantum random variables whose mth moments correspond to the graph's m-cycles. The approach is then generalized to recover a graph's m-cycles for any integer m ? 3 by defining nilpotent adjacency operators in terms of null-square generators of an infinite-dimensional Abelian algebra. It is shown that ordering the vertices of a simple graph induces a canonical decomposition ? = ?+ + ?- on any nilpotent adjacency operator ?. The work concludes with applications to Markov chains and random graphs

  5. Theory of Dependent Hierarchical Normalized Random Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; DING, NAN

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents theory for Normalized Random Measures (NRMs), Normalized Generalized Gammas (NGGs), a particular kind of NRM, and Dependent Hierarchical NRMs which allow networks of dependent NRMs to be analysed. These have been used, for instance, for time-dependent topic modelling. In this paper, we first introduce some mathematical background of completely random measures (CRMs) and their construction from Poisson processes, and then introduce NRMs and NGGs. Slice sampling is also intr...

  6. On the Maximum of Random Variables on Product Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Prochno, Joscha

    2012-01-01

    Let $\\xi_i$, $i=1,...,n$, and $\\eta_j$, $j=1,...,m$ be iid p-stable respectively q-stable random variables, $1random variables we prove estimates in terms of the $\\ell_p^m(\\ell_{M_{\\xi}}^n)$-norm, $M_{\\xi}$ depending on the Gaussians. Furthermore, we show that a sequence $\\xi_i$, $i=1,...,n$ of iid $\\log-\\gamma(1,p)$ distributed random variables ($p\\geq 2$) generates a truncated $\\ell_p$-norm, especially $\\Ex \\max_{i}\\abs{a_i\\xi_i}\\sim \

  7. Umbral nature of the Poisson random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nardo, E.; Senato, D.

    2004-01-01

    Extending the rigorous presentation of the classical umbral calculus given by Rota and Taylor in 1994, the so-called partition polynomials are interpreted with the aim to point out the umbral nature of the Poisson random variables. Among the new umbrae introduced, the main tool is the partition umbra that leads also to a simple expression of the functional composition of the exponential power series. Moreover a new short proof of the Lagrange inversion formula is given.

  8. An Exponential Inequality for Symmetric Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Cerf, Raphaël; Gorny, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We prove the following exponential inequality: Let $n\\geq 1$ and let $X_1,...,X_n$ be $n$ independent identically distributed symmetric real-valued random variables. For any $x,y>0$, we have \\[\\mathbb{P}\\big({X_1+...+X_n}\\geq x,\\, {X_1^2+...+X_n^2}\\leq y\\big)< \\exp(-\\frac{x^2}{2y})\\,.\\

  9. Reduction of the Random Variables of the Turbulent Wind Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, SØren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Applicability of the Probability Density Evolution Method (PDEM) for realizing evolution of the probability density for the wind turbines has rather strict bounds on the basic number of the random variables involved in the model. The efficiency of most of the Advanced Monte Carlo (AMC) methods, i.e. Importance Sampling (IS) or Subset Simulation (SS), will be deteriorated on problems with many random variables. The problem with PDEM is that a multidimensional integral has to be carried out over the space defined by the random variables of the system. The numerical procedure requires discretization of the integral domain; this becomes increasingly difficult as the dimensions of the integral domain increase. On the other hand efficiency of the AMC methods is closely dependent on the design points of the problem. Presence of many random variables may increase the number of the design points, hence affects the efficiency of the AMC methods. The idea of the paper is to propose new schemes which allow reduction of the basic random variables of the turbulence such that PDEM and Advanced Monte Carlo (AMC) methods, i.e. subset simulation, are applicable on it.

  10. Random forest automated supervised classification of Hipparcos periodic variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, P; Süveges, M; Blomme, J; López, M; Sarro, L M; De Ridder, J; Cuypers, J; Guy, L; Lecoeur, I; Nienartowicz, K; Jan, A; Beck, M; Mowlavi, N; De Cat, P; Lebzelter, T; Eyer, L

    2011-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the performance of an automated classification of the Hipparcos periodic variable stars into 26 types. The sub-sample with the most reliable variability types available in the literature is used to train supervised algorithms to characterize the type dependencies on a number of attributes. The most useful attributes evaluated with the random forest methodology include, in decreasing order of importance, the period, the amplitude, the V-I colour index, the absolute magnitude, the residual around the folded light-curve model, the magnitude distribution skewness and the amplitude of the second harmonic of the Fourier series model relative to that of the fundamental frequency. Random forests and a multi-stage scheme involving Bayesian network and Gaussian mixture methods lead to statistically equivalent results. In standard 10-fold cross-validation experiments, the rate of correct classification is between 90 and 100%, depending on the variability type. The main mis-classification case...

  11. Random forest automated supervised classification of Hipparcos periodic variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubath, P.; Rimoldini, L.; Süveges, M.; Blomme, J.; López, M.; Sarro, L. M.; De Ridder, J.; Cuypers, J.; Guy, L.; Lecoeur, I.; Nienartowicz, K.; Jan, A.; Beck, M.; Mowlavi, N.; De Cat, P.; Lebzelter, T.; Eyer, L.

    2011-07-01

    We present an evaluation of the performance of an automated classification of the Hipparcos periodic variable stars into 26 types. The sub-sample with the most reliable variability types available in the literature is used to train supervised algorithms to characterize the type dependencies on a number of attributes. The most useful attributes evaluated with the random forest methodology include, in decreasing order of importance, the period, the amplitude, the V-I colour index, the absolute magnitude, the residual around the folded light-curve model, the magnitude distribution skewness and the amplitude of the second harmonic of the Fourier series model relative to that of the fundamental frequency. Random forests and a multi-stage scheme involving Bayesian network and Gaussian mixture methods lead to statistically equivalent results. In standard 10-fold cross-validation (CV) experiments, the rate of correct classification is between 90 and 100 per cent, depending on the variability type. The main mis-classification cases, up to a rate of about 10 per cent, arise due to confusion between SPB and ACV blue variables and between eclipsing binaries, ellipsoidal variables and other variability types. Our training set and the predicted types for the other Hipparcos periodic stars are available online.

  12. Toward a generic representation of random variables for machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, Gautier; Very, Philippe; Donnat, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a pre-processing and a distance which improve the performance of machine learning algorithms working on independent and identically distributed stochastic processes. We introduce a novel non-parametric approach to represent random variables which splits apart dependency and distribution without losing any information. We also propound an associated metric leveraging this representation and its statistical estimate. Besides experiments on synthetic dataset...

  13. Message Based Random Variable Length Key Encryption Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mirvaziri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A block ciphers provides confidentiality in cryptography but cryptanalysis of the classical block ciphers demonstrated some old weaknesses grabbing a partial key in any stage of encryption procedure leads to reconstructing the whole key. Exhaustive key search shows that key generation should be indeterminist and random for each round. Matching cipher-text attack shows that larger size of block is more secure. In order to overcome analysis mentioned above a new algorithm is designed that is based on random numbers and also can defeat time and memory constraints. Approach: Dynamic and message dependent key generator was created by producing a random number and it was selected as the size of first chunk. Residual value of second chunk divided by first chunk concatenating with first chunk forms the first cipher as an input for SP-boxes. These processes repeated until whole mesaage get involved into the last cipher. Encrypted messages are not equal under different run. Value of random number should be greater than 35 bits and plaintext must be at least 7 bits. A padding algorithm was used for small size messages or big random numbers. Results: Attack on the key generation process was prevented because of random key generation and its dependency to input message. Encryption and decryption times measured between 5 and 27 m sec in 2 GHz Pentium and java platform so time variant and fast enough key generation had been kept collision and timing attacks away due to small seized storage. Long and variable key length made key exhaustive search and differential attack impossible. None fixed size key caused avoidance of replaying and other attacks that can happen on fixed sized key algorithms. Conclusion: Random process employed in this block cipher increased confidentiality of the message and dynamic length substitution in proposed algorithm may lead to maximum cryptographic confusion and consequently makes it difficult for cryptanalysis.

  14. Probability, random variables, and random processes theory and signal processing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shynk, John J

    2012-01-01

    Probability, Random Variables, and Random Processes is a comprehensive textbook on probability theory for engineers that provides a more rigorous mathematical framework than is usually encountered in undergraduate courses. It is intended for first-year graduate students who have some familiarity with probability and random variables, though not necessarily of random processes and systems that operate on random signals. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate students who have a strong mathematical background. The book has the following features: Several app

  15. COVAL - A computer code for random variables - How to use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COVAL CODE computes the probability distribution of a function of random variables given the probability distribution of these variables. The code is divided in two steps. The first step COVAL 1, computes functions in which each variable is contained only once. The second step COVAL 2, computes functions in which variables can be repeated

  16. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  17. Cardinality-dependent Variability in Orthogonal Variability Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    specific variants being bound, but by their sheer numbers. This paper contributes with an extension to the meta-model underlying the OVM notation, suggesting a notation for the new type of dependency and shows its applicability. The specific case, which initially required this extension, will work as......During our work on developing and running a software product line for eco-sustainable greenhouse-production software tools, which currently have three products members we have identified a need for extending the notation of the Orthogonal Variability Model (OVM) to support what we refer to as...... cardinality range dependencies. The cardinality-range-dependency type enables expressing that the binding of a certain number of variants to a variation point can influence variability in other places in the model. In other words, we acknowledge that variability can be influenced, not necessarily by the...

  18. Applying Free Random Variables to Random Matrix Analysis of Financial Data. Part I: A Gaussian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Z.; Jarosz, A.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Nowak, M.A.; Papp, G.; Zahed, I.

    2006-01-01

    We apply the concept of free random variables to doubly correlated (Gaussian) Wishart random matrix models, appearing for example in a multivariate analysis of financial time series, and displaying both inter-asset cross-covariances and temporal auto-covariances. We give a comprehensive introduction to the rich financial reality behind such models. We explain in an elementary way the main techniques of the free random variables calculus, with a view to promote them in the qu...

  19. Designing neural networks that process mean values of random variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Michael J. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Innovation Systems Department, 1220 Vienna (Austria); Clark, John W. [Department of Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Centro de Ciências Matemáticas, Universidade de Madeira, 9000-390 Funchal (Portugal)

    2014-06-13

    We develop a class of neural networks derived from probabilistic models posed in the form of Bayesian networks. Making biologically and technically plausible assumptions about the nature of the probabilistic models to be represented in the networks, we derive neural networks exhibiting standard dynamics that require no training to determine the synaptic weights, that perform accurate calculation of the mean values of the relevant random variables, that can pool multiple sources of evidence, and that deal appropriately with ambivalent, inconsistent, or contradictory evidence. - Highlights: • High-level neural computations are specified by Bayesian belief networks of random variables. • Probability densities of random variables are encoded in activities of populations of neurons. • Top-down algorithm generates specific neural network implementation of given computation. • Resulting “neural belief networks” process mean values of random variables. • Such networks pool multiple sources of evidence and deal properly with inconsistent evidence.

  20. Strong stability of weighted sums of NA random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Gan Shixin

    2005-01-01

    We study the almost sure (strong) stability of weighted sums of NA random variables and obtain some new results which extend earlier results of Matula (1992), Chow and Teicher (1971), Jamison et al. (1965), and Petrov (1975).

  1. Strong stability of weighted sums of NA random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Shixin

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the almost sure (strong stability of weighted sums of NA random variables and obtain some new results which extend earlier results of Matula (1992, Chow and Teicher (1971, Jamison et al. (1965, and Petrov (1975.

  2. Some Limit Theorems for Negatively Associated Random Variables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Miao; Wenfei Xu; Shanshan Chen; Andre Adler

    2014-08-01

    Let $\\{X_n,n\\geq 1\\}$ be a sequence of negatively associated random variables. The aim of this paper is to establish some limit theorems of negatively associated sequence, which include the $L^p$-convergence theorem and Marcinkiewicz–Zygmund strong law of large numbers. Furthermore, we consider the strong law of sums of order statistics, which are sampled from negatively associated random variables.

  3. Exponential Inequalities for Positively Associated Random Variables and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shanchao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We establish some exponential inequalities for positively associated random variables without the boundedness assumption. These inequalities improve the corresponding results obtained by Oliveira (2005. By one of the inequalities, we obtain the convergence rate for the case of geometrically decreasing covariances, which closes to the optimal achievable convergence rate for independent random variables under the Hartman-Wintner law of the iterated logarithm and improves the convergence rate derived by Oliveira (2005 for the above case.

  4. PaCAL: A Python Package for Arithmetic Computations with Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Korze?

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present PaCAL, a Python package for arithmetical computations on random variables. The package is capable of performing the four arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as computing many standard functions of random variables. Summary statistics, random number generation, plots, and histograms of the resulting distributions can easily be obtained and distribution parameter ?tting is also available. The operations are performed numerically and their results interpolated allowing for arbitrary arithmetic operations on random variables following practically any probability distribution encountered in practice. The package is easy to use, as operations on random variables are performed just as they are on standard Python variables. Independence of random variables is, by default, assumed on each step but some computations on dependent random variables are also possible. We demonstrate on several examples that the results are very accurate, often close to machine precision. Practical applications include statistics, physical measurements or estimation of error distributions in scienti?c computations.

  5. Concentrated Hitting Times of Randomized Search Heuristics with Variable Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Drift analysis is one of the state-of-the-art techniques for the runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics (RSHs) such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), simulated annealing etc. The vast majority of existing drift theorems yield bounds on the expected value of the hitting time for a target state, e. g., the set of optimal solutions, without making additional statements on the distribution of this time. We address this lack by providing a general drift theorem that includes bounds on the upper and lower tail of the hitting time distribution. The new tail bounds are applied to prove very precise sharp-concentration results on the running time of a simple EA on standard benchmark problems, including the class of general linear functions. The usefulness of the theorem outside the theory of RSHs is demonstrated by deriving tail bounds on the number of cycles in random permutations. All these results handle a position-dependent (variable) drift that was not covered by previous drift theorems with tail bounds. Moreover, our theorem can be specialized into virtually all existing drift theorems with drift towards the target from the literature. Finally, user-friendly specializations of the general drift theorem are given.

  6. New Results On the Sum of Two Generalized Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    We propose in this paper a new method to compute the characteristic function (CF) of generalized Gaussian (GG) random variable in terms of the Fox H function. The CF of the sum of two independent GG random variables is then deduced. Based on this results, the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum distribution are obtained. These functions are expressed in terms of the bivariate Fox H function. Next, the statistics of the distribution of the sum, such as the moments, the cumulant, and the kurtosis, are analyzed and computed. Due to the complexity of bivariate Fox H function, a solution to reduce such complexity is to approximate the sum of two independent GG random variables by one GG random variable with suitable shape factor. The approximation method depends on the utility of the system so three methods of estimate the shape factor are studied and presented.

  7. ADORAVA - A computer code to sum random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ADORAVA computer code was carried out aiming to determine the moments of random variable sum distribution when moments are known. The ADORAVA computer code was developed to be applied in probabilistic safety analysis, more specifically for uncertainty propagation in fault trees. The description of ADORAVA algorithm, input, examples and the output of compiled code are presented. (M.C.K.)

  8. Limit theorems for multi-indexed sums of random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Klesov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Presenting the first unified treatment of limit theorems for multiple sums of independent random variables, this volume fills an important gap in the field. Several new results are introduced, even in the classical setting, as well as some new approaches that are simpler than those already established in the literature. In particular, new proofs of the strong law of large numbers and the Hajek-Renyi inequality are detailed. Applications of the described theory include Gibbs fields, spin glasses, polymer models, image analysis and random shapes. Limit theorems form the backbone of probability theory and statistical theory alike. The theory of multiple sums of random variables is a direct generalization of the classical study of limit theorems, whose importance and wide application in science is unquestionable. However, to date, the subject of multiple sums has only been treated in journals. The results described in this book will be of interest to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers who ...

  9. Characteristics of quantum open systems: free random variables approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Random Matrix Theory provides an interesting tool for modelling a number of phenomena where noises (fluctuations) play a prominent role. Various applications range from the theory of mesoscopic systems in nuclear and atomic physics to biophysical models, like Hopfield-type models of neural networks and protein folding. Random Matrix Theory is also used to study dissipative systems with broken time-reversal invariance providing a setup for analysis of dynamic processes in condensed, disordered media. In the paper we use the Random Matrix Theory (RMT) within the formalism of Free Random Variables (alias Blue's functions), which allows to characterize spectral properties of non-Hermitean ''Hamiltonians''. The relevance of using the Blue's function method is discussed in connection with application of non-Hermitean operators in various problems of physical chemistry. (author)

  10. Partial summations of stationary sequences of non-Gaussian random variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Gunnar; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of the sum of a finite number of identically distributed random variables is in many cases easily determined given that the variables are independent. The moments of any order of the sum can always be expressed by the moments of the single term without computational problems. However, in the case of dependency between the terms even calculation of a few of the first moments of the sum presents serious computational problems. By use of computerized symbol manipulations it is prac...

  11. Frozen variables in random boolean constraint satisfaction problems

    OpenAIRE

    Molloy, Michael; Restrepo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    We determine the exact freezing threshold, r^f, for a family of models of random boolean constraint satisfaction problems, including NAE-SAT and hypergraph 2-colouring, when the constraint size is sufficiently large. If the constraint-density of a random CSP, F, in our family is greater than r^f then for almost every solution of F, a linear number of variables are frozen, meaning that their colours cannot be changed by a sequence of alterations in which we change o(n) variab...

  12. Shape and distribution of Jones and Faddy's skew t random variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipornchai, N.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find another way to generate Jones and Faddy's skew t random variable and to construct quantile table, coefficient of skewness, coefficient of kurtosis and coefficient of variation tables of Jones and Faddy's skew t distribution. Graphs of its probability density function and graphs of its distribution function are also presented. The results of this study show that Jones and Faddy's skew t random variable can be generated from a beta random variable on (-1,1. The coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the distribution depend on parameters a and b. The coefficient of variation of Jones and Faddy's skew t distribution can be calculated.

  13. Problems of variance reduction in the simulation of random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of the uniform linear generator is given and some of the mostly used tests to evaluate the uniformity and the independence of the obtained determinations are listed. The problem of calculating, through simulation, some moment W of a random variable function is taken into account. The Monte Carlo method enables the moment W to be estimated and the estimator variance to be obtained. Some techniques for the construction of other estimators of W with a reduced variance are introduced

  14. Probabilistic solution of random SI-type epidemiological models using the Random Variable Transformation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabán, M.-C.; Cortés, J.-C.; Romero, J.-V.; Roselló, M.-D.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a full probabilistic description of the solution of random SI-type epidemiological models which are based on nonlinear differential equations. This description consists of determining: the first probability density function of the solution in terms of the density functions of the diffusion coefficient and the initial condition, which are assumed to be independent random variables; the expectation and variance functions of the solution as well as confidence intervals and, finally, the distribution of time until a given proportion of susceptibles remains in the population. The obtained formulas are general since they are valid regardless the probability distributions assigned to the random inputs. We also present a pair of illustrative examples including in one of them the application of the theoretical results to model the diffusion of a technology using real data.

  15. Orderings of coherent systems with randomized dependent components

    OpenAIRE

    Pellerey, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Consider a general coherent system with independent or dependent components, and assume that the components are randomly chosen from two different stocks, with the components of the first stock having better reliability than the others. Then here we provide suffcient conditions on the component's lifetimes and on the random numbers of components chosen from the two stocks in order to improve the reliability of the whole system according to different stochastic orders. We also discuss several ...

  16. Sequence Dependence of Self-Interacting Random Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Irback, Anders; Schwarze, Holm

    1995-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of the random chain model proposed by Iori, Marinari and Parisi, and how this depends on the actual sequence of interactions along the chain. The properties of randomly chosen sequences are compared to those of designed ones, obtained through a simulated annealing procedure in sequence space. We show that the transition to the folded phase takes place at a smaller strength of the quenched disorder for designed sequences. As a result, folding can be relative...

  17. Moment Estimation Inequalities Based on g? Random Variable on Sugeno Measure Space

    OpenAIRE

    Jingfeng Tian; Zhiming Zhang; Dazeng Tian

    2010-01-01

    The definitions and properties of moment of g? random variable are provided on Sugeno measure space. Then some important moment estimation inequalities based on g? random variable are presented and proven.

  18. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-09-01

    Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Extracting randomness and dependencies via a matrix polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Abbe, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    The basic polarization phenomenon for i.i.d. sources is extended to a framework allowing dependencies within and between multiple sources. In particular, it is shown that taking the polar transform of a random matrix with i.i.d. columns of arbitrary (correlated) distribution allows to extract the randomness and dependencies. This result is the used to develop polar coding schemes (having low complexity) for: (1) distributed data compression, i.e., Slepian-Wolf coding (without decomposing the problem into single-user problems), (2) compression of sources with memory, (3) compression of sources on finite fields, extending the polarization phenomenon for alphabets of prime cardinality to powers of primes.

  20. Tail behavior of sums and differences of log-normal random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Archil Gulisashvili; Peter Tankov

    2016-01-01

    We present sharp tail asymptotics for the density and the distribution function of linear combinations of correlated log-normal random variables, that is, exponentials of components of a correlated Gaussian vector. The asymptotic behavior turns out to depend on the correlation between the components, and the explicit solution is found by solving a tractable quadratic optimization problem. These results can be used either to approximate the probability of tail events directly, or to construct ...

  1. Solving dependability/performability irreducible Markov models using regenerative randomization

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Juan A.

    2003-01-01

    Markov models are commonly used to asses the dependability/performability of fault-tolerant systems. Computation of many dependability/performability measures for repairable fault-tolerant systems requires the transient analysis of irreducible Markov models. Examples of such measures are the unavailability at time t and the expected interval unavailability at time t. Randomization (also called uniformization) is a well-known Markov transient analysis method and has good properties: n...

  2. Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2012-11-01

    The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.

  3. RETRACTED: The transformation of Random Variables under symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Uddin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reason(s: The authors have plagiarized a scientific research report entitled “On the symmetrizing transformation of random variables”. The corresponding author Mr. M.T. Uddin was a former student of Professor Chaubey’s but that Mr. Uddin’s studies at Concordia ended on or about 2002. One of the conditions for submission of a paper is that authors declare explicity that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on the matter and we apologize to reader of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process. We thank Professor Yogendra Chaubey and Concordial University for bringing this plagiarism to our attention.

  4. Radio Variability and Random Walk Noise Properties of Four Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a time series analysis of the long-term radio lightcurves of four blazars: 3C 279, 3C 345, 3C 446, and BL Lacertae. We exploit the data base of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) monitoring program which provides densely sampled lightcurves spanning 32 years in time in three frequency bands located at 4.8, 8, and 14.5 GHz. Our sources show mostly flat or inverted (spectral indices -0.5 < alpha < 0) spectra, in agreement with optically thick emission. All lightcurves show strong variability on all time scales. Analyzing the time lags between the lightcurves from different frequency bands, we find that we can distinguish high-peaking flares and low-peaking flares in accord with the classification of Valtaoja et al. (1992). The periodograms (temporal power spectra) of the observed lightcurves are consistent with random-walk powerlaw noise without any indication of (quasi-)periodic variability. The fact that all four sources studied are in agreement with...

  5. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K-satisfiability

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko J; Aurell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energ...

  6. Criteria for variable selection with dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Boisbunon, Aurélie; Canu, Stephane; Fourdrinier, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new data-driven procedure of model selection based loss estimation and valid for the whole family of spherically symmetric distributions, allowing for dependence between noise components. We give explicit formulas for the Firm Shrinkage estimator, and we compare by simulation our results in terms of selection with the classical AIC, BIC and leave-one-out cross-validation.

  7. Detection error exponent for spatially dependent samples in random networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Lang; Anandkumar, Animashree; Willsky, Alan S.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of binary hypothesis testing is considered when the measurements are drawn from a Markov random field (MRF) under each hypothesis. Spatial dependence of the measurements is incorporated by explicitly modeling the influence of sensor node locations on the clique potential functions of each MRF hypothesis. The nodes are placed i.i.d. in expanding areas with increasing sample size. Asymptotic performance of hypothesis testing is analyzed through the Neyman-Pearson type-II error expon...

  8. Automatic Probabilistic Program Verification through Random Variable Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Barsotti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The weakest pre-expectation calculus has been proved to be a mature theory to analyze quantitative properties of probabilistic and nondeterministic programs. We present an automatic method for proving quantitative linear properties on any denumerable state space using iterative backwards fixed point calculation in the general framework of abstract interpretation. In order to accomplish this task we present the technique of random variable abstraction (RVA and we also postulate a sufficient condition to achieve exact fixed point computation in the abstract domain. The feasibility of our approach is shown with two examples, one obtaining the expected running time of a probabilistic program, and the other the expected gain of a gambling strategy. Our method works on general guarded probabilistic and nondeterministic transition systems instead of plain pGCL programs, allowing us to easily model a wide range of systems including distributed ones and unstructured programs. We present the operational and weakest precondition semantics for this programs and prove its equivalence.

  9. Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.

  10. A new Hedging algorithm and its application to inferring latent random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Yoav

    2008-01-01

    We present a new online learning algorithm for cumulative discounted gain. This learning algorithm does not use exponential weights on the experts. Instead, it uses a weighting scheme that depends on the regret of the master algorithm relative to the experts. In particular, experts whose discounted cumulative gain is smaller (worse) than that of the master algorithm receive zero weight. We also sketch how a regret-based algorithm can be used as an alternative to Bayesian averaging in the context of inferring latent random variables.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Phase-Change Random Access Memory Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, X. S.; Shi, L. P.; Lee, H. K.; Li, J. M.; Zhao, R.; Tan, P. K.; Lim, K. G.; Yang, H. X.; Chong, T. C.

    2006-05-01

    The temperature dependences of phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells on different Ge-Sb-Te phase-change recording materials are studied and compared. A Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change film has a larger resistance margin and a higher thermal stability than Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge1Sb4Te7 films. The set resistance, reset resistance, resistance margin and threshold voltage of PCRAM cells decrease with increasing temperature. A Ge2Sb2Te5 PCRAM cell has a higher thermal stability of threshold voltage than Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge1Sb4Te7 PCRAM cells.

  12. Development of a localized probabilistic sensitivity method to determine random variable regional importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many methods to identify the important variable out of a set of random variables, i.e., “inter-variable” importance; however, to date there are no comparable methods to identify the “region” of importance within a random variable, i.e., “intra-variable” importance. Knowledge of the critical region of an input random variable (tail, near-tail, and central region) can provide valuable information towards characterizing, understanding, and improving a model through additional modeling or testing. As a result, an intra-variable probabilistic sensitivity method was developed and demonstrated for independent random variables that computes the partial derivative of a probabilistic response with respect to a localized perturbation in the CDF values of each random variable. These sensitivities are then normalized in absolute value with respect to the largest sensitivity within a distribution to indicate the region of importance. The methodology is implemented using the Score Function kernel-based method such that existing samples can be used to compute sensitivities for negligible cost. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy of the method through comparisons with finite difference and numerical integration quadrature estimates. - Highlights: ? Probabilistic sensitivity methodology. ? Determines the “region” of importance within random variables such as left tail, near tail, center, right tail, etc. ? Uses the Score Function approach to reuse the samples, hence, negligible cost. ? No restrictions on the random variable types or limit states.

  13. History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakeel, Asif, E-mail: asif.shakeel@gmail.com, E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: plove@haverford.edu; Love, Peter J., E-mail: asif.shakeel@gmail.com, E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: plove@haverford.edu [Department of Physics, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 (United States); Meyer, David A., E-mail: asif.shakeel@gmail.com, E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: plove@haverford.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California/San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.

  14. History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice

  15. Measuring the dependence structure between yield and weather variables

    OpenAIRE

    Bokusheva, Raushan

    2010-01-01

    The design and pricing of weather-based crop insurance and weather derivatives is strongly based on an implicit assumption that the dependence structure between yields and weather variables remains unchanged over time. In this paper, we prove this assumption based on empirical time series of weather variables and farm wheat yields from Kazakhstan over the period from 1961 to 2003. By employing two different methods to measure dependence in multivariate distributions – the regression analysis ...

  16. The dependence of quasar variability on black hole mass

    CERN Document Server

    Wold, M; Shang, Z

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the dependence of quasar variability on fundamental physical parameters like black hole mass, we have matched quasars from the QUEST1 Variability Survey with broad-lined objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The matched sample contains approximately 100 quasars, and the Sloan spectra are used to estimate black hole masses and bolometric luminosities. Variability amplitudes are measured from the QUEST1 light curves. We find that black hole mass correlates with several measures of the variability amplitude at the 99% significance level or better. The correlation does not appear to be caused by obvious selection effects inherent to flux-limited quasar samples, host galaxy contamination or other well-known correlations between quasar variability and luminosity/redshift. We evaluate variability as a function of rest-frame time lag using structure functions, and find further support for the variability--black hole mass correlation. The correlation is strongest for time lags of the order...

  17. Explaining the dark energy, baryon and dark matter coincidence via domain-dependent random densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dark energy, dark matter and baryon densities in the Universe are observed to be similar, with a factor of no more than 20 between the largest and smallest densities. We show that this coincidence can be understood via superhorizon domains of randomly varying densities when the baryon density at initial collapse of galaxy-forming perturbations is determined by anthropic selection. The baryon and dark matter densities are assumed to be dependent on random variables ?d and ?b according to ?dm??d? and ?b??b?, while the effectively constant dark energy density is dependent upon a random variable ?Q according to ?Q??Qn. The ratio of the baryon density to the dark energy density at initial collapse, rQ, and the baryon-to-dark matter ratio, r, are then determined purely statistically, with no dependence on the anthropically-preferred baryon density. We compute the probability distribution for rQ and r and show that the observed values of rQ and r can be naturally understood within this framework. In particular, for the case ? = 2, ? = 1 and n = 4, which can be physically realized via a combination of axion dark matter, Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and frozen quintessence with a ?Q4 potential, the range of rQ and r which corresponds to the observed Universe is a quite natural, with a probability which is broadly similar to other ranges of rQ and r

  18. Array Variate Elliptical Random Variables with Multiway Kronecker Delta Covariance Matrix Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Akdemir, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Standard statistical methods applied to matrix random variables often fail to describe the underlying structure in multiway data sets. In this paper we will discuss the concept of an array variate random variable and introduce a class of elliptical array densities which have elliptical contours.

  19. An almost Sure Central Limit Theorem for the Weight Function Sequences of NA Random Variables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qunying Wu

    2011-08-01

    Consider the weight function sequences of NA random variables. This paper proves that the almost sure central limit theorem holds for the weight function sequences of NA random variables. Our results generalize and improve those on the almost sure central limit theorem previously obtained from the i.i.d. case to NA sequences.

  20. A Novel Method for Increasing the Entropy of a Sequence of Independent, Discrete Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Jessa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method for increasing the entropy of a sequence of independent, discrete random variables with arbitrary distributions. The method uses an auxiliary table and a novel theorem that concerns the entropy of a sequence in which the elements are a bitwise exclusive-or sum of independent discrete random variables.

  1. Raw and Central Moments of Binomial Random Variables via Stirling Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We consider here the problem of calculating the moments of binomial random variables. It is shown how formulae for both the raw and the central moments of such random variables may be obtained in a recursive manner utilizing Stirling numbers of the first kind. Suggestions are also provided as to how students might be encouraged to explore this…

  2. An Inversion Formula for Orlicz Norms and Sequences of Random Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Soeren; Riemer, Stiene

    2012-01-01

    Given an Orlicz function $M$, we show which random variables $\\xi_i$, $i=1,...,n$ generate the associated Orlicz norm, i.e., which random variables yield $\\mathbb{E} \\max\\limits_{1\\leq i \\leq n}|x_i\\xi_i| \\sim \

  3. CONVERGENCE OF THE FRACTIONAL PARTS OF THE RANDOM VARIABLES TO THE TRUNCATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gheorghe Munteanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the stochastic approximations, in this paper it was studiedthe convergence in distribution of the fractional parts of the sum of random variables to the truncated exponential distribution with parameter lambda. This fact is feasible by means of the Fourier-Stieltjes sequence (FSS of the random variable.

  4. Stable limits for sums of dependent infinite variance random variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkiewicz, Katarzyna; Jakubowski, Adam; Mikosch, Thomas; Wintenberger, Olivier

    The aim of this paper is to provide conditions which ensure that the affinely transformed partial sums of a strictly stationary process converge in distribution to an infinite variance stable distribution. Conditions for this convergence to hold are known in the literature. However, most of these...

  5. Bias in random forest variable importance measures: Illustrations, sources and a solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hothorn Torsten

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variable importance measures for random forests have been receiving increased attention as a means of variable selection in many classification tasks in bioinformatics and related scientific fields, for instance to select a subset of genetic markers relevant for the prediction of a certain disease. We show that random forest variable importance measures are a sensible means for variable selection in many applications, but are not reliable in situations where potential predictor variables vary in their scale of measurement or their number of categories. This is particularly important in genomics and computational biology, where predictors often include variables of different types, for example when predictors include both sequence data and continuous variables such as folding energy, or when amino acid sequence data show different numbers of categories. Results Simulation studies are presented illustrating that, when random forest variable importance measures are used with data of varying types, the results are misleading because suboptimal predictor variables may be artificially preferred in variable selection. The two mechanisms underlying this deficiency are biased variable selection in the individual classification trees used to build the random forest on one hand, and effects induced by bootstrap sampling with replacement on the other hand. Conclusion We propose to employ an alternative implementation of random forests, that provides unbiased variable selection in the individual classification trees. When this method is applied using subsampling without replacement, the resulting variable importance measures can be used reliably for variable selection even in situations where the potential predictor variables vary in their scale of measurement or their number of categories. The usage of both random forest algorithms and their variable importance measures in the R system for statistical computing is illustrated and documented thoroughly in an application re-analyzing data from a study on RNA editing. Therefore the suggested method can be applied straightforwardly by scientists in bioinformatics research.

  6. 'Sequence' dependent elasticity and local stiffness of a random heteropolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the 'sequence' distribution of thermally averaged global and local elastic properties of a random heteropolymer of fixed length N, within the framework of a disordered Kratky–Porod (KP) model. We arrive at a number of qualitative results on the form of the distribution function of the thermally averaged end-to-end distance (R2), and its moments. For long N?? chains, this distribution is a Gaussian; for shorter chains, there is a crossover to an exponential distribution, with the most probable end-to-end distance deviating significantly from the mean. Further, the distributions of local quantities related to the thermally averaged tangent–tangent correlator are typically broad, even in the thermodynamic limit, i.e., they do not self-average. This is consistent with the general consensus that DNA–protein binding/unbinding strengths and rates are sensitive to local elastic distortion which is 'sequence' dependent

  7. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    OpenAIRE

    Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time. Generating schedule values for variable and random reinforcement schedules can be difficult. The present article describes the steps necessary to writ...

  8. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K -satisfiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed.

  9. Model Building with Multiple Dependent Variables and Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Tofallis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used method for finding relationships between several quantities is multiple regression. This however is restricted to a single dependent variable. We present a more general method which allows models to be constructed with multiple variables on both sides of an equation and which can be computed easily using a spreadsheet program. The underlying principle (originating from canonical correlation analysis) is that of maximising the correlation between the two ...

  10. Variable Voltage Source Inverter with controlled frequency spectrum based on Random Pulse Width Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farrukh Yaqub

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for single phase variable voltage inverter based on Random Pulse Width Modulation. In Random Pulse Width Modulation based inverter, the frequency spectrum of the output current and voltage waveforms becomes continuous because of the randomization of the switching function of the devices controlling the output voltages. This paper establishes a theory that if the distributions of the random numbers generated by the random source are kept within certain limit with respect to the peak value of reference sinusoidal waveform, the frequency spectrum can be controlled. On the basis of the results, a novel drive using variable tap changing transformer (optional and adaptive random number generator, to control the ratio between the numbers generated by the random source and the reference waveform has been suggested that will guarantee a better power quality profile for a broad range of output voltages.

  11. Sampling designs dependent on sample parameters of auxiliary variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wywia?, Janusz L

    2015-01-01

    The book offers a valuable resource for students and statisticians whose work involves survey sampling. An estimation of the population parameters in finite and fixed populations assisted by auxiliary variables is considered. New sampling designs dependent on moments or quantiles of auxiliary variables are presented on the background of the classical methods. Accuracies of the estimators based on original sampling design are compared with classical estimation procedures. Specific conditional sampling designs are applied to problems of small area estimation as well as to estimation of quantiles of variables under study. .

  12. Multivariate non-normally distributed random variables in climate research – introduction to the copula approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Friederichs

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.

  13. Random recurrence equations and ruin in a Markov-dependent stochastic economic environment

    CERN Document Server

    Collamore, Jeffrey F

    2009-01-01

    We develop sharp large deviation asymptotics for the probability of ruin in a Markov-dependent stochastic economic environment and study the extremes for some related Markovian processes which arise in financial and insurance mathematics, related to perpetuities and the $\\operatorname {ARCH}(1)$ and $\\operatorname {GARCH}(1,1)$ time series models. Our results build upon work of Goldie [Ann. Appl. Probab. 1 (1991) 126--166], who has developed tail asymptotics applicable for independent sequences of random variables subject to a random recurrence equation. In contrast, we adopt a general approach based on the theory of Harris recurrent Markov chains and the associated theory of nonnegative operators, and meanwhile develop certain recurrence properties for these operators under a nonstandard "G\\"artner--Ellis" assumption on the driving process.

  14. On the supremum of the tails of normalized sums of independent Rademacher random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Pinelis, Iosif

    2012-01-01

    A well-known longstanding conjecture on the supremum of the tails of normalized sums of independent Rademacher random variables is disproved. A related conjecture, also recently disproved, is discussed.

  15. Zero Distribution of System with Unknown Random Variables Case Study: Avoiding Collision Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parman Setyamartana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stochastic analysis of finding the feasible trajectories of robotics arm motion at obstacle surrounding. Unknown variables are coefficients of polynomials joint angle so that the collision-free motion is achieved. ãk is matrix consisting of these unknown feasible polynomial coefficients. The pattern of feasible polynomial in the obstacle environment shows as random. This paper proposes to model the pattern of this randomness values using random polynomial with unknown variables as coefficients. The behavior of the system will be obtained from zero distribution as the characteristic of such random polynomial. Results show that the pattern of random polynomial of avoiding collision can be constructed from zero distribution. Zero distribution is like building block of the system with obstacles as uncertainty factor. By scale factor k, which has range, the random coefficient pattern can be predicted.

  16. Random variables as pathwise integrals with respect to fractional Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Mishura, Yuliya; Valkeila, Esko

    2011-01-01

    We show that a pathwise stochastic integral with respect to fractional Brownian motion with an adapted integrand $g$ can have any prescribed distribution, moreover, we give both necessary and sufficient conditions when random variables can be represented in this form. We also prove that any random variable is a value of such integral in some improper sense. We discuss some applications of these results, in particular, to fractional Black--Scholes model of financial market.

  17. The discovery of timescale-dependent color variability of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey g- and r-band photometric monitoring data for quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits the opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ?10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5; thus, it cannot be due to contamination to broadband photometry from emission lines that do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component such as the host galaxy. It cannot be interpreted as changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored in the sense that fluctuations in the inner, hotter region of the disk are responsible for short-term variations, while longer-term and stronger variations are expected from the larger and cooler disk region. An interesting implication is that one can use quasar variations at different timescales to probe disk emission at different radii.

  18. The discovery of timescale-dependent color variability of quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu-Han; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Yang [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya, E-mail: sunyh92@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey g- and r-band photometric monitoring data for quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits the opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ?10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5; thus, it cannot be due to contamination to broadband photometry from emission lines that do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component such as the host galaxy. It cannot be interpreted as changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored in the sense that fluctuations in the inner, hotter region of the disk are responsible for short-term variations, while longer-term and stronger variations are expected from the larger and cooler disk region. An interesting implication is that one can use quasar variations at different timescales to probe disk emission at different radii.

  19. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…

  20. A Kernel Test for Three-Variable Interactions with Random Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rubenstein, Paul K.; Chwialkowski, Kacper P.; Gretton, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    We apply a wild bootstrap method to the Lancaster three-variable interaction measure in order to detect factorisation of the joint distribution on three variables forming a stationary random process, for which the existing permutation bootstrap method fails. As in the i.i.d. case, the Lancaster test is found to outperform existing tests in cases for which two independent variables individually have a weak influence on a third, but that when considered jointly the influence is strong. The main...

  1. Convergence properties of polynomial chaos approximations for L2 random variables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Richard V., Jr. (.,; .); Grigoriu, Mircea (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)

    2007-03-01

    Polynomial chaos (PC) representations for non-Gaussian random variables are infinite series of Hermite polynomials of standard Gaussian random variables with deterministic coefficients. For calculations, the PC representations are truncated, creating what are herein referred to as PC approximations. We study some convergence properties of PC approximations for L{sub 2} random variables. The well-known property of mean-square convergence is reviewed. Mathematical proof is then provided to show that higher-order moments (i.e., greater than two) of PC approximations may or may not converge as the number of terms retained in the series, denoted by n, grows large. In particular, it is shown that the third absolute moment of the PC approximation for a lognormal random variable does converge, while moments of order four and higher of PC approximations for uniform random variables do not converge. It has been previously demonstrated through numerical study that this lack of convergence in the higher-order moments can have a profound effect on the rate of convergence of the tails of the distribution of the PC approximation. As a result, reliability estimates based on PC approximations can exhibit large errors, even when n is large. The purpose of this report is not to criticize the use of polynomial chaos for probabilistic analysis but, rather, to motivate the need for further study of the efficacy of the method.

  2. Modelling the statistical dependence of rainfall event variables by a trivariate copula function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balistrocchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many hydrological models, such as those derived by analytical probabilistic methods, the precipitation stochastic process is represented by means of individual storm random variables which are supposed to be independent of each other. However, several proposals were advanced to develop joint probability distributions able to account for the observed statistical dependence. The traditional technique of the multivariate statistics is nevertheless affected by several drawbacks, whose most evident issue is the unavoidable subordination of the dependence structure assessment to the marginal distribution fitting. Conversely, the copula approach can overcome this limitation, by splitting the problem in two distinct items. Furthermore, goodness-of-fit tests were recently made available and a significant improvement in the function selection reliability has been achieved. Herein a trivariate probability distribution of the rainfall event volume, the wet weather duration and the interevent time is proposed and verified by test statistics with regard to three long time series recorded in different Italian climates. The function was developed by applying a mixing technique to bivariate copulas, which were formerly obtained by analyzing the random variables in pairs. A unique probabilistic model seems to be suitable for representing the dependence structure, despite the sensitivity shown by the dependence parameters towards the threshold utilized in the procedure for extracting the independent events. The joint probability function was finally developed by adopting a Weibull model for the marginal distributions.

  3. MODELING THE TIME VARIABILITY OF SDSS STRIPE 82 QUASARS AS A DAMPED RANDOM WALK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We model the time variability of ?9000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 as a damped random walk (DRW). Using 2.7 million photometric measurements collected over 10 yr, we confirm the results of Kelly et al. and Kozlowski et al. that this model can explain quasar light curves at an impressive fidelity level (0.01-0.02 mag). The DRW model provides a simple, fast (O(N) for N data points), and powerful statistical description of quasar light curves by a characteristic timescale (?) and an asymptotic rms variability on long timescales (SF?). We searched for correlations between these two variability parameters and physical parameters such as luminosity and black hole mass, and rest-frame wavelength. Our analysis shows SF? to increase with decreasing luminosity and rest-frame wavelength as observed previously, and without a correlation with redshift. We find a correlation between SF? and black hole mass with a power-law index of 0.18 ± 0.03, independent of the anti-correlation with luminosity. We find that ? increases with increasing wavelength with a power-law index of 0.17, remains nearly constant with redshift and luminosity, and increases with increasing black hole mass with a power-law index of 0.21 ± 0.07. The amplitude of variability is anti-correlated with the Eddington ratio, which suggests a scenario where optical fluctuations are tied to variations in the accretion rate. However, we find an additional dependence on luminosity and/or black hole mass that cannot be explained by the trend with Eddington ratio. The radio-loudest quasars have systematically larger variability amplitudes by about 30%, when corrected for the other observed trends, while the distribution of their characteristic timescale is indistinguishable from that of the full sample. We do not detect any statistically robust differences in the characteristic timescale and variability amplitude between the full sample and the small subsample of quasars detected by ROSAT. Our results provide a simple quantitative framework for generating mock quasar light curves, such as currently used in LSST image simulations.

  4. Model Building with Multiple Dependent Variables and Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Tofallis, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The most widely used method for finding relationships between several quantities is multiple regression. This however is restricted to a single dependent variable. We present a more general method which allows models to be constructed with multiple variables on both sides of an equation and which can be computed easily using a spreadsheet program. The underlying principle (originating from canonical correlation analysis) is that of maximising the correlation between the two sides of the model equation. This paper presents a fitting procedure which makes it possible to force the estimated model to satisfy constraint conditions which it is required to possess, these may arise from theory, prior knowledge or be intuitively obvious. We also show that the least squares approach to the problem is inadequate as it produces models which are not scale invariant.

  5. Modelado con variables aleatorias en simulink utilizando simulación montercarlo / Modeling with random variables in simulink using montecarlo simulations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio, Velásquez; Ronny, Velásquez.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el Modelado Con Variables Aleatorias En Simulink Utilizando Simulación Montecarlo, muchos modelos de sistemas reales contienen elementos que precisan o admiten un modelado estadístico, Sistemas de comunicaciones, Sistemas de conmutación, Sistemas sensores, Modelado toma forma [...] definiendo, Variables aleatorias que rigen ciertos comportamientos del sistema Procesos estocásticos para modelar variación de entradas en el tiempo, como lo son las fluctuaciones en la bolsa de valores e ciertos productos. Se deben definir métodos para generar muestras de variables aleatorias y muestras de procesos estocásticos. Entre ellos está el método de Montecarlo, el modelo implementado mostro la capacidad proponer precios optativos al precio de mercado ante cambios en el precio de un producto. Las simulaciones permitieron conocer con mayor exactitud la versatilidad del Método ante otros Métodos usados, prediciendo con gran exactitud las fluctuaciones de precios ocurridas en el producto de prueba. Abstract in english This article presents the model with random variables in Monte CarloSimulation Using Simulink, many models of real systems contain elements that require or permit a statistical modeling, communication systems,switching systems, sensor systems, modeling takes definite shape, random variables governin [...] g certain stochastic processes system behavior modelinginputs change over time, as are the fluctiaciones in the stock market andsome products. You must define methods to generate samples of random variables and stochastic samples. Among them is the Monte Carlo method, the implemented model showed the ability to propose optional pricing to the market price to changes in the price of a product. The simulations allowed to know more precisely the versatility of the method to other methods used, predicting with great accuracy the price fluctuations that occurred in the trial product.

  6. Autoclassification of the Variable 3XMM Sources Using the Random Forest Machine Learning Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Sean A; Lo, Kitty K

    2015-01-01

    In the current era of large surveys and massive data sets, autoclassification of astrophysical sources using intelligent algorithms is becoming increasingly important. In this paper we present the catalog of variable sources in the Third XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source catalog (3XMM) autoclassified using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used a sample of manually classified variable sources from the second data release of the XMM-Newton catalogs (2XMMi-DR2) to train the classifier, obtaining an accuracy of ~92%. We also evaluated the effectiveness of identifying spurious detections using a sample of spurious sources, achieving an accuracy of ~95%. Manual investigation of a random sample of classified sources confirmed these accuracy levels and showed that the Random Forest machine learning algorithm is highly effective at automatically classifying 3XMM sources. Here we present the catalog of classified 3XMM variable sources. We also present three previously unidentified unusual sources that wer...

  7. Physical Activity, Mindfulness Meditation, or Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback for Stress Reduction: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C.; Bögels, Susan M.; de Bruin, Esther I.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and a...

  8. Ladder variables, internal structure of Galton-Watson trees and finite branching random walks

    OpenAIRE

    Marckert, Jean-François; Mokkadem, Abdelkader

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Galton-Watson trees conditioned by size. We show that the number of k-ancestors (ancestors that have k children) of a node u is (almost) proportional to its depth. The k, j-ancestors are also studied. The methods rely on the study of ladder variables on an associated random walk. We also give an application to finite branching random walks.

  9. Epoch-dependent absorption line profile variability in lambda Cep

    CERN Document Server

    Uuh-Sonda, J M; Eenens, P; Mahy, L; Palate, M; Gosset, E; Flores, C A

    2014-01-01

    We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6Ief star lambda Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star. Our data reveal a much more complex situation. The frequency content of the power spectrum considerably changes from one epoch to the other. We find no stable frequency that can unambiguously be attributed to pulsations. The epoch-dependence of the frequencies and variability patterns are similar to what is seen in the wind emission lines of this and other Oef stars, suggesting that both phenomena likely have the same, currently still unknown, origin.

  10. Fatigue and creep at variable temperature. Time dependence forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure materials for nuclear reactors undergo different types of mechanical and thermal stresses for period reaching 300 000 hours. Rapid change of temperature, stress, frequency can occurs in case of accident. Determination of mechanical properties (elongation, creep, fatigue...) of materials for structure dimensioning requires extrapolation of fatigue and creep tests. The comparison of results obtained on steel 316 shows that for creep forecastings agreement is good between the different methods but it is not the case for creep fatigue. For creep in variable conditions, agreement between experiments and calculus is good only in some cases. For fatigue test with samples previously tested for creep, or vice versa, results depend upon the damage evaluation

  11. Funclust: a curves clustering method using functional random variables density approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Julien; Preda, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    A new method for clustering functional data is proposed under the name Funclust. This method relies on the approximation of the notion of probability density for functional random variables, which generally does not exists. Using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of a stochastic process, this approximation leads to define an approximation for the density of functional variables. Based on this density approximation, a parametric mixture model is proposed. The parameter estimation is carried out by ...

  12. Event-controlled constructions of random fields of maxima with non-max-stable dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Raschke, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Max-stable random fields can be constructed according to Schlather (2002) with a random function or a stationary process and a kind of random event magnitude. These are applied for the modelling of natural hazards. We simply extend these event-controlled constructions to random fields of maxima with non-max-stable dependence structure (copula). The theory for the variant with a stationary process is obvious; the parameter(s) of its correlation function is/are determined by the event magnitude. The introduced variant with random functions can only be researched numerically. The scaling of the random function is exponentially determined by the event magnitude. The location parameter of the Gumbel margins depends only on this exponential function in the researched examples; the scale parameter of the margins is normalized. In addition, we propose a method for the parameter estimation for such constructions by using Kendall's tau. The spatial dependence in relation to the block size is considered therein. Finally...

  13. Array Variate Skew Normal Random Variables with Multiway Kronecker Delta Covariance Matrix Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Akdemir, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss the concept of an array variate random variable and introduce a class of skew normal array densities that are obtained through a selection model that uses the array variate normal density as the kernel and the cumulative distribution of the univariate normal distribution as the selection function.

  14. Definability of Belief Functions over Countable Sets by Real-Valued Random Variables.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramosil, Ivan

    Paris : Cité Internationale Universitaire, 1994. s. 49-50. ISBN 2-905433-26-4. [IPMU '94 /5./. 04.07.1994-08.07.1994, Paris] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IA17555 Grant ostatní: COPERNICUS(XE) MUM-10053 Keywords : Dempster-Shafer theory * belief function * random variable * measurability

  15. Optimal probabilistic fingerprinting codes using optimal finite random variables related to numerical quadrature

    CERN Document Server

    Nuida, K; Watanabe, H; Imai, H; Nuida, Koji; Hagiwara, Manabu; Watanabe, Hajime; Imai, Hideki

    2006-01-01

    We investigate candidates of finite random variables for c-secure random fingerprinting codes, in viewpoints of both code lengths and required memories. We determine, under a natural assumption, the random variables with the minimal number of outputs (i.e. optimal in a viewpoint of memory) among all candidates, by revealing their deep relation with theory of Gauss-Legendre quadrature (a famous method for approximating definite integrals by finite sums). Our proposal also reduces the code lengths significantly; e.g. it is asymptotically about 20% of Tardos codes. Moreover, any innocent user is unlikely to be falsely accused by our code, even if the collusion is larger than the setting. These properties make our codes more desirable for a practical use.

  16. Structural Fatigue Reliability Based on Extension of Random Loads into Interval Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangfeng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the problem that for a structure under random loads, the structural fatigue life cant be directly calculated out by S-N curves and linear Miner cumulative damage rule. Owing to the uncertainty of loads, and the problem of the inaccuracy of calculated structural reliability index for the existence of deviation between measured data in projects and real data, the research method for structural fatigue reliability based on extension of random loads into interval variables is proposed. The innovation is that we can accurately calculate out the interval of the structural fatigue life and reliability index of a structure according to the probability density function of stress level of random loads and the coefficient of variation of measured loads. By practical calculation example, it is proved that this method is more suitable to practical engineering comparing to traditional methods. It will provide a perfect research approach for reliability analysis of the structure under random loads.

  17. Efficient Estimation of Mutual Information for Strongly Dependent Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shuyang; Galstyan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that a popular class of nonparametric mutual information (MI) estimators based on k-nearest-neighbor graphs requires number of samples that scales exponentially with the true MI. Consequently, accurate estimation of MI between two strongly dependent variables is possible only for prohibitively large sample size. This important yet overlooked shortcoming of the existing estimators is due to their implicit reliance on local uniformity of the underlying joint distribution. We introduce a new estimator that is robust to local non-uniformity, works well with limited data, and is able to capture relationship strengths over many orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed estimator on both synthetic and real-world data.

  18. The mesoscopic conductance of disordered rings, its random matrix theory, and the generalized variable range hopping picture

    CERN Document Server

    Peer, Tal; Stotland, Alexander; Kottos, Tsampikos; Cohen, Doron

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of the conductance of disordered rings requires a theory that goes beyond the Kubo-Drude formulation. Assuming "mesoscopic" circumstances the analysis of the electro-driven transitions show similarities with a percolation problem in energy space. We show how the texture and the sparsity of the perturbation matrix dictates the value of the conductance and study its dependence on the disorder strength, ranging from the ballistic to the Anderson localization regime. In the latter case an improved sparse random matrix model is introduced. It captures the essential ingredients of the problem, and leads to a generalized variable range hopping picture.

  19. Dependence of NAO variability on coupling with sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Courtenay [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Magnusdottir, Gudrun [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The variance of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (denoted N) is shown to depend on its coupling with area-averaged sea ice concentration anomalies in and around the Barents Sea (index denoted B). The observed form of this coupling is a negative feedback whereby positive N tends to produce negative B, which in turn forces negative N. The effects of this feedback in the system are examined by modifying the feedback in two modeling frameworks: a statistical vector autoregressive model (F{sub VAR}) and an atmospheric global climate model (F{sub CAM}) customized so that sea ice anomalies on the lower boundary are stochastic with adjustable sensitivity to the model's evolving N. Experiments show that the variance of N decreases nearly linearly with the sensitivity of B to N, where the sensitivity is a measure of the negative feedback strength. Given that the sea ice concentration field has anomalies, the variance of N goes down as these anomalies become more sensitive to N. If the sea ice concentration anomalies are entirely absent, the variance of N is even smaller than the experiment with the most sensitive anomalies. Quantifying how the variance of N depends on the presence and sensitivity of sea ice anomalies to N has implications for the simulation of N in global climate models. In the physical system, projected changes in sea ice thickness or extent could alter the sensitivity of B to N, impacting the within-season variability and hence predictability of N. (orig.)

  20. Pigeons' choices between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules: utility of variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Cardinal, Claudia D; Field, Douglas P; Flannery, Barbara A; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N

    2005-03-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the fixed-interval schedule. Thus the programmed delays to reinforcement on the random alternative were never shorter and were often longer than the fixed interval. Despite this feature, the fixed schedule was not strongly preferred. Increases in the probability used to generate the random interval resulted in decreased preferences for the fixed schedule. In addition, the number of consecutive choices on the preferred alternative varied directly with preference, whereas the consecutive number of choices on the nonpreferred alternative was fairly constant. The probability of choosing the random alternative was unaffected by the immediately prior interval encountered on that schedule, even when it was very long relative to the average value. The results loosely support conceptions of a "preference for variability" from foraging theory and the "utility of behavioral variability" from human decision-making literatures. PMID:15828591

  1. Restricted Isometry Random Variables: Probability Distributions, RIC Prediction and Phase Transition Analysis for Gaussian Encoders

    OpenAIRE

    James, Oliver; Lee, Heung-No

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to generalize the notion of restricted isometry constant (RIC) in compressive sensing (CS) to restricted isometry random variable (RIV). Associated with a deterministic encoder there are two RICs, namely, the left and the right RIC. We show that these RICs can be generalized to a left RIV and a right RIV for an ensemble of random encoders. We derive the probability and the cumulative distribution functions of these RIVs for the most widely used i.i.d. Gaussian encoders. ...

  2. Recursive Random Forests Enable Better Predictive Performance and Model Interpretation than Variable Selection by LASSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-Wei; Xin, Yan-Jun; Ge, Hui-Lin

    2015-04-27

    Variable selection is of crucial significance in QSAR modeling since it increases the model predictive ability and reduces noise. The selection of the right variables is far more complicated than the development of predictive models. In this study, eight continuous and categorical data sets were employed to explore the applicability of two distinct variable selection methods random forests (RF) and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Variable selection was performed: (1) by using recursive random forests to rule out a quarter of the least important descriptors at each iteration and (2) by using LASSO modeling with 10-fold inner cross-validation to tune its penalty ? for each data set. Along with regular statistical parameters of model performance, we proposed the highest pairwise correlation rate, average pairwise Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Tanimoto coefficient to evaluate the optimal by RF and LASSO in an extensive way. Results showed that variable selection could allow a tremendous reduction of noisy descriptors (at most 96% with RF method in this study) and apparently enhance model's predictive performance as well. Furthermore, random forests showed property of gathering important predictors without restricting their pairwise correlation, which is contrary to LASSO. The mutual exclusion of highly correlated variables in LASSO modeling tends to skip important variables that are highly related to response endpoints and thus undermine the model's predictive performance. The optimal variables selected by RF share low similarity with those by LASSO (e.g., the Tanimoto coefficients were smaller than 0.20 in seven out of eight data sets). We found that the differences between RF and LASSO predictive performances mainly resulted from the variables selected by different strategies rather than the learning algorithms. Our study showed that the right selection of variables is more important than the learning algorithm for modeling. We hope that a standard procedure could be developed based on these proposed statistical metrics to select the truly important variables for model interpretation, as well as for further use to facilitate drug discovery and environmental toxicity assessment. PMID:25746224

  3. Pseudo-Exponential-Type Solutions of Wave Equations Depending on Several Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzsche, Bernd; Kirstein, Bernd; Roitberg, Inna Ya.; Sakhnovich, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Using matrix identities, we construct explicit pseudo-exponential-type solutions of linear Dirac, Loewner and Schr\\"odinger equations depending on two variables and of nonlinear wave equations depending on three variables.

  4. A Realization of a Quasi-Random Walk for Atoms in Time-Dependent Optical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hinkel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the time dependent dynamics of an atom in a two-color pumped cavity, longitudinally through a side mirror and transversally via direct driving of the atomic dipole. The beating of the two driving frequencies leads to a time dependent effective optical potential that forces the atom into a non-trivial motion, strongly resembling a discrete random walk behavior between lattice sites. We provide both numerical and analytical analysis of such a quasi-random walk behavior.

  5. A nonlinear random walk approach to concentration-dependent contaminant transport in porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Zoia, Andrea; Latrille, Christelle; Cartalade, Alain

    2008-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear random walk model to describe the dynamics of dense contaminant plumes in porous media. A coupling between concentration and velocity fields is found, so that transport displays non-Fickian features. The qualitative behavior of the pollutant spatial profiles and moments is explored with the help of Monte Carlo simulation, within a Continuous Time Random Walk approach. Model outcomes are then compared with experimental measurements of variable-density contaminant transpo...

  6. A cellular automata model of traffic flow with variable probability of randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Fan; Zhang, Ji-Ye

    2015-05-01

    Research on the stochastic behavior of traffic flow is important to understand the intrinsic evolution rules of a traffic system. By introducing an interactional potential of vehicles into the randomization step, an improved cellular automata traffic flow model with variable probability of randomization is proposed in this paper. In the proposed model, the driver is affected by the interactional potential of vehicles before him, and his decision-making process is related to the interactional potential. Compared with the traditional cellular automata model, the modeling is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process based on the vehicle and traffic situations in front of him in actual traffic. From the improved model, the fundamental diagram (flow-density relationship) is obtained, and the detailed high-density traffic phenomenon is reproduced through numerical simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172247, 61273021, 61373009, and 61100118).

  7. Epoch-dependent absorption line profile variability in ? Cep

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Uuh-Sonda; G., Rauw; P., Eenens; L., Mahy; M., Palate; E., Gosset; C.A., Flores.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos el análisis de una campaña de monitoreo espectroscópico multiépoca de la estrella O6 Ief ? Cep. Observaciones previas habían reportado la existencia de dos modos de pulsaciones no-radiales en esta estrella. Nuestros datos revelan una situación considerablemente más compleja. Las frequenci [...] as contenidas en el espectro de potencia cambian considerablemente de una época a otra. No encontramos ninguna frecuencia estable que pueda ser atribuida inequívocamente a pulsaciones. La dependencia temporal de las frequencias y los patrones devariabilidad son similares a los observados en las líneas de emisión del viento en esta y otras estrellas Oef, lo cual sugiere que ambos fenómenos tienen probablemente el mismo origen, aunque éste siga todavía sin conocerse. Abstract in english We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6Iefstar ? Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star. Our data reveal a much more complex situation. The frequency content of the power spectrum considerably [...] changes from one epoch to the other. We find no stable frequency that can unambiguously be attributed to pulsations. The epoch-dependence of the frequencies and variability patterns are similar to what is seen in the wind emission lines of this and other Oef stars, suggesting that both phenomena likely have the same, currently still unknown, origin.

  8. Human phoneme recognition depending on speech-intrinsic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bernd T; Jürgens, Tim; Wesker, Thorsten; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-11-01

    The influence of different sources of speech-intrinsic variation (speaking rate, effort, style and dialect or accent) on human speech perception was investigated. In listening experiments with 16 listeners, confusions of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) sounds in speech-weighted noise were analyzed. Experiments were based on the OLLO logatome speech database, which was designed for a man-machine comparison. It contains utterances spoken by 50 speakers from five dialect/accent regions and covers several intrinsic variations. By comparing results depending on intrinsic and extrinsic variations (i.e., different levels of masking noise), the degradation induced by variabilities can be expressed in terms of the SNR. The spectral level distance between the respective speech segment and the long-term spectrum of the masking noise was found to be a good predictor for recognition rates, while phoneme confusions were influenced by the distance to spectrally close phonemes. An analysis based on transmitted information of articulatory features showed that voicing and manner of articulation are comparatively robust cues in the presence of intrinsic variations, whereas the coding of place is more degraded. The database and detailed results have been made available for comparisons between human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognizers (ASR). PMID:21110608

  9. On the Distribution of the Product and the Sum of Generalized Shifted Gamma Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    rathie, Pushpa N.; Rathie, Arjun K.; Ozelim, Luan C. de S. M.

    2013-01-01

    In general, while obtaining the probability density function of sums and products of shifted random variables, ordinary analytical methods such as Fourier and Mellin transforms tend to provide integrals which cannot be expressed in terms of ordinary Meijer G and H functions. This way, the need of defining new functions which easily enable one to write such integrals in a closed-form is inherent to the development of this area of statistical sciences. By generalizing the Mellin transform which...

  10. Constraints on belief functions imposed by fuzzy random variables: Some technical remarks on Romer-Kandel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratschmer, V

    1998-01-01

    C. Romer and A. Kandel (1995) investigated a new approach of fuzzy data analysis combining Dempster-Shafer theory and fuzzy set theory. Especially, belief measures are derived from fuzzy random variables but proved incompletely. This paper offers a completion using topological properties induced by the Hausdorff metric which is defined on the space of closed intervals of the real numbers. Moreover little corrections of some other assertions in the paper of Romer-Kandel are presented. PMID:18256008

  11. Exact lower bounds on the exponential moments of Winsorized and truncated random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Pinelis, Iosif

    2010-01-01

    Exact lower bounds on the exponential moments of min(y,X) and XI{Xrandom variable X. These bounds are useful in work on large deviations probabilities and nonuniform Berry-Esseen bounds, when the Cram\\'er tilt transform may be employed. Asymptotic properties of these lower bounds are presented. Comparative advantages of the Winsorization min(y,X) over the truncation XI{X

  12. The master field for rainbow diagrams and free non-commutative random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Accardi, L; Volovich, I V

    1995-01-01

    The master field for a subclass of planar diagrams, so called rainbow diagrams, for higher dimensional large N theories is considered. An explicit representation for the master field in terms of noncommutative random variables in the modified interaction representation in the Boltzmannian Fock space is given. A natural interaction in the Boltzmannian Fock space is formulated by means of a rational function of the interaction Lagrangian instead of the ordinary exponential function in the standard Fock space.

  13. Autoclassification of the Variable 3XMM Sources Using the Random Forest Machine Learning Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sean A.; Murphy, Tara; Lo, Kitty K.

    2015-11-01

    In the current era of large surveys and massive data sets, autoclassification of astrophysical sources using intelligent algorithms is becoming increasingly important. In this paper we present the catalog of variable sources in the Third XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source catalog (3XMM) autoclassified using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used a sample of manually classified variable sources from the second data release of the XMM-Newton catalogs (2XMMi-DR2) to train the classifier, obtaining an accuracy of ?92%. We also evaluated the effectiveness of identifying spurious detections using a sample of spurious sources, achieving an accuracy of ?95%. Manual investigation of a random sample of classified sources confirmed these accuracy levels and showed that the Random Forest machine learning algorithm is highly effective at automatically classifying 3XMM sources. Here we present the catalog of classified 3XMM variable sources. We also present three previously unidentified unusual sources that were flagged as outlier sources by the algorithm: a new candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient, a 400 s X-ray pulsar, and an eclipsing 5 hr binary system coincident with a known Cepheid.

  14. Extended q -Gaussian and q -exponential distributions from gamma random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A.

    2015-05-01

    The family of q -Gaussian and q -exponential probability densities fit the statistical behavior of diverse complex self-similar nonequilibrium systems. These distributions, independently of the underlying dynamics, can rigorously be obtained by maximizing Tsallis "nonextensive" entropy under appropriate constraints, as well as from superstatistical models. In this paper we provide an alternative and complementary scheme for deriving these objects. We show that q -Gaussian and q -exponential random variables can always be expressed as a function of two statistically independent gamma random variables with the same scale parameter. Their shape index determines the complexity q parameter. This result also allows us to define an extended family of asymmetric q -Gaussian and modified q -exponential densities, which reduce to the standard ones when the shape parameters are the same. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a simple change of variables always allows relating any of these distributions with a beta stochastic variable. The extended distributions are applied in the statistical description of different complex dynamics such as log-return signals in financial markets and motion of point defects in a fluid flow.

  15. The effect of randomness for dependency map on the robustness of interdependent lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jing; Peng, Haipeng; Kurths, Jürgen; Hua, Xiaojing; Yang, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    For interdependent networks with identity dependency map, percolation is exactly the same with that on a single network and follows a second-order phase transition, while for random dependency, percolation follows a first-order phase transition. In real networks, the dependency relations between networks are neither identical nor completely random. Thus in this paper, we study the influence of randomness for dependency maps on the robustness of interdependent lattice networks. We introduce approximate entropy($ApEn$) as the measure of randomness of the dependency maps. We find that there is critical $ApEn_c$ below which the percolation is continuous, but for larger $ApEn$, it is a first-order transition. With the increment of $ApEn$, the $p_c$ increases until $ApEn$ reaching ${ApEn}_c'$ and then remains almost constant. The time scale of the system shows rich properties as $ApEn$ increases. Our results uncover that randomness is one of the important factors that lead to cascading failures of spatially interde...

  16. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correchel Vladia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

  17. Transient analysis of dependability/performability models by regenerative randomization with Laplace transform in version

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Juan A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we develop a variant of a previously proposed method (the regenerative randomization method) for the transient analysis of dependability performability models. The variant is obtained by developing a closed-form expression for the solution of the truncated transformed model obtained in regenerative randomization and using a Laplace transform inversion algorithm. Using models of moderate size of a 5-level RAID architecture we compare the new variant with the original randomizatio...

  18. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high-pass filter time constants shorter than about τ = 38 h, all datasets exhibit a correlation length ξ that falls at least as fast as {{τ }-1} . Since the inter-site separation needed for statistical independence falls for shorter time scales, higher-rate fluctuations can be effectively smoothed by aggregating wind plants over areas smaller than otherwise estimated.

  19. Oracle Efficient Variable Selection in Random and Fixed Effects Panel Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl

    observations, we prove that the Marginal Bridge estimator can asymptotically correctly distinguish between relevant and irrelevant explanatory variables. We do this without restricting the dependence between covariates and without assuming sub Gaussianity of the error terms thereby generalizing the results of...

  20. Blind estimation of statistical properties of non-stationary random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ali; Mesleh, Raed; Aggoune, el-Hadi M.

    2014-12-01

    To identify or equalize wireless transmission channels, or alternatively to evaluate the performance of many wireless communication algorithms, coefficients or statistical properties of the used transmission channels are often assumed to be known or can be estimated at the receiver end. For most of the proposed algorithms, the knowledge of transmission channel statistical properties is essential to detect signals and retrieve data. To the best of our knowledge, most proposed approaches assume that transmission channels are static and can be modeled by stationary random variables (uniform, Gaussian, exponential, Weilbul, Rayleigh, etc.). In the majority of sensor networks or cellular systems applications, transmitters and/or receivers are in motion. Therefore, the validity of static transmission channels and the underlying assumptions may not be valid. In this case, coefficients and statistical properties change and therefore the stationary model falls short of making an accurate representation. In order to estimate the statistical properties (represented by the high-order statistics and probability density function, PDF) of dynamic channels, we firstly assume that the dynamic channels can be modeled by short-term stationary but long-term non-stationary random variable (RV), i.e., the RVs are stationary within unknown successive periods but they may suddenly change their statistical properties between two successive periods. Therefore, this manuscript proposes an algorithm to detect the transition phases of non-stationary random variables and introduces an indicator based on high-order statistics for non-stationary transmission which can be used to alter channel properties and initiate the estimation process. Additionally, PDF estimators based on kernel functions are also developed. The first part of the manuscript provides a brief introduction for unbiased estimators of the second and fourth-order cumulants. Then, the non-stationary indicators are formulated. Finally, simulation results are presented and conclusions are derived.

  1. Renormalization flow for extreme value statistics of random variables raised to a varying power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a renormalization approach, we study the asymptotic limit distribution of the maximum value in a set of independent and identically distributed random variables raised to a power qn that varies monotonically with the sample size n. Under these conditions, a non-standard class of max-stable limit distributions, which mirror the classical ones, emerges. Furthermore, a transition mechanism between the classical and the non-standard limit distributions is brought to light. If qn grows slower than a characteristic function q*n, the standard limit distributions are recovered, while if qn behaves asymptotically as ?q*n, non-standard limit distributions emerge. (paper)

  2. Sum of ratios of products for?-? random variables in wireless multihop relaying and multiple scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi

    2014-09-01

    The sum of ratios of products of independent 2642 2642?-? random variables (RVs) is approximated by using the Generalized Gamma ratio approximation (GGRA) with Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) as a special case. The proposed approximation is used to calculate the outage probability of the equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) receivers for wireless multihop relaying or multiple scattering systems considering interferences. Numerical results show that the newly derived approximation works very well verified by the simulation, while GRA has a slightly worse performance than GGRA when outage probability is below 0.1 but with a more simplified form.

  3. Gametocytes infectiousness to mosquitoes: variable selection using random forests, and zero inflated models

    CERN Document Server

    Genuer, Robin; Toussile, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Malaria control strategies aiming at reducing disease transmission intensity may impact both oocyst intensity and infection prevalence in the mosquito vector. Thus far, mathematical models failed to identify a clear relationship between Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and their infectiousness to mosquitoes. Natural isolates of gametocytes are genetically diverse and biologically complex. Infectiousness to mosquitoes relies on multiple parameters such as density, sex-ratio, maturity, parasite genotypes and host immune factors. In this article, we investigated how density and genetic diversity of gametocytes impact on the success of transmission in the mosquito vector. We analyzed data for which the number of covariates plus attendant interactions is at least of order of the sample size, precluding usage of classical models such as general linear models. We then considered the variable importance from random forests to address the problem of selecting the most influent variables. The selected covariates were ...

  4. Physical Activity, Mindfulness Meditation, or Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback for Stress Reduction: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints. PMID:26111942

  5. The Energy Dependence of GRB Minimum Variability Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkhou, V. Zach; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Littlejohns, Owen M.

    2015-10-01

    We constrain the minimum variability timescales for 938 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor instrument prior to 2012 July 11. The tightest constraints on progenitor radii derived from these timescales are obtained from light curves in the hardest energy channel. In the softer bands—or from measurements of the same GRBs in the hard X-rays from Swift—we show that variability timescales tend to be a factor of two to three longer. Applying a survival analysis to account for detections and upper limits, we find median minimum timescale in the rest frame for long-duration and short-duration GRBs of 45 and 10 ms, respectively. Less than 10% of GRBs show evidence for variability on timescales below 2 ms. These shortest timescales require Lorentz factors ? 400 and imply typical emission radii R? 1× {10}14 cm for long-duration GRBs and R? 3× {10}13 cm for short-duration GRBs. We discuss implications for the GRB fireball model and investigate whether or not GRB minimum timescales evolve with cosmic time.

  6. Chaos and random processes in the x ray variability of Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temporal variability of the x ray emission of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 was examined in an attempt to better characterize the source of the aperiodic variability. The emission is generally believed to come from a turbulent accretion disk surrounding the black hole. Two analysis techniques were applied to low energy x ray light curves: a search for a low-dimensional chaotic attractor; and a new technique to further develop the standard shot noise model. The search for a low-dimensional attractor tests the hypothesis that deterministic chaotic dynamics underlie the accretion disk physics. Using a standard time delay embedding, the phase space trajectory was constructed from the light curve, and the correlation integral was used to determine the dimension of the resulting manifold. The difficulties encountered by this method were investigated with a finite number of data points and a noise level not usually encountered in other applications. The data were not found to indicate that a low-dimensional attractor underlies the variability. This implies that the turbulence in the disk is well developed, and that simple models cannot reliably reconstruct the temporal variability. Shot noise models have long been used as phenomenological, stochastic models for the variability of Cygnus X-1, relying on random pulses of emission, each having a fixed shape and duration. A distribution of shot lengths from 0.01 s to 6.0 s was introduced to reproduce the power density spectrum of the data. The shot profile and the fraction of the emission are found by fitting the phase portrait of the data with trial shot models. Both sets of data are found to be consistent with shots having a symmetric exponential rise and decay, and with the shot amplitude as a power law function of the shot length. These results are interpreted in terms of a distribution of magnetic flares in the disk

  7. Causal Dependence Tree Approximations of Joint Distributions for Multiple Random Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Christopher J; Kiyavash, Negar

    2011-01-01

    We investigate approximating joint distributions of random processes with causal dependence tree distributions. Such distributions are particularly useful in providing parsimonious representation when there exists causal dynamics among processes. By extending the results by Chow and Liu on dependence tree approximations, we show that the best causal dependence tree approximation is the one which maximizes the sum of directed informations on its edges, where best is defined in terms of minimizing the KL-divergence between the original and the approximate distribution. Moreover, we describe a low-complexity algorithm to efficiently pick this approximate distribution.

  8. Time-Dependent Random Walks and the Theory of Complex Adaptive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, S

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by novel results in the theory of complex adaptive systems, we analyze the dynamics of random walks in which the jumping probabilities are {\\it time-dependent}. We determine the survival probability in the presence of an absorbing boundary. For an unbiased walk the survival probability is maximized in the case of large temporal oscillations in the jumping probabilities. On the other hand, a random walker who is drifted towards the absorbing boundary performs best with a constant jumping probability. We use the results to reveal the underlying dynamics responsible for the phenomenon of self-segregation and clustering observed in the evolutionary minority game.

  9. Maxima of asymptotically Gaussian random fields and moderate deviation approximations to boundary-crossing probabilities of sums of random variables with multidimensional indices

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, H P; Chan, Hock Peng; Lai, Tze Leung

    2004-01-01

    Several classical results on boundary-crossing probabilities of Brownian motion and random walks are extended to asymptotically Gaussian random fields, which include sums of i.i.d. random variables with multidimensional indices, multivariate empirical processes, and scan statistics in change-point and signal detection as special cases. Some key ingredients in these extensions are moderate deviation approximations to marginal tail probabilities and weak convergence of the conditional distributions of certain ``clumps'' around high-level crossings. We also discuss how these results are related to the Poisson clumping heuristic and tube formulas of Gaussian random fields, and describe their applications to laws of the iterated logarithm in the form of the Kolmogorov--Erdos--Feller integral tests.

  10. Are the Variability Properties of the Kepler AGN Light Curves Consistent with a Damped Random Walk?

    CERN Document Server

    Kasliwal, Vishal P; Richards, Gordon T

    2015-01-01

    We test the consistency of active galactic nuclei (AGN) optical flux variability with the \\textit{damped random walk} (DRW) model. Our sample consists of 20 multi-quarter \\textit{Kepler} AGN light curves including both Type 1 and 2 Seyferts, radio-loud and -quiet AGN, quasars, and blazars. \\textit{Kepler} observations of AGN light curves offer a unique insight into the variability properties of AGN light curves because of the very rapid ($11.6-28.6$ min) and highly uniform rest-frame sampling combined with a photometric precision of $1$ part in $10^{5}$ over a period of 3.5 yr. We categorize the light curves of all 20 objects based on visual similarities and find that the light curves fall into 5 broad categories. We measure the first order structure function of these light curves and model the observed light curve with a general broken power-law PSD characterized by a short-timescale power-law index $\\gamma$ and turnover timescale $\\tau$. We find that less than half the objects are consistent with a DRW and ...

  11. Large deviations of the maximum of independent and identically distributed random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2015-09-01

    A pedagogical account of some aspects of extreme value statistics (EVS) is presented from the somewhat non-standard viewpoint of large deviation theory. We address the following problem: given a set of N independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables \\{{X}1,\\ldots ,{X}N\\} drawn from a parent probability density function (pdf) p(x), what is the probability that the maximum value of the set {X}{max}={{max}}i{X}i is ‘atypically larger’ than expected? The cases of exponential and Gaussian distributed variables are worked out in detail, and the right rate function for a general pdf in the Gumbel basin of attraction is derived. The Gaussian case convincingly demonstrates that the full rate function cannot be determined from the knowledge of the limiting distribution (Gumbel) alone, thus implying that it indeed carries additional information. Given the simplicity and richness of the result and its derivation, its absence from textbooks, tutorials and lecture notes on EVS for physicists appears inexplicable.

  12. Testing serial dependence by Random-shuffle surrogates and the Wayland method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given time series, a primary concern is existence of serial dependence and determinism. They are often tested with Random-shuffle surrogates, which totally break serial dependence, and the Wayland method. Since the statistic of the Wayland method fundamentally shows a smaller value for a more deterministic time series, for real-world data, we usually expect that the statistic for the original data is smaller than or equal to those of Random-shuffle surrogates. However, we show herewith an opposite result with wind data in high time resolution. We argue that this puzzling phenomenon can be produced by observational or dynamical noise, both of which may be produced by a low-dimensional deterministic system. Thus the one-sided test is dangerous

  13. Advantages of joint modeling of component HIV risk behaviors and non-response: application to randomized trials in cocaine-dependent and methamphetamine-dependent populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TysonHHolmes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HIV risk-taking behavior scale (HRBS is an 11-item instrument designed to assess the risks of HIV infection due self-reported injection drug use and sexual behavior. A retrospective analysis was performed on HRBS data collected from approximately 1,000 participants pooled across seven clinical trials of pharmacotherapies for either the treatment of cocaine-dependence or methamphetamine-dependence. Analysis faced three important challenges. The sample contained a high proportion of missing assessments after randomization. Also, the HRBS scale consists of two distinct behavioral components which may or may not coincide in response patterns. In addition, distributions of responses on the subscales were highly concentrated at just a few values (e.g., 0, 6. To address these challenges, a single probit regression model was fit to three outcomes variables simultaneously—the two subscale totals plus an indicator variable for assessments not obtained (non-response. This joint-outcome regression model was able to identify that those who left assessment early had higher self-reported risk of injection-drug use and lower self-reported risky sexual behavior because the model was able to draw on information on associations among the three outcomes collectively. These findings were not identified in analyses performed on each outcome separately. No evidence for an effect of pharmacotherapies was observed, except to reduce missing assessments. Univariate-outcome modeling is not recommended for the HRBS.

  14. Semicircle Law for a Class of Random Matrices with Dependent Entries

    OpenAIRE

    Götze, F; Naumov, A.; Tikhomirov, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study ensembles of random symmetric matrices $\\X_n = {X_{ij}}_{i,j = 1}^n$ with dependent entries such that $\\E X_{ij} = 0$, $\\E X_{ij}^2 = \\sigma_{ij}^2$, where $\\sigma_{ij}$ may be different numbers. Assuming that the average of the normalized sums of variances in each row converges to one and Lindeberg condition holds we prove that the empirical spectral distribution of eigenvalues converges to Wigner's semicircle law.

  15. Random field theory to interpret the spatial variability of lacustrine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Savino; Vessia, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    The lacustrine soils are quaternary soils, dated from Pleistocene to Holocene periods, generated in low-energy depositional environments and characterized by soil mixture of clays, sands and silts with alternations of finer and coarser grain size layers. They are often met at shallow depth filling several tens of meters of tectonic or erosive basins typically placed in internal Appenine areas. The lacustrine deposits are often locally interbedded by detritic soils resulting from the failure of surrounding reliefs. Their heterogeneous lithology is associated with high spatial variability of physical and mechanical properties both along horizontal and vertical directions. The deterministic approach is still commonly adopted to accomplish the mechanical characterization of these heterogeneous soils where undisturbed sampling is practically not feasible (if the incoherent fraction is prevalent) or not spatially representative (if the cohesive fraction prevails). The deterministic approach consists on performing in situ tests, like Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) or Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) and deriving design parameters through "expert judgment" interpretation of the measure profiles. These readings of tip and lateral resistances (Rp and RL respectively) are almost continuous but highly variable in soil classification according to Schmertmann (1978). Thus, neglecting the spatial variability cannot be the best strategy to estimated spatial representative values of physical and mechanical parameters of lacustrine soils to be used for engineering applications. Hereafter, a method to draw the spatial variability structure of the aforementioned measure profiles is presented. It is based on the theory of the Random Fields (Vanmarcke 1984) applied to vertical readings of Rp measures from mechanical CPTs. The proposed method relies on the application of the regression analysis, by which the spatial mean trend and fluctuations about this trend are derived. Moreover, the scale of fluctuation is calculated to measure the maximum length beyond which profiles of measures are independent. The spatial mean trend can be used to identify "quasi-homogeneous" soil layers where the standard deviation and the scale of fluctuation can be calculated. In this study, five Rp profiles performed in the lacustrine deposits of the high River Pescara Valley have been analyzed. There, silty clay deposits with thickness ranging from a few meters to about 60m, and locally rich in sands and peats, are investigated. In this study, vertical trends of Rp profiles have been derived to be converted into design parameter mean trends. Furthermore, the variability structure derived from Rp readings can be propagated to design parameters to calculate the "characteristic values" requested by the European building codes. References Schmertmann J.H. 1978. Guidelines for Cone Penetration Test, Performance and Design. Report No. FHWA-TS-78-209, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., pp. 145. Vanmarcke E.H. 1984. Random Fields, analysis and synthesis. Cambridge (USA): MIT Press.

  16. Mindfulness Therapy for Maladaptive Interpersonal Dependency: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Andrew S; Anderson, Timothy; Cranston, Saryn

    2015-11-01

    Existing treatments for maladaptive interpersonal dependency and dependent personality disorder do not meet basic scientific standards for effectiveness. The present investigation tested the efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach: mindfulness therapy for maladaptive interpersonal dependency (MT-MID). Forty-eight participants who reported consistently high levels of maladaptive dependency (i.e., scored higher than 1 standard deviation above the mean on the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory at two separate assessments) were randomized to either 5 sessions of MT-MID or a minimal contact control. Five self-reported outcomes (mindfulness, maladaptive interpersonal dependency, helplessness, fears of negative evaluation, and excessive reassurance seeking) were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 4-week follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that MT-MID yielded greater improvements than the control on all 5 outcomes at posttreatment (median d=1.61) and follow-up (median d=1.51). Participants assigned to MT-MID were more likely than control participants to meet criteria for clinically significant change at posttreatment (56.5% vs. 0%) and follow-up (42.9% vs. 0%). There was also evidence that increases in mindfulness mediated the dependency-related improvements. These results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach for treating the symptoms of maladaptive dependency. PMID:26520227

  17. A randomized trial of combined citalopram and naltrexone for nonabstinent outpatients with co-occurring alcohol dependence and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Simon J; Sellman, J Douglas; Foulds, James A; Frampton, Christopher M A; Deering, Daryle; Dunn, Alistair; Berks, John; Nixon, Lee; Cape, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Despite the high rate of co-occurrence of major depression and alcohol dependence, the role of pharmacotherapy in their treatment remains unclear. In the new era of naltrexone for alcohol dependence, it is notable that only 1 study to date has examined the efficacy of antidepressant medication prescribed concurrently with naltrexone. We aimed to determine whether combining naltrexone with citalopram produced better treatment outcomes than naltrexone alone in patients with co-occurring alcohol dependence and depression, and to investigate whether either sex or depression type (independent or substance-induced depression) moderated treatment response. Participants were 138 depressed alcohol-dependent adults who were not required to be abstinent at the commencement of the trial. They were randomized to 12 weeks of citalopram or placebo, plus naltrexone and clinical case management. Treatment was well attended, and medications were reasonably well tolerated with high adherence rates. Substantial improvements in both mood and drinking occurred in both groups, with no significant differences between groups on any of the mood or drinking outcome measures, whether or not other variables were controlled for. No interaction effect was found for independent/substance-induced depression status, whereas there was a marginal effect found by sex, with greater improvement in 1 drinking outcome measure (percent days abstinent) in women taking citalopram. These findings suggest that citalopram is not a clinically useful addition to naltrexone and clinical case management in this treatment population. Independent/substance-induced depression status did not predict treatment response. Findings for sex were equivocal. PMID:25679122

  18. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with dependent regularly varying jump sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Moser, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the maximum increment of a random walk with heavy-tailed jump size distribution. Here heavy-tailedness is understood as regular variation of the finite-dimensional distributions. The jump sizes constitute a strictly stationary sequence. Using a continuous mapping argument acting on...... the point processes of the normalized jump sizes, we prove that the maximum increment of the random walk converges in distribution to a Fréchet distributed random variable....

  19. Non-Improved Uniform Tail Estimates for Normed Sums of Independent Random Variables with Heavy Tails, with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sirota, E Ostrovsky L

    2011-01-01

    We obtain an uniform tail estimates for natural normed sums of independent random variables (r.v.) with regular varying tails of distributions. We give also many examples on order to show the exactness of offered estimates and discuss some applications in the method Monte-Carlo and statistics, and obtain the sufficient conditions for Central and stable limit theorem in the Banach space of continuous function. There are considered a slight generalization on a random variables with super-heavy tails and martingale difference scheme.

  20. Marcinkiewicz-type strong law of large numbers for double arrays of pairwise independent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Yoon Hwang

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Let {Xij} be a double sequence of pairwise independent random variables. If P{|Xmn|≥t}≤P{|X|≥t} for all nonnegative real numbers t and E|X|p(log+|X|3<∞, for 1random variables under the conditions E|X|p(log+|X|r+1<∞,E|X|p(log+|X|r−1<∞, respectively, thus, extending Choi and Sung's result [1] of the one-dimensional case.

  1. Statistical analysis of mesoscale rainfall: Dependence of a random cascade generator on large-scale forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas, M.; Gupta, Vijay K.

    1994-01-01

    Under the theory of independent and identically distributed random cascades, the probability distribution of the cascade generator determines the spatial and the ensemble properties of spatial rainfall. Three sets of radar-derived rainfall data in space and time are analyzed to estimate the probability distribution of the generator. A detailed comparison between instantaneous scans of spatial rainfall and simulated cascades using the scaling properties of the marginal moments is carried out. This comparison highlights important similarities and differences between the data and the random cascade theory. Differences are quantified and measured for the three datasets. Evidence is presented to show that the scaling properties of the rainfall can be captured to the first order by a random cascade with a single parameter. The dependence of this parameter on forcing by the large-scale meteorological conditions, as measured by the large-scale spatial average rain rate, is investigated for these three datasets. The data show that this dependence can be captured by a one-to-one function. Since the large-scale average rain rate can be diagnosed from the large-scale dynamics, this relationship demonstrates an important linkage between the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and the statistical cascade theory of mesoscale rainfall. Potential application of this research to parameterization of runoff from the land surface and regional flood frequency analysis is briefly discussed, and open problems for further research are presented.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Blinking Quantum dot Based on Temperature Dependence 3-Dimensional Levy Random Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blinking statistics of quantum dot has attracted much attraction in recent years. Various experiments were conducted and various theories have been given to explain this phenomenon. However, the problem is not yet resolved. The weak temperature dependence of the power law parameters have complicated the phenomena. We have simulated the blinking statistics of quantum dot based on the random walk model. We have shown that three-dimensional biased Levy random walk of electrons, the bias being the Columbic interaction between electrons and ionized atoms can explain the observed experimental results. We have simulated the blinking properties of quantum dots in a broad temperature range (10-300 K. The distributions exhibit power law behavior for a wide range of temperature, but the power law parameter increases marginally with temperature. The trend of change is independent of the size of the quantum dots as confirmed from the simulation.

  3. Generalized Hoeffding-Sobol Decomposition for Dependent Variables -Application to Sensitivity Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chastaing, Gaëlle; Prieur, Clémentine

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a regression model built on dependent variables. This regression modelizes an input output relationship. Under boundedness assumptions on the joint distribution function of the input variables, we show that a generalized Hoeffding-Sobol decomposition is available. This leads to new indices measuring the sensitivity of the output with respect to the input variables. We also study and discuss the estimation of these new indices.

  4. A Classification Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV Inhibitors by Variable Selection with Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental pEC50s for 216 selective respiratory syncytial virus (RSV inhibitors are used to develop classification models as a potential screening tool for a large library of target compounds. Variable selection algorithm coupled with random forests (VS-RF is used to extract the physicochemical features most relevant to the RSV inhibition. Based on the selected small set of descriptors, four other widely used approaches, i.e., support vector machine (SVM, Gaussian process (GP, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and k nearest neighbors (kNN routines are also employed and compared with the VS-RF method in terms of several of rigorous evaluation criteria. The obtained results indicate that the VS-RF model is a powerful tool for classification of RSV inhibitors, producing the highest overall accuracy of 94.34% for the external prediction set, which significantly outperforms the other four methods with the average accuracy of 80.66%. The proposed model with excellent prediction capacity from internal to external quality should be important for screening and optimization of potential RSV inhibitors prior to chemical synthesis in drug development.

  5. Wiman’s type inequalities without exceptional sets for random entire functions of several variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Kuryliak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we {consider entire} functions $ fcolonmathbb{C}^pomathbb{C}, pgeq 2, $ defined by power series$ f(z=f(z_1,ldots,z_p=sum_{|n|=0}^{+infty}a_n z^n, %pgeq2, $ $z^n=z_1^{n_1}cdotldotscdot z_p^{n_p},$$n=(n_1,ldots,n_p.$ For $r=(r_1,ldots,r_pinmathbb{R}_+^p$ we {set} $M_f(r=max{|f(z|colon|z_i|leq r_i, iin{1,ldots,p}}, \\mu_f(r=max{|a_n|r^{n}colon ninmathbb{Z}_+^p},$$ r^{vee}=max{r_icolon iin{1,ldots,p}},^{wedge}=min{r_icolon iin{1,ldots,p}}$ and {let $l$be a} log-convex real function on $(1,+infty$ such that $lnt=o(l(t, to+infty.$ Then for any entire transcendentalfunction $f$ {with} $ln M_f(rleq l(r^{vee},^{wedge}o+infty,$ {the} inequality$varlimsuplimits_{r^{wedge}o+infty} frac{lnM_f(r-lnmu_f(r}{lnlnmu_f(r}leqalpha$ holdsif and only if $ varlimsuplimits_{to+infty}(lnl(t/lnln tleq1+alpha/p. $ Similar theorems are proved for random entire functions of several complex variables.

  6. Optimal two-value zero-mean disintegration of zero-mean random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Pinelis, Iosif

    2008-01-01

    For any continuous zero-mean random variable (r.v.) X, a reciprocating function r is constructed, based only on the distribution of X, such that the conditional distribution of X given the (at-most-)two-point set {X,r(X)} is the zero-mean distribution on this set; in fact, a more general construction without the continuity assumption is given in this paper, as well as a large variety of other related results, including characterizations of the reciprocating function and modeling distribution asymmetry patterns. The mentioned disintegration of zero-mean r.v.'s implies, in particular, that an arbitrary zero-mean distribution is represented as the mixture of two-point zero-mean distributions; moreover, this mixture representation is most symmetric in a variety of senses. Somewhat similar representations -- of any probability distribution as the mixture of two-point distributions with the same skewness coefficient (but possibly with different means) -- go back to Kolmogorov; very recently, Aizenman et al. further...

  7. Statistics of ?-? Random Variables and Their Applications inWireless Multihop Relaying and Multiple Scattering Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi

    2015-06-01

    Exact results for the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of ratios of products (SRP) and the sum of products (SP) of independent ?-? random variables (RVs) are derived. They are in the form of 1-D integral based on the existing works on the products and ratios of ?-? RVs. In the derivation, generalized Gamma (GG) ratio approximation (GGRA) is proposed to approximate SRP. Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) is proposed to approximate SRP and the ratio of sums of products (RSP). GG approximation (GGA) and Gamma approximation (GA) are used to approximate SP. The proposed results of the SRP can be used to calculate the outage probability (OP) for wireless multihop relaying systems or multiple scattering channels with interference. The proposed results of the SP can be used to calculate the OP for these systems without interference. In addition, the proposed approximate result of the RSP can be used to calculate the OP of the signal-To-interference ratio (SIR) in a multiple scattering system with interference. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  8. Alcohol-Adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the 6-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for 6months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients. PMID:26387049

  9. Some inequalities for random variables whose probability density functions are absolutely continuous using a pre-Chebychev inequality

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Barnett; Dragomir, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Using the pre-Chebychev inequality considered by Matic, Pecaric and Ujevic in [2], some inequalities are obtained for random variables whose p.d.f.s are absolutely continuous and whose derivatives are in $ L_{\\infty} [a,b] $.

  10. Some inequalities for random variables whose probability density functions are absolutely continuous using a pre-Chebychev inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Barnett

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the pre-Chebychev inequality considered by Matic, Pecaric and Ujevic in [2], some inequalities are obtained for random variables whose p.d.f.s are absolutely continuous and whose derivatives are in $ L_{\\infty} [a,b] $.

  11. A randomized trial of one-day vs. three-day buprenorphine inpatient detoxification protocols for heroin dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, John A; Wu, Joanna; Martus, Wesley; Pierre, James D

    2005-01-01

    Detoxification from opioids remains an important first step in the treatment of many patients with opioid dependence. Several pharmacologic regimens have been used for opioid detoxification. In the United States, the partial mu-opioid agonist, buprenorphine (BUP) is the most recently approved pharmacotherapy for opioid detoxification and replacement. The literature in recent years has described detoxification protocols using a single high dose of BUP and a three-day BUP regimen. In many settings, such as drug-free programs, a single-dose detoxification protocol would be of significant benefit. There have been no prior studies comparing one-day and three-day BUP-assisted opioid withdrawal. In this pilot study, we conducted an open-label, randomized trial of one-day vs. three-day BUP/naloxone sublingual tablet-assisted opioid withdrawal. Twenty patients from a therapeutic community treatment program were randomly assigned to receive either 32 mg sublingual BUP over one hour (one-day group), or 32 mg sublingual BUP over three days (three-day group). Nine of 10 subjects (90 percent) in each group completed seven days in the detoxification protocol. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in all other outcome variables, including retention in the treatment program, intensity of withdrawal signs and symptoms, amounts of adjunct medications used, and ability to produce opiate-free urine. This study further validates the feasibility of the single high dose of BUP as a rapid detoxification method. PMID:17315409

  12. Secure Mobile Banking Application Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography & RGB Intensity Based Randomized Pixels With Variable Bits Image Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Manikandan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Wide-expansion of mobile telecommunication technology mobile banking emerged as a new type of financial services and can provide efficient and effective financial services for clients. Mobile banking is a way for the customer to perform banking actions on his or her cell phone or other mobile device. It is a quite popular method of banking that fits in well with a busy, technologically oriented lifestyle. Framework conditions for mobile banking services differ from country to country but one thing is certain: the future of mobile banking depends on getting the security right. In this paper, we present a new way of securing mobile banking. We introduce a system which makes use of Elliptic curve cryptography and RGB Intensity Based Randomized pixels with variable Bits image Steganography [5]. Elliptic Curve Cryptography suites well for resources constraint devices like mobile phones and PDA, because of its less computation time, short key’s length, fast digital signature, flexibility and less resource consumption

  13. Cryptography based on chaotic random maps with position dependent weighting probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaotic cryptology has been widely investigated recently. A common feature in the most recent developments of chaotic cryptosystems is the use of a single dynamical rule in the encoding-decoding process. The main objective of this paper is to provide a set of chaotic systems instead of a single one for cryptography. In this paper, we introduce a chaotic cryptosystem based on the symbolic dynamics of random maps with position dependent weighting probabilities. The random maps model is a deterministic dynamical system in a finite phase space with n points. The maps that establish the dynamics of the system are chosen randomly for every point. The essential idea of this paper is that, given two dynamical systems that behave in a certain way, it is possible to combine them (by composing) into a new dynamical system. This dynamically composed system behaves in a completely different way compared to the constituent systems. The proposed scheme exploits the symbolic dynamics of a set of chaotic maps in order to encode the binary information. The performance of the new cryptosystem based on chaotic dynamical systems properties is examined. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm using symbolic dynamics achieves the optimal security criteria.

  14. Yoga for Heart Rate Variability: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Kuzdzal, Adrian; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ernst, Edzard

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to summarize and critically assess the effects of yoga on heart rate variability (HRV). Nine databases were searched from their inceptions to June 2014. We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing yoga against any type of control intervention in healthy individuals or patients with any medical condition. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. Two reviewers performed the selection of studies, data extraction, and quality assessments independent of one another. Fourteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Only two of them were of acceptable methodological quality. Ten RCTs reported favourable effects of yoga on various domains of HRV, whereas nine of them failed to do so. One RCT did not report between-group comparisons. The meta-analysis (MA) of two trials did not show favourable effects of yoga compared to usual care on E:I ratio (n = 61, SMDs = 0.63; 95% CIs [-0.72 to 1.99], p = 0.36; heterogeneity: r(2) = 0.79, ?(2) = 5.48, df = 1, (p = 0.02); I(2) = 82%). The MA also failed to show statistically significant differences between the groups regarding the 30:15 ratio (n = 61, SMDs = 0.20; 95% CIs [-0.43 to 0.84], p = 0.53; heterogeneity: r(2) = 0.07, ?(2) = 1.45, df = 1, (p = 0.23); I(2) = 31%). The data from the remaining RCTs were too heterogeneous for pooling. These results provide no convincing evidence for the effectiveness of yoga in modulating HRV in patients or healthy subjects. Future investigations in this area should overcome the multiple methodological weaknesses of the previous research. PMID:26059998

  15. Genetic variability of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume in Java based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIYAH MARTANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Amorphophallus muelleri Blume (Araceae is valued for its glucomanan content for use in food industry (healthy diet food, paper industry, pharmacy and cosmetics. The species is triploid (2n=3x=39 and the seed is developed apomictically. The present research is aimed to identify genetic variability of six population of A. muelleri from Java (consisted of 50 accessions using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The six populations of the species are: East Java: (1 Silo-Jember, (2 Saradan-Madiun, (3 IPB (cultivated, from Saradan-Madiun, (4 Panti-Jember, (5 Probolinggo; and Central Java: (6 Cilacap. The results showed that five RAPD primers generated 42 scorable bands of which 29 (69.05% were polymorphic. Size of the bands varied from 300bp to 1.5kbp. The 50 accessions of A. muelleri were divided into two main clusters, some of them were grouped based on their populations, and some others were not. The range of individual genetic dissimilarity was from 0.02 to 0.36. The results showed that among six populations investigated, Saradan population showed the highest levels of genetic variation with mean values of na = 1.500+ 0.5061, ne = 1.3174 + 0.3841, PLP = 50% and He = 0, 0.1832+0.2054, whereas Silo-Jember population showed the lowest levels of genetic variation with mean values na = 1.2619+ 0.4450, ne = 1.1890 + 0.3507, PLP = 26.19% and He = 0.1048+0.1887. Efforts to conserve, domesticate, cultivate and improve genetically should be based on the genetic properties of each population and individual within population, especially Saradan population which has the highest levels of genetic variation, need more attention for its conservation.

  16. Homogenization for rigid suspensions with random velocity-dependent interfacial forces

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2014-12-01

    We study suspensions of solid particles in a viscous incompressible fluid in the presence of random velocity-dependent interfacial forces. The flow at a small Reynolds number is modeled by the Stokes equations, coupled with the motion of rigid particles arranged in a periodic array. The objective is to perform homogenization for the given suspension and obtain an equivalent description of a homogeneous (effective) medium, the macroscopic effect of the interfacial forces and the effective viscosity are determined using the analysis on a periodicity cell. In particular, the solutions uωε to a family of problems corresponding to the size of microstructure ε and describing suspensions of rigid particles with random surface forces imposed on the interface, converge H1-weakly as ε→0 a.s. to a solution of a Stokes homogenized problem, with velocity dependent body forces. A corrector to a homogenized solution that yields a strong H1-convergence is also determined. The main technical construction is built upon the Γ-convergence theory. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Pigeons' Choices Between Fixed-Interval And Random-Interval Schedules: Utility Of Variability?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Cardinal, Claudia D; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the fixed-interval schedule. Thus the programmed delays to reinforcement on the random alternative were never shorter and were often longer than the fixed interva...

  18. A note on the Marchenko-Pastur law for a class of random matrices with dependent entries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Rourke, Sean

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of real random matrices with dependent entries and show that the limiting empirical spectral distribution is given by the Marchenko-Pastur law. Additionally, we establish a rate of convergence of the expected empirical spectral distribution.

  19. Spatial variability and its scale dependency of observed and modeled soil moisture over different climate regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Past studies on soil moisture spatial variability have been mainly conducted at catchment scales where soil moisture is often sampled over a short time period; as a result, the observed soil moisture often exhibited smaller dynamic ranges, which prevented the complete revelation of soil moisture spatial variability as a function of mean soil moisture. In this study, spatial statistics (mean, spatial variability and skewness of in situ soil moisture, modeled and satellite-retrieved soil moisture obtained in a warm season (198 days were examined over three large climate regions in the US. The study found that spatial moments of in situ measurements strongly depend on climates, with distinct mean, spatial variability and skewness observed in each climate zone. In addition, an upward convex shape, which was revealed in several smaller scale studies, was observed for the relationship between spatial variability of in situ soil moisture and its spatial mean when statistics from dry, intermediate, and wet climates were combined. This upward convex shape was vaguely or partially observable in modeled and satellite-retrieved soil moisture estimates due to their smaller dynamic ranges. Despite different environmental controls on large-scale soil moisture spatial variability, the correlation between spatial variability and mean soil moisture remained similar to that observed at small scales, which is attributed to the boundedness of soil moisture. From the smaller support (effective area or volume represented by a measurement or estimate to larger ones, soil moisture spatial variability decreased in each climate region. The scale dependency of spatial variability all followed the power law, but data with large supports showed stronger scale dependency than those with smaller supports. The scale dependency of soil moisture variability also varied with climates, which may be linked to the scale dependency of precipitation spatial variability. Influences of environmental controls on soil moisture spatial variability at large scales are discussed. The results of this study should be useful for diagnosing large scale soil moisture estimates and for improving the estimation of land surface processes.

  20. A continuum state variable theory to model the size-dependent surface energy of nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidian, Mostafa; Thamburaja, Prakash; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-09-23

    We propose a continuum-based state variable theory to quantify the excess surface free energy density throughout a nanostructure. The size-dependent effect exhibited by nanoplates and spherical nanoparticles i.e. the reduction of surface energy with reducing nanostructure size is well-captured by our continuum state variable theory. Our constitutive theory is also able to predict the reducing energetic difference between the surface and interior (bulk) portions of a nanostructure with decreasing nanostructure size. PMID:26365098

  1. Universal spin-dependent variable range hopping in wide-band-gap oxide ferromagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a universal spin-dependent variable range hopping theoretical model to describe various experimental transport phenomena observed in wide-band-gap oxide ferromagnetic semiconductors with high transition metal concentration. The contributions of the 'hard gap' energy, Coulomb interaction, correlation energy, and exchange interaction to the electrical transport are considered in the universal variable range hopping theoretical model. By fitting the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the experimental sheet resistance to the theoretical model, the spin polarization ratio of electrical carriers near the Fermi level and interactions between electrical carriers can be obtained

  2. Dimension-Dependent behavior in the satisfability of random k-Horn formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Istrate, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    We determine the asymptotical satisfiability probability of a random at-most-k-Horn formula, via a probabilistic analysis of a simple version, called PUR, of positive unit resolution. We show that for k=k(n)->oo the problem can be ``reduced'' to the case k(n)=n, that was solved in cs.DS/9912001. On the other hand, in the case k= a constant the behavior of PUR is modeled by a simple queuing chain, leading to a closed-form solution when k=2. Our analysis predicts an ``easy-hard-easy'' pattern in this latter case. Under a rescaled parameter, the graphs of satisfaction probability corresponding to finite values of k converge to the one for the uniform case, a ``dimension-dependent behavior'' similar to the one found experimentally by Kirkpatrick and Selman (Science'94) for k-SAT. The phenomenon is qualitatively explained by a threshold property for the number of iterations of PUR makes on random satisfiable Horn formulas.

  3. A modified NaSch model with density-dependent randomization for traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Ge, H. X.; Dong, L. Y.; Dai, S. Q.

    2007-05-01

    Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) model of traffic flow, a modified cellular automaton (CA) traffic model with the density-dependent randomization (abbreviated as the DDR model) is proposed to simulate traffic flow. The fundamental diagram obtained by simulation shows the ability of this modified NaSch model to capture the essential features of traffic flow, e.g., synchronized flow, metastable state, hysteresis and phase separation at higher densities. Comparisons are made between this DDR model and the NaSch model, also between this DDR model and the VDR model. And the underlying mechanism is analyzed. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.

  4. A note on the bivariate distribution representation of two perfectly correlated random variables by Dirac's $\\delta$-function

    OpenAIRE

    Glazunov, Andrés Alayón; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the representation of the joint probability density function of perfectly correlated continuous random variables, i.e., with correlation coefficients $\\rho=pm1$, by Dirac's $\\delta$-function. We also show how this representation allows to define Dirac's $\\delta$-function as the ratio between bivariate distributions and the marginal distribution in the limit $\\rho\\rightarrow \\pm1$, whenever this limit exists. We illustrate this with the example of the...

  5. A note on the bivariate distribution representation of two perfectly correlated random variables by Dirac's $\\delta$-function

    CERN Document Server

    Glazunov, Andrés Alayón

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the representation of the joint probability density function of perfectly correlated continuous random variables, i.e., with correlation coefficients $\\rho=pm1$, by Dirac's $\\delta$-function. We also show how this representation allows to define Dirac's $\\delta$-function as the ratio between bivariate distributions and the marginal distribution in the limit $\\rho\\rightarrow \\pm1$, whenever this limit exists. We illustrate this with the example of the bivariate Rice distribution

  6. Pentapeptide scanning mutagenesis: random insertion of a variable five amino acid cassette in a target protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Hallet, B; Sherratt, D.J.; Hayes, F

    1997-01-01

    A new insertion method for probing protein functional organization was developed. The method relies on the random insertion of transposon Tn 4430 and subsequent in vitro deletion of the bulk of the transposon after which a 15 bp insertion remains within the target gene. This results in pentapeptide insertions randomly distributed in the target protein. Characterization of 23 pentapeptide insertions in TEM-1beta-lactamase demonstrated the utility of the method. The phenotypes associated with t...

  7. Magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering on random anisotropy ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the recently developed technique of magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with attention to bulk ferromagnets exhibiting random magnetic anisotropy. In these materials, the various magnetic anisotropy fields (magnetocrystalline, magnetoelastic, and/or magnetostatic in origin) perturb the perfectly parallel spin alignment of the idealized ferromagnetic state. By varying the applied magnetic field, one can control one of the ordering terms which competes with the above-mentioned perturbing fields. Experiments which explore the ensuing reaction of the magnetization will therefore provide information not only on the field-dependent spin structure but, importantly, on the underlying magnetic interaction terms. This strategy, which underlies conventional studies of hysteresis loops in magnetometry, is here combined with magnetic SANS. While magnetometry generally records only a single scalar quantity, the integral magnetization, SANS provides access to a vastly richer data set, the Fourier spectrum of the response of the spin system as a function of the magnitude and orientation of the wave vector. The required data-analysis procedures have recently been established, and experiments on a number of magnetic materials, mostly nanocrystalline or nanocomposite metals, have been reported. Here, we summarize the theory of magnetic-field-dependent SANS along with the underlying description of random anisotropy magnets by micromagnetic theory. We review experiments which have explored the magnetic interaction parameters, the value of the exchange-stiffness constant as well as the Fourier components of the magnetic anisotropy field and of the magnetostatic stray field. A model-independent approach, based on the experimental autocorrelation function of the spin misalignment, provides access to the characteristic length of the spin misalignment. The field dependence of this quantity is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of micromagnetic theory. Experiments on nanocomposite ferromagnets reveal that the jump of the magnetization at internal phase boundaries leads to a significant magnetostatic perturbing field, with an unusual 'clover-leaf' SANS pattern as the experimental signature. Furthermore, SANS experiments have been used to monitor the orientation of magnetic domains as well as the length scale of intradomain spin misalignment

  8. Low frequency noise variability in ultra scaled FD-SOI n-MOSFETs: Dependence on gate bias, frequency and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, C. G.; Ioannidis, E. G.; Haendler, S.; Josse, E.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a parametric statistical analysis of the low-frequency noise (LFN) in very small area (W·L ? 10-3 ?m2) 14 nm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) n-MOS devices is presented. It has been demonstrated that the LFN origin is due to carrier trapping/detrapping into gate dielectric traps near the interface and the mean noise level in such small area MOSFETs is well approached by the carrier number fluctuations model in all measurement conditions. The impact of gate voltage bias and temperature on the LFN variability, as well as the standard deviation dependence on frequency have been studied for the first time, focusing on their relation to the Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) effect and its characteristics.

  9. Information-theoretical analysis of the statistical dependencies among three variables: Applications to written language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Damián G.; Zanette, Damián H.; Samengo, Inés

    2015-08-01

    We develop the information-theoretical concepts required to study the statistical dependencies among three variables. Some of such dependencies are pure triple interactions, in the sense that they cannot be explained in terms of a combination of pairwise correlations. We derive bounds for triple dependencies, and characterize the shape of the joint probability distribution of three binary variables with high triple interaction. The analysis also allows us to quantify the amount of redundancy in the mutual information between pairs of variables, and to assess whether the information between two variables is or is not mediated by a third variable. These concepts are applied to the analysis of written texts. We find that the probability that a given word is found in a particular location within the text is not only modulated by the presence or absence of other nearby words, but also, on the presence or absence of nearby pairs of words. We identify the words enclosing the key semantic concepts of the text, the triplets of words with high pairwise and triple interactions, and the words that mediate the pairwise interactions between other words.

  10. Optimality conditions for fractional variational problems with dependence on a combined Caputo derivative of variable order

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, D.; De Almeida, R; Torres, D.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    We establish necessary optimality conditions for variational problems with a Lagrangian depending on a combined Caputo derivative of variable fractional order. The endpoint of the integral is free, and thus transversality conditions are proved. Several particular cases are considered illustrating the new results.

  11. A randomized trial of oral naltrexone for treating opioid-dependent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Donna M; Cornish, James W; Lynch, Kevin G; Alterman, Arthur I; O'Brien, Charles P

    2010-01-01

    Offenders with a history of opioid dependence are a particularly difficult group to treat. A large proportion of offenders typically relapse shortly after release from prison, commit drug-related crimes, and then are arrested and eventually re-incarcerated. Previous research demonstrated that oral naltrexone was effective in reducing opioid use and preventing recidivism among offenders under federal supervision. The 111 opioid-dependent offenders in this study were under various levels of supervision that included county and federal probation/parole, a treatment court, an alternative disposition program, and an intermediate punishment program. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 6 months of either 300 mg per week of oral naltrexone plus standard psychosocial treatment as usual (n = 56) or standard psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) without naltrexone (n = 55). While the TAU subjects who remained in treatment used more opioids than the naltrexone subjects who remained, the high dropout rate for both groups made it difficult to assess the effectiveness of naltrexone. The study provides limited support for the use of oral naltrexone for offenders who are not closely monitored by the criminal justice system. PMID:20716305

  12. On angular momentum and parity dependence of nuclear level densities in a simple random sampling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on simple random sampling (SRS), we propose a Monte Carlo method for the faster computation of the smoothed part of the density of nuclear states. To test the applicability of the SRS approach we study in this framework the excitation energy (E), angular momentum (J) and parity dependence of nuclear level densities for an independent particle system. As an illustrative example, we consider a pf-shell nucleus, 48Cr. It is found that the values of a few lower order moments for the state density I(E) calculated using SRS and combinatorial (or direct counting) methods are almost the same and a locally smoothed part of the state density can be constructed using these moments in a univariate Edgeworth expansion. We calculate the energy dependent spin-cutoff factor and parity asymmetry and find that for both cases the SRS approach works quite well. We use the SRS moments to construct different forms of the bivariate distribution for I(E,M) (M is the z-component of J) namely (a) a bivariate Edgeworth expansion, (b) a product of the univariate Edgeworth expansion (I(E)) and a Gaussian form for conditional M distribution I(M vertical stroke E) and (c) a product of the univariate Edgeworth expansions for both I(E) and I(M vertical stroke E) and compare the resulting fixed-J level density Il(E,J) with the corresponding combinatorial results. (orig.)

  13. Bayesian techniques for comparing time-dependent GRMHD simulations to variable Event Horizon Telescope observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Junhan; Chan, Chi-kwan; Medeiros, Lia; Ozel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a millimeter-wavelength, very-long baseline interferometer (VLBI) that is capable of observing black holes with horizon-scale resolution. Early observations have revealed variable horizon-scale emission in the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Comparing such observations to time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations requires statistical tools that explicitly consider the variability in both the data and the models. We develop here a Bayesian method to compare time-resolved simulation images to variable VLBI data, in order to infer model parameters and perform model comparisons. We use mock EHT data based on GRMHD simulations to explore the robustness of this Bayesian method and contrast it to approaches that do not consider the effects of variability. We find that time-independent models lead to offset values of the inferred parameters with artificially reduced uncertainties. We also apply our method to the early EHT data...

  14. The effect of misspecification of random effects distributions in clustered data settings with outcome-dependent sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, John M.; McCulloch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic epidemiologists often gather outcome-dependent samples of family data to measure within-family associations of genetic factors with disease outcomes. Generalized linear mixed models provide effective methods to estimate within-family associations but typically require parametric specification of the random effects distribution. Although misspecification of the random effects distribution often leads to little bias in estimated regression coefficients in standard, prospective clustered...

  15. Variability in DNA polymerase efficiency: effects of random error, DNA extraction method, and isolate type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using computer-generated data calculated with known amounts of random error (E = 1, 5 & 10%) associated with calculated qPCR cycle number (C ) at four jth 1:10 dilutions, we found that the “efficiency” (eff) associated with each population distribution of n = 10,000 measurements varied from 0.95 to ...

  16. Randomized trial of buprenorphine for treatment of concurrent opiate and cocaine dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Ivan D.; Gorelick, David A.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Umbricht, Annie; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Lange, W. Robert; Contoreggi, Carlo; Johnson, Rolley E.; Fudala, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine is a partial ?-opiate agonist and ?-opiate antagonist with established efficacy in the treatment of opiate dependence. Its efficacy for cocaine dependence is uncertain. This study evaluated buprenorphine for the treatment of concomitant cocaine and opiate dependence. Methods Two hundred outpatients currently dependent on both cocaine and opiates were randomly assigned to double-blind groups receiving a sublingual solution of buprenorphine (2, 8, or 16 mg daily, or 16 mg on alternate days, or placebo), plus weekly individual drug abuse counseling, for 13 weeks. The chief outcome measures were urine concentrations of opiate and cocaine metabolites (quantitative) and proportion of urine samples positive for opiates or cocaine (qualitative). Group differences were assessed by use of mixed regression modeling. Results The target dose of buprenorphine was achieved in 179 subjects. Subjects receiving 8 or 16 mg buprenorphine daily showed statistically significant decreases in urine morphine levels (P = .0135 for 8 mg and P < .001 for 16 mg) or benzoylecgonine concentrations (P = .0277 for 8 mg and P = .006 for 16 mg) during the maintenance phase of the study. For the 16-mg group, mean benzoylecgonine concentrations fell from 3715 ng/mL during baseline to 186 ng/mL during the withdrawal phase; mean morphine concentrations fell from 3311 ng/mL during baseline to 263 ng/mL during withdrawal. For the 8-mg group, mean benzoylecgonine concentrations fell from 6761 ng/mL during baseline to 676 ng/mL during withdrawal; mean morphine concentrations fell from 3890 ng/mL during baseline to 661 ng/mL during withdrawal. Qualitative urinalysis showed a similar pattern of results. Subjects receiving the highest dose showed concomitant decreases in both urine morphine and benzoylecgonine concentrations. There were no significant group differences in treatment retention or adverse events. Conclusions A sublingual buprenorphine solution at 16 mg daily is well tolerated and effective in reducing concomitant opiate and cocaine use. The therapeutic effect on cocaine use appears independent of that on opiate use. PMID:14749690

  17. Scales of variability of black carbon plumes and their dependence on resolution of ECHAM6-HAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigum, Natalie; Stier, Philip; Schutgens, Nick; Kipling, Zak

    2015-04-01

    Prediction of the aerosol effect on climate depends on the ability of three-dimensional numerical models to accurately estimate aerosol properties. However, a limitation of traditional grid-based models is their inability to resolve variability on scales smaller than a grid box. Past research has shown that significant aerosol variability exists on scales smaller than these grid-boxes, which can lead to discrepancies between observations and aerosol models. The aim of this study is to understand how a global climate model's (GCM) inability to resolve sub-grid scale variability affects simulations of important aerosol features. This problem is addressed by comparing observed black carbon (BC) plume scales from the HIPPO aircraft campaign to those simulated by ECHAM-HAM GCM, and testing how model resolution affects these scales. This study additionally investigates how model resolution affects BC variability in remote and near-source regions. These issues are examined using three different approaches: comparison of observed and simulated along-flight-track plume scales, two-dimensional autocorrelation analysis, and 3-dimensional plume analysis. We find that the degree to which GCMs resolve variability can have a significant impact on the scales of BC plumes, and it is important for models to capture the scales of aerosol plume structures, which account for a large degree of aerosol variability. In this presentation, we will provide further results from the three analysis techniques along with a summary of the implication of these results on future aerosol model development.

  18. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  19. Temperature dependence of resistive switching behaviors in resistive random access memory based on graphene oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported resistive switching behaviors in the resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices based on the different annealing temperatures of graphene oxide (GO) film as active layers. It was found that the resistive switching characteristics of an indium tin oxide (ITO)/GO/Ag structure have a strong dependence on the annealing temperature of GO film. When the annealing temperature of the GO film was 20 °C, the devices showed typical write-once-read-many-times (WORM) type memory behaviors, which have good memory performance with a higher ON/OFF current ratio (?104), the higher the high resistance state (HRS)/low resistance state (LRS) ratio (?105) and stable retention characteristics (>103 s) under lower programming voltage (?1 V and ?0.5 V). With the increasing annealing temperature of GO film, the resistive switching behavior of RRAM devices gradually weakened and eventually disappeared. This phenomenon could be understood by the different energy level distributions of the charge traps in GO film, and the different charge injection ability from the Ag electrode to GO film, which is caused by the different annealing temperatures of the GO film. (papers)

  20. Contribution to the application of the random vibration theory to the seismic analysis of structures via state variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several problems related to the application of the theory of random by means of state variables are studied. The well-known equations that define the propagation of the mean and the variance for linear and non-linear systems are first presented. The Monte Carlo method is next resorted to in order to determine the applicability of the hypothesis of a normally distributed output in case of linear systems subjected to non-Gaussian excitations. Finally, attention is focused on the properties of linear filters and modulation functions proposed to simulate seismic excitations as non stationary random processes. Acceleration spectra obtained by multiplying rms spectra by a constant factor are compared with design spectra suggested by several authors for various soil conditions. In every case, filter properties are given. (Author)

  1. Berry-Esseen and Edgeworth approximations for the tail of an infinite sum of weighted gamma random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Veillette, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Consider the sum $Z = \\sum_{n=1}^\\infty \\lambda_n (\\eta_n - \\mathbb{E}\\eta_n)$, where $\\eta_n$ are i.i.d.~gamma random variables with shape parameter $r > 0$, and the $\\lambda_n$'s are predetermined weights. We study the asymptotic behavior of the tail $\\sum_{n=M}^\\infty \\lambda_n (\\eta_n - \\mathbb{E}\\eta_n)$ which is asymptotically normal under certain conditions. We derive a Berry-Essen bound and Edgeworth expansions for its distribution function. We illustrate the effectiveness of these expansions on an infinite sum of weighted chi-squared distributions.

  2. Variability of motor potentials evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation depends on muscle activation

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, Warren G.; Wolf, Steven L.; Butler, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether motor cortex excitability assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is less variable when subjects maintain a visually controlled low-level contraction of the muscle of interest. We also examined the dependence of single motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude on stimulation intensity and pre-stimulus muscle activation level using linear and non-linear multiple regression analysis. Eight healthy adult subjects received single p...

  3. Alaskan soil carbon stocks: spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W J

    2012-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes in response to climate change depend on the spatial and vertical distributions of SOC. We estimated spatially-resolved SOC stocks from surface to C horizon, distinguishing active-layer and permafrost-layer stocks, based on geospatial analysis of 472 soil profiles and spatially referenced environmental variables for Alaska. Total Alaska state-wide SOC stock was estimated to be 77 Pg, with 61% in the active-layer, 27% in permafros...

  4. Parametric and Semiparametric Estimation in Models with Misclassified Categorical Dependent Variables

    OpenAIRE

    DUSTMANN, Christian; Van Soest, Arthur

    1999-01-01

    We consider both a parametric and a semiparametric method to account for classification errors on the dependent variable in an ordered response model. The methods are applied to the analysis of self-reported speaking fluency of male immigrants in Germany. We find some substantial differences in parameter estimates between parametric and semiparametric models, and between predictions of true and reported fluency. We compare the predictions of the three models, and perform a graphical test of t...

  5. Nonlocal problem with dependent coefficients in conditions for the second-order equation in time variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka I.Ya.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Cartesian product of a time segment and a spatial multidimensional torus, we investigate nonlocal two-point problem with dependent coefficients on a smooth curve in conditions for typeless partial differential equation of the second order in time variable. Conditions for the one-valued solvability of the problem are established. Metric theorem on lower bound of small denominators on smooth curve are proved.

  6. Stochasticity and Determinism: How Density-Independent and Density-Dependent Processes Affect Population Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlberger, Jan; Rogers, Lauren A; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2014-01-01

    A persistent debate in population ecology concerns the relative importance of environmental stochasticity and density dependence in determining variability in adult year-class strength, which contributes to future reproduction as well as potential yield in exploited populations. Apart from the strength of the processes, the timing of density regulation may affect how stochastic variation, for instance through climate, translates into changes in adult abundance. In this study, we develop a lif...

  7. Partial summations of stationary sequences of non-Gaussian random variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Gunnar; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1996-01-01

    -Gaussian variables up to the moments of the fourth order [Winterstein, S. R. Nonlinear vibration models for extremes and fatigue. J. Engng Mech. ASCE 114 (1988) 1772-1790](1). A method to obtain the Winterstein approximation to a partial sum of a sequence of Winterstein approximations is explained and results are...

  8. Ratio Estimators in Simple Random Sampling when Study Variable is an Attribute

    OpenAIRE

    singh, rajesh; Kumar, Mukesh; Smarandache, Florentin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have suggested a family of estimators for the population mean when study variable itself is qualitative in nature. Expressions for the bias and mean square error (MSE) of the suggested family have been obtained. An empirical study has been carried out to show the superiority of the constructed estimator over others.

  9. A new mean estimator using auxiliary variables for randomized response models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Nilgun; Cingi, Hulya

    2013-10-01

    Randomized response models are commonly used in surveys dealing with sensitive questions such as abortion, alcoholism, sexual orientation, drug taking, annual income, tax evasion to ensure interviewee anonymity and reduce nonrespondents rates and biased responses. Starting from the pioneering work of Warner [7], many versions of RRM have been developed that can deal with quantitative responses. In this study, new mean estimator is suggested for RRM including quantitative responses. The mean square error is derived and a simulation study is performed to show the efficiency of the proposed estimator to other existing estimators in RRM.

  10. Dispersion for Two Classes of Random Variables: General Theory and Application to Inference of an External Ligand Concentration by a Cell

    CERN Document Server

    Barato, Andre C

    2015-01-01

    We derive expressions for the dispersion for two classes of random variables in Markov processes. Random variables like current and activity pertain to the first class, which is composed by random variables that change whenever a jump in the stochastic trajectory occurs. The second class corresponds to the time the trajectory spends in a state (or cluster of states). While the expression for the first class follows straightforwardly from known results in the literature, we show that a similar formalism can be used to derive an expression for the second class. As an application, we use this formalism to analyze a cellular two-component network estimating an external ligand concentration. The uncertainty related to this external concentration is calculated by monitoring different random variables related to an internal protein. We show that, inter alia, monitoring the time spent in the phosphorylated state of the protein leads to a finite uncertainty only if there is dissipation, whereas the uncertainty obtaine...

  11. Resting heart rate variability after yogic training and swimming: A prospective randomized comparative trial

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Vinayak Sawane; Shilpa Sharad Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Resting heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the modulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) at rest. Increased HRV achieved by the exercise is good for the cardiovascular health. However, prospective studies with comparison of the effects of yogic exercises and those of other endurance exercises like walking, running, and swimming on resting HRV are conspicuous by their absence. Aims: Study was designed to assess and compare the effects of yogic training and swimming on...

  12. Dose dependency and individual variability of the lipopolysaccharide-induced bovine acute phase protein response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Tølbøll, T.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    . Concentrations of APP not only reflect the magnitude of LPS exposure but are also influenced by the ability of the individual cow to mount an acute phase response. The ability to produce SAA and haptoglobin may be an innate characteristic of the individual, as responses in consecutive challenges were......In order to investigate the dose dependency and the individual variability of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute phase protein response in cattle, 8 nonlactating, nonpregnant Danish Holstein cows were challenged 3 times each by intravenous injection of increasing doses (10, 100, and 1000 ng...... several days after each LPS injection, and their increase or decrease was significantly related to LPS dose. In addition to dose dependency, the response was also dependent on the individual, as APP concentrations differed significantly among cows. To compare APP production in 2 consecutive challenges...

  13. Random variables in forest policy: A systematic sensitivity analysis using CGE models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are extensively used to simulate economic impacts of forest policies. Parameter values used in these models often play a central role in their outcome. Since econometric studies and best guesses are the main sources of these parameters, some randomness exists about the 'true' values of these parameters. Failure to incorporate this randomness into these models may limit the degree of confidence in the validity of the results. In this study, we conduct a systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) to assess the economic impacts of: 1) a 1 % increase in tax on Canadian lumber and wood products exports to the United States (US), and 2) a 1% decrease in technical change in the lumber and wood products and pulp and paper sectors of the US and Canada. We achieve this task by using an aggregated version of global trade model developed by Hertel (1997) and the automated SSA procedure developed by Arndt and Pearson (1996). The estimated means and standard deviations suggest that certain impacts are more likely than others. For example, an increase in export tax is likely to cause a decrease in Canadian income, while an increase in US income is unlikely. On the other hand, a decrease in US welfare is likely, while an increase in Canadian welfare is unlikely, in response to an increase in tax. It is likely that income and welfare both fall in Canada and the US in response to a decrease in the technical change in lumber and wood products and pulp and paper sectors 21 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  14. Negative dependence through the FKG Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Dubhashi, D.; Priebe, V.; Ranjan, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate random variables arising in occupancy problems, and show the variables to be negatively associated, that is, negatively dependent in a strong sense. Our proofs are based on the FKG correlation inequality, and they suggest a useful, general technique for proving negative dependence among random variables. We also show that in the special case of two binary random variables, the notions of negative correlation and negative association coincide.

  15. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  16. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of random stimuli account for trial-to-trial variability in perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hame; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2016-01-01

    Decisions in everyday life are prone to error. Standard models typically assume that errors during perceptual decisions are due to noise. However, it is unclear how noise in the sensory input affects the decision. Here we show that there are experimental tasks for which one can analyse the exact spatio-temporal details of a dynamic sensory noise and better understand variability in human perceptual decisions. Using a new experimental visual tracking task and a novel Bayesian decision making model, we found that the spatio-temporal noise fluctuations in the input of single trials explain a significant part of the observed responses. Our results show that modelling the precise internal representations of human participants helps predict when perceptual decisions go wrong. Furthermore, by modelling precisely the stimuli at the single-trial level, we were able to identify the underlying mechanism of perceptual decision making in more detail than standard models. PMID:26752272

  18. Variable-range hopping transport: crossovers from temperature dependence to electric field dependence in disordered carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Chun Y.; Kaiser, Alan B.

    2014-04-01

    Variable-range hopping (VRH) is an important conduction mechanism in disordered conductors. One example of such a disordered conductor is reduced graphene oxide in which VRH dominates the temperature dependence of electronic conduction. Electronic transport is generally by electric field-assisted, thermally-driven VRH, following the theory of Mott, and Pollak and Riess. However, with the increase of electric field and decrease of temperature, we identify a surprisingly smooth crossover to solely field-driven VRH described by the theory of Shklovskii. We give the analytic expression for the crossover field E_C as a function of temperature and coefficients from thermally-driven and field-driven VRH. Besides reduced graphene oxide, we show in this work that our crossover scenario can also account for the experimentally measured conductivity data of three-dimensional (3D) carbon networks as well as that of quasi-1D highly-doped conducting polymers, illustrating the wide validity of our proposed physical scenario. Our crossover scenario has the advantage of combining two distinct regimes of VRH conduction yet remaining within the currently established theoretical framework.

  19. New alphabet-dependent morphological transition in a random RNA alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Valba, O. V.; Tamm, M. V.; Nechaev, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the fraction $f$ of nucleotides involved in the formation of a cactus--like secondary structure of random heteropolymer RNA--like molecules. In the low--temperature limit we study this fraction as a function of the number $c$ of different nucleotide species. We show, that with changing $c$, the secondary structures of random RNAs undergo a morphological transition: $f(c)\\to 1$ for $c \\le c_{\\rm cr}$ as the chain length $n$ goes to infinity, signaling the formation of a virtually "per...

  20. Layered discrete variable representations and their application within the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthe, Uwe

    2009-02-01

    The multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach facilitates multidimensional quantum dynamics calculations by employing a layered representation: in the upper layer of the representation the multidimensional wave function is expanded in a basis of time-dependent single-particle functions, in the lower layer then these single-particle functions are represented in a larger time-independent basis. This two layer approach can be generalized to a multilayer MCTDH representation to further increase the numerical efficiency. In recent work [U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 164116 (2008)], a quadrature scheme has been introduced which facilitates multilayer MCTDH calculations for Hamiltonians with general potential energy functions. Based on time-dependent discrete variable representation (DVR) grids corresponding to the single-particle function bases the scheme employs the correlation DVR (CDVR) approach. The present work shows that serious problems arise when this original multilayer CDVR approach is applied for accurate calculations of vibrational states. A solution to these problems is presented which uses a revised scheme to define the time-dependent DVR grids entering into the CDVR scheme. Applications studying the vibrational states of CH3 demonstrate that the resulting revised multilayer MCTDH/CDVR approach yields smoothly convergent and accurate results.

  1. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2010-11-01

    Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs). With the proposed approach, we can systematically derive the joint statistics of any partial sums of ordered statistics, in terms of the moment generating function (MGF) and the probability density function (PDF). Our MGF-based approach applies not only when all the K ordered RVs are involved but also when only the Ks(Ks < K) best RVs are considered. In addition, we present the closed-form expressions for the exponential RV special case. These results apply to the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems over fading channels. © 2006 IEEE.

  2. The dependence of damage on internal variables and its incorporation into constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is presented for the prediction of the lifetime of metals in the high-temperature range under arbitrary variable uniaxial load. The influence of deformation on damage is discussed. The definition of damage in continuum damage mechanics, which allows indirect measurement of damage via the deformation behaviour, is adopted. To collect some knowledge about the damage evolution, damage is in two ways measured during the strain controlled LCF tests: change of the modulus of elasticity and decrease of the peak stress. Surprisingly, both methods lead to results which are in good agreement. The damage law is then developed by reference to known models and lifetime rules. The damage model is a modification of the creep damage law by Rabotnov. It is extended by a dependence on the inelastic strain rate used instead of the dependence on internal variables describing the internal state. The parameters of the damage model are determined with a view to apply them to AISI 316 L(N) austenitic steel. Some of the parameters are derived from standard creep experiments. To determine further parameters, the damage model is applied to the LCF tests. Both, failure behaviour and damage evolution are described well. (author)

  3. Spectral variability of deciduous leaves depending on the developmental stages and tree condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Ryu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Foliar spectral characteristics could be the key information in modeling forest ecosystem and the remote sensing of vegetation identification. But it is not easy to determine a typical leaf spectrum of a species in a standardized state. That is because of variables critically influencing on the spectral property of leaves, such as inter- and intra-species features, phenological phase, or biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, we attempted to quantify the spectral variability of leaves depending on species, developmental stages, and the condition of trees. The contribution of these factors to the spectral variation was analyzed at the single leaf level, with a large number of samples from deciduous plants in the urban forested area. First, we collected tens of leaf-samples at every biweekly fieldwork in the growing season, for the selected 5 tree species popular in urban parks; Acer palmatum, Carpinus laxiflora, Prunus yedoensis, Quercus acutissima, and Zelkova serrata. And absorbance, reflectance and transmittance spectra of the leaves were acquired at the short-visible (400-700 nm) to infrared (700-2500 nm) spectral region with 1 nm interval. Seasonality in these leaf-spectra was used to understand the inter-species variation depending on developmental stages. Second, as a benchmark for testing intra-species variability and differences by tree condition, we additionally analyzed the spectral reflectance of 504 ripe leaves from 56 cherry trees (Cerasus × yedoensis) collected in the middle of summer. Last, using ANOVA (analysis of variance) and general linear model, we assessed the influence of our tested variables (i.e., species, developmental stage, and tree condition) on the spectral characteristics and their vegetation indices. As a result, we clarified that the changes in leaf-spectra was apparent across all the tested species during the growing season from May to June, indicating the increasing trend of absorbance in photosynthetically active radiation region (400 to 700 nm; PAR) and reflectance in the near infrared region (700 to 1300 nm; NIR). Inter-species variability still appeared substantial and those inherit spectral characteristics was difficult to be described in a single universal vegetation index. The reflectance values of leaves were significantly differed in good and poor tree condition, which could be the other important consideration in the representative scheme of leaf sampling. More discussions will be present about the effect of species, developmental stage, and tree condition to the leaf-spectra and the published vegetation indices.

  4. Does naltrexone treatment lead to depression? Findings from a randomized controlled trial in subjects with opioid dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Angela J; Saunders, John B; Jones, Rod T.; Young, Ross M; Connor, Jason P; Lawford, Bruce R

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Dysphoria and depression have been cited as side effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone. We aimed to assess whether depressive symptoms are a clinically relevant side effect in a population receiving naltrexone as a treatment for opioid dependence. Methods: We carried out a randomized controlled, open-label trial comparing rapid opiate detoxification under anesthesia and naltrexone treatment with continued methadone maintenance at the Alcohol and Drug Service, Royal Brisbane a...

  5. Constrained randomization and multivariate effect projections improve information extraction and biomarker pattern discovery in metabolomics studies involving dependent samples

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Pär; Wuolikainen, Anna; Thysell, Elin; Chorell, Elin; Stattin, Pär; Wikström, Pernilla; Antti, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Analytical drift is a major source of bias in mass spectrometry based metabolomics confounding interpretation and biomarker detection. So far, standard protocols for sample and data analysis have not been able to fully resolve this. We present a combined approach for minimizing the influence of analytical drift on multivariate comparisons of matched or dependent samples in mass spectrometry based metabolomics studies. The approach is building on a randomization procedure for sample run order,...

  6. Concurrence of Quantum States: Algebraic Dynamical Method Study XXX Models in a Time-Depending Random External Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on algebraic dynamics and the concept of the concurrence of the entanglement, we investigate the evolutive properties of the two-qubit entanglement that formed by Heisenberg XXX models under a time-depending external held. For this system, the property of the concurrence that is only dependent on the coupling constant J and total values of the external field is proved. Furthermore, we found that the thermal concurrence of the system under a static random external field is a function of the coupling constant J, temperature T, and the magnitude of external held. (general)

  7. Shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dust aerosols modeled as randomly oriented spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present computational results on the shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dustlike aerosol particles that were modeled as randomly oriented spheroids. Shape dependent variations in the extinction cross sections are largest in the size regime that is governed by the interference structure. Elongated spheroids best fitted measured extinction spectra of re-dispersed Saharan dust samples. For dust particles smaller than 1.5 ?m in diameter and low absorption potential, shape effects on the absorption cross sections are very small.

  8. Simulación de campos aleatorios con dependencia no multi-gaussiana empleando cópulas / Simulation of Random Fields with Non Multi-Gaussian Dependence Using Copulas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe, Vázquez-Guillén; Gabriel, Auvinet-Guichard.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los campos aleatorios se usan comúnmente en ingeniería civil para describir la variación espacial de las propiedades de los materiales. En este artículo se emplea un modelo de cópulas para simular campos aleatorios con dependencia no multi-Gaussiana. Se generan simulaciones de distintos campos aleat [...] orios siguiendo la metodología propuesta y luego se examinan las correspondientes cópulas empíricas bivariadas. Se muestra que los resultados son satisfactorios en términos de la reproducción de las correspondientes cópulas teóricas. Con este simulador es posible incorporar un mayor grado de realismo en el modelo de variabilidad espacial, por ejemplo en problemas de flujo de agua en suelos donde la presencia de zonas continuas más permeables gobierna el comportamiento hidráulico de la masa de suelo, o bien, en problemas de estabilidad de taludes donde la extensión de la superficie de falla puede ser controlada por la presencia de zonas continuas más débiles, por mencionar solo algunos. Abstract in english Random fields are models commonly used in civil engineering to describe spatial variability of material properties. A copula model is used in this paper to simulate random fields with non multi-Gaussian dependence. Simulations of several random fields are conducted following the proposed methodology [...] and bivariate empirical copulas are then examined. Satisfactory results are obtained in terms of the reproduction of the corresponding theoretical copulas. By means of such simulator, it is possible to incorporate a higher degree of realism in the spatial variability model, for example in seepage flow problems wherein the presence of higher permeable continuous zones control the hydraulic behavior of the soil mass or in slope stability problems where the extension of failure surfaces may be controlled by the presence of weaker continuous zones, to mention only a few.

  9. A versatile variable field module for field and angular dependent scanning probe microscopy measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hongxue; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart; Hodgson, Jim; Rutgers, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a versatile variable field module (VFM) with capability of both field and angular dependent measurements up to 1800 Oe for scanning probe system. The magnetic field strength is changed by adjusting the distance between a rare earth magnet and the probe tip and is monitored in-situ by a built-in Hall sensor. Rotating the magnet allows the field vector to change from the horizontal to vertical direction and makes it possible to do angular dependent measurements. The capability of the VFM system is demonstrated by degaussing a floppy disk media with increasing magnetic field. Angular dependent measurements clearly show the evolution of magnetic domain structures, with a completely reversible magnetic force microscopy phase contrast observed when the magnetic field is rotated by 180{\\deg}. A further demonstration of out-of-plane and in-plane magnetic switching of CoFe2O4 pillars in CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 nanocomposites was presented and discussed.

  10. Exploring dependence between categorical variables: benefits and limitations of using variable selection within Bayesian clustering in relation to log-linear modelling with interaction terms

    OpenAIRE

    Papathomas, Michail; Richardson, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript is concerned with relating two approaches that can be used to explore complex dependence structures between categorical variables, namely Bayesian partitioning of the covariate space incorporating a variable selection procedure that highlights the covariates that drive the clustering, and log-linear modelling with interaction terms. We derive theoretical results on this relation and discuss if they can be employed to assist log-linear model determination, demonstrating advanta...

  11. A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Therapeutic Workplace for Chronically Unemployed, Homeless, Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Wong, Conrad J.; Diemer, Karly; Needham, Mick; Hampton, Jacqueline; FINGERHOOD, MICHAEL; Svikis, Dace S; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To assess the efficacy of the Therapeutic Workplace, a substance abuse intervention that promotes abstinence while simultaneously addressing the issues of poverty and lack of job skills, in promoting abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics. Methods: Participants (n = 124) were randomly assigned to conditions either requiring abstinence from alcohol to engage in paid job skills training (Contingent Paid Training group), offering paid job skills training with no abstinence conti...

  12. Body size-dependent toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics could explain intra- and interspecies variability in sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergs, André; Kulkarni, Devdutt; Preuss, Thomas G

    2015-11-01

    Ecological risk assessment of chemicals aims at quantifying the likelihood of adverse effects posed to non-target populations and the communities they constitute, often based on lethal concentration estimates for standard test species. There may, however, be intra- and interspecific differences in responses to chemical exposure. Here with the help of a toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model, we explored whether differential body sizes might explain the observed variability in sensitivity between species and between life-stages of each individual species, for three model organisms, Daphnia magna, Chaoborus crystallinus and Mesocyclops leuckarti. While body size-dependent toxicokinetics could be used to predict intraspecies variation in sensitivity, our results also suggest that changes in both toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic parameters might be needed to describe differential species sensitivity. Accounting for biological traits, like body size, in mechanistic effect models will allow more accurate predictions of chemical effects in size structured populations, ultimately providing mechanistic explanations for species sensitivity distributions. PMID:26275729

  13. X-point position dependence of edge intrinsic toroidal rotation on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltzfus-Dueck, T., E-mail: tstoltzf@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Karpushov, A. N.; Sauter, O.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Reimerdes, H.; Vijvers, W. A. J. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Camenen, Y. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille (France)

    2015-05-15

    Recent theoretical work predicts intrinsic toroidal rotation in the tokamak edge to depend strongly on the normalized major radial position of the X-point. With this motivation, we conducted a series of Ohmic L-mode shots on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable, moving the X-point from the inboard to the outboard edge of the last closed flux surface in both lower and upper single null configurations. The edge toroidal rotation evolved from strongly co-current for an inboard X-point to either vanishing or counter-current for an outboard X-point, in agreement with the theoretical expectations. The whole rotation profile shifted roughly rigidly with the edge rotation, resulting in variation of the peak core rotation by more than a factor of two. Core rotation reversals had little effect on the edge rotation. Edge rotation was slightly more counter-current for unfavorable than favorable ?B drift discharges.

  14. Time-dependent reliability of corrosion-affected RC beams. Part 3: Effect of corrosion initiation time and its variability on time-dependent failure probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, Kapilesh, E-mail: kapil_66@barc.gov.i [Architecture and Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mori, Yasuhiro [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ghosh, A.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    This paper forms the third part of a study which addresses time-dependent reliability analyses of reinforced concrete (RC) beams affected by reinforcement corrosion. Parts 1 and 2 of the reliability study are presented in companion papers. Part 1 of the reliability study presents evaluation of probabilistic descriptions for time-dependent strengths of a typical simply supported corrosion-affected RC beam. These probabilistic descriptions, i.e., mean and coefficient of variation (c.o.v.) for the time-dependent strengths are presented for two limit states: (a) flexural failure; and (b) shear failure. Part 2 of the reliability study presents evaluation of time-dependent failure probability for the considered RC beam by utilizing the information on probabilistic descriptions for time-dependent strengths available in Part 1. Evaluation of time-dependent failure probability considering the variability in time-dependent strengths and/or time-dependent degradation functions is also presented. This paper investigates the effects of time to corrosion initiation and its variability on failure probability of the same RC beam presented in companion papers. By considering variability in the identified variables that could affect the expected time of first corrosion, simple estimations are presented for mean time to corrosion initiation and variability associated with time to corrosion initiation. Evaluation of time-dependent failure probability for the beam is presented by considering estimated probabilistic descriptions, i.e., mean and c.o.v. for time to corrosion initiation. Parametric analyses show that failure probability for the beam is sensitive to the mode of strength degradation and time to corrosion initiation.

  15. Wigner theorems for random matrices with dependent entries: Ensembles associated to symmetric spaces and sample covariance matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann-Credner, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    It is a classical result of Wigner that for an hermitian matrix with independent entries on and above the diagonal, the mean empirical eigenvalue distribution converges weakly to the semicircle law as matrix size tends to infinity. In this paper, we prove analogs of Wigner's theorem for random matrices taken from all infinitesimal versions of classical symmetric spaces. This is a class of models which contains those studied by Wigner and Dyson, along with seven others arising in condensed matter physics. Like Wigner's, our results are universal in that they only depend on certain assumptions about the moments of the matrix entries, but not on the specifics of their distributions. What is more, we allow for a certain amount of dependence among the matrix entries, in the spirit of a recent generalization of Wigner's theorem, due to Schenker and Schulz-Baldes. As a byproduct, we obtain a universality result for sample covariance matrices with dependent entries.

  16. Oxide thickness dependence of resistive switching characteristics for Ni/HfOx/Pt resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Hamada, Yoshihumi; Otsuka, Shintaro; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso

    2015-06-01

    The switching process of the conductive filament formed in Ni/HfOx/Pt resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices were studied. We evaluated the oxide thickness dependence and temperature dependence of voltage for the Forming, Set and Reset operations for HfOx layers whose thickness are between 3.3 and 6.5 nm. The resistance of conductive filaments showed typical metallic behavior, which suggests Ni filament formation in the HfOx layer. There is a clear dependence of switching voltages for the Set and Reset processes on oxide thickness, which implies that the formation and rupture of conductive filaments occur in the entire thickness range of the HfOx layer. This finding differs from that of a previous study by Yang, which suggests the existence of a constant-thickness switching region. It is suggested that the thickness of the switching region in HfOx may be larger than 6.5 nm.

  17. Scale-dependent soil and climate variability effects on watershed water balance of the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttiah, Ranjan S.; Wurbs, Ralph A.

    2002-01-01

    The water balance of large watersheds in Texas was studied using a process level watershed model called the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). The major components of the SWAT watershed model are evapo-transpiration (ET), soil water storage (SW), and water yield (WYLD), which is the sum of surface runoff and subsurface flow. Important input variables controlling the water balance in watersheds are the soils and climate. In this paper, changes in mean and variance of water balance components due to variability in soils and climate were assessed for six different watersheds (Hydrologic Cataloging Units, HCUs) in Texas covering wet to semi-arid regions using 1:250,000 scale data. Bulk density, soil available water capacity, and moist soil albedo were selected as soil parameters. Soil heterogeneity in watersheds was defined in terms of textural classes in the soil textural triangle. Spatial variability of precipitation between neighboring weather stations was quantified using power spectra. The impact of geographic scales on changes to the mean of the water balance components was determined by studying the Seco Creek sub-watershed within the Hondo HCU using 1:24,000 scale data. Results from scales of observation show that changes to mean SW was high as a function of increasing scale from 1:250,000 to 1:24,000, while mean ET sensitivity remained about the same. The direct influence of soil properties such as bulk density, available water capacity, on the variance of ET, SW, and WYLD was about equal when using 1:24,000 scale data. For watersheds in wet climate composed of heterogeneous soils (loam fine sands and fine sandy loams), the means of the water components were relatively sensitive to climate and soils variability, and soil heterogeneity. Watersheds composed of shallow soils in semi-arid climate showed sensitivity of mean water balance components due to moist albedo and available water capacity. Changes to mean and variance of water balance components as a function of geographic scale suggest the presence of scale-dependent water balance 'uncertainty' laws.

  18. A Randomized Trial of Oral Naltrexone for Treating Opioid-Dependent Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Coviello, Donna M.; Cornish, James W.; LYNCH, KEVIN G.; Alterman, Arthur I.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2010-01-01

    Offenders with a history of opioid dependence are a particularly difficult group to treat. A large proportion of offenders typically relapse shortly after release from prison, commit drug-related crimes and then are arrested and eventually re-incarcerated. Previous research demonstrated that oral naltrexone was effective in reducing opioid use and preventing recidivism among offenders under federal supervision. The 111 opioid-dependent offenders in this study were under various levels of supe...

  19. Low-loss and low-polarization-dependent fiber variable optical attenuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galstian, Tigran; Zohrabyan, Armen; Tork, Amir; Birabassov, Rouslan; Jewell, Richard; Dumont, Dany; Gagnon, Bertrand

    2004-12-01

    We present the optical performance of a compact variable optical attenuator (VOA) developed at Photintech. The presented VOA"s operation principle is based on the guided wave evanescent field manipulation. Access to the evanescent portion of the guided radiation is achieved by replacing the original waveguide"s cladding with a thermo-optic composite polymer (TOP) material. By changing the temperature of the thermo-optic (TO) material we create guided radiation partial leakage attenuating thus the light. Nevertheless, using polymer materials usually creates significant birefringence due to shrinkage during polymerization or thermal stresses during operation and the polarization dependence of such devices is relatively high. We apply a specific cladding geometry and heating electrode (pending patent of Photintech Inc.), which ensures axial compensation of the birefringence, providing thus very small polarization dependence. In-fiber design provides also low insertion loss (IL) and high dynamic range operation. Control electronics allow the VOA to operate with a precision better than 0.1dB. The developed VOA can be used in agile optical networks, for applications such as dynamic gain equalisation, dynamic channel equalisation, optical transmitter power control and receivers protection in telecommunication systems.

  20. Pure-Triplet Scattering for Radiative Transfer in Semi-infinite Random Media with Refractive-Index Dependent Boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative transfer problem for pure-triplet scattering, in participating half-space random medium is proposed. The medium is assumed to be random with binary Markovian mixtures (e.g. radiation transfer in astrophysical contexts where the clouds and clear sky play and two-phase medium) described by Markovian statistics. The specular reflectivity of the boundary is angular-dependent described by the Fresnel's reflection probability function. The problem is solved at first in the deterministic case, and then the solution is averaged using the formalism developed by Levermore and Pomraning, to treat particles transport problems in statistical mixtures. Some physical quantities of interest such as the reflectivity of the boundary, average radiant energy, and average net flux are computed for various values of refractive index of the boundary

  1. Uncertainty of Random Variables.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zden?k

    Chania, 2010 - ( Skiadas , C.). s. 32-32 [SMTDA 2010. Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Data Analysiserence on Robust Statistics. International Conference. 08.06.2010-11.06.2010, Chania] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : entropy * information * scalar score Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  2. Detection of Genetic Variability using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers in Some Accessions of Moringa oleifera Lam. from Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, A. U.; S. MuA`zu; R. Wusirika; B.Y. Abubakar; A.K. Adamu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate genetic variability in Moringa oleifera Lam., 75 accessions from the Sudan and Guinea savanna zones in Nigeria were taxonomically analysed using Random Amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The electrophoresis bands were analysed using NTSYSpc software and the result of their matrices indicated different variability in the accessions. High degrees of polymorphism (74%) among the accessions were observed in terms of genetic relationship and were grouped into five clusters. T...

  3. Switching field dependence on heating pulse duration in thermally assisted magnetic random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minimum applied field HSW required to reverse the magnetic moment of the ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic storage layer of a thermally assisted magnetic random access memory (TA-MRAM) device during the application of a heating electric pulse is investigated as a function of pulse power PHP and duration ?. For the same power of the heating pulse PHP (or, equivalently, for the same temperature of the storage layer), HSW increases with decreasing heating time ?. This behavior is consistently interpreted by a thermally activated propagating domain-wall switching model, corroborated by a real-time study of switching. The increase of HSW with decreasing pulse width introduces a constraint for the minimum power consumption of a TA-MRAM where writing combines heating and magnetic field application.

  4. Hybrid model of light propagation in random media based on the time-dependent radiative transfer and diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical modeling of light propagation in random media has been an important issue for biomedical imaging, including diffuse optical tomography (DOT). For high resolution DOT, accurate and fast computation of light propagation in biological tissue is desirable. This paper proposes a space–time hybrid model for numerical modeling based on the radiative transfer and diffusion equations (RTE and DE, respectively) in random media under refractive-index mismatching. In the proposed model, the RTE and DE regions are separated into space and time by using a crossover length and the time from the ballistic regime to the diffusive regime, ?DA?10/?t? and tDA?20/v?t? where ?t? and v represent a reduced transport coefficient and light velocity, respectively. The present model succeeds in describing light propagation accurately and reduces computational load by a quarter compared with full computation of the RTE. - Highlights: • Light propagation in homogeneous random media is investigated. • A crossover length and the time from ballistic regime to diffusive regime of light propagation are evaluated as a function of optical properties. • An accurate and efficient model based on the time-dependent radiative transfer and diffusion equations for light propagation in the media is proposed by using the crossover length and time

  5. Randomizing Endowments: An Experimental Study of Rational Expectations and Reference-Dependent Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Götte, Lorenz; Harms, Annette; Sprenger, Charles

    2014-01-01

    An important advance in the study of reference-dependent preferences is the discipline provided by coherent accounts of reference point formation. K?szegi and Rabin (2006) provide such discipline by positing a reference point grounded in rational expectations. We examine the predictions of K?szegi and Rabin (2006) in the context of market experiments with probabilistic forced exchange. The experiment tightly tests the predictions of K?szegi and Rabin (2006), as when the probability of forced ...

  6. The contact process on the complete graph with random vertex-dependent infection rates

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Jonathon

    2010-01-01

    We study the contact process on the complete graph on $n$ vertices where the rate at which the infection travels along the edge connecting vertices $i$ and $j$ is equal to $ \\lambda w_i w_j / n$ for some $\\lambda >0$, where $w_i$ are i.i.d. vertex weights. We show that when $E[w_1^2] 0$ so that for $\\lambda\\lambda_c$ the contact process lives for an exponential amount of time. Moreover, we give a formula for $\\lambda_c$ and when $\\lambda>\\lambda_c$ we are able to give precise approximations for the probability a given vertex is infected in the quasi-stationary distribution. Our results are consistent with a non-rigorous mean-field analysis of the model. This is in contrast to some recent results for the contact process on power law random graphs where the mean-field calculations suggested that $\\lambda_c>0$ when in fact $\\lambda_c = 0$.

  7. The Fundamental Manifold of spiral galaxies: ordered versus random motions and the morphology dependence of the Tully-Fisher relation

    CERN Document Server

    Tonini, Chiara; Mould, Jeremy; Webster, Rachel; Danilovich, Taissa; Ozbilgen, Sinem

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) We investigate the morphology dependence of the Tully-Fisher relation, and the expansion of the relation into a three-dimensional manifold defined by luminosity, total circular velocity and a third dynamical parameter, to fully characterise spiral galaxies across all morphological types. We use a semi-analytic hierarchical model of galaxy evolution to build the theoretical TF relation. With this tool, we analyse a unique dataset of galaxies for which we cross-match luminosity with total circular velocity and central velocity dispersion. We provide a theoretical framework to calculate such measurable quantities from semi-analytic models. We establish the morphology dependence of the TF relation in both model and data. We analyse the dynamical properties of the model galaxies and determine that the parameter 'sigma/Vc', i.e. the ratio between random and total motions defined by velocity dispersion and circular velocity, accurately characterises the varying slope of the TF relation for different model...

  8. Thermal radiation effects on the time-dependent MHD permeable flow having variable viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is devoted to the impacts of thermal radiation on the unsteady laminar convective MHD flow of a viscous electrically conducting fluid having a temperature-dependent viscosity over a rotating porous disk of infinite extend impulsively set into motion. The fluid is subjected to an external uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the disk. The governing Navier-Stokes and Maxwell equations of the hydromagnetic fluid, together with the energy equation, are reduced into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations via the Von Karman similarity transformations. Due to the radiation effect and variable viscosity property the equations are highly coupled. These equations are then solved numerically by using a technique based on the spectral Chebyshev collocation in the direction normal to the disk and forward marching in time. Transient effects are discussed first. Later a parametric study of all parameters involved is performed and a representative set of results incorporating the effects of Prandtl number, the viscosity variation parameter, the magnetic interaction parameter, the radiation parameter, the uniform suction/blowing parameter, the relative temperature difference parameter and the Eckert number on physically meaningful quantities such as the radial and tangential skin friction coefficients, the torque, the vertical wall suction and the rate of heat transfer from the disk surface are illustrated graphically and discussed. (author)

  9. Metallurgical coke quality depending on the variability of properties of coking coal mixes components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kaloc; S. Bartusek; S. Czudek [VSB-TU Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The main sources for this report are the experiences acquired by the long lasting practice of the coking coal mixes preparing and tuning them in accordance with the variable qualitative properties of the coals mined in the coalfields of the OKD Company Ostrava. The systematic database, made by summarizing the values of measured indexes, became a very useful instrument for the coal mixes composing with regard on the two today very important points of view, namely: Contemporary presence and the long lasting availability of the definite coal type from any local source. Price basis influencing strongly the economics of the coke production. The method of prognostic estimating of the metallurgical coke quality dependence on the coking mixes composition, developed some time ago by authors of presented paper, was published in the Cokemaking International Vol. 13, 2/2001 (Czudek S. and al.: Simulation of Carbonization Process under Laboratory Conditions). The original procedure was newly accomplished by implementing a special method of the multi criteria evaluation of the definite coal components. New method is based on special processing of the technologic significant qualitative properties of the mined coal brands enabling deeply estimate the impacts of their application in metallurgical coke production. The importance of this evaluating system exceeds largely the well known method that is incorporated in the international coal classification. The main advantage of the new method is the fully respecting of the specialties marking the geographic different coalfields. (Abstract only)

  10. Correction of chromosomal mutation and random integration in embryonic stem cells with helper-dependent adenoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Fumi; Balamotis, Michael A; Kishimoto, Atsuhiro; Aizawa, Emi; Diaz, Arturo; Hasty, Paul; Graham, Frank L; Caskey, C Thomas; Mitani, Kohnosuke

    2005-09-20

    For gene therapy of inherited diseases, targeted integration/gene repair through homologous recombination (HR) between exogenous and chromosomal DNA would be an ideal strategy to avoid potentially serious problems of random integration such as cellular transformation and gene silencing. Efficient sequence-specific modification of chromosomes by HR would also advance both biological studies and therapeutic applications of a variety of stem cells. Toward these goals, we developed an improved strategy of adenoviral vector (AdV)-mediated HR and examined its ability to correct an insertional mutation in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) locus in male mouse ES cells. The efficiency of HR was compared between four types of AdVs that contained various lengths of homologies at the Hprt locus and with various multiplicities of infections. The frequency of HR with helper-dependent AdVs (HD AdVs) with an 18.6-kb homology reached 0.2% per transduced cell at a multiplicity of infection of 10 genomes per cell. Detection of random integration at DNA levels by PCR revealed extremely high efficiency of 5% per cell. We also isolated and characterized chromosomal sites where HD AdVs integrated in a random manner. In contrast to retroviral, lentiviral, and adeno-associated viral vectors, which tend to integrate into genes, the integration sites of AdV was distributed randomly inside and outside genes. These findings suggest that HR mediated by HD AdVs is efficient and relatively safe and might be a new viable option for ex vivo gene therapy as well as a tool for chromosomal manipulation of a variety of stem cells. PMID:16174752

  11. Activity in a Cortical-Basal Ganglia Circuit for Song Is Required for Social Context-Dependent Vocal Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanek, Laurie; Doupe, Allison J.

    2010-01-01

    Variability in adult motor output is important for enabling animals to respond to changing external conditions. Songbirds are useful for studying variability because they alter the amount of variation in their song depending on social context. When an adult zebra finch male sings to a female (“directed”), his song is highly stereotyped, but when he sings alone (“undirected”), his song varies across renditions. Lesions of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), th...

  12. Alaskan soil carbon stocks: spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mishra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC changes in response to climate change depend on the spatial and vertical distributions of SOC. We estimated spatially-resolved SOC stocks from surface to C horizon, distinguishing active-layer and permafrost-layer stocks, based on geospatial analysis of 472 soil profiles and spatially referenced environmental variables for Alaska. Total Alaska state-wide SOC stock was estimated to be 77 Pg, with 61% in the active-layer, 27% in permafrost, and 12% in non-permafrost soils. Prediction accuracy was highest for the active-layer as demonstrated by highest ratio of performance to deviation (1.5. Large spatial variability was predicted, with whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer stocks ranging from 1–296 kg C m?2, 2–166 kg m?2, and 0–232 kg m?2, respectively. Temperature and soil wetness were found to be primary controllers of whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer SOC stocks. Secondary controllers, in order of importance, were: land cover type, topographic attributes, and bedrock geology. The observed importance of soil wetness rather than precipitation on SOC stocks implies that the poor representation of high-latitude soil wetness in Earth System Models may lead to large uncertainty in predicted SOC stocks under future climate change scenarios. Under strict caveats described in the text and assuming temperature changes from the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenario, our geospatial model indicates that the equilibrium average 2100 Alaska active-layer depth could deepen by 11 cm, resulting in a thawing of 13 Pg C currently in permafrost. The equilibrium SOC loss associated with this warming would be highest under continuous permafrost (31%, followed by discontinuous (28%, isolated (24.3%, and sporadic (23.6% permafrost areas. Our high resolution mapping of soil carbon stock reveals the potential vulnerability of high-latitude soil carbon and can be used as a basis for future studies of anthropogenic and climatic perturbations.

  13. Alaskan soil carbon stocks: spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mishra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC changes in response to climate change depend on the spatial and vertical distributions of SOC. We estimated spatially resolved SOC stocks from surface to C horizon, distinguishing active-layer and permafrost-layer stocks, based on geospatial analysis of 472 soil profiles and spatially referenced environmental variables for Alaska. Total Alaska state-wide SOC stock was estimated to be 77 Pg, with 61% in the active-layer, 27% in permafrost, and 12% in non-permafrost soils. Prediction accuracy was highest for the active-layer as demonstrated by highest ratio of performance to deviation (1.5. Large spatial variability was predicted, with whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer stocks ranging from 1–296 kg C m?2, 2–166 kg m?2, and 0–232 kg m?2, respectively. Temperature and soil wetness were found to be primary controllers of whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer SOC stocks. Secondary controllers, in order of importance, were found to be land cover type, topographic attributes, and bedrock geology. The observed importance of soil wetness rather than precipitation on SOC stocks implies that the poor representation of high-latitude soil wetness in Earth system models may lead to large uncertainty in predicted SOC stocks under future climate change scenarios. Under strict caveats described in the text and assuming temperature changes from the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenario, our geospatial model indicates that the equilibrium average 2100 Alaska active-layer depth could deepen by 11 cm, resulting in a thawing of 13 Pg C currently in permafrost. The equilibrium SOC loss associated with this warming would be highest under continuous permafrost (31%, followed by discontinuous (28%, isolated (24.3%, and sporadic (23.6% permafrost areas. Our high-resolution mapping of soil carbon stock reveals the potential vulnerability of high-latitude soil carbon and can be used as a basis for future studies of anthropogenic and climatic perturbations.

  14. Baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN32121581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi-Abhari Seyed Ali

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may be useful in treatment of opioid dependence. This study was aimed at assessing the possible efficacy of baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Methods A total of 40 opioid-dependent patients were detoxified and randomly assigned to receive baclofen (60 mg/day or placebo in a 12-week, double blind, parallel-group trial. Primary outcome measure was retention in treatment. Secondary outcome measures included opioids and alcohol use according to urinalysis and self-report ratings, intensity of opioid craving assessed with a visual analogue scale, opioid withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale and depression scores on the Hamilton inventory. Results Treatment retention was significantly higher in the baclofen group. Baclofen also showed a significant superiority over placebo in terms of opiate withdrawal syndrome and depressive symptoms. Non-significant, but generally favorable responses were seen in the baclofen group with other outcome measures including intensity of opioid craving and self-reported opioid and alcohol use. However, no significant difference was seen in the rates of opioid-positive urine tests. Additionally, the drug side effects of the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion The results support further study of baclofen in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence.

  15. On the new approach to variable separation in the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with two space dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhdanov, R S; Fushchych, W I; Zhdanov, Renat Z; Revenko, Ihor V; Fushchych, Wilhelm I

    1995-01-01

    We suggest an effective approach to separation of variables in the Schr\\"odinger equation with two space variables. Using it we classify inequivalent potentials V(x_1,x_2) such that the corresponding Schr\\" odinger equations admit separation of variables. Besides that, we carry out separation of variables in the Schr\\" odinger equation with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator potential V=k_1x_1^2+k_2x_2^2 and obtain a complete list of coordinate systems providing its separability. Most of these coordinate systems depend essentially on the form of the potential and do not provide separation of variables in the free Schr\\" odinger equation (V=0).

  16. Relative thermoluminescent efficiency of LiF detectors for proton radiation: Batch variability and energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available experimental data on the relative thermoluminescent efficiency of the LiF:Mg,Ti dosimetric peaks for protons are contradictory. There are several reports showing that the efficiency exceeds unity by even more than 30%, however, many others show the efficiency close to unity or even lower. These contradictory data might be a result of the real variability of TLD properties or of not perfectly reproduced experimental conditions. In an attempt to resolve this issue, the efficiency of 16 batches of LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) detectors for 60 MeV protons produced at the IFJ Kraków over the last 20 years was measured. All values of the relative TL efficiency were found to exceed unity significantly, with an average of 1.09. Dispersion between different batches was very low, all data were within 4% of the mean value. In second part of experiment the dependence of the relative efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors on proton energy was determined. The efficiency for LiF:Mg,Ti dosimetric peaks was found to have a maximum of 1.20 at about 20 MeV. For LiF:Mg,Cu,P the relative efficiency decreases systematically with decreasing proton energy, from 0.96 at 56 MeV, to 0.61 at 11 MeV. -- Highlights: ? We compared the relative TL efficiency to protons of 16 different LiF:Mg,Ti batches. ? Efficiency values are larger than 1 and show only minimal scatter between batches. ? LiF:Mg,Ti efficiency shows a maximum of 1.2 for about 20 MeV protons. ? LiF:Mg,Cu,P efficiency decreases with decreasing proton energy

  17. Do drug treatment variables predict cognitive performance in multidrug-treated opioid-dependent patients? A regression analysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Rapeli Pekka; Fabritius Carola; Kalska Hely; Alho Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cognitive deficits and multiple psychoactive drug regimens are both common in patients treated for opioid-dependence. Therefore, we examined whether the cognitive performance of patients in opioid-substitution treatment (OST) is associated with their drug treatment variables. Methods Opioid-dependent patients (N = 104) who were treated either with buprenorphine or methadone (n = 52 in both groups) were given attention, working memory, verbal, and visual memory tests after ...

  18. Approximate derivative-dependent functional variable separation for quasi-linear diffusion equations with a weak source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the approximate derivative-dependent functional variable separation approach, we study the quasi-linear diffusion equations with a weak source ut = (A(u)ux)x + ?B(u, ux). A complete classification of these perturbed equations which admit approximate derivative-dependent functional separable solutions is listed. As a consequence, some approximate solutions to the resulting perturbed equations are constructed via examples. (general)

  19. Conductance of partially disordered graphene: crossover from temperature-dependent to field-dependent variable-range hopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an analysis of low-temperature measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room temperature, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak–Riess) variable-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower temperatures T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(−E0/E)1/3 field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value EC(T)2D=(EaE01/3/3)3/4 determined by the scale factors E0 and Ea for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability. (paper)

  20. Charge-dependent oxygen vacancy diffusion in Al2O3-based resistive-random-access-memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Moon Young; Kamiya, Katsumasa; Magyari-Köpe, Blanka; Niwa, Masaaki; Nishi, Yoshio; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    We theoretically study an oxygen vacancy (VO) diffusion in Al2O3-based resistive-random-access-memories (ReRAMs). We find that the activation energy of VO diffusion in Al2O3 strongly depends on the charge state of VO. In ReRAM, the charge state of VO can be easily changed by applying voltage and the lowest activation energy is observed at q = 2+. The operation voltage on Al2O3-based ReRAM is close to the activation energy at q = 2+, indicating that VO diffuses with doubly positive state. Moreover, the activation energy at q = 0 is close to that observed in bulk Al2O3, which explains the discrepancy between previous experimental and theoretical studies.

  1. Effect of an office worksite-based yoga program on heart rate variability: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic work-related stress is a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and associated mortality, particularly when compounded by a sedentary work environment. Heart rate variability (HRV provides an estimate of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic control, and can serve as a marker of physiological stress. Hatha yoga is a physically demanding practice that can help to reduce stress; however, time constraints incurred by work and family life may limit participation. The purpose of the present study is to determine if a 10-week, worksite-based yoga program delivered during lunch hour can improve resting HRV and related physical and psychological parameters in sedentary office workers. Methods and design This is a parallel-arm RCT that will compare the outcomes of participants assigned to the experimental treatment group (yoga to those assigned to a no-treatment control group. Participants randomized to the experimental condition will engage in a 10-week yoga program delivered at their place of work. The yoga sessions will be group-based, prescribed three times per week during lunch hour, and will be led by an experienced yoga instructor. The program will involve teaching beginner students safely and progressively over 10 weeks a yoga sequence that incorporates asanas (poses and postures, vinyasa (exercises, pranayama (breathing control and meditation. The primary outcome of this study is the high frequency (HF spectral power component of HRV (measured in absolute units; i.e. ms2, a measure of parasympathetic autonomic control. Secondary outcomes include additional frequency and time domains of HRV, and measures of physical functioning and psychological health status. Measures will be collected prior to and following the intervention period, and at 6 months follow-up to determine the effect of intervention withdrawal. Discussion This study will determine the effect of worksite-based yoga practice on HRV and physical and psychological health status. The findings may assist in implementing practical interventions, such as yoga, into the workplace to mitigate stress, enhance health status and reduce the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Trial Registration ACTRN12611000536965 URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611000536965.aspx

  2. Time-dependent reliability of corrosion-affected RC beams-Part 1: Estimation of time-dependent strengths and associated variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, Kapilesh, E-mail: kapilesh_66@yahoo.co.u [Architecture and Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mori, Yasuhiro [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ghosh, A.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: Predictive models for corrosion-induced damages in RC structures. Formulations for time-dependent flexural and shear strengths of corroded RC beams. Methodology for mean and c.o.v. for time-dependent strengths of corroded RC beams. Simple estimation of mean and c.o.v. for flexural strength with loss of bond. - Abstract: The structural deterioration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to reinforcement corrosion is a major worldwide problem. Damages to RC structures due to reinforcement corrosion manifest in the form of expansion, cracking and eventual spalling of the cover concrete; thereby resulting in serviceability and durability degradation of such structures. In addition to loss of cover, RC structure may suffer structural damages due to loss of reinforcement cross-sectional area, and loss of bond between corroded reinforcement and surrounding cracked concrete, sometimes to the extent that the structural failure becomes inevitable. This paper forms the first part of a study which addresses time-dependent reliability analyses of RC beams affected by reinforcement corrosion. In this paper initially the predictive models are presented for the quantitative assessment of time-dependent damages in RC beams, recognized as loss of mass and cross-sectional area of reinforcing bar, loss of concrete section owing to the peeling of cover concrete, and loss of bond between corroded reinforcement and surrounding cracked concrete. Then these models have been used to present analytical formulations for evaluating time-dependent flexural and shear strengths of corroded RC beams, based on the standard composite mechanics expressions for RC sections. Further by considering variability in the identified basic variables that could affect the time-dependent strengths of corrosion-affected RC beams, the estimation of statistical descriptions for the time-dependent strengths is presented for a typical simply supported RC beam. The statistical descriptions, i.e., mean and coefficient of variation (c.o.v.) for the time-dependent strengths are presented for two limit states: (a) flexural failure, and (b) shear failure. The other two parts of the reliability study present the estimation of time-dependent failure probability for the considered RC beam by utilizing the information provided on probabilistic descriptions of time-dependent strengths in this paper. The effects of time to corrosion initiation and its variability on the failure probability of the considered RC beam have also been discussed.

  3. On Complete Convergence for Arrays of Rowwise -Mixing Random Variables and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Xing-cai; Lin Jin-guan

    2010-01-01

    We give out a general method to prove the complete convergence for arrays of rowwise -mixing random variables and to present some results on complete convergence under some suitable conditions. Some results generalize previous known results for rowwise independent random variables.

  4. Evaluation of Probabilistic Fatigue Crack Propagation Models in Mg-Al-Zn Alloys Under Maximum Load Conditions Using Residual of Random Variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary aim of this paper is to evaluate the probabilistic fatigue crack propagation models using the residual of a random variable and to present the probabilistic model fit for the probabilistic fatigue crack growth behavior in Mg-Al-Zn alloys under maximum load conditions. The models used in this study were prepared by applying a random variable to empirical fatigue crack propagation models such as the Paris-Erdogan model, Walker model, Forman model, and modified Forman model. It was verified that the good models for describing the stochastic variation of the fatigue crack propagation behavior in Mg-Al-Zn alloys under maximum load conditions were the ‘probabilistic Paris-Erdogan model’ and ‘probabilistic Walker model’. The influence of the maximum load conditions on the stochastic variation of fatigue crack growth is also considered

  5. Lesions of an avian basal ganglia circuit prevent context-dependent changes to song variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Mimi H; Brainard, Michael S

    2006-09-01

    Trial-by-trial variability is important in feedback-based motor learning. Variation in motor output enables evaluation mechanisms to differentially reinforce patterns of motor activity that produce desired behaviors. Here, we studied neural substrates of variability in the performance of adult birdsong, a complex, learned motor skill used for courtship. Song performance is more variable when male birds sing alone (undirected) than when they sing to females (directed). We test the role of the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), an avian basal ganglia-forebrain circuit, in this socially driven modulation of song variability. We show that lesions of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), the output nucleus of the AFP, cause a reduction in the moment-by-moment variability in syllable structure during undirected song to the level present during directed song. This elimination of song modulation is immediate and long-lasting. We further show that the degree of syllable variability and its modulation are both attenuated in older birds, in concert with decreased variability of LMAN activity in these birds. In contrast to the requirement of LMAN for social modulation of syllable structure, we find that LMAN is not required for modulation of other features of song, such as the number of introductory elements and motif repetitions and the ordering of syllables or for other motor and motivational aspects of courtship. Our findings suggest that a key function of avian basal ganglia circuitry is to regulate vocal performance and plasticity by specifically modulating moment-by-moment variability in the structure of individual song elements. PMID:16723412

  6. Lactase persistence and bitter taste response: instrumental variables and mendelian randomization in epidemiologic studies of dietary factors and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Matullo, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of dairy products seems to increase the risk of cancer at several sites, while intake of cruciferous vegetables could have protective effects. However, these dietary intakes are subject to measurement error, and associations with cancer could be due to confounders. Mendelian randomization has been suggested as a way to overcome confounding by exploiting the random allocation of alleles from parents to offspring. In mid-2006, the authors conducted a study of allele frequencies for ...

  7. Angular dependence of multiple-bit upset response in static random access memories under heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental evidence is presented relevant to the angular dependences of multiple-bit upset (MBU) rates and patterns in static random access memories (SRAMs) under heavy ion irradiation. The single event upset (SEU) cross sections under tilted ion strikes are overestimated by 23.9%–84.6%, compared with under normally incident ion with the equivalent linear energy transfer (LET) value of ? 41 MeV/(mg/cm2), which can be partially explained by the fact that the MBU rate for tilted ions of 30° is 8.5%–9.8% higher than for normally incident ions. While at a lower LET of ? 9.5 MeV/(mg/cm2), no clear discrepancy is observed. Moreover, since the ion trajectories at normal and tilted incidences are different, the predominant double-bit upset (DBU) patterns measured are different in both conditions. Those differences depend on the LET values of heavy ions and devices under test. Thus, effective LET method should be used carefully in ground-based testing of single event effects (SEE) sensitivity, especially in MBU-sensitive devices. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  8. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2014-08-01

    The joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs) are often needed for the accurate performance characterization of a wide variety of wireless communication systems. A unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables was recently presented. However, the identical distribution assumption may not be valid in several real-world applications. With this motivation in mind, we consider in this paper the more general case in which the random variables are independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.d.). More specifically, we extend the previous analysis and introduce a new more general unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. RVs. Our mathematical formalism is illustrated with an application on the exact performance analysis of the capture probability of generalized selection combining (GSC)-based RAKE receivers operating over frequency-selective fading channels with a non-uniform power delay profile. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

  9. Methylphenidate for treating tobacco dependence in non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder smokers: A pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croghan Ivana T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylphenidate blocks the re-uptake of dopamine by binding to the dopamine transporter in the presynaptic cell membrane and increases extracellular dopamine levels. Similarities in neuropsychologic effects between nicotine and methylphenidate make it an intriguing potential therapeutic option. Previous research of methylphenidate in smokers has suggested a possible beneficial effect for the relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, but showed no efficacy in helping smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD to stop smoking. Methods To investigate potential efficacy for relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and promoting smoking abstinence, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study of once-a-day osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH, Concerta® at a target dose of 54-mg/day for 8 weeks compared with placebo in 80 adult cigarette smokers. Results Of the 80 randomized subjects and median smoking rate was 20 cigarettes per day. At the end of the medication phase, the biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was 10% (4/40 for the placebo group and 2.5% (1/40 for the OROS-MPH group. Nicotine withdrawal was not found to differ significantly between treatment groups during the first 14 days following the start of medication prior to the target quit date (p = 0.464 or during the first 14 days following the target quit date (p = 0.786. Conclusion We observed no evidence of efficacy of OROS-MPH to aid smokers to stop smoking. Although there are biologically plausible hypotheses that support the use of OROS-MPH for treating tobacco dependence, we found no evidence to support such hypotheses. In addition to no increase in smoking abstinence, we saw no effect of OROS-MPH for tobacco withdrawal symptom relief and no change in smoking rates was observed in the OROS-MPH group compared to the placebo group.

  10. Physically-based internal variable model for rate-dependent plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified model is developed for creep and plasticity in metals, using internal state variables to reflect the current microstructure. The inelastic flow rule is taken to be a power function incorporating a kinematic and an isotropic internal variable, where the microstructural origins of these properties are dislocation pileups and dislocation obstacle interaction, respectively. The model is generalized for three-dimensional deformation and evolutionary functions are developed for the internal variables to account for strain hardening and thermal recovery. An experimental test and data reduction procedure is presented which allows all the material constants to be determined for materials which exhibit secondary creep. The procedure is applied to pure aluminum. This generalized model provides a physical basis for predicting mechanical response along arbitrary deformation paths

  11. On Integrating Variables and Separating Facts in the Complex Relationship between Dependency and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    Presents a reply by Robert Bornstein to comments from Chronister and regarding his article, "The complex relationship between dependency and domestic violence: Converging psychological factors and social forces." In addition to raising some important issues regarding the link between dependency and domestic violence, the comments by Chronister and…

  12. Variable screening and ranking using sampling-based sensitivity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a methodology for screening insignificant random variables and ranking significant important random variables using sensitivity measures including two cumulative distribution function (CDF)-based and two mean-response based measures. The methodology features (1) using random samples to compute sensitivities and (2) using acceptance limits, derived from the test-of-hypothesis, to classify significant and insignificant random variables. Because no approximation is needed in either the form of the performance functions or the type of continuous distribution functions representing input variables, the sampling-based approach can handle highly nonlinear functions with non-normal variables. The main characteristics and effectiveness of the sampling-based sensitivity measures are investigated using both simple and complex examples. Because the number of samples needed does not depend on the number of variables, the methodology appears to be particularly suitable for problems with large, complex models that have large numbers of random variables but relatively few numbers of significant random variables

  13. Experiment and theory of Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3. Antiferroelectric, ferroelectric, or relaxor state depending on perovskite B-site randomness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the recent progress in our understanding of the effect of B-site randomness on Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PIN) from the experimental and theoretical viewpoints. PIN is one of the ideal systems for investigating the effect of perovskite B-site randomness on relaxor formation, because it can be in the antiferroelectric (AFE), ferroelectric (FE), or relaxor state depending on B-site randomness. Lattice dynamics measured in ordered and disordered PINs indicates the existence of FE instability regardless of the B-site randomness of PIN. AFE is stabilized when the B-site is spatially ordered, overwhelming FE instability. The hidden FE state starts to appear as B-site randomness becomes stronger and suppresses AFE instability. Ultimately, the randomness competes with the development of FE regions and blocks long-range FE ordering, which yields polar nanoregions (PNRs) resulting in relaxor behavior. In order to investigate the interesting behavior of PIN, we constructed a minimal model that includes dipolar interaction and easy-axis anisotropy which depends on B-site randomness. The results from Monte Carlo simulations show that the model well reproduces the phase diagram and dielectric constant of PIN qualitatively. (author)

  14. Tai Chi training may reduce dual task gait variability, a potential mediator of fall risk, in healthy older adults: cross-sectional and randomized trial studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Wayne

    2015-06-01

    PURPOSE: To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study compared gait in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience older adults. TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Gait speed and stride time variability (% was assessed during 90 sec trials of undisturbed and cognitive DT (serial-subtractions conditions. RESULTS: During DT, gait speed decreased (p<0.003 and stride time variability increased (p<0.004 in all groups. Cross-sectional comparisons indicated that stride time variability was lower in the TC-expert vs. TC-naïve group, significantly so during DT (2.11% vs. 2.55%; p=0.027; in contrast, gait speed during both undisturbed and DT conditions did not differ between groups. Longitudinal analyses of TC-naïve adults randomized to 6 months of TC training or usual care identified improvement in DT gait speed in both groups. A small improvement in DT stride time variability (effect size = 0.2 was estimated with TC training, but no significant differences between groups were observed. Potentially important improvements after TC training could not be excluded in this small study. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy active older adults, positive effects of short- and long-term TC were observed only under cognitively challenging DT conditions and only for stride time variability. DT stride variability offers a potentially sensitive metric for monitoring TC’s impact on fall risk with healthy older adults.

  15. On the frequency-dependent specific heat and TMDSC: Constitutive modelling based on thermodynamics with internal state variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop constitutive models to represent the thermomechanically chemically coupled behaviour of curing resins, vulcanizing elastomers or melting and crystallizing polymers the technique of DSC is extremely helpful. In the present study, the method of TMDSC is interpreted and evaluated in the context of thermodynamics with internal state variables. The balance equation of energy and the dissipation principle in the form of the Clausius-Duhem inequality form the theoretical basis of our study. Since the pressure and the temperature are the external variables in DSC, the specific Gibbs free energy is used as thermodynamic potential. It depends on temperature, stress and a set of internal state variables to represent the microstructure of the material on a phenomenological basis. The temperature- and internal variable-induced changes in the Gibbs free energy are approximated by a Taylor series up to second order terms. As a substantial result of this work, closed-form expressions for the dynamic calorimetric response due to harmonic temperature perturbations and the frequency-dependent complex heat capacity are derived. The theory allows a physical interpretation of the complex heat capacity and its underlying phenomena and is in accordance with experimental observations from literature.

  16. Outer Membrane Targeting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteins Shows Variable Dependence on the Components of Bam and Lol Machineries

    OpenAIRE

    Hanh H. Hoang; Nickerson, Nicholas N.; Lee, Vincent T.; Kazimirova, Anastasia; Chami, Mohamed; Pugsley, Anthony P; Lory, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the Lol and Bam machineries direct the targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins, respectively, to the outer membrane (OM). Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with depleted levels of specific Bam and Lol proteins, we demonstrated a variable dependence of different OM proteins on these targeting pathways. Reduction in the level of BamA significantly affected the ability of the ?-barrel membrane protein OprF to localize to the OM, while the targeting of three...

  17. Accurate approximate solution to nonlinear oscillators in which the restoring force is inversely proportional to the dependent variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified generalized, rational harmonic balance method is used to construct approximate frequency-amplitude relations for a conservative nonlinear singular oscillator in which the restoring force is inversely proportional to the dependent variable. The procedure is used to solve the nonlinear differential equation approximately. The approximate frequency obtained using this procedure is more accurate than those obtained using other approximate methods and the discrepancy between the approximate frequency and the exact one is lower than 0.40%

  18. Geometry, temperature, and body bias dependence of statistical variability in 20-nm bulk CMOS technology: a comprehensive simulation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingsheng; Adamu-Lema, Fikru; Cheng, Binjie; Asen ASENOV

    2013-01-01

    Conventional bulk CMOS, which is arguably most vulnerable to statistical variability (SV), is the workhorse of the electronic industry for more than three decades. In this paper, the dependence of the SV of key figures of merit on gate geometry, temperature, and body bias in 25-nm gate-length MOSFETs, representative for the 20-nm CMOS technology generation, is systematically investigated using 3-D statistical simulations. The impact of all relevant sources of SV is taken into account. The geo...

  19. The fundamental manifold of spiral galaxies: ordered versus random motions and the morphology dependence of the Tully-Fisher relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, C.; Jones, D. H.; Mould, J.; Webster, R. L.; Danilovich, T.; Ozbilgen, S.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the morphology dependence of the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation, and the expansion of the relation into a three-dimensional manifold defined by luminosity, total circular velocity and a third dynamical parameter, to fully characterize spiral galaxies across all morphological types. We use a full semi-analytic hierarchical model (based on Croton et al.), built on cosmological simulations of structure formation, to model galaxy evolution and build the theoretical TF relation. With this tool, we analyse a unique data set of galaxies for which we cross-match luminosity with total circular velocity and central velocity dispersion. We provide a theoretical framework to calculate such measurable quantities from hierarchical semi-analytic models. We establish the morphology dependence of the TF relation in both model and data. We analyse the dynamical properties of the model galaxies and determine that the parameter ?/VC, i.e. the ratio between random and total motions defined by velocity dispersion and circular velocity, accurately characterizes the varying slope of the TF relation for different model galaxy types. We apply these dynamical cuts to the observed galaxies and find indeed that such selection produces a differential slope of the TF relation. The TF slope in different ranges of ?/VC is consistent with that for the traditional photometric classification in Sa, Sb and Sc. We conclude that ?/VC is a good parameter to classify galaxy type, and we argue that such classification based on dynamics more closely mirrors the physical properties of the observed galaxies, compared to visual (photometric) classification. We also argue that dynamical classification is useful for samples where eye inspection is not reliable or impractical. We conclude that ?/VC is a suitable parameter to characterize the hierarchical assembly history that determines the disc-to-bulge ratio, and to expand the TF relation into a three-dimensional manifold, defined by luminosity, circular velocity and ?/VC.

  20. Contact-dependent performance variability of monolayer MoS2 field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using self-consistent quantum transport simulations, we investigate the performance variability of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field-effect transistors (FETs) with various contact properties. Varying the Schottky barrier in MoS2 FETs affects the output characteristics more significantly than the transfer characteristics. If doped contacts are realized, the performance variation due to non-ideal contacts becomes negligible; otherwise, channel doping can effectively suppress the performance variability in metal-contact devices. Our scaling study also reveals that for sub-10-nm channels, doped-contact devices can be more robust in terms of switching, while metal-contact MoS2 FETs can undergo the smaller penalty in output conductance

  1. Contact-dependent performance variability of monolayer MoS{sub 2} field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gyuchull; Yoon, Youngki, E-mail: youngki.yoon@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-11-24

    Using self-consistent quantum transport simulations, we investigate the performance variability of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) field-effect transistors (FETs) with various contact properties. Varying the Schottky barrier in MoS{sub 2} FETs affects the output characteristics more significantly than the transfer characteristics. If doped contacts are realized, the performance variation due to non-ideal contacts becomes negligible; otherwise, channel doping can effectively suppress the performance variability in metal-contact devices. Our scaling study also reveals that for sub-10-nm channels, doped-contact devices can be more robust in terms of switching, while metal-contact MoS{sub 2} FETs can undergo the smaller penalty in output conductance.

  2. The North Atlantic variability structure, storm tracks, and precipitation depending on the polar vortex strength

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, K; Graf, H.-F.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the strong evidence that the state of the northern hemisphere vortex in boreal winter influences tropospheric variability, teleconnection patterns over the North Atlantic are defined separately for winter episodes where the zonal wind at 50hPa and 65° N is above or below the critical velocity for vertical propagation of zonal planetary wave 1. We argue that the teleconnection structure in the middle and upper troposphere differs considerably between the two regimes of the polar v...

  3. The North Atlantic variability structure, storm tracks, and precipitation depending on the polar vortex strength

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, K; Graf, H.-F.

    2004-01-01

    There is ample evidence that the state of the northern polar stratospheric vortex in boreal winter influences tropospheric variability. Therefore, the main teleconnection patterns over the North Atlantic are defined separately for winter episodes in which the zonal mean wind at 50 hPa and 65° N is above or below the critical Rossby velocity for zonal planetary wave one. It turns out that the teleconnection structure in the middle and upper troposphere differs considerabl...

  4. The North Atlantic variability structure, storm tracks, and precipitation depending on the polar vortex strength

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, K; Graf, H.-F.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the strong evidence that the state of the northern hemisphere vortex in boreal winter influences tropospheric variability, teleconnection patterns over the North Atlantic are defined separately for winter episodes where the zonal wind at 50hPa and 65° N is above or below the critical velocity for vertical propagation of zonal planetary wave 1. We argue that the teleconnection structure in the middle and upper troposphere differs considerably between the two ...

  5. The North Atlantic variability structure, storm tracks, and precipitation depending on the polar vortex strength

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, K; Graf, H.-F.

    2004-01-01

    There is ample evidence that the state of the northern polar stratospheric vortex in boreal winter influences tropospheric variability. Therefore, the main teleconnection patterns over the North Atlantic are defined separately for winter episodes in which the zonal mean wind at 50 hPa and 65° N is above or below the critical Rossby velocity for zonal planetary wave one. It turns out that the teleconnection structure in the middle and upper troposphere differs considerably between the two regi...

  6. The North Atlantic variability structure, storm tracks, and precipitation depending on the polar vortex strength

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, K; H.-F. Graf

    2004-01-01

    There is ample evidence that the state of the northern polar stratospheric vortex in boreal winter influences tropospheric variability. Therefore, the main teleconnection patterns over the North Atlantic are defined separately for winter episodes in which the zonal mean wind at 50 hPa and 65° N is above or below the critical Rossby velocity for zonal planetary wave one. It turns out that the teleconnection structure in the middle and upper troposphere differs considerably between the ...

  7. Analysis of occupational cohort data using exposure as a continuous time-dependent variable

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi, Maria Felice

    2005-01-01

    In occupational cohort studies, a group of workers is followed over time, and disease and work history information are collected for each individual in order to determine whether exposure to a particular substance is linked to differences in mortality or disease incidence rates. These studies are typically analysed by treating cumulative exposure as a categorical variable and then comparing disease or mortality rates between different exposure groups. A main shortfall of such analyses is a he...

  8. A Comparison of the Prognostic Value of Early PSA Test-Based Variables Following External Beam Radiotherapy, With or Without Preceding Androgen Deprivation: Analysis of Data From the TROG 96.01 Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We sought to compare the prognostic value of early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test-based variables for the 802 eligible patients treated in the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.01 randomized trial. Methods and Materials: Patients in this trial had T2b, T2c, T3, and T4 N0 prostate cancer and were randomized to 0, 3, or 6 months of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NADT) prior to and during radiation treatment at 66 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The early PSA test-based variables evaluated were the pretreatment initial PSA (iPSA) value, PSA values at 2 and 4 months into NADT, the PSA nadir (nPSA) value after radiation in all patients, and PSA response signatures in men receiving radiation. Comparisons of endpoints were made using Cox models of local progression-free survival, distant failure-free survival, biochemical failure-free survival, and prostate cancer-specific survival. Results: The nPSA value was a powerful predictor of all endpoints regardless of whether NADT was given before radiation. PSA response signatures also predicted all endpoints in men treated by radiation alone. iPSA and PSA results at 2 and 4 months into NADT predicted biochemical failure-free survival but not any of the clinical endpoints. nPSA values correlated with those of iPSA, Gleason grade, and T stage and were significantly higher in men receiving radiation alone than in those receiving NADT. Conclusions: The postradiation nPSA value is the strongest prognostic indicator of all early PSA-based variables. However, its use as a surrogate endpoint needs to take into account its dependence on pretreatment variables and treatment method.

  9. Free variable selection QSPR study to predict (19)F chemical shifts of some fluorinated organic compounds using Random Forest and RBF-PLS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Nasser

    2016-04-01

    In this work, two new and powerful chemometrics methods are applied for the modeling and prediction of the (19)F chemical shift values of some fluorinated organic compounds. The radial basis function-partial least square (RBF-PLS) and random forest (RF) are employed to construct the models to predict the (19)F chemical shifts. In this study, we didn't used from any variable selection method and RF method can be used as variable selection and modeling technique. Effects of the important parameters affecting the ability of the RF prediction power such as the number of trees (nt) and the number of randomly selected variables to split each node (m) were investigated. The root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for the training set and the prediction set for the RBF-PLS and RF models were 44.70, 23.86, 29.77, and 23.69, respectively. Also, the correlation coefficients of the prediction set for the RBF-PLS and RF models were 0.8684 and 0.9313, respectively. The results obtained reveal that the RF model can be used as a powerful chemometrics tool for the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies. PMID:26820549

  10. Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for nuclear reactor control using a variable reactor coolant temperature set point which is a function of power load demand. The set point has a constant temperature at the mid range of power load and a decreasing temperature at the higher range. A manual control is provided which is based exclusively on feedwater flow and allows power changes of up to 5 percent full power a minute with less boron concentration change than would otherwise be required

  11. Genetic variability in yam cultivars from Guinea-Sudan of Benin assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Zannou, A.; Agbicodo, E.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Struik, P.C.; Ahanchédé, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Sanni, A.

    2009-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important food and cash crop in the Guinea-Sudan zone of Benin. The genetic diversity of about 70 cultivars of Dioscorea cayenensis/Dioscorea rotundata (Guinea yam) and about 20 cultivars of Dioscorea alata (water yam) was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The amplified bands revealed high polymorphism. These polymorphic DNA fragments were used to construct dendrograms, clustering all accessions into 18 groups: 12 for D. cayenensis/D. rotundata...

  12. The Relationships between Cognitive Style of Field Dependence and Learner Variables in E-Learning Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozcu, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between cognitive styles of field dependent learners with their attitudes towards e-learning (distance education) and instructional behavior in e-learning instruction. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and the attitude survey (for students' preferences) towards e-learning instruction as distance…

  13. Variability in projected elevation dependent warming in boreal midlatitude winter in CMIP5 climate models and its potential drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwala, Imtiaz; Sinsky, Eric; Miller, James R.

    2015-06-01

    The future rate of climate change in mountains has many potential human impacts, including those related to water resources, ecosystem services, and recreation. Analysis of the ensemble mean response of CMIP5 global climate models (GCMs) shows amplified warming in high elevation regions during the cold season in boreal midlatitudes. We examine how the twenty-first century elevation-dependent response in the daily minimum surface air temperature [d(?Tmin)/dz] varies among 27 different GCMs during winter for the RCP 8.5 emissions scenario. The focus is on regions within the northern hemisphere mid-latitude band between 27.5°N and 40°N, which includes both the Rocky Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayas. We find significant variability in d(?Tmin)/dz among the individual models ranging from 0.16 °C/km (10th percentile) to 0.97 °C/km (90th percentile), although nearly all of the GCMs (24 out of 27) show a significant positive value for d(?Tmin)/dz. To identify some of the important drivers associated with the variability in d(?Tmin)/dz during winter, we evaluate the co-variance between d(?Tmin)/dz and the differential response of elevation-based anomalies in different climate variables as well as the GCMs' spatial resolution, their global climate sensitivity, and their elevation-dependent free air temperature response. We find that d(?Tmin)/dz has the strongest correlation with elevation-dependent increases in surface water vapor, followed by elevation-dependent decreases in surface albedo, and a weak positive correlation with the GCMs' free air temperature response.

  14. The greek infinitive in variable deliberative, principally dependent questions: an interpretation in terms of naturalness theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kav?i?

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper I investigate the use of the infinitive in dependent delibera­ tive clauses in Greek, a phenomenon occurring in several (modern languages, cf. Slovene Nisem vedel, kaj storiti. 'I didn't know what to do?', English I didn't know what to do., German Was tun? 'What to do?'l. In the first part I present the development of deliberative infinitive clauses in Post-Classical Greek with a special emphasis on the use of this form in two Early Byzantine prose writings (in Pratum Spirituale and in Vita Theodori Syceotae, both belonging to the 6th;7th century AD, where some peculiarities are observed. In the second part an attempt is made to interpret the basic characteristics of the Greek infinitive in dependent deliberative clauses from the perspective of Naturalness Theory.

  15. Self-efficacy as a mediating variable of informal caregiver burden for dependent elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Maria Augusta; Teresa Rodriguez, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The informal caregivers of dependent elders, plays a crucial role in maintaining the elderly in the family and community, but its work can be reflected negatively in their physical and emotional health, especially anxiety and depreSSion, loneliness, lack of free time, health effects and deterioration of the family economy. Several factors may be involved in its development, including stereotypes about the elderly, loneliness and self-efficacy of caregivers. In order to...

  16. Culture and social class as intervening variables in relapse prevention with chemically dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, H D; Wallen, M C; Zankowski, G L

    1990-01-01

    Craving and relapse are complex, poorly understood phenomena. A distinctive and baffling characteristic of the disease of chemical dependency is the continuing impulse to use alcohol and/or other drugs, even after lengthy periods of sobriety. This article discusses relapse prevention, focusing on public-sector chemically dependent women. Relapse among these women must be seen in the total context of their lives. Poverty and social disorganization do not directly cause relapse, but problems related to daily life under such conditions represent significant risk factors. The Eagleville Hospital treatment model and relapse prevention programs are described, and it is noted that public-sector women typically present with problems related to being raised in addicted households, residing in drug-saturated inner-city environments, deficits in child-rearing skills, destructive (often abusive) relationships with men, social interactions involving other substance abusers, few (if any) work skills, minimal educational achievement, low self-esteem, and poor self-image. A case study illustrates the course of treatment and relapse prevention efforts with a typical public-sector chemically dependent woman. PMID:2374071

  17. Changing dependence of Zimbabwean rainfall variability on ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole/zonal mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatsa, D.; Matarira, C. H.

    2009-10-01

    A novel approach of using variability as a major descriptive parameter for observational time series is adopted to investigate how southeastern African (Zimbabwe) summer rainfall may have been forced by the El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and/or the Indian Ocean dipole/zonal mode (IODZM), concurrently with the changing sea surface temperature (SST) background of the Indo-Pacific region. The period is from 1901 to 2007. Wavelet power spectrum and linear statistical analysis, including simple and partial correlation techniques, are utilized to achieve this end. The results reveal epochal changes in teleconnections and other statistical properties linking southeastern African rainfall variability to the Indo-Pacific SSTs. These epochs conspicuously exhibit the period around 1945/1946, 1960/1961, 1972/1973, and 1997/1998 as demarcating distinct systematic climate turning points during the century. The role of the 1976/1977 climate regime shift seems not to be that apparent but instead, 1960/1961 and 1997/1998 appear to be the major turning points, both in the teleconnections and Indo-Pacific SST temporal characteristics. From the early 1960s to 1997, as much as 28% of the rainfall variability was linearly related to the IODZM while the ENSO hardly explained a quarter of this value. During this period, droughts are especially strongly connected to the positive IODZM events but insignificantly linked to El Niño, thus contradicting the conventional knowledge attributing most of regional rainfall suppression to the warm ENSO phase. However, the post 1997 epoch saw the reversal of the two climate modes’ influences. ENSO influence evidently became activated, attaining the previously assumed dominant role which had proved elusive during the earlier epochs. But this increased ENSO control is attributed to only less than 12% of the rainfall variance while IODZM seem to be largely decoupled from the local rainfall influencing processes by hardly explaining a drastically reduced 1% of the rainfall variance. This transformation occurred despite of neither ENSO nor IODZM SST anomalies showing any statistically significant changes. As far as could be established, this epochal behavior may not be forced by the frequency and magnitude of ENSO and IODZM events but most probably by the slow processes inherent in the SST background, especially of the tropical Indian Ocean. Thus, the apparent simultaneous decoupling of the IODZM and coupling of the ENSO to the regional rainfall controlling mechanisms seems to be the result of the unprecedented warming of the intervening tropical western Indian Ocean SSTs in the last decade. Consequently, the knowledge of the states of epochal Indian Ocean SST background variability should be an important regional scientific issue, since these epochal variations may dictate the nature (and successful prediction) of interannual as well as decadal climate fluctuations over southeastern Africa.

  18. Dependence of three variables on the social vulnerability of 497 districts in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Muhammad Fadli; Sa'idah, NurFaizatus

    2015-12-01

    Here we present about social vulnerability in Indonesia. Our study is to analyze relationship between at least 3 characteristics which effecting social vulnerability using correlation analysis. Actually, ten variables which defined as social vulnerability, but we decided as 3 main characteristics; percentage of female population, rate of population increase, and percentage of poor population. The study shows that percentage of female population and rate of population increase has - 0,153 correlation. Other method, that is Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also applied. This analysis also give 3 main characteristics from 184 districts with female population ? 50% in Indonesia. We hope, this study can be one of reference in determining principle component that effecting social vulnerability for helping communities better prepare for any disaster.

  19. The North Atlantic variability structure, storm tracks, and precipitation depending on the polar vortex strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Walter

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that the state of the northern polar stratospheric vortex in boreal winter influences tropospheric variability. Therefore, the main teleconnection patterns over the North Atlantic are defined separately for winter episodes in which the zonal mean wind at 50 hPa and 65° N is above or below the critical Rossby velocity for zonal planetary wave one. It turns out that the teleconnection structure in the middle and upper troposphere differs considerably between the two regimes of the polar vortex, while this is not the case at sea level. If the "polar vortex is strong", there exists "one" meridional dipole structure of geopotential height in the upper and middle troposphere, which is situated in the central North Atlantic. If the "polar vortex is weak", there exist "two" such dipoles, one over the western and one over the eastern North Atlantic. Storm tracks (and precipitation related with these are determined by mid and upper tropospheric conditions and we find significant differences of these parameters between the stratospheric regimes. For the strong polar vortex regime, in case of a negative upper tropospheric "NAO" index we find a blocking height situation over the Northeast Atlantic and the strongest storm track of all. It is reaching far north into the Arctic Ocean and has a secondary maximum over the Denmark Strait. Such storm track is not found in composites based on a classic NAO defined by surface pressure differences between the Icelandic Low and the Azores High. Our results show that it is essential to include the state of the upper dynamic boundary conditions (the polar vortex strength in any study of the variability over the North Atlantic. Climate forecast based solely on the forecast of a "classic NAO" and further statistical downscaling may lead to the wrong conclusions if the state of the polar vortex is not considered as well.

  20. The North Atlantic variability structure, storm tracks, and precipitation depending on the polar vortex strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Walter

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the strong evidence that the state of the northern hemisphere vortex in boreal winter influences tropospheric variability, teleconnection patterns over the North Atlantic are defined separately for winter episodes where the zonal wind at 50hPa and 65° N is above or below the critical velocity for vertical propagation of zonal planetary wave 1. We argue that the teleconnection structure in the middle and upper troposphere differs considerably between the two regimes of the polar vortex, while this is not the case at sea level. If the polar vortex is strong, there exists one meridional dipole structure of geopotential height in the upper and middle troposphere, which is situated in the central North Atlantic. If the polar vortex is weak, there exist two such dipoles, one over the western and one over the eastern North Atlantic. Storm tracks (and precipitation related with these are determined by mid and upper tropospheric conditions and we find significant differences of these parameters between the stratospheric regimes. For the strong polar vortex regime, in case of a negative upper tropospheric 'NAO' index we find a blocking height situation over the Northeast Atlantic and the strongest storm track of all. It is reaching far north into the Arctic Ocean and has a secondary maximum over the Denmark Strait. Such storm track is not found in composites based on a classic NAO defined by surface pressure differences between the Icelandic Low and the Azores High. Our results suggest that it is important to include the state of the polar vortex strength in any study of the variability over the North Atlantic.

  1. Vitamin D production depends on ultraviolet-B dose but not on dose rate: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne V

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25(OH)D), but the dose-response relationship and the importance of dose rate is unclear. Of 172 fair-skinned persons screened for 25(OH)D, 55 with insufficient baseline 25(OH)D=50 nm (mean 31.2 nm) were selected and randomized to one of 11 groups of five participants. Each group was exposed to one of four different UV-B doses: 0.375, 0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 standard erythema dose (SED) for 1, 5, 10 or 20 min. All participants had four UV-B sessions with 2- to 3-day interval with 24% of their skin exposed. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D were measured before and after the irradiations. The increase in 25(OH)D after UV-B exposure (adjusted for baseline 25(OH)D) was positively correlated with the UV-B dose (P=0.001; R(2) =0.176) but not to dose rate (1-20 min). 25(OH)D increased in response to four UV-B treatments of 3 SED with 24.8 nm on average and 14.2 nm after four UV-B treatments of just 0.375 SED. In conclusion, the increase in 25(OH)D after UV-B exposure depends on the dose but not on the dose rate (1-20 min). Further, a significant increase in 25(OH)D was achieved with a very low UV-B dose.

  2. The greek infinitive in variable deliberative, principally dependent questions: an interpretation in terms of naturalness theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jerneja Kav?i?

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper I investigate the use of the infinitive in dependent delibera­ tive clauses in Greek, a phenomenon occurring in several (modern) languages, cf. Slovene Nisem vedel, kaj storiti. 'I didn't know what to do?', English I didn't know what to do., German Was tun? 'What to do?'l. In the first part I present the development of deliberative infinitive clauses in Post-Classical Greek with a special emphasis on the use of this form in two Early Byzantine prose writings (in Pratum Sp...

  3. Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB080310

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vreeswijk, P.M.; De Cia, A.

    2013-01-01

    We model the time-variable absorption of Feii, Feiii, Siii, Cii and Crii detected in Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080310, with the afterglow radiation exciting and ionizing the interstellar medium in the host galaxy at a redshift of z = 2.42743. To estimate the rest-frame afterglow brightness as a function of time, we use a combination of the optical VRI photometry obtained by the RAPTOR-T telescope array, which is presented in this paper, and Swift's X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations. Excitation alone, which has been successfully applied for a handful of other GRBs, fails to describe the observed column density evolution in the case of GRB080310. Inclusion of ionization is required to explain the column density decrease of all observed Feii levels (including the ground state D) and increase of the Feiii S level. The large population of ions in this latter level (up to 10% of all Feiii) can only be explained through ionization of Feii, as a large fraction of the ionized Feii ions (we calculate 31% using the Flexible Atomic and Cowan codes) initially populate the S level of Feiii rather than the ground state. This channel for producing a significant Feiii S level population may be relevant for other objects in which absorption lines from this level, the UV34 triplet, are observed, such as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and ¿ Carinae. This provides conclusive evidence for time-variable ionization in the circumburst medium, which to date has not been convincingly detected. However, the best-fit distance of the neutral absorbing cloud to the GRB is 200-400 pc, i.e. similar to GRB-absorber distance estimates for GRBs without any evidence for ionization. We find that the presence of time-varying ionization in GRB080310 is likely due to a combination of the super-solar iron abundance ([Fe/H] = +0.2) and the low Hi column density (log N(Hi) = 18.7) in the host of GRB080310. Finally, the modelling provides indications for the presence of an additional cloud at 10 50 pc from the GRB with log N(Hi) ~ 19 20 before the burst, which became fully ionized by the radiation released during the first few tens of minutes after the GRB. © 2012 ESO.

  4. Effect of an office worksite-based yoga program on heart rate variability: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Dennis; Marshall Paul W; Cheema Birinder S; Colagiuri Ben; Machliss Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic work-related stress is a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and associated mortality, particularly when compounded by a sedentary work environment. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides an estimate of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic control, and can serve as a marker of physiological stress. Hatha yoga is a physically demanding practice that can help to reduce stress; however, time constraints incurred by wor...

  5. RANDOM LASSO

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sijian; Nan, Bin; Rosset, Saharon; Zhu, Ji

    2011-01-01

    We propose a computationally intensive method, the random lasso method, for variable selection in linear models. The method consists of two major steps. In step 1, the lasso method is applied to many bootstrap samples, each using a set of randomly selected covariates. A measure of importance is yielded from this step for each covariate. In step 2, a similar procedure to the first step is implemented with the exception that for each bootstrap sample, a subset of covariates is...

  6. Positive random variables with a discrete probability mass at the origin: Parameter estimation for left-censored samples with application to air quality monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of a contaminant measured in a particular medium might be distributed as a positive random variable when it is present, but it may not always be present. If there is a level below which the concentration cannot be distinguished from zero by the analytical apparatus, a sample from such a population will be censored on the left. The presence of both zeros and positive values in the censored portion of such samples complicates the problem of estimating the parameters of the underlying positive random variable and the probability of a zero observation. Using the method of maximum likelihood, it is shown that the solution to this estimation problem reduces largely to that of estimating the parameters of the distribution truncated at the point of censorship. The maximum likelihood estimate of the proportion of zero values follows directly. The derivation of the maximum likelihood estimates for a lognormal population with zeros is given in detail, and the asymptotic properties of the estimates are examined. The estimation method was used to fit several different distributions to a set of severely censored 85Kr monitoring data from six locations at the Savannah River Plant chemical separations facilities

  7. ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659–152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  8. Modelling comonotonic group-life under dependent decrement causes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dabuxilatu

    2011-01-01

    Comonotonicity had been a extreme case of dependency between random variables. This article consider an extension of single life model under multiple dependent decrement causes to the case of comonotonic group-life.

  9. Role of Ti and Pt electrodes on resistance switching variability of HfO2-based Resistive Random Access Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the role of platinum or titanium–titanium nitride electrodes on variability of resistive switching characteristics and electrical performances of HfO2-based memory elements. Capacitor-like Pt/HfO2 (10 nm)/Pt and Ti/HfO2 (10 nm)/TiN structures were fabricated on top of a tungsten pillar bottom electrode and integrated in-between two interconnect metal lines. First, quasi-static measurements were performed to apprehend the role of electrodes on electroforming, set and reset operations and their corresponding switching parameters. Memory elements with Pt as top and bottom electrodes exhibited a non-polar behavior with sharp decrease of current during reset operation while Ti/HfO2/TiN capacitors showed a bipolar switching behavior, with a gradual reset. In a second step, statistical distributions of switching parameters (voltage and resistance) were extracted from data obtained on few hundreds of capacitors. Even if the resistance in low resistive state and reset voltage was found to be comparable for both types of electrodes, the progressive reset operation observed on samples with Ti/TiN electrodes led to a lower variability of resistance in high resistive state and concomitantly of set voltage. In addition Ti–TiN electrodes enabled gaining: (i) lower forming and set voltages with significantly narrower capacitor-to-capacitor distributions; (ii) a better data retention capability (10 years at 65 °C instead of 10 years at 50 °C for Pt electrodes); (iii) satisfactory dynamic performances with lower set and reset voltages for ramp speed ranging from 10?2 to 107 V/s. The significant improvement of switching behavior with Ti–TiN electrodes is mainly attributed to the formation of a native interface layer between HfO2 oxide and Ti top electrode. - Highlights: ? HfO2 based capacitor-like structures were fabricated with Pt and Ti based electrodes. ? Influence of electrode materials on switching parameter variability is assessed. ? Switching parameter variability is linked to switching behaviors. ? Data retention and dynamic performances are presented

  10. Coordination of combined heat and power-thermal-wind-photovoltaic units in economic load dispatch using chance-constrained and jointly distributed random variables methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHP (Combined heat and power) generation or cogeneration has been considered worldwide as the major alternative to traditional systems in terms of significant energy saving and environmental conservation. Furthermore, the wind power generators and photovoltaic units have vastly speared over the power systems due to their free inputs. However, there are many challenges for power system operators because of uncertain characteristics of renewable units and load demands. Therefore, a new multi-objective stochastic framework based on chance constrained programming is developed to handle combined heat and power economic load dispatch considering the stochastic characteristics of wind and photovoltaic power outputs, customer's electrical and heat load demands. The proposed technique makes use of a jointly distributed random variables method to calculate chance of meeting the electrical and heat load requirement using the target decision variables while maintaining the electrical energy cost below a scheduled value. The framework benefits from a new method named hybrid modified cuckoo search algorithm and differential evolution to extract the Pareto optimal surface for minimum cost and maximum probability of meeting the target cost and applies them as the objective functions. Applying to 6 and 40 unit test systems, the ability of the suggested framework is confirmed. - Highlights: • Formulate SMCHPED in a stochastic multi-objective framework based on CCP. • Use CCP with the concept of jointly distributed random variables method. • Coordinate the CHPs, TUs, WPGs and PVUs considering the existence uncertainties. • Propose a new powerful optimization algorithm based on combination of CSA and DE. • Find the Pareto optimal solutions for risk versus cost minimization

  11. Do drug treatment variables predict cognitive performance in multidrug-treated opioid-dependent patients? A regression analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapeli Pekka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits and multiple psychoactive drug regimens are both common in patients treated for opioid-dependence. Therefore, we examined whether the cognitive performance of patients in opioid-substitution treatment (OST is associated with their drug treatment variables. Methods Opioid-dependent patients (N = 104 who were treated either with buprenorphine or methadone (n = 52 in both groups were given attention, working memory, verbal, and visual memory tests after they had been a minimum of six months in treatment. Group-wise results were analysed by analysis of variance. Predictors of cognitive performance were examined by hierarchical regression analysis. Results Buprenorphine-treated patients performed statistically significantly better in a simple reaction time test than methadone-treated ones. No other significant differences between groups in cognitive performance were found. In each OST drug group, approximately 10% of the attention performance could be predicted by drug treatment variables. Use of benzodiazepine medication predicted about 10% of performance variance in working memory. Treatment with more than one other psychoactive drug (than opioid or BZD and frequent substance abuse during the past month predicted about 20% of verbal memory performance. Conclusions Although this study does not prove a causal relationship between multiple prescription drug use and poor cognitive functioning, the results are relevant for psychosocial recovery, vocational rehabilitation, and psychological treatment of OST patients. Especially for patients with BZD treatment, other treatment options should be actively sought.

  12. Population Synthesis Studies of Close Binary Systems Using a Variable Common Envelope Efficiency Parameter: I. Dependence upon Secondary Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Politano, M; Politano, Michael; Weiler, Kevin P.

    2007-01-01

    We perform population synthesis calculations of present-day post common envelope binaries (PCEBs) and zero-age cataclysmic variables (ZACVs) using a common envelope efficiency parameter, alphaCE, that is a function of secondary mass, Ms. We investigate three basic possibilities: (1) a standard constant alphaCE prescription, with alphaCE = 1.0, 0.6, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05, to provide a baseline for comparison, (2) a power law dependence, alphaCE = (Ms)^n, with n = 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, and (3) a dependence in which ?CE approaches 1 for large secondary masses and alphaCE = 0 below some assumed cutoff mass, alphaCE = 1?Mcut/Ms, where Mcut is the cutoff mass and is equal to 0.0375, 0.075 and 0.15 solar mass. For each population, we compute orbital period, orbital separation, white dwarf mass and secondary mass distributions. We find that if alphaCE < 0.2 in our constant ?CE sequence, the predicted present-day ZACV population is significantly modified compared with our standard model (alphaCE = 1.0). In our variabl...

  13. Information inequalities and a dependent Central Limit Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We adapt arguments concerning information-theoretic convergence in the Central Limit Theorem to the case of dependent random variables under Rosenblatt mixing conditions. The key is to work with random variables perturbed by the addition of a normal random variable, giving us good control of the joint density and the mixing coefficient. We strengthen results of Takano and of Carlen and Soffer to provide entropy-theoretic, not weak convergence.

  14. Randomized random walk on a random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time according to the occurrences of a stochastic point process. The probability of finding the particle in a particular position at a certain instant is obtained explicitly in the transform domain. It is found that the asymptotic behaviour for large time of the mean-square displacement of the particle depends critically on the assumed structure of the basic random walk, giving a diffusion-like term for an asymmetric walk or a square root law if the walk is symmetric. Many results are obtained in closed form for the Poisson process case, and these agree with those given previously by Kehr and Kunter. (author)

  15. Predictive modeling of groundwater nitrate pollution using Random Forest and multisource variables related to intrinsic and specific vulnerability: a case study in an agricultural setting (Southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Mendes, Maria Paula; Garcia-Soldado, Maria Jose; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Ribeiro, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Watershed management decisions need robust methods, which allow an accurate predictive modeling of pollutant occurrences. Random Forest (RF) is a powerful machine learning data driven method that is rarely used in water resources studies, and thus has not been evaluated thoroughly in this field, when compared to more conventional pattern recognition techniques key advantages of RF include: its non-parametric nature; high predictive accuracy; and capability to determine variable importance. This last characteristic can be used to better understand the individual role and the combined effect of explanatory variables in both protecting and exposing groundwater from and to a pollutant. In this paper, the performance of the RF regression for predictive modeling of nitrate pollution is explored, based on intrinsic and specific vulnerability assessment of the Vega de Granada aquifer. The applicability of this new machine learning technique is demonstrated in an agriculture-dominated area where nitrate concentrations in groundwater can exceed the trigger value of 50 mg/L, at many locations. A comprehensive GIS database of twenty-four parameters related to intrinsic hydrogeologic proprieties, driving forces, remotely sensed variables and physical-chemical variables measured in "situ", were used as inputs to build different predictive models of nitrate pollution. RF measures of importance were also used to define the most significant predictors of nitrate pollution in groundwater, allowing the establishment of the pollution sources (pressures). The potential of RF for generating a vulnerability map to nitrate pollution is assessed considering multiple criteria related to variations in the algorithm parameters and the accuracy of the maps. The performance of the RF is also evaluated in comparison to the logistic regression (LR) method using different efficiency measures to ensure their generalization ability. Prediction results show the ability of RF to build accurate models with strong predictive capabilities. PMID:24463255

  16. Random-matrix modeling of semi-linear response, the generalized variable range hopping picture, and the conductance of mesoscopic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Stotland, Alexander; Cohen, Doron

    2010-01-01

    Semi-linear response theory determines the absorption coefficient of a driven system using a resistor network calculation: Each unperturbed energy level of a particle in a vibrating trap, or of an electron in a mesoscopic ring, is regarded as a node ($n$) of the network; The transition rates ($w_{mn}$) between the nodes are regarded as the elements of a random matrix that describes the network. If the size-distribution of the connecting elements is wide (e.g. log-normal-like rather than Gaussian-like) the result for the absorption coefficient differs enormously from the conventional Kubo prediction of linear response theory. We use a generalized variable range hopping scheme for the analysis. In particular we apply this approach to obtain practical approximations for the conductance of mesoscopic rings. In this context Mott's picture of diffusion and localization is revisited.

  17. Variability Measures of Positive Random Variables.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koš?ál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr; Pokora, Ond?ej

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 6, ?. 7 (2011), e21998. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ?R(CZ) GAP103/11/0282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : interspike interval * coefficient of variation * entropy * Fisher information Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  18. GMM and 2SLS estimation of panel data models with spatially lagged dependent variables and spatially correlated error components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Bao, Shuming; Zhu, Pingfang

    2007-06-01

    In this article, the GMM based estimation of a typical family of spatial panel models with spatially lagged dependent variables and error components that are both spatially and time-wise correlated is addressed. We derive the best GMM (BGMM) estimator within certain class of optimal GMM estimators. We also discuss the asymptotic efficiency of BGMM estimator relative to the panel analogue of generalized spatial two stage least squares (GS2SLS) estimators and maximum likelihood (ML) estimators. We show that by including GS2SLS estimators as a special case, the BGMM estimator is generally more efficient than GS2SLS estimator and able to be as efficient as ML estimator under normality.

  19. Simulation of temperature history-dependent phenomena of glass-forming materials based on thermodynamics with internal state variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ref. , a profound ansatz for modelling the various phenomena associated with the glass-transition was presented. It extends classical theories, such as the concept of fictive temperature or order parameters, for example, in two ways. Firstly, temperature excitations as well as mechanical loadings are accounted for in a single consistent approach. Secondly, it is not formulated in the ?-p-V space, but rather in the ?-T-E space, taking the tensor character of stress T and strain E into account. Hence, it is a three-dimensional theory where the basic thermodynamic potential, the Gibbs free energy, depends on the stress tensor, the temperature and a set of internal variables. In the current article, expressions for the enthalpy, the entropy, the thermal expansion and the specific heat are derived. The specific heat and the thermal expansion behaviour are looked at for various temperature excitations. It is shown, that the results are in accord with experimental observations in literature.

  20. High interindividual variability in dose-dependent reduction in speed of movement after exposing C. elegans to shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schmitz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (br-mTBI little is known about the connections between initial trauma and expression of individual clinical symptoms. Partly due to limitations of current in vitro and in vivo models of br-mTBI, reliable prediction of individual short- and long-term symptoms based on known blast input has not yet been possible. Here we demonstrate a dose-dependent effect of shock wave exposure on C. elegans using shock waves that share physical characteristics with those hypothesized to induce br-mTBI in humans. Increased exposure to shock waves resulted in decreased mean speed of movement while increasing the proportion of worms rendered paralyzed. Recovery of these two behavioral symptoms was observed during increasing post-traumatic waiting periods. Although effects were observed on a population-wide basis, large interindividual variability was present between organisms exposed to the same highly controlled conditions. Reduction of cavitation by exposing worms to shock waves in polyvinyl alcohol resulted in reduced effect, implicating primary blast effects as damaging components in shock wave induced trauma. Growing worms on NGM agar plates led to the same general results in initial shock wave effect in a standard medium, namely dose-dependence and high interindividual variability, as raising worms in liquid cultures. Taken together, these data indicate that reliable prediction of individual clinical symptoms based on known blast input as well as drawing conclusions on blast input from individual clinical symptoms is not feasible in br-mTBI.

  1. Observation of a shape-dependent density maximum in random packings and glasses of colloidal silica ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the random packing density of monodisperse colloidal silica ellipsoids with a well-defined shape, gradually deviating from a sphere shape up to prolates with aspect ratios of about 5, to find for a colloidal system the first experimental observation for the density maximum (at an aspect ratio near 1.6) previously found only in computer simulations of granular packings. Confocal microscopy of ellipsoid packings, prepared by rapidly quenching ellipsoid fluids via ultra-centrifugation, demonstrates the absence of orientational order and yields pair correlation functions very much like those for random sphere packings. The density maximum, about 12% above the Bernal random sphere packing density, also manifests itself as a maximum in the hydrodynamic friction that resists the swelling osmotic pressure of the ellipsoid packings. The existence of the density maximum is also predicted to strongly effect the dynamics of colloidal non-sphere glasses: slightly perturbing the sphere shape in a sphere glass will cause it to melt

  2. Probability and random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Venkatarama

    2015-01-01

    The second edition enhanced with new chapters, figures, and appendices to cover the new developments in applied mathematical functions This book examines the topics of applied mathematical functions to problems that engineers and researchers solve daily in the course of their work. The text covers set theory, combinatorics, random variables, discrete and continuous probability, distribution functions, convergence of random variables, computer generation of random variates, random processes and stationarity concepts with associated autocovariance and cross covariance functions, estimation th

  3. Time-Dependent Prediction and Evaluation of Variable Importance Using SuperLearning in High Dimensional Clinical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Alan; Munoz, Ivan Diaz; Decker, Anna; Holcomb, John B; Schreiber, Martin A; Bulger, Eileen M; Brasel, Karen J; Fox, Erin E; del Junco, Deborah J; Wade, Charles E; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cotton, Bryan A; Phelan, Herb A; Myers, John G; Alarcon, Louis H; Muskat, Peter; Cohen, Mitchell J

    2013-01-01

    Background Prediction of outcome after injury is fraught with uncertainty and statistically beset by misspecified models. Single-time point regression only gives prediction and inference at one time, of dubious value for continuous prediction of ongoing bleeding. New statistical, machine learning techniques such as SuperLearner exist to make superior prediction at iterative time-points while also evaluating the changing relative importance of each measured variable on an outcome. This then can provide continuously changing prediction of outcome and evaluation of which clinical variables likely drive a particular outcome. Methods PROMMTT data was evaluated utilizing both naïve (standard stepwise logistic regression) and SuperLearner techniques to develop a time-dependent prediction of future mortality, within discrete time intervals. We avoided both under- and over-fitting using cross-validation to select an optimal combination of predictors among candidate predictors/machine learning algorithms. SuperLearner was also used to produce interval-specific robust measures of variable importance measures (VIM resulting in an ordered list of variables, by time-point) that have the strongest impact on future mortality. Results 980 patients had complete clinical and outcome data and were included in the analysis. The prediction of ongoing transfusion with SuperLearner was superior to the naïve approach for all time intervals (correlations of cross-validated predictions with the outcome were 0.819, 0.789, 0.792 for time intervals 30–90, 90–180, 180–360, >360 minutes. The estimated VIM of mortality also changed significantly at each time point Conclusions The SuperLeaner technique for prediction of outcome from a complex dynamic multivariate dataset is superior at each time interval to standard models. Additionally, the SuperLearner VIM at each time point provides insight into the time-specific drivers of future outcome, patient trajectory and targets for clinical intervention. Thus, this automated approach mimics clinical practice, changing form and content through time to optimize the accuracy of the prognosis based on the evolving trajectory of the patient. Level of Evidence Prospective, Level II PMID:23778512

  4. Vitamin D production depends on ultraviolet-B dose but not on dose rate: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter A; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25(OH)D), but the dose-response relationship and the importance of dose rate is unclear. Of 172 fair-skinned persons screened for 25(OH)D, 55 with insufficient baseline 25(OH)D=50 nm (mean 31.2 nm) were selected and randomized to one of 11 groups of five participants. Each group was exposed to one of four different UV-B doses: 0.375, 0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 standard erythema dose (SED) for 1, 5, 10 or 20...

  5. Introduction to Randomness and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Alexander K

    2009-01-01

    This text provides a practical introduction to randomness and data analysis, in particular in the context of computer simulations. At the beginning, the most basics concepts of probability are given, in particular discrete and continuous random variables. Next, generation of pseudo random numbers is covered, such as uniform generators, discrete random numbers, the inversion method, the rejection method and the Box-Mueller Method. In the third section, estimators, confidence intervals, histograms and resampling using Bootstrap are explained. Furthermore, data plotting using the freely available tools gnuplot and xmgrace is treated. In the fifth section, some foundations of hypothesis testing are given, in particular the chi-squared test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and testing for statistical (in-)dependence. Finally, the maximum-likelihood principle and data fitting are explained. The text is basically self-contained, comes with several example C programs and contains eight practical (mainly programming) exer...

  6. How the Landscape of Random Job Shop Scheduling Instances Depends on the Ratio of Jobs to Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, S F; 10.1613/jair.2013

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the search landscape of random instances of the job shop scheduling problem (JSP). Specifically, we investigate how the expected values of (1) backbone size, (2) distance between near-optimal schedules, and (3) makespan of random schedules vary as a function of the job to machine ratio (N/M). For the limiting cases N/M approaches 0 and N/M approaches infinity we provide analytical results, while for intermediate values of N/M we perform experiments. We prove that as N/M approaches 0, backbone size approaches 100%, while as N/M approaches infinity the backbone vanishes. In the process we show that as N/M approaches 0 (resp. N/M approaches infinity), simple priority rules almost surely generate an optimal schedule, providing theoretical evidence of an "easy-hard-easy" pattern of typical-case instance difficulty in job shop scheduling. We also draw connections between our theoretical results and the "big valley" picture of JSP landscapes.

  7. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ?G0, the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = ??G0 + G/sub a/0M(?). Here ? is the Bronsted slope, ? = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(?G0/RT), G/sub a/0 is independent of ?G0 and M(?), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of ?. For small changes in ?G0, the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = ? delta ?G0. It is concluded from general considerations that M(?) is a symmetric, convex function of ? and hence that ? is a monotonically increasing function of ?G0. Experimental data appear to conform well to the form ? = 1/[1 + exp(-?G0/G/sub s/0)]. A simple interpretation of the ?G0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  8. Investigation of time-dependent reactions of H+ ions with variable and constant charge soils: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sampling-separation method and a dynamic monitoring method were used to investigate the time-dependent reactions of H+ ions with two contrasting types of soil, variable charge soils (VCS) and constant charge soils (CCS), by directly evaluating H+ ion consumption and other relevant consequences. The results for both CCS and VCS show that H+ ion consumption, increase in positive surface charge and increase in soluble Al are all characterized by a rapid step followed by a slow one. The higher the content of free Fe oxides in the soil, the larger the increase in positive surface charge and in H+ ion consumption in the initial rapid step. This is due mainly to protonation on external surfaces. The gradual increase in positive surface charge in the slow step for the 3 VCSs is a result of H+ ion diffusion to the reactive sites of ?Fe-OH on internal surfaces. The very low content of free Fe oxides on internal surfaces of the 2 CCSs render a negligible increase in positive surface charge in the slow step. For the 3 VCSs, the gradual consumption of H+ ions in the slow process is the result of protonation, Al dissolution and/or transformation into exchangeable acidity. For the 2 CCSs, however, the gradual consumption is mainly the result of Al dissolution and/or transformation into exchangeable acidity. The time-dependent Al dissolution from both VCS and CCS is influenced by several factors such as mineral components, solubility and dissolution rates of the soils, and H+ ion concentration in soil suspensions

  9. Towards Swarm Diversity: Random Sampling in Variable Neighborhoods Procedure Using a Lévy Distribution / Hacia la diversidad de la bandada: procedimiento RSVN usando una distribución de Lévy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo, Nápoles; Isel, Grau; Marilyn, Bello; Rafael, Bello.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) es un método de búsqueda no directo para la optimización numérica. Las principales ventajas de esta meta-heurística están relacionadas principalmente con su simplicidad, pocos parámetros y alta tasa de convergencia. En el PSO canónico usando una topología totalmente [...] conectada, una partícula ajusta su posición usando dos atractores: el mejor registro almacenado por el individuo y el mejor punto descubierto por la bandada completa. Este esquema conduce a un alto factor de convergencia, pero también deteriora la diversidad de la población progresivamente. Como resultado la bandada de partículas frecuentemente es atraída por puntos sub-óptimos. Una vez que las partículas han sido atraídas hacia un óptimo local, ellas continúan el proceso de búsqueda dentro de una región muy pequeña del espacio de soluciones, reduciendo las capacidades de exploración del algoritmo. Para tratar esta situación este artículo presenta una variante del procedimiento Random Sampling in Variable Neighborhoods (RSVN) usando una distribución de Lévy. Este algoritmo es capaz de mejorar notablemente la capacidad de búsqueda de los algoritmos PSO en problemas multimodales de optimización. Abstract in english Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a non-direct search method for numerical optimization. The key advantages of this metaheuristic are principally associated to its simplicity, few parameters and high convergence rate. In the canonical PSO using a fully connected topology, a particle adjusts its p [...] osition by using two attractors: the best record stored for the current agent, and the best point discovered for the entire swarm. It leads to a high convergence rate, but also progressively deteriorates the swarm diversity. As a result, the particle swarm frequently gets attracted by sub-optimal points. Once the particles have been attracted to a local optimum, they continue the search process within a small region of the solution space, thus reducing the algorithm exploration. To deal with this issue, this paper presents a variant of the Random Sampling in Variable Neighborhoods (RSVN) procedure using a Lévy distribution, which is able to notably improve the PSO search ability in multimodal problems.

  10. An efficient algorithm to generate random uncorrelated Euclidean distances: the random link model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César Augusto Sangaletti, Terçariol; Alexandre Souto, Martinez.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A disordered medium is often constructed by N random points independently and identically distributed in a d-dimensional hyperspace. Characteristics related to the statistics of this system are known as the random point problem. As d ® ¥, the distances between two points bec [...] ome independent random variables, leading to its mean field description: the random link model. While the numerical treatment of large random point problems poses no major difficulty, due to Euclidean restrictions the same is not true for large random link systems. Exploring the deterministic nature of the pseudo-random number generators, we present techniques which allow to consider models with memory consumption of O(N), instead of O(N²) obtained by a naive implementation, but with the same time dependence O(N²).

  11. Operant Variability: Some Random Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) paper is a serious and thoughtful analysis of a vexing problem in behavior analysis: Just what should count as an operant class and how do people know? The slippery issue of a "generalized operant" or functional response class illustrates one aspect of this problem, and "variation" or "novelty" as an operant appears to fall into…

  12. Variable-ratio versus variable-interval schedules: response rate, resistance to change, and preference.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, J A; Randolph; Holland, S. (Steven); McLean, A P

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments asked whether resistance to change depended on variable-ratio as opposed to variable-interval contingencies of reinforcement and the different response rates they establish. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained on multiple random-ratio random-interval schedules with equated reinforcer rates. Baseline response rates were disrupted by intercomponent food, extinction, and prefeeding. Resistance to change relative to baseline was greater in the interval component, and the differe...

  13. The supply voltage scaled dependency of the recovery of single event upset in advanced complementary metal—oxide—semiconductor static random-access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using computer-aided design three-dimensional simulation technology, the supply voltage scaled dependency of the recovery of single event upset and charge collection in static random-access memory cells are investigated. It reveals that the recovery linear energy transfer threshold decreases with the supply voltage reducing, which is quite attractive for dynamic voltage scaling and subthreshold circuit radiation-hardened design. Additionally, the effect of supply voltage on charge collection is also investigated. It is concluded that the supply voltage mainly affects the bipolar gain of the parasitical bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and the existence of the source plays an important role in supply voltage variation. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  14. Dependence of reactive metal layer on resistive switching in a bi-layer structure Ta/HfOx filament type resistive random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daeseok; Woo, Jiyong; Park, Sangsu; Cha, Euijun; Lee, Sangheon; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2014-02-01

    The dependence of reactive metal layer on resistive switching characteristics is investigated in a bi-layer structural Ta/HfOx filament type resistive random access memory (ReRAM). By increasing the oxygen absorption rate of the reactive metal layer, formation of an induced resistive switching region that led to significant changes in the resistive switching characteristics of the ReRAM was observed. Electrical and physical analyses showed that the induced TaOx-resistive switching region can result in self-compliance behavior, uniform resistive switching, and a gradual set process, which can be utilized for low power and analog operations.

  15. Seasonal and interannual variability of the Black Sea eddies and its dependence on characteristics of the large-scale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakov, A. A.; Stanichny, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    Mesoscale eddies in the Black Sea basin are investigated by automated eddy identification method (winding angle) using satellite altimetry data for 1992-2011. Seasonal and interannual eddy variability is strongly affected by the intensity of basin-scale circulation. Weakening of large-scale circulation in response to the decrease of the wind curl leads to the baroclinic instability of the Rim current and enhanced formation of mesoscale anticyclones. Increasing wind curl and circulation induce intensive formation of mesoscale cyclones. Intense developed large-scale circulation leads to the decrease in the number of both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. Eddies properties (orbital velocity, energy and lifetime) on the interannual time scales also depend on the intensity of the large-scale circulation. It was shown that the most powerful and long-lived anticyclones are generated in years with intense currents, right after the currents begin slowing down, which is related to the transfer of energy from large- to meso-spatial scales. Mechanisms of eddies formation and dissipation are discussed.

  16. Radiocaesium contamination of meadow vegetation--time-dependent variability and influence of soil characteristics at grassland sites in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term trends of 137Cs and 40K concentrations in meadow grass and soil-plant transfer data at eight different sites in Upper Austria are presented. Geometric means of 137Cs TF-data and Tagg values vary between 0.03-1.06 and 0.0005-0.0184 depending on site, respectively. 40K results are less variable with TF values covering a range of 0.31-2.01. Only at one site was a significant decrease of 137Cs concentration (decay-corrected) in meadow vegetation observed during the observation period 1992-1999. Seasonal trends of 40K and 137Cs were investigated at one site in 1996. Both elements show decreasing concentrations in plants from beginning of May-July, followed by a peak in September. Although this pattern was not very pronounced, there are some hints that it may explain deviations of long-term trends in 137Cs levels in grass caused by unusual weather conditions as indicated by phenological climate data (beginning of sweet cherry and black elder blossoming). Finally, TF values were correlated with soil characteristics, revealing a negative correlation of radiocaesium soil-plant transfer with soil pH, exchangeable and extractable fractions of Mg, Ca and Na as well as a positive correlation with exchangeable Al

  17. Using XMM-Newton to study the energy dependent variability of H 1743-322 during its 2014 outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Stiele, H

    2016-01-01

    Black hole transients during bright outbursts show distinct changes of their spectral and variability properties as they evolve during an outburst, that are interpreted as evidence for changes in the accretion flow and X-ray emitting regions. We obtained an anticipated XMM-Newton ToO observation of H 1743-322 during its outburst in September 2014. Based on data of eight outbursts observed in the last 10 years we expected to catch the start of the hard-to-soft state transition. The fact that neither the general shape of the observed power density spectrum nor the characteristic frequency show an energy dependence implies that the source still stays in the low-hard state at the time of our observation near outburst peak. The spectral properties agree with the source being in the low-hard state and a Swift/XRT monitoring of the outburst reveals that H 1743-322 stays in the low-hard state during the entire outburst (a. k. a. 'failed outburst'). We derive the averaged QPO waveform and obtain phase-resolved spectra...

  18. Investigating Extreme Dependences: Concepts and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Malevergne, Y.; SORNETTE, D

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the relative information content of six measures of dependence between two random variables $X$ and $Y$ for large or extreme events for several models of interest for financial time series. The six measures of dependence are respectively the linear correlation $\\rho^+_v$ and Spearman's rho $\\rho_s(v)$ conditioned on signed exceedance of one variable above the threshold $v$, or on both variables ($\\rho_u$), the linear correlation $\\rho^s_v$ conditioned on absol...

  19. Process Convergence of Self-Normalized Sums of i.i.d. Random Variables Coming from Domain of Attraction of Stable Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopal K Basak; Arunangshu Biswas

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we show that the continuous version of the self-normalized process $Y_{n,p}(t)=S_n(t)/V_{n,p}+(nt-[nt])X_{[nt]+1}/V_{n,p},0 < t \\leq 1;p>0$ where $S_n(t)=\\sum^{[nt]}_{i=1}X_i$ and $V_{(n,p)}=\\left(\\sum^n_{i=1}|X_i|^p\\right)^{1/p}$ and $X_i i.i.d.$ random variables belong to $DA(\\alpha)$, has a non-trivial distribution $\\mathrm{iff } p=\\alpha=2$. The case for $2>p>\\alpha$ and $p\\leq\\alpha < 2$ is systematically eliminated by showing that either of tightness or finite dimensional convergence to a non-degenerate limiting distribution does not hold. This work is an extension of the work by Csörgő et al. who showed Donsker’s theorem for $Y_{n,2}(\\cdot p)$, i.e., for $p=2$, holds $\\mathrm{iff } \\alpha=2$ and identified the limiting process as a standard Brownian motion in sup norm.

  20. Heart rate variability is enhanced in controls but not maladaptive perfectionists during brief mindfulness meditation following stress-induction: A stratified-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad Abid; Katz, Joel; Fashler, Samantha R; Changoor, Tina; Azargive, Saam; Ritvo, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a vagal nerve-mediated biomarker of cardiac function used to investigate chronic illness, psychopathology, stress and, more recently, attention-regulation processes such as meditation. This study investigated HRV in relation to maladaptive perfectionism, a stress-related personality factor, and mindfulness meditation, a stress coping practice expected to elevate HRV, and thereby promote relaxation. Maladaptive perfectionists (n=21) and Controls (n=39) were exposed to a lab-based assessment in which HRV was measured during (1) a 5-minute baseline resting phase, (2) a 5-minute cognitive stress-induction phase, and (3) a post-stress phase. In the post-stress phase, participants were randomly assigned to a 10-minute audio-instructed mindfulness meditation condition or a 10-minute rest condition with audio-description of mindfulness meditation. Analyses revealed a significant elevation in HRV during meditation for Controls but not for Perfectionists. These results suggest that mindfulness meditation promotes relaxation following cognitive stress and that the perfectionist personality hinders relaxation possibly because of decreased cardiac vagal tone. The results are discussed in the context of developing psychophysiological models to advance therapeutic interventions for distressed populations. PMID:26116778

  1. Vitamin D production depends on ultraviolet-B dose but not on dose rate: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter A; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25(OH)D), but the dose-response relationship and the importance of dose rate is unclear. Of 172 fair-skinned persons screened for 25(OH)D, 55 with insufficient baseline 25(OH)D=50 nm (mean 31.2 nm...... exposed. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D were measured before and after the irradiations. The increase in 25(OH)D after UV-B exposure (adjusted for baseline 25(OH)D) was positively correlated with the UV-B dose (P=0.001; R(2) =0.176) but not to dose rate (1-20 min). 25(OH)D increased in response to four UV......) were selected and randomized to one of 11 groups of five participants. Each group was exposed to one of four different UV-B doses: 0.375, 0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 standard erythema dose (SED) for 1, 5, 10 or 20 min. All participants had four UV-B sessions with 2- to 3-day interval with 24% of their skin...

  2. RANDOM LASSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijian; Nan, Bin; Rosset, Saharon; Zhu, Ji

    2012-01-01

    We propose a computationally intensive method, the random lasso method, for variable selection in linear models. The method consists of two major steps. In step 1, the lasso method is applied to many bootstrap samples, each using a set of randomly selected covariates. A measure of importance is yielded from this step for each covariate. In step 2, a similar procedure to the first step is implemented with the exception that for each bootstrap sample, a subset of covariates is randomly selected with unequal selection probabilities determined by the covariates’ importance. Adaptive lasso may be used in the second step with weights determined by the importance measures. The final set of covariates and their coefficients are determined by averaging bootstrap results obtained from step 2. The proposed method alleviates some of the limitations of lasso, elastic-net and related methods noted especially in the context of microarray data analysis: it tends to remove highly correlated variables altogether or select them all, and maintains maximal flexibility in estimating their coefficients, particularly with different signs; the number of selected variables is no longer limited by the sample size; and the resulting prediction accuracy is competitive or superior compared to the alternatives. We illustrate the proposed method by extensive simulation studies. The proposed method is also applied to a Glioblastoma microarray data analysis. PMID:22997542

  3. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil / Variabilidade espacial randômica e sistemática dos inventários de 137Cs de áreas de referência no Sudeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vladia, Correchel; Osny Oliveira Santos, Bacchi; Klaus, Reichardt; Isabella Clerici, De Maria.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A precisão da técnica de análise da redistribuição do "fallout" do 137Cs nas avaliações das taxas de erosão são fortemente dependentes da qualidade de um inventário médio tomado em uma área de referência representativa. O conhecimento das fontes e do grau de variação da distribuição do "fallout" do [...] 137Cs desempenham um importante papel na aplicação desta técnica. Quatro áreas de referência foram selecionadas na região Sudeste do Brasil, sendo estas caracterizadas quanto aos aspectos físicos, químicos, mineralógicos do solo, assim como a variabilidade espacial dos inventários de 137Cs. Houve algumas diferenças importantes no padrão da distribuição do 137Cs em profundidade nos perfis de solo dos diferentes locais que, provavelmente, estão associadas às diferenças químicas, físicas, mineralógicas e biológicas dos solos estudados. Mas muitas questões ainda permanecem abertas para futuras investigações, principalmente em relação à adsorção e à dinâmica do 137Cs no perfil dos solos tropicais. A variabilidade espacial randômica (dentro de cada local de referência) foi maior do que a variabilidade espacial sistemática (entre áreas de referência), porém as causas disto não foram claramente identificadas, talvez em conseqüência da variabilidade química, física e/ou mineralógica bem como da precipitação. Abstract in english The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distrib [...] ution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site) was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites) but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

  4. Chronic kidney disease in the type 2 diabetic patients: prevalence and associated variables in a random sample of 2642 patients of a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coll-de-Tuero Gabriel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is associated with an increased total mortality and cardiovascular morbimortality in the general population and in patients with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of kidney disease and different types of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Methods Cross-sectional study in a random sample of 2,642 T2DM patients cared for in primary care during 2007. Studied variables: demographic and clinical characteristics, pharmacological treatments and T2DM complications (diabetic foot, retinopathy, coronary heart disease and stroke. Variables of renal function were defined as follows: 1 Microalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 30 mg/g or 3.5 mg/mmol, 2 Macroalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 300 mg/g or 35 mg/mmol, 3 Kidney disease (KD: glomerular filtration rate according to Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 2 and/or the presence of albuminuria, 4 Renal impairment (RI: glomerular filtration rate 2, 5 Nonalbuminuric RI: glomerular filtration rate 2 without albuminuria and, 5 Diabetic nephropathy (DN: macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria plus diabetic retinopathy. Results The prevalence of different types of renal disease in patients was: 34.1% KD, 22.9% RI, 19.5% albuminuria and 16.4% diabetic nephropathy (DN. The prevalence of albuminuria without RI (13.5% and nonalbuminuric RI (14.7% was similar. After adjusting per age, BMI, cholesterol, blood pressure and macrovascular disease, RI was significantly associated with the female gender (OR 2.20; CI 95% 1.86–2.59, microvascular disease (OR 2.14; CI 95% 1.8–2.54 and insulin treatment (OR 1.82; CI 95% 1.39–2.38, and inversely associated with HbA1c (OR 0.85 for every 1% increase; CI 95% 0.80–0.91. Albuminuria without RI was inversely associated with the female gender (OR 0.27; CI 95% 0.21–0.35, duration of diabetes (OR 0.94 per year; CI 95% 0.91–0.97 and directly associated with HbA1c (OR 1.19 for every 1% increase; CI 95% 1.09–1.3. Conclusions One-third of the sample population in this study has KD. The presence or absence of albuminuria identifies two subgroups with different characteristics related to gender, the duration of diabetes and metabolic status of the patient. It is important to determine both albuminuria and GFR estimation to diagnose KD.

  5. Sequential Cross-Validated Bandwidth Selection Under Dependence and Anscombe-Type Extensions to Random Time Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Steland, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    To detect changes in the mean of a time series, one may use previsible detection procedures based on nonparametric kernel prediction smoothers which cover various classic detection statistics as special cases. Bandwidth selection, particularly in a data-adaptive way, is a serious issue and not well studied for detection problems. To ensure data adaptation, we select the bandwidth by cross-validation, but in a sequential way leading to a functional estimation approach. This article provides the asymptotic theory for the method under fairly weak assumptions on the dependence structure of the error terms, which cover, e.g., GARCH($p,q$) processes, by establishing (sequential) functional central limit theorems for the cross-validation objective function and the associated bandwidth selector. It turns out that the proof can be based in a neat way on \\cite{KurtzProtter1996}'s results on the weak convergence of \\ito integrals and a diagonal argument. Our gradual change-point model covers multiple change-points in th...

  6. An efficient algorithm to generate large random uncorrelated Euclidean distances: the random link model

    CERN Document Server

    Tercariol, C A S; Tercariol, Cesar Augusto Sangaletti; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2005-01-01

    A disordered medium is often constructed by $N$ points independently and identically distributed in a $d$-dimensional hyperspace. Characteristics related to the statistics of this system is known as the random point problem. As $d \\to \\infty$, the distances between two points become independent random variables, leading to its mean field description: the random link model. While the numerical treatment of large random point problems pose no major difficulty, the same is not true for large random link systems due to Euclidean restrictions. Exploring the deterministic nature of the congruential pseudo-random number generators, we present techniques which allow the consideration of models with memory consumption of order O(N), instead of $O(N^2)$ in a naive implementation but with the same time dependence $O(N^2)$.

  7. An Analysis of Some Variables Affecting the Internet Dependency Level of Turkish Adolescents by Using Decision Tree Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayri, Murat; Gunuc, Selim

    2010-01-01

    Internet dependency is going to expand into social life in wide area whereas it has been accepted as a pathological and psychological disease. Knowing the basic effects of internet dependency is an inevitable approach to use the internet technology healthy. In this study, internet dependency levels of 754 students were examined with the Internet…

  8. A randomized, controlled trial of the efficacy of an interoceptive exposure-based CBT for treatment-refractory outpatients with opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael W; Hearon, Bridget A; McHugh, R Kathryn; Calkins, Amanda W; Pratt, Elizabeth; Murray, Heather W; Safren, Steven A; Pollack, Mark H

    2014-01-01

    Many patients diagnosed with opioid dependence do not adequately respond to pharmacologic, psychosocial, or combination treatment, highlighting the importance of novel treatment strategies for this population. The current study examined the efficacy of a novel behavioral treatment focusing on internal cues for drug use (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Interoceptive Cues; CBT-IC) relative to an active comparison condition, Individual Drug Counseling (IDC), when added to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) among those who had not responded to MMT. Participants (N=78) were randomly assigned to receive 15 sessions of CBT-IC or IDC as an adjunct to ongoing MMT and counseling. Oral toxicology screens were the primary outcome. Results indicated no treatment differences between CBT-IC and IDC and a small, significant reduction of self-reported drug use, but no change on toxicology screens. Tests of potential moderators, including sex, anxiety sensitivity, and coping motives for drug use, did not yield significant interactions. Among opioid-dependent outpatients who have not responded to MMT and counseling, the addition of IDC or CBT-IC did not result in additive outcome benefits. These results highlight the need for more potent treatment strategies for opioid dependence, particularly among those who do not fully respond to frontline treatment. PMID:25364993

  9. Comorbid anxiety disorders and baseline medication regimens predict clinical outcomes in individuals with co-occurring bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence: results of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Brown, Delisa G.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Tolliver, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and detrimental impact of alcoholism on bipolar patients, the diagnostic and treatment factors associated with better or worse clinical outcomes in alcohol-dependent patients with bipolar disorder are not well understood. The present study investigated the prospective impact of baseline psychiatric comorbidities and treatment regimens on clinical outcomes in bipolar alcoholics. Data were drawn from an 8-week randomized controlled clinical trial of acamprosate for individuals (n = 30) with co-occurring bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence. Depressive and manic symptoms, and alcohol craving and consumption were monitored longitudinally using standardized instruments. Path analysis was used to estimate the prospective associations between patient characteristics and outcomes. More than 50% of patients were diagnosed with at least one anxiety (76.7%) or drug dependence disorder (60.0%). Comorbid anxiety disorders were prospectively associated with increased depressive symptoms and alcohol use. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.6 psychotropic medications at baseline. Antipsychotics and anticonvulsants were prospectively associated with increased alcohol use; anticonvulsants and benzodiazepines were associated with increased alcohol craving. Antidepressants were associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conversely, lithium was associated with decreased alcohol craving and depressive symptoms. The findings from the present study suggest areas for future research in this population. PMID:21641663

  10. From a unstable periodic orbit to Lyapunov exponent and macroscopic variable in a Hamiltonian lattice : Periodic orbit dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Shin-itiro

    2007-01-01

    We study which and how a periodic orbit in phase space links to both the largest Lyapunov exponent and the expectation values of macroscopic variables in a Hamiltonian system with many degrees of freedom. The model which we use in this paper is the discrete nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. Using a method based on the modulational estimate of a periodic orbit, we predict the largest Lyapunov exponent and the expectation value of a macroscopic variable. We show that (i) the p...

  11. Common Variable Immune Deficiency in Children—Clinical Characteristics Varies Depending on Defect in Peripheral B Cell Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Pi?tosa, Barbara; Pac, Ma?gorzata; Siewiera, Katarzyna; Pietrucha, Barbara; Klaudel-Dreszler, Maja; Heropolita?ska-Pliszka, Edyta; Wolska-Ku?nierz, Beata; Dme?ska, Hanna; Gregorek, Hanna; Sokolnicka, Irena; R?kawek, Aneta; Tkaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowska, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disease associated with ineffective production of antibodies. It is usually diagnosed in adulthood, but a variable proportion of children develop CVID. Early identification of patients with potentially worse prognosis may help to avoid serious complications. The goal of this study was to associate the clinical phenotype of patients with early onset CVID with peripheral B-cell maturation profile. Four color flow cytometry was used to ...

  12. Client satisfaction among participants in a randomized trial comparing oral methadone and injectable diacetylmorphine for long-term opioid-dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brissette Suzanne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Patient satisfaction with treatment has been associated with improved addiction treatment outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies evaluating patients' satisfaction with Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST. In the present study, participants' satisfaction with OST was evaluated at 3 and 12 months. We sought to test the relationship between satisfaction and patients' characteristics, the treatment modality received and treatment outcomes. Methods Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI, conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone vs. injectable diacetylmorphine over 12 months. A small sub-group of patients received injectable hydromorphone on a double blind basis with diacetylmorphine. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8 was used to measure satisfaction with treatment. CSQ-8 scores, as well as retention and response to treatment, did not differ between those receiving hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine at 3 or 12 months assessments; therefore, these two groups were analyzed together as the 'injectable' treatment group. Results A total of 232 (92% and 237 (94% participants completed the CSQ-8 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Participants in both groups were highly satisfied with treatment. Independent of treatment group, participants satisfied with treatment at 3 months were more likely to be retained at 12 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that satisfaction was greater among those randomized to the injection group after controlling for treatment effectiveness. Participants who were retained, responded to treatment, and had fewer psychological symptoms were more satisfied with treatment. Finally, open-ended comments were made by 149 (60.3% participants; concerns about the randomization process and the study ending were most commonly reported by participants receiving the oral and injectable medications, respectively. Conclusions The higher satisfaction among those receiving medically prescribed injectable diacetylmorphine (or hydromorphone supports current evidence regarding the attractiveness of this treatment for long-term, opioid-dependent individuals not benefiting sufficiently from other treatments. In addition, the measurement of treatment satisfaction provides valuable information about participants at risk of relapse and in need of additional services. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00175357

  13. Distance-dependent Ground motion variability from source models of the 1992 Landers earthquake and synthetic rupture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, J. C.; Mai, P. M.; Galis, M.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate near field ground motion variability due to five different kinematic rupture models for 1992 Landers earthquake. The ground motion simulations are accomplished by solving the elasto-dynamic equations of motion using a generalized finite-difference method (Ely et al., 2008). Simulated waveforms are calibrated against near-field strong-motion recordings. We then analyze a large data-set of ground-motions from 2000 sites, binned with respect to distance and azimuth to compute mean and standard deviation of peak ground velocity (PGV). We consider 1D-velocity structures as used in the source inversions, and honor the geometrical complexity due to fault segmentation. Our simulations reveal that ground motion variability is reduced as the distance from the fault increases. Variability in the kinematic sources has considerable impact on the resulting shaking variability, although the five source models considered are derived by inversion of seismic and/or geodetic data. Simulated mean PGV and its standard deviation are comparable to empirical estimates using the ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) of Boore and Atkinson (2008). In addition, we find that intra-event ground motion variability is large in fault-parallel and small in fault-normal direction. We also compare our simulations with and without Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections, applied to Boore and Atkinson (2008), which shows that slip heterogeneity controls near-field ground-motion variability. We further investigate the effect of slip heterogeneity by considering eleven (ten heterogeneous and one uniform) synthetic rupture models. Heterogeneous slip models are generated following the algorithm of Mai and Beroza (2002) for different correlation lengths and Hurst exponents. We then examine synthetic seismograms calculated at 1500 stations for the eleven rupture models, confirming that the distance decay of ground motion variability is due to slip heterogeneity.

  14. Time dependence of the UV resonance lines in the cataclysmic variables SU UMa, RX And and 0623+71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present IUE observations of the dwarf novae SU UMa and RX And, and of the nova-like variable 0623 + 71. At the time of observation, SU UMa and RX And were in outburst. All three systems show variability in the wind-formed UV resonance lines of N v ? 1240, Si IV ? 1397 and C IV ? 1549 on timescale of hours. The amplitude of variation is smallest in RX And and largest in 0623 + 71. There is evidence that the variations observed in SU UMa's UV spectrum repeat on the orbital period. Our observations of SU UMa also reveal variability in the continuum flux during the decline from outburst maximum that is much more marked in the UV than at optical wavelengths. (author)

  15. Toolmark variability and quality depending on the fundamental parameters: Angle of attack, toolmark depth and substrate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiker, Martin; Pieterman, René; Zoon, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The traditional way of visual toolmark comparison includes subjective judgments. Automated methods using computers are a possibility to render a comparison more objective, but they require the statistical properties, like the similarity and variability, of toolmarks to be determined quantitatively. Several parameters, that play a role during toolmark creation, are statistically analyzed in this article. We determined the same toolmark and the different toolmark similarity as well as variability of known matching toolmarks created in wax and compared the results with the similarity and variability of known non-matching toolmarks. In addition we studied the influence of the substrate materials wax and lead and the angle of attack on toolmark similarity and variability. Furthermore, we present an approach to determine toolmark quality, defined as how well structural details are preserved in the toolmark, to assist toolmark examiners in deciding, which structural details are reliable in a mark. We studied the influence of the substrate material, the angle of attack and the depth of a toolmark on the quality. The results show that for known matching toolmarks, the variability is very low within a toolmark and between toolmarks in wax, given that the parameters angle of attack and depth are held constant. Geometrical details are reliably represented down to 10-50?m and toolmark similarity is clearly higher than known non-matching similarities. The comparison of wax and lead shows that wax is a good alternative as a substrate material for experimental toolmarks, capable of reliably representing structural details down to 10-25?m. For finer details, lead is a better choice but might alter the original state of a tool. With increasing angle of attack, toolmark variability increases and toolmark quality decreases. Therefore it is advantageous to push the tool instead of pulling during toolmark creation for angles of attack above ?45°. The quality also decreases with increasing toolmark depth, but only up to ?300?m. Therefore toolmarks should be created as shallow as possible in the substrate material. PMID:25839679

  16. Cross-sectional Analysis of Longitudinal Data with Missing Values in the Dependent Variables: A Comparison of Weighted Estimating Equations with the Complete Case Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kastner, C; Ziegler, Andreas

    1997-01-01

    Inference for cross-sectional models using longitudinal data can be drawn with independence estimating equations (Liang and Zeger, 1986). Many studies suffer from missing data. Robins and coworkers proposed to use weighted estimating equations (WEE) in estimating the mean structure, if missing data are present in dependent variables. In this paper the WEE are compared with complete case analyses for binary responses using simulated data. Our results are in accordance with the theoretical find...

  17. Two-Stage Modelling Of Random Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara?ska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this publication was to present a two-stage algorithm of modelling random phenomena, based on multidimensional function modelling, on the example of modelling the real estate market for the purpose of real estate valuation and estimation of model parameters of foundations vertical displacements. The first stage of the presented algorithm includes a selection of a suitable form of the function model. In the classical algorithms, based on function modelling, prediction of the dependent variable is its value obtained directly from the model. The better the model reflects a relationship between the independent variables and their effect on the dependent variable, the more reliable is the model value. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed which comprises adjustment of the value obtained from the model with a random correction determined from the residuals of the model for these cases which, in a separate analysis, were considered to be the most similar to the object for which we want to model the dependent variable. The effect of applying the developed quantitative procedures for calculating the corrections and qualitative methods to assess the similarity on the final outcome of the prediction and its accuracy, was examined by statistical methods, mainly using appropriate parametric tests of significance. The idea of the presented algorithm has been designed so as to approximate the value of the dependent variable of the studied phenomenon to its value in reality and, at the same time, to have it "smoothed out" by a well fitted modelling function.

  18. Thin Film Flow of a Second Grade Fluid over a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Variable Temperature-Dependent Viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of variable viscosity on the flow and heat transfer in a thin film on a horizontal porous stretching sheet are analyzed. The steady boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy are simplified by using similarity transformations. The resulted and coupled nonlinear differential equations are solved by Homotopy analysis method. The results are presented graphically to interpret various physical parameters appearing in the problem. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  19. Dynamical downscaling: Assessment of model system dependent retained and added variability for two different regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, Burkhardt; Castro, Christopher L.; Pielke, Roger A.; von Storch, Hans; Leoncini, Giovanni

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we compare the retained and added variability obtained using the regional climate model CLM (Climate version of the Local Model of the German Weather Service) to an earlier study using the RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) model. Both models yield similar results for their standard configurations with a commonly used nudging technique applied to the driving model fields. Significantly both models do not adequately retain the large-scale variability in total kinetic energy with results poorer on a larger grid domain. Additional experiments with interior nudging, however, permit the retention of large-scale values for both models. The spectral nudging technique permits more added variability at smaller scales than a four-dimensional internal grid nudging on large domains. We also confirmed that dynamic downscaling does not retain (or increase) simulation skill of the large-scale fields over and beyond that which exists in the larger-scale model or reanalysis. Our conclusions should be relevant to all applications of dynamic downscaling for regional climate simulations.

  20. Disordered random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    A revision is made of the effect, in the statistical properties of the matrices of random matrix theory, of dividing them by a positive random variable. As the method preserves unitary invariance analitical derivations are easily performed. It is shown that the same procedure applied to the adjacency matrices of random graphs gives rise to a family of graphs that interpolates between the Erdos-Renyiand the scale-free model. Previous applications and new ones are discussed.

  1. Analysis of a Random Forests Model

    CERN Document Server

    Biau, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    Random forests are a scheme proposed by Leo Breiman in the 00's for building a predictor ensemble with a set of decision trees that grow in randomly selected subspaces of data. Despite growing interest and practical use, there has been little exploration of the statistical properties of random forests, and little is known about the mathematical forces driving the algorithm. In this paper, we offer an in-depth analysis of a random forests model suggested by Breiman in 2004, which is very close to the original algorithm. We show in particular that the procedure is consistent and adapts to sparsity, in the sense that its rate of convergence depends only on the number of strong features and not on how many noise variables are present.

  2. Impact of ENSO variability on the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) sources: A modeling approach depending on the horizontal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babonneix, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Durand, F.; Menkes, C. E.; Djath, N.

    2012-04-01

    As the most powerful source of climatic variability in the Pacific Ocean, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) deeply impacts the equatorial oceanic currents. The Pacific Equatorial UnderCurrent (EUC) is a powerful jet flowing eastward and shoaling with the thermocline in the eastern Pacific, bringing cold waters in surface that retroact with the atmosphere. Its transport has thus been found to follow significant variations at ENSO timescale, with an increased (decreased) transport in La Niña (El Niño) phases. However, the EUC mean properties also vary more slowly due to extratropical forcing. This process is able to modify the heat and mass transports of the subducted waters that feed the EUC. By changing the mean equatorial oceanic conditions, this is suspected to modulate in return the ENSO signal. The EUC sources have very different origins: contributions come from both hemispheres, in part from the Low-Latitude Western Boundary Currents (LLWBCs) and the remaining from the interior ocean. Each source follows different pathways and is characterized by particular properties which differently influences the properties of the downstream equatorial undercurrent and the cold tongue upwelling. The question of the location of the different EUC sources is thus of crucial importance. In this poster, we investigate the links between the ENSO variability and the partitioning of the EUC sources. For this purpose, we use a set of five simulations made available by the DRAKKAR project ranging from a 2° laminar resolution to a turbulent 1/12° partly resolving the meso-scale processes. Increasing models horizontal resolution is largely thought to improve the quality of the resulting simulated currents, in terms of dynamics as of variability. Results show that if some distinct elements appear in terms of mean transit times, little variations are found in terms of partitioning within the different simulations. However, we show that the partitioning between the EUC sources evolves at an interannual timescale. For this purpose, we utilize two extreme events: the 1997-1998 El Niño and the 1999-2000 La Niña. The El Niño episode is found to coincide with a perceptible decrease in the WBCs sources as the La Niña is marked by a striking increase of the inner ocean sources. This is an unanticipated result as the total WBCs transports are known to follow inverse trends, with an increased (decreased) transport in El Niño (La Niña) phases.

  3. Modeling Interannual Variability of ?^1^8O of Atmospheric CO2 and its Dependence on Humidity and Isotope Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenning, N. H.; Noone, D. C.; Still, C. J.; Riley, W. J.; Randerson, J. T.; Welp, L. R.; White, J. W.; Vaughn, B.; Miller, J. B.; Tans, P. P.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of the ?^1^8O value of CO2 at the NOAA/ESRL baseline observatories showed a gradual downward trend from the early 1990s until 1997. The cause of this trend is not well understood, although it is likely due to a change in the isotopic composition of the terrestrial water pools with which CO2 interacts during photosynthesis and respiration, particularly in the tropics, where the largest isotope forcing occurs. There are a number of factors that affect the isotopic composition of soil and leaf water, however, studies have indicated that relative humidity has a strong impact on the water pools. Humidity records at several stations in Southeast Asia show an upward trend during the 1990s, which is consistent with the expected trend in the ?^1^8O value of atmospheric CO2. While an increase in humidity would increase stomatal conductance and in turn increase biospheric productivity, it also will allow leaves to take in more of the isotopically light water vapor, causing the leaf water to become less enriched with ^1^8O isotope. Using the isotopic version of the NCAR Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) and Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), the interannual variability of simulated ?^1^8O of CO2 were examined from 1979 to 2002. ISOLSM was forced with interannually varying meteorological data from the NCEP reanalysis. Computed fluxes from ISOLSM for each month of the 24-year simulation were used in CAM to simulate the seasonal cycle and trends in ?^1^8O values of CO2. Experiments were constructed to determine the impact on interannual variability in the ?^1^8O value of CO2 of humidity, ?^1^8O of precipitation, and ?^1^8O of water vapor. To demonstrate the affect of humidity, two experiments were constructed whereby relative humidity (1) is gradually increased by 0.5% per year from 1990 to 1997 (as is seen in some of the humidity records in Southeast Asia during the early 1990s yet this trend does not appear in the NCEP Reanalysis) and (2) assigned long-term monthly mean values. Similar experiments were constructed to demonstrate what fraction of the changes in ?^1^8O of CO2 is due to variability in ?^1^8O of precipitation and water vapor, by forcing the model with values that decrease by 0.2‰ per year. Simulations show ?^1^8O of CO2 has a larger response to varying relative humidity and ?^1^8O of water vapor than to varying ?^1^8O of precipitation.

  4. Dimensions of random affine code tree fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Järvenpää, Esa; Käenmäki, Antti; Koivusalo, Henna; Stenflo, Örjan; Suomala, Ville

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the almost sure Hausdorff dimension for a general class of random affine planar code tree fractals. The set of probability measures describing the randomness includes natural measures in random $V$-variable and homogeneous Markov constructions.

  5. Renormalisation of random hierarchial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    ?This thesis considers a number of problems which are related to the study of random fractals. We define a class of iterations (which we call random hierarchical systems) of probability distributions, which are defined by applying a random map to a set of k independent and identically distributed random variables. Classical examples of this sort of iteration include the Strong Law of Large Numbers, Galton-Watson branching processes, and the construction of random self-simila...

  6. LOCO: Distributing Ridge Regression with Random Projections

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Christina; Mcwilliams, Brian; Meinshausen, Nicolai; Krummenacher, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    We propose LOCO, an algorithm for large-scale ridge regression which distributes the features across workers on a cluster. Important dependencies between variables are preserved using structured random projections which are cheap to compute and must only be communicated once. We show that LOCO obtains a solution which is close to the exact ridge regression solution in the fixed design setting. We verify this experimentally in a simulation study as well as an application to climate prediction....

  7. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, among others, to persist and establish chronic infections in the host. PMID:26406499

  8. Wearable monitoring for mood recognition in bipolar disorder based on history-dependent long-term heart rate variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Lanatà, Antonio; Gentili, Claudio; Bertschy, Gilles; Paradiso, Rita; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2014-09-01

    Current clinical practice in diagnosing patients affected by psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder is based only on verbal interviews and scores from specific questionnaires, and no reliable and objective psycho-physiological markers are taken into account. In this paper, we propose to use a wearable system based on a comfortable t-shirt with integrated fabric electrodes and sensors able to acquire electrocardiogram, respirogram, and body posture information in order to detect a pattern of objective physiological parameters to support diagnosis. Moreover, we implemented a novel ad hoc methodology of advanced biosignal processing able to effectively recognize four possible clinical mood states in bipolar patients (i.e., depression, mixed state, hypomania, and euthymia) continuously monitored up to 18 h, using heart rate variability information exclusively. Mood assessment is intended as an intrasubject evaluation in which the patient's states are modeled as a Markov chain, i.e., in the time domain, each mood state refers to the previous one. As validation, eight bipolar patients were monitored collecting and analyzing more than 400 h of autonomic and cardiovascular activity. Experimental results demonstrate that our novel concept of personalized and pervasive monitoring constitutes a viable and robust clinical decision support system for bipolar disorders recognizing mood states with a total classification accuracy up to 95.81%. PMID:24240031

  9. Coupling effects in dynamic calorimetry: Frequency-dependent relations for specific heat and thermomechanical responses - A one-dimensional approach based on thermodynamics with internal state variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shown by Christensen et al. , temperature-induced stresses or strains can have a strong influence on the frequency-dependent specific heat, especially of thin layers of viscoelastic materials near the glass transition. Thus, both the mathematical representation and the physical understanding of these couplings are essential for the interpretation of temperature-modulated DSC data. The approach provided in this paper is based on thermodynamics with internal state variables. It thus differs from the transfer-matrix method which has been applied in Refs. and constitutes a thermodynamic basis from a different point of view for the interpretation of the results obtained in Refs. . Furthermore, although not the object of this paper, time-domain simulations can also be done with the model presented thus allowing for the calculation of temperature-ramping experiments and effects observed therein . The approach in this paper is restricted to one-dimensional states of stress and strain to focus on the main idea and keep the mathematical formalism to a minimum. The Gibbs free energy is chosen as thermodynamic potential and the primary variables - the stress and the temperature - are supplemented by a set of internal state variables which is introduced to include history-dependent and hence viscoelastic effects. The Gibbs free energy is approximated up to second order terms in the vicinity of a reference state. Employing the Legendre transform, a corresponding expression for the Helmhotz free energy is obtained. Evaluating the laws of thermodynamics, explicit frequency-dependent expressions for the specific heat under constant stress or strain, the thermal expansion behaviour as well as the mechanical response functions are obtained. Recently published formulations of the Prigogine-Defay ratio can also be derived from the proposed constitutive model.

  10. A factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of micronutrients supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on maternal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and oxidative stress of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girón Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have suggested a relationship between metabolic abnormalities and impaired fetal growth with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in the adulthood. Moreover, it has been proposed that maternal factors such as endothelial function and oxidative stress are key mechanisms of both fetal metabolic alterations and subsequent development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The objective of this project is to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation and regular aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation maternal and stress oxidative of the newborn. Methods and design 320 pregnant women attending to usual prenatal care in Cali, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomized controlled trial. Women will be assigned to the following intervention groups: 1. Control group: usual prenatal care (PC and placebo (maltodextrine. 2. Exercise group: PC, placebo and aerobic physical exercise. 3. Micronutrients group: PC and a micronutrients capsule consisting of zinc (30 mg, selenium (70 ?g, vitamin A (400 ?g, alphatocopherol (30 mg, vitamin C (200 mg, and niacin (100 mg. 4. Combined interventions Group: PC, supplementation of micronutrients, and aerobic physical exercise. Anthropometric measures will be taken at the start and at the end of the interventions. Discussion Since in previous studies has been showed that the maternal endothelial function and oxidative stress are related to oxidative stress of the newborn, this study proposes that complementation with micronutrients during pregnancy and/or regular physical exercise can be an early and innovative alternative to strengthen the prevention of chronic diseases in the population. Trial registration NCT00872365.

  11. Size-dependent resistive switching properties of the active region in nickel nitride-based crossbar array resistive random access memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Yun, Min Ju; Hong, Seok Man; Kim, Tae Geun

    2014-12-01

    The size-dependent resistive switching (RS) properties of the active region in a 1 x 1 NiN-based crossbar array (CBA) resistive random access memory (ReRAM) are investigated in the range of 2 x 2 ?m2 to 8 x 8 ?m2. In the forming test, the forming voltage is reduced by decreasing the cell size of the active region. Compared to the 8 x 8 ?m2 CBA ReRAM, the forming voltage of the 2 x 2 ?m2 CBA ReRAM was reduced from 8 V to 6.2 V. In addition, V(SET/RESET) and the current for the reset operation are reduced in the current-voltage (I-V) results by reducing the cell size, while the current at a high-resistance state (HRS) is increased. As a result, the current ratio between the HRS and a low-resistance state (LRS) is reduced. On the other hand, the variation of V(SET) for I-V curves repetitively acquired 100 times is decreased by decreasing the cell size in the reliability test. Further, the current at the HRS for the 2 x 2 ?m2 CBA ReRAM is the most stable with the smallest current variation for 1000 s in the retention test. These results show that reducing the active region in the CBA ReRAM structure is effective for improving the reliability of ReRAM cells because it reduces the operating voltage and current as well as the variation of V(SET) and the current at the HRS. PMID:25971015

  12. Variable angle XAFS study of multilayer nanostructure: Determination of selective concentration profile and depth-dependent partial atomic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babanov, Yuri; Salamatov, Yuri [Institute of Metal Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 S. Kovalevskaya str., 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Mukhamedzhanov, Enver, E-mail: babanov@imp.uran.r [Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , 1 Kurchatov Sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-15

    We propose a new method for studying multilayer structure using angle resolved extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. The linear integral equation describing a connection between the fluorescence intensity for spectrum of element C, the incident beam energy E, the incident angle {phi} and the concentration profile p(z,C) has been derived. It is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind, it belongs to the class of ill-posed problems and for solution it needs special methods. We use the regularization method. For determining the depth-dependent partial interatomic distances we use angle resolved EXAFS data. The effectiveness of the method has been tested during numerical simulation on the model crystalline three-layer with BCC structure: Cr/Fe/Cr.

  13. VARIABILITY OF ANTHOCYANIN CONTENT AND DRY MATTER AMOUNT IN FRUITS OF SOME LONICERA CAERULEA SELECTIONS DEPENDING ON STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Olteanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica is a species with multiple uses mainly due to the valuable biologicallyactive substances with high antioxidative potential. The anthocianins occupy an important place in inducing the health-protective benefits of the berries of this species. The aim of our work was to determine the total anthocyanin and drymatter amounts in the fruits collected from Romanian selections of blue honeysuckle, preserved by freezing (three monthsin refrigerator and drying at 60°C (to constant weight. The obtained results showed that the storage conditions havegenerally influenced the anthocyanin content. Thus, in freezing storage conditions, the anthocyanin amount eitherdecreased (C, SL6, SL8, SL15 or increased (SL17, SL57, depending on the biological material, whereas the dryingpreservation declined the anthocyanin level with ~ 80%, also varying with the selections of blue honeysuckle.

  14. Palaeoceanographic Variability of the Benguela Upwelling System Depending on the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) - Indicated by Organic-Walled Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, M.

    2003-12-01

    The causes and effects of the intensification of growth of the northern Hemisphere ice caps at around 3.2 and 2.74 Ma BP are still unclear. Possible causes are changes in the global ocean circulation and the global carbon cycle, which might have resulted from tectonic processes, solar insolation changes, or the interaction between both processes. The Benguela upwelling area forms a key area within the global ocean system. Here, warm and saline Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlantic Ocean and are transported to the north. Variability of this inflow may thus result in changes in deep-water production in the North Atlantic, thereby influencing the global thermohaline circulation. Furthermore, the Benguela area is characterized by extremely high bioproductivity in surface waters as a result of year-round upwelling. Variations in the upwelling intensity might lead to changes in atmospheric ¤CO2. To study the changes in the circulation and the upwelling intensity, within this region organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from two high-resolution cores (ODP 1084 and1082) covering the time interval from 3.3 to 2.5 Ma BP were investigated. Due to their sensitiveness to ecological parameters, organic-walled dinoflagellates reflect oceanographic characteristics keenly. The analyses discover clear distribution differences of individual species, especially of those that are sensible or resistant against aerobic decay. The sensible species, (Protoperidinium and Echinidinium), have their highest abundance from 2.76 to 2.73 Ma BP, a time interval in which the resistant species show no significant changes in their abundance. This implies that during this time interval the oxygen was reduced in the deep- and porewater suggesting that the global ocean deepwater circulation was weakened. Comparing these results with the known intensification of the NHG at around 2.74 Ma BP leads to the speculation that the increasing of ice caps in the northern hemisphere is highly associated with a lessened deep-water production in this region. Furthermore, frequency analysis show a strong compatibility between several species and the solar insolation.

  15. Investigating Extreme Dependences Concepts and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Malevergne, Y

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the relative information content of six measures of dependence between two random variables $X$ and $Y$ for large or extreme events for several models of interest for financial time series. The six measures of dependence are respectively the linear correlation $\\rho^+_v$ and Spearman's rho $\\rho_s(v)$ conditioned on signed exceedance of one variable above the threshold $v$, or on both variables ($\\rho_u$), the linear correlation $\\rho^s_v$ conditioned on absolute value exceedance (or large volatility) of one variable, the so-called asymptotic tail-dependence $\\lambda$ and a probability-weighted tail dependence coefficient ${\\bar \\lambda}$. The models are the bivariate Gaussian distribution, the bivariate Student's distribution, and the factor model for various distributions of the factor. We offer explicit analytical formulas as well as numerical estimations for these six measures of dependence in the limit where $v$ and $u$ go to infinity. This provides a quantitative proof that conditioning o...

  16. Variability and IMF dependence of the dayside plasma events at Mars: Inferences from MHD model-satellite observation comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusen, D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y.; Brain, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of strong crustal sources on the surface of Mars with the solar wind creates a very dynamic environment near the planet. A variety of plasma events are generated in the vicinity these sources and main source mechanisms of many of these events are still in debate or not known. Numerical models, such as MHD models, are very powerful tools in 3D interpretation of these observations. By comparing MHD model results with the auroral-like emissions reported from the Mars Express SPICAM instrument, Liemohn et al. (2007) showed that the main source of these emissions is the solar wind electrons which have an access to the upper atmosphere through connected field lines. Using the same method they also show that atmospheric photoelectrons reported at high altitudes well above the ionosphere from the Mars Express ASPERA-3 electron instrument is the result of direct magnetic connectivity to the dayside at the time of the measurements (Liemohn et al., 2006) In this study we compare magnetic topology in the MHD model of the Mars interaction with the magnetic topology inferred from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) electron distributions recorded over a period of 7 years. Particularly, we compare the map of directional distributions with the model field topology on the closed and open magnetic field lines focusing on the southern hemisphere. We further group the distributions according to draped IMF direction to investigate the IMF dependence of different electron events. Over the northern hemisphere, comparison of the maps of ER distributions with the model topology enables us to investigate the magnetic connectivity of these regions to the ionosphere and distinguish the source regions of the observed plasma. Moreover, 3D distribution information from the model for the regions dominated by photoelectrons, solar wind strahl, trapping and magnetosheath electrons is in anticipation of MAVEN measurements when we will have 4pi electrons and a magnetometer in a different orbit.

  17. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P inseminations under lower SR values ( P inseminations during the summer were performed under significantly lower maximum T ( P inseminations resulted in pregnancy when they were carried out under higher maximum ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR <1 (SR on AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  18. Effect of a single session of transcranial direct-current stimulation on balance and spatiotemporal gait variables in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized sham-controlled study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luanda A. C., Grecco; Natália A. C., Duarte; Nelci, Zanon; Manuela, Galli; Felipe, Fregni; Claudia S., Oliveira.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been widely studied with the aim of enhancing local synaptic efficacy and modulating the electrical activity of the cortex in patients with neurological disorders. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the ef [...] fect of a single session of tDCS regarding immediate changes in spatiotemporal gait and oscillations of the center of pressure (30 seconds) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A randomized controlled trial with a blinded evaluator was conducted involving 20 children with CP between six and ten years of age. Gait and balance were evaluated three times: Evaluation 1 (before the stimulation), Evaluation 2 (immediately after stimulation), and Evaluation 3 (20 minutes after the stimulation). The protocol consisted of a 20-minute session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: experimental group - anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex; and control group - placebo transcranial stimulation. Results: Significant reductions were found in the experimental group regarding oscillations during standing in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and eyes closed in comparison with the control group (p

  19. Heart Rate Variability and Hemodynamic Change in the Superior Mesenteric Artery by Acupuncture Stimulation of Lower Limb Points: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Kaneko; Masashi Watanabe; Shin Takayama; Takehiro Numata; Takashi Seki; Junichi Tanaka; Seiki Kanemura; Yutaka Kagaya; Tadashi Ishii; Yoshitaka Kimura; Nobuo Yaegashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We investigated the relationship between superior mesenteric artery blood flow volume (SMA BFV) and autonomic nerve activity in acupuncture stimulation of lower limb points through heart rate variability (HRV) evaluations. Methods. Twenty-six healthy volunteers underwent crossover applications of bilateral manual acupuncture stimulation at ST36 or LR3 or no stimulation. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, SMA BFV, and HRV at rest and 30?mi...

  20. No effect of short-term amino acid supplementation on variables related to skeletal muscle damage in 100 km ultra-runners - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness.

  1. Mott law as lower bound for a random walk in a random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Faggionato, A; Spehner, D

    2004-01-01

    We consider a random walk on the support of a stationary simple point process on $R^d$, $d\\geq 2$ which satisfies a mixing condition w.r.t.the translations or has a strictly positive density uniformly on large enough cubes. Furthermore the point process is furnished with independent random bounded energy marks. The transition rates of the random walk decay exponentially in the jump distances and depend on the energies through a factor of the Boltzmann-type. This is an effective model for the phonon-induced hopping of electrons in disordered solids within the regime of strong Anderson localization. We show that the rescaled random walk converges to a Brownian motion whose diffusion coefficient is bounded below by Mott's law for the variable range hopping conductivity at zero frequency. The proof of the lower bound involves estimates for the supercritical regime of an associated site percolation problem.

  2. Limit theorems for Markov random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov Random Fields (MRF's) have been extensively applied in Statistical Mechanics as well as in Bayesian Image Analysis. MRF's are a special class of dependent random variables located at the vertices of a graph whose joint distribution includes a parameter called the temperature. When the number of vertices of the graph tends to infinity, the normalized distribution of statistics based on these random variables converge in distribution. It can happen that for certain values of the temperature, that the rate of growth of these normalizing constants change drastically. This feature is generally used to explain the phenomenon of phase transition as understood by physicist. In this dissertation the author will show that this drastic change in normalizing constants occurs even in the relatively smooth case when all the random variables are Gaussian. Hence any image analytic MRF ought to be checked for such discontinuous behavior before any analysis is performed. Mixed limit theorems in Bayesian Image Analysis seek to replace intensive simulations of MRF's with limit theorems that approximate the distribution of the MRF's as the number of sites increases. The problem of deriving mixed limit theorems for MRF's on a one dimensional lattice graph with an acceptor function that has a second moment has been studied by Chow. A mixed limit theorem for the integer lattice graph is derived when the acceptor function does not have a second moment as for instance when the acceptor function is a symmetric stable density of index 0 < ? < 2

  3. Introduction to Randomness and Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Alexander K.

    2009-01-01

    This text provides a practical introduction to randomness and data analysis, in particular in the context of computer simulations. At the beginning, the most basics concepts of probability are given, in particular discrete and continuous random variables. Next, generation of pseudo random numbers is covered, such as uniform generators, discrete random numbers, the inversion method, the rejection method and the Box-Mueller Method. In the third section, estimators, confidenc...

  4. Randomized benchmarking with confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randomized benchmarking is a promising tool for characterizing the noise in experimental implementations of quantum systems. In this paper, we prove that the estimates produced by randomized benchmarking (both standard and interleaved) for arbitrary Markovian noise sources are remarkably precise by showing that the variance due to sampling random gate sequences is small. We discuss how to choose experimental parameters, in particular the number and lengths of random sequences, in order to characterize average gate errors with rigorous confidence bounds. We also show that randomized benchmarking can be used to reliably characterize time-dependent Markovian noise (e.g., when noise is due to a magnetic field with fluctuating strength). Moreover, we identify a necessary property for time-dependent noise that is violated by some sources of non-Markovian noise, which provides a test for non-Markovianity. (paper)

  5. Equations of motion and two-equation turbulence model for plane or axisymmetric turbulent flows in body-oriented orthogonal curvilinear coordinates and mass-averaged dependent variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sislian, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The full Navier-Stokes time-dependent, compressible, turbulent, mean-flow equations in mass-averaged variables for plane or axisymmetric flow are presented. The equations are derived in a body-oriented, orthogonal, curvilinear coordinate system. Turbulence is modelled by a system of two equations for mass-averaged turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate proposed. These equations are rederived and some new features are discussed. A system of second order boundary layer equations is then derived which includes the effects of longitudinal curvature and the normal pressure gradient. The Wilcox and Chambers approach is used in considering effects of streamline curvature on turbulence phenomena in turbulent boundary layer type flows. Their two-equation turbulence model with curvature terms are rederived for the cases considered in the present report. The derived system equations serves as a basis for an investigation of problems where streamline curvature is of the order of the characteristic length in the longitudinal direction.

  6. An alternative approach to exact wave functions for time-dependent coupled oscillator model of charged particle in variable magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum states of time-dependent coupled oscillator model for charged particles subjected to variable magnetic field are investigated using the invariant operator methods. To do this, we have taken advantage of an alternative method, so-called unitary transformation approach, available in the framework of quantum mechanics, as well as a generalized canonical transformation method in the classical regime. The transformed quantum Hamiltonian is obtained using suitable unitary operators and is represented in terms of two independent harmonic oscillators which have the same frequencies as that of the classically transformed one. Starting from the wave functions in the transformed system, we have derived the full wave functions in the original system with the help of the unitary operators. One can easily take a complete description of how the charged particle behaves under the given Hamiltonian by taking advantage of these analytical wave functions.

  7. Asymptotics of Random Contractions

    CERN Document Server

    Hashorva, Enkelejd; Tang, Qihe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the asymptotic behaviour of random contractions $X=RS$, where $R$, with distribution function $F$, is a positive random variable independent of $S\\in (0,1)$. Random contractions appear naturally in insurance and finance. Our principal contribution is the derivation of the tail asymptotics of $X$ assuming that $F$ is in the max-domain of attraction of an extreme value distribution and the distribution function of $S$ satisfies a regular variation property. We apply our result to derive the asymptotics of the probability of ruin for a particular discrete-time risk model. Further we quantify in our asymptotic setting the effect of the random scaling on the Conditional Tail Expectations, risk aggregation, and derive the joint asymptotic distribution of linear combinations of random contractions.

  8. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF VARENICLINE ON CRAVING, WITHDRAWAL AND AFFECT IN A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE-BLIND PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF VARENICLINE FOR SMOKELESS TOBACCO DEPENDENCE IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jhanjee, Sonali; Jain, Raka; Jain, Veena; Gupta, Tina; Mittal, Swati; Goelz, Patricia; Schnoll, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study examined changes in tobacco craving, withdrawal and affect as correlates of efficacy in a phase 2 clinical trial of varenicline for smokeless tobacco dependence in India. Smokeless tobacco users (N = 237) at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences were randomized to placebo or varenicline. Abstinence was defined as cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence cessation at end of treatment (EOT). General Linear Model repeated measures assessed the effects of treatment condition, tim...

  9. Detection of genetic variability in Basmati and non-Basmati rice varieties and their radiation induced mutants through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) markers were utilized to detect polymorphism between pure lines and commercially available Basmati rice varieties to assess variation which may be helpful in quality control and varietal identification (Basmati-370 and derived radiation induced mutants), differentiation of mutants and parents, and identification of RAPD markers co-segregating with important agronomic traits including plant height, days to flower and grain quality. Basmati varieties were distinguished from non-Basmati varieties with the help of five diagnostic markers which will be useful for detecting mixing of non-Basmati and Basmati rices, currently a serious marketing problem. Different Basmati cultivars were identified with the help of diagnostic RAPD markers which can be used in quality control as well as for ''fingerprinting'' of cultivars. Different radiation induced mutants were also successfully distinguished from the parents on the basis of variety specific and mutant specific markers which will be useful for varietal identification. In addition to this, other markers were also identified which can differentiate mutants from each other and are being, used for the fingerprinting of different mutants, particularly the dwarf mutants having similar appearance but different parentage. For identification of RAPD markers co-segregating with plant height and days to flower, 50 F2 plants and four F3 families were studied from a reciprocal cross made between Kashmir Basmati (tall and early) and Basmati-198 (dwarf and late). Segregating bands were observed within these populations, and indicating the possible use of RAPD markers for tagging gene(s) of agronomic importance in rice. (author)

  10. The role of the immunological background of mice in the genetic variability of Schistosoma mansoni as detected by random amplification of polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa-Moiane, I L; Mendes, T; Ferreira, T M; Mauricio, I; Calado, M; Afonso, A; Belo, S

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Among the Schistosoma species known to infect humans, S. mansoni is the most frequent cause of intestinal schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa and South America: the World Health Organization estimates that about 200,000 deaths per year result from schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa alone. The Schistosoma life cycle requires two different hosts: a snail as intermediate host and a mammal as definitive host. People become infected when they come into contact with water contaminated with free-living larvae (e.g. when swimming, fishing, washing). Although S. mansoni has mechanisms for escaping the host immune system, only a minority of infecting larvae develop into adults, suggesting that strain selection occurs at the host level. To test this hypothesis, we compared the Belo Horizonte (BH) strain of S. mansoni recovered from definitive hosts with different immunological backgrounds using random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Schistosoma mansoni DNA profiles of worms obtained from wild-type (CD1 and C57BL/6J) and mutant (J?18- / - and TGF?RIIdn) mice were analysed. Four primers produced polymorphic profiles, which can therefore potentially be used as reference biomarkers. All male worms were genetically distinct from females isolated from the same host, with female worms showing more specific fragments than males. Of the four host-derived schistosome populations, female and male adults recovered from TGF?RIIdn mice showed RAPD-PCR profiles that were most similar to each other. Altogether, these data indicate that host immunological backgrounds can influence the genetic diversity of parasite populations. PMID:24991919

  11. Dependence of P-wave dispersion on mean arterial pressure as an independent hemodynamic variable in school children / Dependencia de la dispersión de la onda P en la presión arterial media como variable hemodinámica independiente en niños en edad escolar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elibet, Chávez; Emilio F, González; María del Carmen, Llanes; Merlin, Garí Llanes; Yosvany, Garc.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción: La relación entre la disfunción diastólica y la dispersión de la onda P (PWD) en el electrocardiograma se ha estudiado durante algún tiempo. En este sentido, la ecocardiografía se está convirtiendo en una herramienta de diagnóstico para mejorar la estratificación de riesgo en l [...] a hipertensión leve. Objetivo: Determinar la dependencia de las PWD en el electrocardiograma de las variables ecocardiográficas en una población pediátrica. Métodos: De un total de 565 niños de tres escuelas primarias, fueron estudiados 515 niños. Fueron excluidos del estudio, aquellos niños cuyos padres se negaron a participar, y los niños con enfermedades congénitas conocidas. Se les realizó electrocardiograma de superficie de 12 derivaciones y se realizaron 4 tomas de presión arterial. Fueron medidas las ondas P del electrocardiograma y calculada su dispersión. Se realizó ecocardiografía para medidas estructurales y Doppler pulsado del flujo mitral. Resultados Se demuestra correlación significativa entre la PWD y la tensión arterial media para prehipertensos e hipertensos r= 0.32, p Abstract in english Abstract Introduction: The relationship between diastolic dysfunction and P-wave dispersion (PWD) in the electrocardiogram has been studied for some time. In this regard, echocardiography is emerging as a diagnostic tool to improve risk stratification for mild hypertension. Objective: To determine t [...] he dependence of PWD on the electrocardiogram and on echocardiographic variables in a pediatric population. Methods: Five hundred and fifteen children from three elementary schools were studiedfrom a total of 565 children. Those whose parents did not want them to take part in the study, as well as those with known congenital diseases, were excluded. Tests including 12-lead surface ECGs and 4 blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed. Maximum and minimum P-values were measured, and the PWD on the electrocardiogram was calculated. Echocardiography for structural measurements and the pulsed Doppler of mitral flow were also performed. Results: A significant correlation in statistical variables was found between PWD and mean BP for pre-hypertensive and hypertensive children, i.e., r= 0.32, p

  12. The spatial random effects and the spatial fixed effects model: The Hausman test in a Cliff and Ord panel model

    OpenAIRE

    Mutl, Jan; Pfaffermayr, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the spatial random effects and spatial fixed effects model. The model includes a Cliff and Ord type spatial lag of the dependent variable as well as a spatially lagged one-way error component structure, accounting for both heterogeneity and spatial correlation across units. We discuss instrumental variable estimation under both the fixed and the random effects specification and propose a spatial Hausman test which compares these two models accounting for spatial autocorrela...

  13. Study of the loading mode dependence of the twinning in random textured cast magnesium by acoustic emission and neutron diffraction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ?apek, Jan, E-mail: jan.capek@centrum.cz [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Máthis, Kristián [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Clausen, Bjørn [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stráská, Jitka [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Beran, P?emysl; Lukáš, Petr [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, ?ež 250 68 (Czech Republic)

    2014-04-01

    The twinning activity in random textured cast magnesium during monotonic, room temperature tension and compression tests was monitored by acoustic emission (AE) and neutron diffraction (ND). The AE detected higher twin nucleation activity in tension than in compression. The correlation of AE with the ND data indicates that in compression the nucleation of twins is followed by rapid growth, unlike in tension in which twin variants with limited growth were observed.

  14. A Composite Likelihood Inference in Latent Variable Models for Ordinal Longitudinal Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, Vassilis G. S.; Cagnone, Silvia; Moustaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a composite likelihood estimation approach that uses bivariate instead of multivariate marginal probabilities for ordinal longitudinal responses using a latent variable model. The model considers time-dependent latent variables and item-specific random effects to be accountable for the interdependencies of the multivariate…

  15. A Stochastic Collocation Method for Elliptic Partial Differential Equations with Random Input Data

    KAUST Repository

    Babuška, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes and analyzes a stochastic collocation method for solving elliptic partial differential equations with random coefficients and forcing terms. These input data are assumed to depend on a finite number of random variables. The method consists of a Galerkin approximation in space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space, and naturally leads to the solution of uncoupled deterministic problems as in the Monte Carlo approach. It treats easily a wide range of situations, such as input data that depend nonlinearly on the random variables, diffusivity coefficients with unbounded second moments, and random variables that are correlated or even unbounded. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate exponential convergence of the “probability error” with respect to the number of Gauss points in each direction of the probability space, under some regularity assumptions on the random input data. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the method. Finally, we include a section with developments posterior to the original publication of this work. There we review sparse grid stochastic collocation methods, which are effective collocation strategies for problems that depend on a moderately large number of random variables.

  16. Effect of randomness in logistic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleque, Abdul; Sen, Parongama

    2015-01-01

    We study a random logistic map xt+1 = atxt[1 - xt] where at are bounded (q1 ? at ? q2), random variables independently drawn from a distribution. xt does not show any regular behavior in time. We find that xt shows fully ergodic behavior when the maximum allowed value of at is 4. However , averaged over different realizations reaches a fixed point. For 1 ? at ? 4, the system shows nonchaotic behavior and the Lyapunov exponent is strongly dependent on the asymmetry of the distribution from which at is drawn. Chaotic behavior is seen to occur beyond a threshold value of q1(q2) when q2(q1) is varied. The most striking result is that the random map is chaotic even when q2 is less than the threshold value 3.5699⋯ at which chaos occurs in the nonrandom map. We also employ a different method in which a different set of random variables are used for the evolution of two initially identical x values, here the chaotic regime exists for all q1 ? q2 values.

  17. Particle-size and temperature dependence of microwave noise in superconducting YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub y/: Evidence for random Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of particle size and temperature on the microwave noise and low-field microwave absorption in YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub y/ powders have been studied by the magnetically modulated microwave absorption technique. The results can be interpreted in terms of a network of random Josephson junctions in the individual superconducting grains but are not consistent with the thermally activated flux creep model. An estimate of the size of the Josephson junctions is also obtained from the variation of the microwave noise with particle size

  18. Random Block Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Werner; Müller, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We study fundamental spectral properties of random block operators that are common in the physical modelling of mesoscopic disordered systems such as dirty superconductors. Our results include ergodic properties, the location of the spectrum, existence and regularity of the integrated density of states, as well as Lifshits tails. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities arising from the block structure such as the occurrence of a robust gap in the middle of the spectrum. Without randomness in the off-diagonal blocks the density of states typically exhibits an inverse square-root singularity at the edges of the gap. In the presence of randomness we establish a Wegner estimate that is valid at all energies. It implies that the singularities are smeared out by randomness, and the density of states is bounded. We also show Lifshits tails at these band edges. Technically, one has to cope with a non-monotone dependence on the random couplings.

  19. A multi-center, randomized controlled trial of a group psychological intervention for psychosis with comorbid cannabis dependence over the early course of illness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madigan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Patients who experience the onset of psychotic illness with a comorbid diagnosis of cannabis dependence experience poor clinical outcomes. Few studies have identified interventions that reduce cannabis use and improve clinical outcome in this population.

  20. Can a soda-lime glass be used to demonstrate how patterns of strength dependence are influenced by pre-cementation and resin-cementation variables?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine how the variability in biaxial flexure strength of a soda-lime glass analogue for a PLV and DBC material was influenced by precementation operative variables and following resin-cement coating.

  1. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement versus CBT for co-occurring substance dependence, traumatic stress, and psychiatric disorders: Proximal outcomes from a pragmatic randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Tronnier, Christine D; Graves, Rebecca; Kelley, Karen

    2016-02-01

    In many clinical settings, there is a high comorbidity between substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and traumatic stress. Novel therapies are needed to address these co-occurring issues efficiently. The aim of the present study was to conduct a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) to group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) for previously homeless men residing in a therapeutic community. Men with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, as well as extensive trauma histories, were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of group treatment with MORE (n = 64), CBT (n = 64), or TAU (n = 52). Study findings indicated that from pre-to post-treatment MORE was associated with modest yet significantly greater improvements in substance craving, post-traumatic stress, and negative affect than CBT, and greater improvements in post-traumatic stress and positive affect than TAU. A significant indirect effect of MORE on decreasing craving and post-traumatic stress by increasing dispositional mindfulness was observed, suggesting that MORE may target these issues via enhancing mindful awareness in everyday life. This pragmatic trial represents the first head-to-head comparison of MORE against an empirically-supported treatment for co-occurring disorders. Results suggest that MORE, as an integrative therapy designed to bolster self-regulatory capacity, may hold promise as a treatment for intersecting clinical conditions. PMID:26701171

  2. Análisis del proceso constructivo y variabilidad de parámetros geotécnicos en la capacidad de carga de micropilotes usando elementos finitos aleatorios / Analysis of the construction process and geotechnical parameters variability on the loading capacity of micropiles using random finite elements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christian, Mendoza; Alfonso M, Ramos; Renato, Cunha; Arcesio, Lizcano.

    Full Text Available En la práctica normal de ingeniería de cimentaciones se calcula la capacidad de carga de un micropilote sin tener en cuenta que el proceso constructivo puede afectar la geometría del problema. En este trabajo se cuantifica la influencia tanto del proceso constructivo como de la variabilidad inherent [...] e de las propiedades del suelo en la capacidad de carga de un micropilote autoperforante e inyectado, a través de simulaciones de la excavación con elementos finitos aleatorios. Se obtiene que al no tener en cuenta el método constructivo del micropilote y la variabilidad de las propiedades del suelo, se sobreestima en un factor entre dos y tres la capacidad de carga por fuste. Por lo tanto, se presenta una explicación racional al factor de seguridad que se debe aplicar para obtener la capacidad de carga de diseño. Finalmente, se presenta un procedimiento para generar cartas de diseño de micropilotes autoperforantes materializado en uno que resalta la importancia de considerar la variabilidad inherente de las propiedades del suelo y el método constructivo. Abstract in english IIn the normal practice of foundation engineering the bearing capacity of micropiles is calculated without taking into account that the construction processes may affect the problem geometry. This work quantifies the influence of both, construction processes and the inherent variability of soil prop [...] erties in the bearing capacity of a selfbored and gravitationally grouted micropile by means of simulations with random finite element method. When the construction process and the inherent variability are not taken into account, the shaft bearing capacity is overestimated in a factor between two and three. Therefore, a rational explanation of the safety factor is presented in order to calculate the design capacity load. Lastly, a procedure to generating design charts for selfbored and grouted micropiles is presented and its application shows the importance of considerate the inherent variability of the soil properties and the construction process.

  3. Mass parameters in the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation: I. Theoretical aspects; the case of a single collective variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-consistent method to evaluate mass parameters is presented in the framework of the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation, reduced to a single collective variable. The corresponding collective path is assumed to be given either by solving a constrained Hartree-Fock problem with a given time-even constraining operator Q, or by scaling a static Hartree-Fock equilibrium solution. In the former case, once the path is given, a method for solving the equation of motion (of Hamilton type) is provided, which reduces to a double-constrained Hartree-Fock problem with the time-even constraint Q and with a time-odd constraining operator P. In the case of the scaling path, an analytical solution of the Hamilton equation is discussed and the adiabatic mass for the particular case of isoscalar quadrupole Q20 mode is given. The operator P, which is uniquely determined from the knowledge of Q, has the physical meaning of a momentum operator: it satisfies, together with Q, a weak quantal conjugation relation. Finally, the connection between the two paths is discussed in terms of generalized RPA sum rules

  4. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models / Grau de multicolinearidade e variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana, Petrini; Raphael Antonio Prado, Dias; Simone Fernanda Nedel, Pertile; Joanir Pereira, Eler; José Bento Sterman, Ferraz; Gerson Barreto, Mourão.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de multicolinearidade e identificar as variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes. Foram utilizados dados de peso ao nascimento (n=141.567), peso ao ano (n=58.124) e perímetro escrotal (n=20.371) de bovinos de corte compostos [...] Montana Tropical. O diagnóstico de multicolinearidade foi baseado no fator de inflação de variância (VIF) e no exame dos índices de condição e dos autovalores da matriz de correlações entre as variáveis explanatórias. O primeiro modelo estudado (RM) incluiu o efeito fixo de classe de idade da mãe ao parto e as covariáveis associadas aos efeitos aditivos e não aditivos diretos e maternos. O segundo modelo (R) incluiu todos os efeitos do RM, exceto os efeitos aditivos maternos. Detectou-se multicolinearidade em ambos os modelos para todas as características consideradas, com valores de VIF de 1,03 - 70,20, para RM, e de 1,03 - 60,70, para R. As colinearidades aumentaram com o aumento de variáveis no modelo e com a redução no volume de observações, e foram classificadas como fracas, com valores de índice de condição entre 10,00 e 26,77. Em geral, as variáveis associadas aos efeitos aditivos e não aditivos estiveram envolvidas em multicolinearidade, parcialmente em razão da ligação natural entre essas covariáveis como frações dos tipos biológicos na composição racial. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567), yearling weight (n=58,124), and scrotal circumference (n=20,371) of Montana Tropical composite [...] cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF) and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM) included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R) included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.

  5. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models Grau de multicolinearidade e variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de multicolinearidade e identificar as variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes. Foram utilizados dados de peso ao nascimento (n=141.567, peso ao ano (n=58.124 e perímetro escrotal (n=20.371 de bovinos de corte compostos Montana Tropical. O diagnóstico de multicolinearidade foi baseado no fator de inflação de variância (VIF e no exame dos índices de condição e dos autovalores da matriz de correlações entre as variáveis explanatórias. O primeiro modelo estudado (RM incluiu o efeito fixo de classe de idade da mãe ao parto e as covariáveis associadas aos efeitos aditivos e não aditivos diretos e maternos. O segundo modelo (R incluiu todos os efeitos do RM, exceto os efeitos aditivos maternos. Detectou-se multicolinearidade em ambos os modelos para todas as características consideradas, com valores de VIF de 1,03 - 70,20, para RM, e de 1,03 - 60,70, para R. As colinearidades aumentaram com o aumento de variáveis no modelo e com a redução no volume de observações, e foram classificadas como fracas, com valores de índice de condição entre 10,00 e 26,77. Em geral, as variáveis associadas aos efeitos aditivos e não aditivos estiveram envolvidas em multicolinearidade, parcialmente em razão da ligação natural entre essas covariáveis como frações dos tipos biológicos na composição racial.

  6. PRECISION OF VARIABLE PROBABILITY SAMPLING WHEN THE RESPONSE VARIABLE AND INCLUSION PROBABILITIES ARE NOT HIGHLY CORRELATED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable probability sampling may be less efficient than simple random sampling if the response variable, y, is not highly positively correlated with the auxiliary variable, x, used to select the sample. imulation results using binary and continuous response variables demonstrate...

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of calcium acetate on serum phosphorus concentrations in patients with advanced non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chiang-Hong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue calcification, and increased mortality risk. This trial was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of calcium acetate in controlling serum phosphorus in pre-dialysis patients with CKD. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 110 nondialyzed patients from 34 sites with estimated GFR 2 and serum phosphorus > 4.5 mg/dL were randomized to calcium acetate or placebo for 12 weeks. The dose of study drugs was titrated to achieve target serum phosphorus of 2.7-4.5 mg/dL. Serum phosphorus, calcium, iPTH, bicarbonate and serum albumin were measured at baseline and every 2 weeks for the 12 week study period. The primary efficacy endpoint was serum phosphorus at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints were to measure serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Results At 12 weeks, serum phosphorus concentration was significantly lower in the calcium acetate group compared to the placebo group (4.4 ± 1.2 mg/dL vs. 5.1 ± 1.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04. The albumin-adjusted serum calcium concentration was significantly higher (9.5 ± 0.8 vs. 8.8 ± 0.8; p p Conclusions In CKD patients not yet on dialysis, calcium acetate was effective in reducing serum phosphorus and iPTH over a 12 week period. Trial Registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00211978.

  8. Analysis of transverse Anderson localization in refractive index structures with customized random potential

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawski, Martin; Armijo, Julien; Diebel, Falko; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to demonstrate Anderson localization in an optically induced randomized potential. By usage of computer controlled spatial light modulators, we are able to implement fully randomized nondiffracting beams of variable structural size in order to control the modulation length (photonic grain size) as well as the depth (disorder strength) of a random potential induced in a photorefractive crystal. In particular, we quantitatively analyze the localization length of light depending on these two parameters and find that they are crucial influencing factors on the propagation behavior leading to variably strong localization. Thus, we corroborate that transverse light localization in a random refractive index landscape strongly depends on the character of the potential, allowing for a flexible regulation of the localization strength by adapting the optical induction configuration.

  9. A randomized controlled trial comparing intravenous ferric carboxymaltose with oral iron for treatment of iron deficiency anaemia of non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Qunibi, Wajeh Y.; Martinez, Carlos; Smith, Mark; Benjamin, Joseph; Mangione, Antoinette; Roger, Simon D.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Iron deficiency is a common cause of anaemia and hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients. Current intravenous iron agents cannot be administered in a single high dose because of adverse effects. Ferric carboxymaltose, a non-dextran parenteral iron preparation, can be rapidly administered in high doses.

  10. CPAP em selo d'água versus CPAP com fluxo variável em recém-nascidos com desconforto respiratório: um ensaio controlado randomizado / Bubble CPAP versus CPAP with variable flow in newborns with respiratory distress: a randomized controlled trial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cristina Zanon, Yagui; Luciana Assis Pires Andrade, Vale; Luciana Branco, Haddad; Cristiane, Prado; Felipe de Souza, Rossi; Alice D' Agostini, Deutsch; Celso Moura, Rebello.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança da pressão positiva contínua na via aérea (CPAP) utilizando aparelhos de fluxo variável e fluxo contínuo em selo d'água, quanto a falha do CPAP, ocorrência de escape de ar, tempo de uso de CPAP e de oxigênio e tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensi [...] va e hospitalar em neonatos com desconforto respiratório (DR) moderado e peso de nascimento (PN) > 1.500 g. MÉTODOS: Quarenta recém-nascidos que necessitavam de CPAP foram randomizados em dois grupos: um grupo tratado com fluxo variável (FV) e outro com fluxo contínuo (FC). O estudo foi realizado entre outubro de 2008 e abril de 2010. Foram registrados dados demográficos, falha do CPAP, ocorrência de escape de ar, tempo de uso de CPAP e de oxigênio, entre outros. Os desfechos categóricos foram analisados com o teste do qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e as variáveis contínuas com o teste de Mann-Whitney, com significância de p 1.500 g e DR moderado, o CPAP nasal com fluxo contínuo apresentou os mesmos benefícios do CPAP nasal com fluxo variável. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) using devices with variable flow or bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) regarding CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, total CPAP and oxygen time, and length of intensive care unit and h [...] ospital stay in neonates with moderate respiratory distress (RD) and birth weight (BW) > 1,500 g. METHODS: Forty newborns requiring NCPAP were randomized into two study groups: variable flow group (VF) and continuous flow group (CF). The study was conducted between October 2008 and April 2010. Demographic data, CPAP failure, presence of air leaks, and total CPAP and oxygen time were recorded. Categorical outcomes were tested using the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test. Continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The level of significance was set at p 1,500 g and moderate RD, the use of continuous flow NCPAP showed the same benefits as the use of variable flow NCPAP.

  11. The 'emergent scaling' phenomenon and the dielectric properties of random resistor-capacitor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bouamrane, R

    2003-01-01

    An efficient algorithm, based on the Frank-Lobb reduction scheme, for calculating the equivalent dielectric properties of very large random resistor-capacitor (R-C) networks has been developed. It has been used to investigate the network size and composition dependence of dielectric properties and their statistical variability. The dielectric properties of 256 samples of random networks containing: 512, 2048, 8192 and 32 768 components distributed randomly in the ratios 60% R-40% C, 50% R-50% C and 40% R-60% C have been computed. It has been found that these properties exhibit the anomalous power law dependences on frequency known as the 'universal dielectric response' (UDR). Attention is drawn to the contrast between frequency ranges across which percolation determines dielectric response, where considerable variability is found amongst the samples, and those across which power laws define response where very little variability is found between samples. It is concluded that the power law UDRs are emergent pr...

  12. Entropic analysis of evolving 2-dimensional scalar fields: Field-dependent MFM datasets and non-local random-switch hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different means of applying numerical techniques are proposed, typically used for pattern recognition purposes and for artificial texture classification and segmentation, to study the evolution of magnetization at the nano- and micro-scale in ferromagnetic samples. This framework is applied both to the Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM) dataset and to synthetic binary patterns of 2-dimensional spins, based on a nucleation and growth model for the hysteresis. In general 2-dimensional gray-scale frames carry information characterized by a spatial correlation between each pixel. Multiple datasets as the one analyzed, either 256-bit-valued magnetic field dependent MFM matrices or 2-bit-valued synthetic field dependent scatter matrices, are arranged as multidimensional arrays and their 2-dimensional entropy is computed.

  13. Client satisfaction among participants in a randomized trial comparing oral methadone and injectable diacetylmorphine for long-term opioid-dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Brissette Suzanne; Guh Daphne; Oviedo-Joekes Eugenia; Marchand Kirsten I; Marsh David C; Schechter Martin T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone) has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Patient satisfaction with treatment has been associated with improved addiction treatment outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies evaluating patients' satisfaction with Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST). In the present study, participants' satisfaction with OST was evaluated at 3 and 12 months. We sought to test the relationship bet...

  14. Limit theorems for associated random fields and related systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bulinski, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the study of asymptotic properties of wide classes of stochastic systems arising in mathematical statistics, percolation theory, statistical physics and reliability theory. Attention is paid not only to positive and negative associations introduced in the pioneering papers by Harris, Lehmann, Esary, Proschan, Walkup, Fortuin, Kasteleyn and Ginibre, but also to new and more general dependence conditions. Naturally, this scope comprises families of independent real-valued random variables. A variety of important results and examples of Markov processes, random measures,

  15. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  16. Impact of cocoa flavanol intake on age-dependent vascular stiffness in healthy men: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Christian; Sansone, Roberto; Karimi, Hakima; Krabbe, Moritz; Schuler, Dominik; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Kraemer, Thomas; Cortese-Krott, Miriam Margherita; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte

    2015-06-01

    Increased vascular stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, and isolated systolic hypertension are hallmarks of vascular aging. Regular cocoa flavanol (CF) intake can improve vascular function in healthy young and elderly at-risk individuals. However, the mechanisms underlying CF bioactivity remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of CF intake on cardiovascular function in healthy young and elderly individuals without history, signs, or symptoms of cardiovascular disease by applying particular focus on functional endpoints relevant to cardiovascular aging. In a randomized, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial, 22 young (<35 years) and 20 elderly (50-80 year) healthy, male non-smokers consumed either a CF-containing drink (450 mg CF) or nutrient-matched, CF-free control drink bi-daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint was endothelial function as measured by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Secondary endpoints included cardiac output, vascular stiffness, conductance of conduit and resistance arteries, and perfusion in the microcirculation. Following 2 weeks of CF intake, FMD improved in young (6.1 ± 0.7 vs. 7.6 ± 0.7 %, p < 0.001) and elderly (4.9 ± 0.6 vs. 6.3 ± 0.9 %, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes demonstrated in both groups that CF intake decreased pulse wave velocity and lowered total peripheral resistance, and increased arteriolar and microvascular vasodilator capacity, red cell deformability, and diastolic blood pressure, while cardiac output remained affected. In the elderly, baseline systolic blood pressure was elevated, driven by an arterial-stiffness-related augmentation. CF intake decreased aortic augmentation index (-9 %) and thus systolic blood pressure (-7 mmHg; Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01639781). CF intake reverses age-related burden of cardiovascular risk in healthy elderly, highlighting the potential of dietary flavanols to maintain cardiovascular health. PMID:26013912

  17. Effects of luseogliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on 24-h glucose variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, R; Osonoi, T; Kanada, S; Jinnouchi, H; Sugio, K; Omiya, H; Ubukata, M; Sakai, S; Samukawa, Y

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of luseogliflozin on 24-h glucose levels, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, and on pharmacodynamic variables measured throughout the day. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise were randomized into two groups. Patients in each group first received luseogliflozin then placebo for 7?days each, or vice versa. After 7?days of treatment, the mean 24-h glucose level was significantly lower with luseogliflozin than with placebo [mean (95% confidence interval) 145.9 (134.4-157.5)?mg/dl vs 168.5 (156.9-180.0)?mg/dl; p?

  18. Weak Law of Large Numbers for Hybrid Variables Based on Chance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baogui Xin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Based upon previous studies on laws of large numbers for fuzzy,random, fuzzy random and random fuzzy variables, We go further toexplore weak law of large numbers(WLLN for hybrid variablescomprising fuzzy random variables and random fuzzy variables. wemainly prove Chebyshev WLLN, Poisson WLLN, Bernoulli WLLN,Markov WLLN and Khintchin WLLN for hybrid variables based onchance measure.

  19. On random sample size, ignorability, ancillarity, completeness, separability, and degeneracy: Sequential trials, random sample sizes, and missing data

    OpenAIRE

    Molenberghs, Geert; Kenward, Michael G.; Aerts, Marc; Verbeke, Geert; Davidian, Marie; Rizopoulos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of settings for which frequentist statistical properties are derived assume a fixed, a priori known sample size. Familiar properties then follow, such as, for example, the consistency, asymptotic normality, and efficiency of the sample average for the mean parameter, under a wide range of conditions. We are concerned here with the alternative situation in which the sample size is itself a random variable which may depend on the data being collected. Further, the rule governi...

  20. Random trinomial tree models and vanilla options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Bayram, Kamola

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we introduce and study random trinomial model. The usual trinomial model is prescribed by triple of numbers (u, d, m). We call the triple (u, d, m) an environment of the trinomial model. A triple (Un, Dn, Mn), where {Un}, {Dn} and {Mn} are the sequences of independent, identically distributed random variables with 0 < Dn < 1 < Un and Mn = 1 for all n, is called a random environment and trinomial tree model with random environment is called random trinomial model. The random trinomial model is considered to produce more accurate results than the random binomial model or usual trinomial model.

  1. Near-field EM wave scattering from random self-affine fractal metal surfaces spectral dependence of local field enhancements and their statistics in connection with SERS

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Gil, J A; Méndez, E R

    2000-01-01

    By means of rigorous numerical simulation calculations based on the Green's theorem integral equation formulation, we study the near EM field in the vicinity of very rough, one-dimensional self-affine fractal surfaces of Ag, Au, and Cu (for both vacuum and water propagating media) illuminated by a p polarized field. Strongly localized enhanced optical excitations (hot spots) are found, with electric field intensity enhancements of close to 4 orders of magnitude the incident one, and widths below a tenth of the incoming wavelength. These effects are produced by roughness-induced surface-plasmon polariton excitation. We study the characteristics of these optical excitations as well as other properties of the surface electromagnetic field, such as its statistics (probability density function, average and fluctuations), and their dependence on the excitation spectrum (in the visible and near infrared). Our study is relevant to the use of such self-affine fractals as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates, w...

  2. Generating Random Sampling Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatter Singh

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation experiments with the help of random numbers are increasing in various Defence application areas. Some authors have brought out autocorrelations in the sequences generated by the computer methods. To overcome this defect, a new algorithm based on the concept of random sampling (with replacement from a finite population has been developed. The constants in the linear congruential relation are chosen so that (a the proportion of distinct numbers in the generation compares with the theoretical expectation and (b the period of the generator covers almost the edtire population of 16-bit numbers. The criteria suggest to choose the variable multiplier (ai =2ai-1 +' 1 with initial value a. = 2^9+ 5 or 2^10 + 3. The randomness of the generation has been compared with that of a Bernoullian sequence.

  3. Investigation of spatio-temporal variability of water uptake in a groundwater-dependent ecosystem using a stable isotope approach (?18O, ?2H): Pfyn Forest, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Masini, J.; Goldscheider, N.; Gobat, J. M.; Hunkeler, D.

    2012-04-01

    This work consists of an eco-hydrogeological study of the Pfyn Forest (46o17'35''N; 7o31'59''E, z = 550 m) which is a 6 km long alluvial zone in the upper Rhône valley, near Sierre (Wallis, Switzerland). From a hydrological point of view, the Rhône has a glacio-nival regime type in this area. Between low-flow and high-flow periods, groundwater levels strongly vary (about 8 m) near the main river-aquifer interaction zone in the most upgradient part of the site. In contrast, the downstream part of Pfyn is characterized by a low groundwater level fluctuation of about 1 or 2 m. From an ecological point of view, the riverine fringe at Pfyn presents a broadly recognized natural value but faces many threats due to human activities (derivation channel located upstream, gravel pits). Phytocoenosis vary from dry environments associations (with Scots pines, feather grass) upstream to active floodplain associations (with poplars, alders, willows) and likely dependent on groundwater, downstream. Between these two end-members, a transition mixed forest occurs. In the context of a potential hydrologic alteration due to global climatic change in a close future, this ecosystem should face modifications of the various water source (rainwater, groundwater) proportion and availability. In order to constrain the meteorological, hydrological, pedological and ecological factors governing water uptakes by trees, isotopic characterizations (?18O, ?2H) of each water compartment (precipitations, groundwater, river, soil, xylem) coupled with the evaluation of the water balance, has been carried out. The investigation focused on 3 different sites located along a transect through the alluvial valley between April 2010 and February 2011, with a twice-monthly resolution. The data permit to obtain three major findings: - At first, an overview of both ?18O and ?2H data shows that rainwater, groundwater, soil water and plant water are usually located on the regional meteoric water line. For total humidity of soil, this could be due to rapid infiltration and/or fractionation mainly under equilibrium, i.e. with a relatively high atmospheric humidity, what is possible under forest canopy. Plant water is located under the LMWL in September 2010 when the soil was relatively drought. This evaporative signature could be a clue of water stress. More investigations are however needed to check if this parameter can be used routinely to address water stress. - Secondly, through an analysis of variance, data reveal that at the ecosystem scale, water uptake depends on the site (type of soil, surrounding vegetation, distance from the river), on the growing status (non growing, flowering, mature, water stress) and on the species (poplar, willow, alder, pine). - At last, when focusing at the temporal variability for some individuals, it appears that both rainwater and groundwater may participate to water uptake. The water uptake patterns seem more complicated in mature areas (far from the riverbed) than in frequently flooded zones. This could be due to a more complex soil texture patchwork in the former, and a globally finer soil texture. In particular, it appears that groundwater may sometimes replace rainwater through capillary rise during warm periods.

  4. Towards a More Holistic Understanding of American Support for Genetically Modified Crops: An Examination of Influential Factors Using a Binomial Dependent Variable

    OpenAIRE

    Josephine, Faass; Michael, Lahr

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an investigation into the relative importance of a wide variety of factors in influencing whether members of the American public support or oppose the use of biotechnology in agriculture and food production. To accomplish this end, as well as to facilitate the examination of a large number of independent variables simultaneously, several statistical methods, including factor analyses, instrumental variables analysis, and probit and logistic regressions were performed. It was d...

  5. Synchronization in Random Geometric Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Guilera, Albert; Gomez-Gardenes, Jesus; Moreno, Yamir; Nekovee, Maziar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the synchronization properties of random geometric graphs. We show that the onset of synchronization takes place roughly at the same value of the order parameter that a random graph with the same size and average connectivity. However, the dependence of the order parameter with the coupling strength indicates that the fully synchronized state is more easily attained in random graphs. We next focus on the complete synchronized state and show that this s...

  6. Does Random Dispersion Help Survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B.

    2015-04-01

    Many species live in colonies that prosper for a while and then collapse. After the collapse the colony survivors disperse randomly and found new colonies that may or may not make it depending on the new environment they find. We use birth and death chains in random environments to model such a population and to argue that random dispersion is a superior strategy for survival.

  7. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, Bertrand; Ribault, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    We provide a self-contained introduction to random matrices. While some applications are mentioned, our main emphasis is on three different approaches to random matrix models: the Coulomb gas method and its interpretation in terms of algebraic geometry, loop equations and their solution using topological recursion, orthogonal polynomials and their relation with integrable systems. Each approach provides its own definition of the spectral curve, a geometric object which encodes all the properties of a model. We also introduce the two peripheral subjects of counting polygonal surfaces, and computing angular integrals.

  8. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Lal Mehta, Madan

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  9. Random Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield, Scott

    2003-01-01

    We study "random surfaces," which are random real (or integer) valued functions on Z^d. The laws are determined by convex, nearest neighbor, difference potentials that are invariant under translation by a full-rank sublattice L of Z^d; they include many discrete and continuous height models (e.g., domino tilings, square ice, the harmonic crystal, the Ginzburg-Landau grad-phi interface model, the linear solid-on-solid model) as special cases. A gradient phase is an L-ergodi...

  10. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined systems as well as in random ones (e.q. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system are found. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author)

  11. Correlation Decay in Random Decision Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gamarnik, David; Weber, Theophane

    2009-01-01

    We consider a decision network on an undirected graph in which each node corresponds to a decision variable, and each node and edge of the graph is associated with a reward function whose value depends only on the variables of the corresponding nodes. The goal is to construct a decision vector which maximizes the total reward. This decision problem encompasses a variety of models, including maximum-likelihood inference in graphical models (Markov Random Fields), combinatorial optimization on graphs, economic team theory and statistical physics. The network is endowed with a probabilistic structure in which costs are sampled from a distribution. Our aim is to identify sufficient conditions to guarantee average-case polynomiality of the underlying optimization problem. We construct a new decentralized algorithm called Cavity Expansion and establish its theoretical performance for a variety of models. Specifically, for certain classes of models we prove that our algorithm is able to find near optimal solutions w...

  12. Variabilidad de cepas de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae en base a polimorfismos de ADN amplificados al azar / Variability of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae based on the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, García-Pereyra; GN, Aviña-Martínez; AA, Orozco-Flores; OG, Alvarado-Gómez; M, García-Montelongo; G, Alejandre-Iturbide; JN, Uribe-Soto; H, Medrano-Roldan.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variabilidad genética de tres cepas de un hongo entomopatógeno del género Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae denominadas MA22, MA24 y MA25 con la marca Spesifik®; dos cepas del producto Metasaven® clasificadas como MA1A y MAII; una cepa del producto Metatron®, y una cepa nativa den [...] ominada MACN.Ésta última fue aislada directamente del insecto chapulín (Brachystola magna) en las parcelas de los productores de maíz en Durango, región situada en el norte centro de México. Los estudios se realizaron en el laboratorio de biología molecular del Instituto Tecnológico del Valle del Guadiana de Durango, México, de septiembre de 2008 a junio de 2011. Se analizaron (1) la variabilidad genética entre las cepas mediante el empleo de la técnica RAPD (DNA polimórfico amplificado al azar) con una variante mediante el empleo de nueve oligonucleótidos diferentes para observar polimorfismos de ADN, (2) el índice de similitud entre las cepas y su relación filogenética, y (3) el porcentaje de mortandad en chapulín, Brachystola magna. El polimorfismo de las bandas amplificadas fluctuó entre 300 y 2000 pares de bases. El índice de similitud indicó que las cepas MAC25 y MAC24 presentaron el índice más alto. En el bioensayo, MACN presentó una mortandad de 62,5% y Metatron® de 37,5% sobre chapulín. Los testigos empleados fueron estadísticamente (p>0,05) similares con una mortandad menor al 10%. Abstract in english It was analyzed the genetic variability of (1) three strains of a pathogenic fungi of the genus Metharhizium anisopliae var anisopliae, named MA22, MA24 and MA25, brand spesifik®; (2) two strains of the product Metasaven®, named MA1A and MAII; one strain of the product Metatron®; and a native strain [...] named MACN. This latter strain was directly isolated from the insect chapulin (Brachystola magna), from the farmer, corn plots in Durango, located in north central Mexico. Studies were conducted in the laboratory of molecular biology of the Technological Institute of the Valley of Guardiana in Durango, Mexico, from September 2008 to june 2011. The (1) genetic variability among strains after using the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique using nine different oligonucleotides to observe DNA polimorphisms; (2) index of similarity among the strains and their phylogenetic relationship, and (3) percentage mortality of chapulin in a bioassay were determined. Polymorphism of the amplified bands varied between 300 and 2000 base pairs. The index of similarity was highest in the strains MAC25 and MAC24. In the bioassay, mortality of chapulin was 62.5% with MACN and 37.5% with Metratron®. Controls showed no significant differences (p>0.05) among them, with a mortality lower than 10%.

  13. Random Walk in Markovian Enviroment

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgopyat, D; Liverani, C; Dolgopyat, Dmitry; Keller, Gerhard; Liverani, Carlangelo

    2007-01-01

    We prove a quenched central limit theorem for random walks with bounded increments in a randomly evolving environment on Zd. We assume that the transition probabilities of the walk depend not too strongly on the environment and that the evolution of the environment is Markovian with strong spatial and temporal mixing properties.

  14. Transitions to Intermittency and Collective Behavior in Randomly Coupled Map Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Volchenkov, D; Blanchard, P; Blanchard, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    We study the collective behavior in a random network of coupled Chate-Manneville maps where the relevant variables are the connectivity, coupling, and the governing parameter of map. We show that for some interval of their values at least a considerable fraction of network sites display a spatio-temporal intermittency. Within the intermittency window, the system exhibits a complex collective periodic behavior. The detailed behavior crucially depends upon the topology of the random graph spanning the network. Our approach is based on the thermodynamic formalism and random graph theory.

  15. Randomized metarounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARR,ROBERT D.; VEMPALA,SANTOSH

    2000-01-25

    The authors present a new technique for the design of approximation algorithms that can be viewed as a generalization of randomized rounding. They derive new or improved approximation guarantees for a class of generalized congestion problems such as multicast congestion, multiple TSP etc. Their main mathematical tool is a structural decomposition theorem related to the integrality gap of a relaxation.

  16. Random dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model. (orig.)

  17. Evaluating the Effects of Varenicline on Craving, Withdrawal, and Affect in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Varenicline for Smokeless Tobacco Dependence in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanjee, Sonali; Jain, Raka; Jain, Veena; Gupta, Tina; Mittal, Swati; Goelz, Patricia; Schnoll, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined changes in tobacco craving, withdrawal, and affect as correlates of efficacy in a phase-2 clinical trial of varenicline for smokeless tobacco dependence in India. Smokeless tobacco users (N = 237) at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences were randomized to placebo or varenicline. Abstinence was defined as cotinine-verified seven-day point prevalence cessation at end of treatment (EOT). General Linear Model repeated measures assessed the effects of treatment condition, time, abstinence state, and interaction effects on changes in craving, withdrawal, positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) from baseline to EOT. All participants showed a significant reduction in withdrawal (p positive reinforcement (PR) craving (p vs. those still chewing smokeless tobacco. Additional research is needed concerning the effects of varenicline on craving, withdrawal, and affect among smokeless tobacco users. PMID:26317176

  18. Random Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

  19. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    You-Wei, Zhang; Yan, Zhao; Jia-Hao, Lin; W.P., Howson; F.W., Williams.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). Starting from the equatio [...] n of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  20. Asymptotic properties of random matrices and pseudomatrices

    OpenAIRE

    Lenczewski, Romuald

    2010-01-01

    We study the asymptotics of sums of matricially free random variables called random pseudomatrices, and we compare it with that of random matrices with block-identical variances. For objects of both types we find the limit joint distributions of blocks and give their Hilbert space realizations, using operators called `matricially free Gaussian operators'. In particular, if the variance matrices are symmetric, the asymptotics of symmetric blocks of random pseudomatrices agree...

  1. The "Life Potential": a new complex algorithm to assess "Heart Rate Variability" from Holter records for cognitive and diagnostic aims. Preliminary experimental results showing its dependence on age, gender and health conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Barra, Orazio A

    2013-01-01

    Although HRV (Heart Rate Variability) analyses have been carried out for several decades, several limiting factors still make these analyses useless from a clinical point of view. The present paper aims at overcoming some of these limits by introducing the "Life Potential" (BMP), a new mathematical algorithm which seems to exhibit surprising cognitive and predictive capabilities. BMP is defined as a linear combination of five HRV Non-Linear Variables, in turn derived from the thermodynamic formalism of chaotic dynamic systems. The paper presents experimental measurements of BMP (Average Values and Standard Deviations) derived from 1048 Holter tests, matched in age and gender, including a control group of 356 healthy subjects. The main results are: (a) BMP always decreases when the age increases, and its dependence on age and gender is well established; (b) the shape of the age dependence within "healthy people" is different from that found in the general group: this behavior provides evidence of possible illn...

  2. Reactive Particles in Random Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Károlyi, György; Tél, Tamás; de Moura, Alessandro P.; Grebogi, Celso

    2004-04-01

    We study the dynamics of chemically or biologically active particles advected by open flows of chaotic time dependence, which can be modeled by a random time dependence of the parameters on a stroboscopic map. We develop a general theory for reactions in such random flows, and derive the reaction equation for this case. We show that there is a singular enhancement of the reaction in random flows, and this enhancement is increased as compared to the nonrandom case. We verify our theory in a model flow generated by four point vortices moving chaotically.

  3. A Markov Random Field Topic Space Model for Document Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Hand, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel statistical approach to intelligent document retrieval. It seeks to offer a more structured and extensible mathematical approach to the term generalization done in the popular Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) approach to document indexing. A Markov Random Field (MRF) is presented that captures relationships between terms and documents as probabilistic dependence assumptions between random variables. From there, it uses the MRF-Gibbs equivalence to derive joint probabilities as well as local probabilities for document variables. A parameter learning method is proposed that utilizes rank reduction with singular value decomposition in a matter similar to LSA to reduce dimensionality of document-term relationships to that of a latent topic space. Experimental results confirm the ability of this approach to effectively and efficiently retrieve documents from substantial data sets.

  4. Parameter identification using a creeping-random-search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    A creeping-random-search algorithm is applied to different types of problems in the field of parameter identification. The studies are intended to demonstrate that a random-search algorithm can be applied successfully to these various problems, which often cannot be handled by conventional deterministic methods, and, also, to introduce methods that speed convergence to an extremal of the problem under investigation. Six two-parameter identification problems with analytic solutions are solved, and two application problems are discussed in some detail. Results of the study show that a modified version of the basic creeping-random-search algorithm chosen does speed convergence in comparison with the unmodified version. The results also show that the algorithm can successfully solve problems that contain limits on state or control variables, inequality constraints (both independent and dependent, and linear and nonlinear), or stochastic models.

  5. Short-term add-on therapy with angiotensin receptor blocker for end-stage inotrope-dependent heart failure patients: B-type natriuretic peptide reduction in a randomized clinical trial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo E., Ochiai; Euler C.O., Brancalhão; Raphael S. N., Puig; Kelly R.N., Vieira; Juliano N., Cardoso; Múcio Tavares de, Oliveira-Jr; Antonio C.P., Barretto.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate angiotensin receptor blocker add-on therapy in patients with low cardiac output during decompensated heart failure. METHODS: We selected patients with decompensated heart failure, low cardiac output, dobutamine dependence, and an ejection fraction [...] ceiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The patients were randomized to losartan or placebo and underwent invasive hemodynamic and B-type natriuretic peptide measurements at baseline and on the seventh day after intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01857999. RESULTS: We studied 10 patients in the losartan group and 11 patients in the placebo group. The patient characteristics were as follows: age 52.7 years, ejection fraction 21.3%, dobutamine infusion 8.5 mcg/kg.min, indexed systemic vascular resistance 1918.0 dynes.sec/cm5.m2, cardiac index 2.8 L/min.m2, and B-type natriuretic peptide 1,403 pg/mL. After 7 days of intervention, there was a 37.4% reduction in the B-type natriuretic peptide levels in the losartan group compared with an 11.9% increase in the placebo group (mean difference, -49.1%; 95% confidence interval: -88.1 to -9.8%, p?=?0.018). No significant difference was observed in the hemodynamic measurements. CONCLUSION: Short-term add-on therapy with losartan reduced B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients hospitalized for decompensated severe heart failure and low cardiac output with inotrope dependence.

  6. Two-step memory within Continuous Time Random Walk. Description of double-action market dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Gubiec; Ryszard Kutner

    2013-01-01

    By means of a novel version of the Continuous-Time Random Walk (CTRW) model with memory, we describe, for instance, the stochastic process of a single share price on a double-auction market within the high frequency time scale. The memory present in the model is understood as dependence between successive share price jumps, while waiting times between price changes are considered as i.i.d. random variables. The range of this memory is defined herein by dependence between three successive jump...

  7. Common characterization of variability and forecast errors of variable energy sources and their mitigation using reserves in power system integration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemenlis, N.; Huneault, M. [IREQ, Varennes, QC (Canada); Robitaille, A. [Dir. Plantif. de la Production Eolienne, Montreal, QC (Canada). HQ Production; Holttinen, H. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    This In this paper we define and characterize the two random variables, variability and forecast error, over which uncertainty in power systems operations is characterized and mitigated. We show that the characterization of both these variables can be carried out with the same mathematical tools. Furthermore, this common characterization of random variables lends itself to a common methodology for the calculation of non-contingency reserves required to mitigate their effects. A parallel comparison of these two variables demonstrates similar inherent statistical properties. They depend on imminent conditions, evolve with time and can be asymmetric. Correlation is an important factor when aggregating individual wind farm characteristics in forming the distribution of the total wind generation for imminent conditions. (orig.)

  8. Inter-dependencies and Causality in the Macroeconomic Variables: Evidence from Pakistan (1960-2005). Sarhad J. Agric. 24 (1): 199-205.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Abdul Qayyum Khan; Khattak, Naeem Ur Rehman Khattak; Hussain, Anwar Hussain

    2008-01-01

    This paper critically evaluates the inter-relationship, vulnerability to innovation, and causality among the macroeconomic variables (budget deficit, economic growth, unemployment and poverty). Annual data for the period 1960-2005 is used, taken from Economic Survey of Pakistan and International Financial Statistics. Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model with impulse response function (IRF), error variance decomposition and Granger Causality test is used for the analysis. The study revealed that...

  9. Time- and state-dependent analysis of autonomic control in narcolepsy: higher heart rate with normal heart rate variability independent of sleep fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijden, Wisse P; Fronczek, Rolf; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert; Thijs, Roland D

    2015-04-01

    Narcolepsy with hypocretin deficiency is known to alter cardiovascular control during sleep, but its aetiology is disputed. As cardiovascular control differs between sleep states, and narcolepsy affects sleep architecture, controlling for both duration and transitions of sleep states is necessary. This study therefore aimed to assess heart rate and its variability in narcolepsy during sleep taking these factors into account. The study included 12 medication-naïve patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency (11 male, 16-53 years old), and 12 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (11 male, 19-55 years). All subjects underwent 1-night ambulatory polysomnography recording. Cardiovascular parameters were calculated for each 30-s epoch. Heart rate was significantly higher in patients with narcolepsy than in controls in all sleep states and during wakefulness prior to sleep. Groups did not differ in heart rate variability measures. The effects of sleep state duration on heart rate and its variability were similar between patients and controls. In conclusion, heart rate was consistently higher in patients with narcolepsy than controls, independent of sleep stage and sleep fragmentation. A direct effect of hypocretin deficiency therefore seems probable. PMID:25382307

  10. Demographic response to perturbations: the role of compensatory density dependence in a North American duck under variable harvest regulations and changing habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Guillaume; Nicolai, Christopher A; Koons, David N

    2012-09-01

    1. Most wild animal populations are subjected to many perturbations, including environmental forcing and anthropogenic mortality. How population size varies in response to these perturbations largely depends on life-history strategy and density regulation. 2. Using the mid-continent population of redhead Aythya americana (a North American diving duck), we investigated the population response to two major perturbations, changes in breeding habitat availability (number of ponds in the study landscape) and changes in harvest regulations directed at managing mortality patterns (bag limit). We used three types of data collected at the continental scale (capture-recovery, population surveys and age- and sex ratios in the harvest) and combined them into integrated population models to assess the interaction between density dependence and the effect of perturbations. 3. We observed a two-way interaction between the effects on fecundity of pond number and population density. Hatch-year female survival was also density dependent. Matrix modelling showed that population booms could occur after especially wet years. However, the effect of moderate variation in pond number was generally offset by density dependence the following year. 4. Mortality patterns were insensitive to changes in harvest regulations and, in males at least, insensitive to density dependence as well. We discuss potential mechanisms for compensation of hunting mortality as well as possible confounding factors. 5. Our results illustrate the interplay of density dependence and environmental variation both shaping population dynamics in a harvested species, which could be generalized to help guide the dual management of habitat and harvest regulations. PMID:22433018

  11. El ejercicio físico aeróbico incrementa la vasodilatación dependiente del endotelio y el consumo de oxígeno de mujeres primigestantes saludables. Ensayo clínico controlado, aleatorizado. NCT00741312 / Aerobic physical exercise increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation and oxygen consumption in healthy primigravida. Controlled randomized clinical trial. NCT00741312

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Róbinson, Ramírez-Vélez; Mildrey, Mosquera; José G, Ortega; Isabella, Echeverri; Blanca, Salazar; Patricio, López-Jaramillo; Ana C, Aguilar de Plata.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico en la función dependiente del endotelio (VDE) y en el consumo de oxígeno en mujeres primigestantes. MÉTODOS: ensayo clínico controlado, enmascarado y aleatorizado, llevado a cabo en 67 mujeres saludables, primigestantes, entre 16 a 20 semanas de ges [...] tación. Grupo de intervención: ejercicio aeróbico entre 50% y 65% de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, durante 45 minutos, tres veces por semana, durante dieciséis semanas. Grupo control: actividad física habitual. Mediciones: VDE: vasodilatación mediada por flujo (VMF), consumo de oxígeno VO2max: prueba de caminata de seis minutos; antropometría: peso y talla. RESULTADOS: en las mediciones iniciales no se encontraron diferencias entre grupos en ninguna de las variables. Al finalizar la intervención, las participantes que realizaron ejercicio tenían mayor capacidad física, medida por la distancia recorrida en el test de caminata (p=0,043) y por el VO2max (p=0,023). Además, el grupo de ejercicio tuvo menor frecuencia cardiaca en reposo y mayor VMF que el grupo control (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent function (EDF) and oxygen consumption in primigravida. METHODS: double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial carried out in primigravida between 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. The intervention group had aerobic exercise [...] between 50% to 65% of the maximum heart rate during 45 minutes, three times a week for sixteen weeks. The control group had habitual physical activity. MEASUREMENTS REALIZED: EDF: flow-mediated dilation (FMD), oxygen consumption VO2max: 6 minute walking test, anthropometry: weight and size. RESULTS: no differences were found between the two groups in any variables in the initial measurements. At the end of the intervention, participants who exercised had greater physical capacity, measured by the distance covered in walking test (p = 0.043) and VO2max (p = 0.023). In addition, the exercise group had lower resting heart rate and increased FMD than the control group (p

  12. Variable-ratio versus variable-interval schedules: response rate, resistance to change, and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, J A; Randolph; Holland, S; McLean, A P

    2001-07-01

    Two experiments asked whether resistance to change depended on variable-ratio as opposed to variable-interval contingencies of reinforcement and the different response rates they establish. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained on multiple random-ratio random-interval schedules with equated reinforcer rates. Baseline response rates were disrupted by intercomponent food, extinction, and prefeeding. Resistance to change relative to baseline was greater in the interval component, and the difference was correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher in the ratio component. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained on multiple variable-ratio variable-interval schedules in one half of each session and on concurrent chains in the other half in which the terminal links corresponded to the multiple-schedule components. The schedules were varied over six conditions, including two with equated reinforcer rates. In concurrent chains, preference strongly overmatched the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates. In multiple schedules, relative resistance to response-independent food during intercomponent intervals, extinction, and intercomponent food plus extinction depended on the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates but was less sensitive than was preference. When reinforcer rates were similar, both preference and relative resistance were greater for the variable-interval schedule, and the differences were correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher on the variable-ratio schedule, confirming the results of Experiment 1. These results demonstrate that resistance to change and preference depend in part on response rate as well as obtained reinforcer rate, and challenge the independence of resistance to change and preference with respect to response rate proposed by behavioral momentum theory. PMID:11516115

  13. Random sums of random vectors and multitype families of productive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Muttlak

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove limit theorems for a family of random vectors whose coordinates are a special form of random sums of Bernoulli random variables. Applying these limit theorems, we study the number of productive individuals in n-type indecomposable critical branching stochastic processes with types of individuals T1,…,Tn.

  14. Computer arithmetic for probability distribution variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty in the variables and functions in computer simulations can be quantified by probability distributions and the correlations between the variables. We augment the standard computer arithmetic operations and the interval arithmetic approach to include probability distribution variable (PDV) as a basic data type. Probability distribution variable is a random variable that is usually characterized by generalized probabilistic discretization. The correlations or dependencies between PDVs that arise in a computation are automatically calculated and tracked. These correlations are used by the computer arithmetic rules to achieve the convergent approximation of the probability distribution function of a PDV and to guarantee that the derived bounds include the true solution. In many calculations, the calculated uncertainty bounds for PDVs are much tighter than they would have been had the dependencies been ignored. We describe the new PDV Arithmetic and verify the effectiveness of the approach to account for the creation and propagation of uncertainties in a computer program due to uncertainties in the initial data

  15. A method to assess the inter-annual weather-dependent variability in air pollution concentration and deposition based on weather typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleijel, Håkan; Grundström, Maria; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Karlsson, Per Erik; Chen, Deliang

    2016-02-01

    Annual anomalies in air pollutant concentrations, and deposition (bulk and throughfall) of sulphate, nitrate and ammonium, in the Gothenburg region, south-west Sweden, were correlated with optimized linear combinations of the yearly frequency of Lamb Weather Types (LWTs) to determine the extent to which the year-to-year variation in pollution exposure can be partly explained by weather related variability. Air concentrations of urban NO2, CO, PM10, as well as O3 at both an urban and a rural monitoring site, and the deposition of sulphate, nitrate and ammonium for the period 1997-2010 were included in the analysis. Linear detrending of the time series was performed to estimate trend-independent anomalies. These estimated anomalies were subtracted from observed annual values. Then the statistical significance of temporal trends with and without LWT adjustment was tested. For the pollutants studied, the annual anomaly was well correlated with the annual LWT combination (R2 in the range 0.52-0.90). Some negative (annual average [NO2], ammonia bulk deposition) or positive (average urban [O3]) temporal trends became statistically significant (p controlling bulk deposition. The proposed novel methodology can be used by authorities responsible for air pollution management, and by researchers studying temporal trends in pollution, to evaluate e.g. the relative importance of changes in emissions and weather variability in annual air pollution exposure.

  16. Electric-field-dependent variable-range hopping conductance in quasi-two-dimensional systems: Application to PrBa2Cu3O7-y-based superconductor endash normal-metal endash superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated the hopping conductivity of quasi-two-dimensional systems by using the variable-range hopping conduction mechanism in the presence of an electric field. We considered that the localized states are randomly distributed both in energy and space coordinates. Localized carriers hop from one state to another in both coordinates. We also considered that at a particular temperature the localized carriers are distributed according to the Fermi distribution function both below and above the Fermi level. The expression of the conductivity for the constant density of states was calculated. After some approximations, the expression of the conductivity was shown to reduce to expressions found in the literature. We also compared our theory with experimental results of PrBa2Cu3O7-y based S/N/S junctions. Good agreement between theory and experiment was found. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Valuing travel time variability: Characteristics of the travel time distribution on an urban road

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Fukuda, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed empirical investigation of the distribution of travel times on an urban road for valuation of travel time variability. Our investigation is premised on the use of a theoretical model with a number of desirable properties. The definition of the value of travel time variability depends on certain properties of the distribution of random travel times that require empirical verification. Applying a range of nonparametric statistical techniques to data giving minute-by-...

  18. Lack of evidence for low-dimensional chaos in heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Agner, E

    1994-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The term chaos is used to describe erratic or apparently random time-dependent behavior in deterministic systems. It has been suggested that the variability observed in the normal heart rate may be due to chaos, but this question has not been settled. METHODS AND RESULTS: Heart rate variability was assessed by recordings of consecutive RR intervals in ten healthy subjects using ambulatory ECG. All recordings were performed with the subjects at rest in the supine position. To test f...

  19. Determining of Teacher Candidates’ Level of Knowledge on the Issue of Plant Respiration-Photosynthesis through Concept Cartoons and its Analysis depending on Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ?A?MAZ ÖREN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this present study is to determine the level of knowledge of the science-technology teacher candidates on the issue of plant respiration and photosynthesis through concept cartoons. And, the knowledge level of the participants on the issue is examined in terms of different variables, such as grade level and type of education. The method of the study is the survey method, which is one of the qualitative research methods. For this purpose, the sample of the study consists of 192 science and technology teacher candidates studying at Celal Bayar University. The concept cartoons test was used as the data gathering tool. When the findings of the study were examined, it was seen that teacher candidates’ level of knowledge was higher on the issues of “the required conditions for photosynthesis – light” and “plant respiration at night – the photosynthesis process”. In the light of these results, certain suggestions are made about the use of concept catooons.

  20. Random Shifting and Scaling of Insurance Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejd Hashorva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Random shifting typically appears in credibility models whereas random scaling is often encountered in stochastic models for claim sizes reflecting the time-value property of money. In this article we discuss some aspects of random shifting and random scaling of insurance risks focusing in particular on credibility models, dependence structure of claim sizes in collective risk models, and extreme value models for the joint dependence of large losses. We show that specifying certain actuarial models using random shifting or scaling has some advantages for both theoretical treatments and practical applications.

  1. Enhanced sampling in generalized ensemble with large gap of sampling parameter: case study in temperature space random walk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Jianpeng

    2009-01-01

    We present an efficient sampling method for computing a partition function and accelerating configuration sampling. The method performs a random walk in the $\\lambda$ space, with $\\lambda$ being any thermodynamic variable that characterizes a canonical ensemble such as the reciprocal temperature $\\beta$ or any variable that the Hamiltonian explicitly depends on. The partition function is determined by minimizing the difference of the thermal conjugates of $\\lambda$ (the energy in the case of ...

  2. Menstrual Cycle Dependent Variability for Serum Tumor Markers CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 in Healthy Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ay?e Binnur Erba?ci; Necat Yilmaz; Irfan Kutlar

    1999-01-01

    Information on menstrual cycle dependent variation of tumor markers in healthy women is a subject of diagnostic efficiency and has an impact in elucidating the normal function of these markers. In this study midfollicular and midluteal concentrations of serum CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3 and their relations with LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone were evaluated during ovulatory cycles in a group of 23 healthy female individuals. Samples were collected on the 7th and 21st day...

  3. An efficient algorithm to generate large random uncorrelated Euclidean distances: the random link model

    OpenAIRE

    Tercariol, Cesar Augusto Sangaletti; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2005-01-01

    A disordered medium is often constructed by $N$ points independently and identically distributed in a $d$-dimensional hyperspace. Characteristics related to the statistics of this system is known as the random point problem. As $d \\to \\infty$, the distances between two points become independent random variables, leading to its mean field description: the random link model. While the numerical treatment of large random point problems pose no major difficulty, the same is not true for large ran...

  4. Growing random networks with fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, G.; Rodgers, GJ

    2001-01-01

    Three models of growing random networks with fitness dependent growth rates are analysed using the rate equations for the distribution of their connectivities. In the first model (A), a network is built by connecting incoming nodes to nodes of connectivity $k$ and random additive fitness $\\eta$, with rate $(k-1)+ \\eta $. For $\\eta >0$ we find the connectivity distribution is power law with exponent $\\gamma=+2$. In the second model (B), the network is built by connecting nodes to nodes of conn...

  5. Safety and Effectiveness of two treatment regimes with tranexamic acid to minimize inflammatory response in elective cardiopulmonary bypass patients: a randomized double-blind, dose-dependent, phase IV clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Beatriz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB patients, fibrinolysis may enhance postoperative inflammatory response. We aimed to determine whether an additional postoperative dose of antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid (TA reduced CPB-mediated inflammatory response (IR. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, dose-dependent, parallel-groups study of elective CPB patients receiving TA. Patients were randomly assigned to either the single-dose group (40 mg/Kg TA before CPB and placebo after CPB or the double-dose group (40 mg/Kg TA before and after CPB. Results 160 patients were included, 80 in each group. The incident rate of IR was significantly lower in the double-dose-group TA2 (7.5% vs. 18.8% in the single-dose group TA1; P = 0.030. After adjusting for hypertension, total protamine dose and temperature after CPB, TA2 showed a lower risk of IR compared with TA1 [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.10-0.83, (P = 0.013]. Relative risk for IR was 2.5 for TA1 (95% CI: 1.02 to 6.12. The double-dose group had significantly lower chest tube bleeding at 24 hours [671 (95% CI 549-793 vs. 826 (95% CI 704-949 mL; P = 0.01 corrected-P significant] and lower D-dimer levels at 24 hours [489 (95% CI 437-540 vs. 621(95% CI: 563-679 ng/mL; P = 0.01 corrected-P significant]. TA2 required lower levels of norepinephrine at 24 h [0.06 (95% CI: 0.03-0.09 vs. 0.20(95 CI: 0.05-0.35 after adjusting for dobutamine [F = 6.6; P = 0.014 corrected-P significant]. We found a significant direct relationship between IL-6 and temperature (rho = 0.26; P P P P P P P Conclusions Prolonged inhibition of fibrinolysis, using an additional postoperative dose of tranexamic acid reduces inflammatory response and postoperative bleeding (but not transfusion requirements in CPB patients. A question which remains unanswered is whether the dose used was ideal in terms of safety, but not in terms of effectiveness. Current Controlled Trials number ISRCTN: ISRCTN84413719

  6. Combining Speed and Accuracy in Cognitive Psychology: Is the Inverse Efficiency Score (IES) a Better Dependent Variable than the Mean Reaction Time (RT) and the Percentage Of Errors (PE)?

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Bruyer; Marc Brysbaert

    2011-01-01

    Experiments in cognitive psychology usually return two dependent variables: the percentage of errors and the reaction time of the correct responses. Townsend and Ashby (1978, 1983) proposed the inverse efficiency score (IES) as a way to combine both measures and, hence, to provide a better summary of the findings. In this article we examine the usefulness of IES by applying it to existing datasets. Although IES does give a better summary of the findings in some cases, mostly the variance of t...

  7. A pulse-rate dependence of dose per monitor unit and its significant effect on wedged-shaped fields delivered with variable dose rate and a moving jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedge-shaped dose distributions are delivered on some modern linear accelerators with a virtual wedge, combining variable dose rate and a moving jaw. Drift in the wedge factor and wedge angle of a 20x20 cm field for the 60 degree virtual wedge was found commonplace in several models of linear accelerator from one manufacturer. It was found that errors in dose delivery both on and off axis could exceed 5% if quality assurance checks are limited to 10x10 cm or smaller fields or wedge angles of 45 degrees or less. A procedure to easily identify and remedy the problem is presented. In each case the change was due to variation in dose per monitor unit (D/MU) with the electron beam pulse rate. The variation was traced to a pair of circuit boards in the dosimetry system, one for each output measurement channel. Wedge factors and dose profiles measured before and after board replacement on 4 accelerators, and for a set of defective boards placed on one of the accelerators, were compared. The effect was largest for the wedge with the steepest profile (60 degree wedge angle) and the largest field measured: 20x20 cm. In this case, a 1% variation in D/MU with a factor of 5 reduction in pulse rate corresponded to an average 0.8% change in wedge factor and 0.8% change in the off axis ratio at 8.5 cm off axis on the high dose side of the wedge field, 0.3% on the low dose side. After board replacement, wedge factors and profiles measured on the 4 machines generally agreed to 2% for the full range of wedge angles and field sizes. Quality assurance of virtual wedges is discussed in light of the new findings

  8. A Random Matrix Approach to Dynamic Factors in macroeconomic data

    CERN Document Server

    Snarska, Ma?gorzata

    2012-01-01

    We show how random matrix theory can be applied to develop new algorithms to extract dynamic factors from macroeconomic time series. In particular, we consider a limit where the number of random variables N and the number of consecutive time measurements T are large but the ratio N / T is fixed. In this regime the underlying random matrices are asymptotically equivalent to Free Random Variables (FRV).Application of these methods for macroeconomic indicators for Poland economy is also presented.

  9. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  10. Screening of charged singularities of random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many types of point singularity have a topological index, or 'charge', associated with them. For example, the phase of a complex field depending on two variables can either increase or decrease on making a clockwise circuit around a simple zero, enabling the zeros to be assigned charges of ±1. In random fields we can define a correlation function for the charge-weighted density of singularities. For many types of topologically charged singularity, this correlation function satisfies an identity which shows that the singularities 'screen' each other perfectly: a positive singularity is surrounded by an excess of concentration of negatives which exactly cancel its charge, and vice versa. This paper gives a simple and widely applicable derivation of this result. A counterexample where screening is incomplete is also exhibited

  11. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered under the following headings: general instructions, pulsating variable stars, eruptive variable stars, double stars, additionals remarks on typology, discovery of variable stars, significance of variable stars for the research of the structure of galaxies and the evolution of stars, observational techniques and organization, and literature. Subject and star indexes are included

  12. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers the following topics: pulsating variables; eruptive variables; eclipsing stars; supplement to the classification; the discovery of variable stars; the significance of variable stars for research on the structure of the galaxy and stellar evolution; and observational methods and organizations

  13. Exact Estimates for Moments of Random Bilinear Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Ibragimov, R; Cecen, A; Sharakhmetov, Sh.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper concentrates on the analogues of Rosenthal's inequalities for ordinary and decoupled bilinear forms in symmetric random variables. More specifically, we prove the exact moment inequalities for these objects in terms of moments of their individual components. As a corollary of these results we obtain the explicit expressions for the best constant in the analogues of Rosenthal's inequality for ordinary and decoupled bilinear forms in identically distributed symmetric random variables in the case of the fixed number of random variables.

  14. A Kernel Independence Test for Random Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chwialkowski, Kacper; Gretton, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    A new non parametric approach to the problem of testing the independence of two random process is developed. The test statistic is the Hilbert Schmidt Independence Criterion (HSIC), which was used previously in testing independence for i.i.d pairs of variables. The asymptotic behaviour of HSIC is established when computed from samples drawn from random processes. It is shown that earlier bootstrap procedures which worked in the i.i.d. case will fail for random processes, and an alternative co...

  15. Lie group analysis for the effects of temperature-dependent fluid viscosity and chemical reaction on MHD free convective heat and mass transfer with variable stream conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns with a steady two-dimensional flow of an electrically conducting incompressible fluid over a vertical stretching surface. The flow is permeated by a uniform transverse magnetic field. The fluid viscosity is assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. A scaling group of transformations is applied to the governing equations. The system remains invariant due to some relations among the parameters of the transformations. After finding three absolute invariants a third-order ordinary differential equation corresponding to the momentum equation and two second-order ordinary differential equation corresponding to energy and diffusion equations are derived. The equations along with the boundary conditions are solved numerically. It is found that the decrease in the temperature-dependent fluid viscosity makes the velocity to decrease with the increasing distance of the stretching sheet. At a particular point of the sheet the fluid velocity decreases with the decreasing viscosity but the temperature increases in this case. It is found that with the increase of magnetic field intensity the fluid velocity decreases but the temperature increases at a particular point of the heated stretching surface. Impact of chemical reaction in the presence of thermal radiation plays an important role on the concentration boundary layer. The results thus obtained are presented graphically and discussed.

  16. Fuzziness and randomness in an optimization framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a semi-infinite approach for linear programming in the presence of fuzzy random variable coefficients. As a byproduct a way for dealing with optimization problems including both fuzzy and random data is obtained. Numerical examples are provided for the sake of illustration. (author). 13 refs

  17. StralSV: assessment of sequence variability within similar 3D structures and application to polio RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, A; Lang, D; Kostova, T; Andino, R; Zhou, C

    2010-11-29

    Most of the currently used methods for protein function prediction rely on sequence-based comparisons between a query protein and those for which a functional annotation is provided. A serious limitation of sequence similarity-based approaches for identifying residue conservation among proteins is the low confidence in assigning residue-residue correspondences among proteins when the level of sequence identity between the compared proteins is poor. Multiple sequence alignment methods are more satisfactory - still, they cannot provide reliable results at low levels of sequence identity. Our goal in the current work was to develop an algorithm that could overcome these difficulties and facilitate the identification of structurally (and possibly functionally) relevant residue-residue correspondences between compared protein structures. Here we present StralSV, a new algorithm for detecting closely related structure fragments and quantifying residue frequency from tight local structure alignments. We apply StralSV in a study of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus and demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to determine regions of the protein that are relatively unique or that shared structural similarity with structures that are distantly related. By quantifying residue frequencies among many residue-residue pairs extracted from local alignments, one can infer potential structural or functional importance of specific residues that are determined to be highly conserved or that deviate from a consensus. We further demonstrate that considerable detailed structural and phylogenetic information can be derived from StralSV analyses. StralSV is a new structure-based algorithm for identifying and aligning structure fragments that have similarity to a reference protein. StralSV analysis can be used to quantify residue-residue correspondences and identify residues that may be of particular structural or functional importance, as well as unusual or unexpected residues at a given sequence position.

  18. Random walkers versus random crowds: Diffusion of large matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider Brownian random walks of infinitely large matrices using the tools of free random variables calculus. We establish relations between stochastic evolution of hermitian and unitary ensembles. We point out that matrix-valued diffusion equation develops non-linear terms, responsible for such phenomena as shock-waves. We comment the connection between unitary matrix diffusion and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. Finally, we speculate on application of string model techniques to the problem of quantum transport, where infinite products of pseudounitary matrices play the major role.

  19. Field-dependent spin chirality and frustration in V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets in transverse magnetic field. 1. Correlations between variable planar spin configurations, vector and scalar chiralities and magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Correlations between spin configurations, chiralities and magnetization were found. • Theory describe the variable spin configurations and chirality of V3, Cu3 nanomagnets. • The in-plane staggered magnetization determines field-dependent vector chirality. • Intermediate spin magnetization describes S12 behavior of planar configurations. • Correlated spin configurations, chiralities and magnetizations are highly anisotropic. - Abstract: Correlations between field-dependent planar spin configurations, degenerate frustration, energy, vector ?z and scalar ? chiralities, spin canting, total, in-plane staggered and intermediate spin (IS) magnetizations are considered for the V3, Cu3 nanomagnets in transverse B?Z magnetic field. The planar spin configurations in Bx?X are characterized by the variable axial ?z(Bx) vector chirality correlated with the total in-plane magnetization Mx(Bx) and the IS magnetization M12±(Bx), which describes the IS S12 behavior, ?(B?)=0. The in-plane staggered magnetization determines the magnitude of the vector chirality ?z. The low-field frustrated planar 120° configurations are transformed by increasing Bx field into the high-field achiral planar spin-collinear configurations. This transition is accompanied by the reduction of the vector chirality ?z and simultaneous increase of the total Mx(Bx) and IS M12±(Bx) magnetizations. The spin configurations, chiralities and magnetization are highly anisotropic. In longitudinal B?Z field, the frustrated longitudinal spin-collinear configurations are characterized by the correlated maximal vector and scalar chiralities, ?=2?zMz

  20. A New Method for Local Dependence Map and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu H. ÜÇER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work introduces a new method to construct local dependence map based on the estimate for the linear local dependence function H(x,y, which is generalization of Pearson correlation coefficient. The new local dependence map demonstrates a practical tool for local dependence structure between two random variables. The analysis of theoretical concepts is verified by an application based on real datasets in endocrinology. Material and Methods: The method, local dependence map, requires the estimation new local dependence function which is based on regression concepts. After this local dependence function must be converted with local permutation tests in local dependence map which make the local dependence function more interpretable by identifying the regions of positive, negative and zero local dependence. Results: Based on the proposed method and we give two examples based on the real data C-peptide, insulin and TSH, FT3, FT4 from endocrinology in order to show the advantageous of the current dependence maps. They show interesting local dependence features on the other hand overall correlation coefficient is not much informative. Conclusion: Scalar dependence measures such as correlation coefficient are often used as a measure of dependence for data in medical and biological science. However, they cannot reflect the complex dependence structure of two variables. Hence we are now concerned exclusively with the statistical aspects of the dependence structure in dependence maps that will be constructed for the dataset. In this work a new method to construct local dependence map based on the regression concept for the linear local dependence function H(x,y, which is generalization of Pearson correlation coefficient, is established. The proposed new local dependence map is devoted to two examples based on the real data C-peptide, insulin and TSH, FT3, FT4 from endocrinology in order to illustrate the usefulness of the current dependence maps. They show interesting local dependence features on the other hand overall correlation coefficient is not much informative.

  1. Anderson Localization for radial tree-like random quantum graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Hislop, P D; Hislop, Peter D.; Post, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    We prove that certain random models associated with radial, tree-like, rooted quantum graphs exhibit Anderson localization at all energies. The two main examples are the random length model (RLM) and the random Kirchhoff model (RKM). In the RLM, the lengths of each generation of edges form a family of independent, identically distributed random variables (iid). For the RKM, the iid random variables are associated with each generation of vertices and moderate the current flow through the vertex. We consider extensions to various families of decorated graphs and prove stability of localization with respect to decoration. In particular, we prove Anderson localization for the random necklace model.

  2. Neutron Transport in Finite Random Media with Pure-Triplet Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution of the one-speed neutron transport equation in a finite slab random medium with pure-triplet anisotropic scattering is studied. The stochastic medium is assumed to consist of two randomly mixed immiscible fluids. The cross section and the scattering kernel are treated as discrete random variables, which obey the same statistics as Markovian processes and exponential chord length statistics. The medium boundaries are considered to have specular reflectivities with angular-dependent externally incident flux. The deterministic solution is obtained by using Pomraning-Eddington approximation. Numerical results are calculated for the average reflectivity and average transmissivity for different values of the single scattering albedo and varying the parameters which characterize the random medium. Compared to the results obtained by Adams et al. in case of isotropic scattering that based on the Monte Carlo technique, it can be seen that we have good comparable data

  3. Prior mapping for nonlinear flows in random environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze nonlinear flows in randomly heterogeneous environments, which are characterized by state-dependent diffusion coefficients with spatially correlated structures. The prior Kirchhoff mapping is used to describe such systems by linear stochastic partial differential equations with multiplicative noise. These are solved through moment equations which are closed, alternatively, either by perturbation expansions, or by a posterior linear mapping closure. The latter relies on the assumption that the state variable is a spatially distributed Gaussian field. We demonstrate that the former approach is more robust

  4. Random walks on complex networks with inhomogeneous impact

    OpenAIRE

    Eisler, Zoltan; Kertesz, Janos

    2005-01-01

    In many complex systems, for the activity f(i) of the constituents or nodes i, a power-law relationship was discovered between the standard deviation sigma(i) and the average strength of the activity: sigma(i) ~ ^alpha; universal values alpha = 1/2 or 1 were found, however, with exceptions. With the help of an impact variable we introduce a random walk model where the activity is the product of the number of visitors at a node and their impact. If the impact depends strongly...

  5. Topics in random walks in random environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last twenty-five years random motions in random media have been intensively investigated and some new general methods and paradigms have by now emerged. Random walks in random environment constitute one of the canonical models of the field. However in dimension bigger than one they are still poorly understood and many of the basic issues remain to this day unresolved. The present series of lectures attempt to give an account of the progresses which have been made over the last few years, especially in the study of multi-dimensional random walks in random environment with ballistic behavior. (author)

  6. Randomized Consensus Processing over Random Graphs: Independence and Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guodong

    2011-01-01

    Various consensus algorithms over random networks have been investigated in the literature. In this paper, we focus on the role that randomized individual decision-making plays to consensus seeking under stochastic communications. At each time step, each node will independently choose to follow the consensus algorithm, or to stick to current state by a simple Bernoulli trial with time-dependent success probabilities. This node decision strategy characterizes the random node-failures on a communication networks, or a biased opinion selection in the belief evolution over social networks. Connectivity-independent and arc-independent graphs are defined, respectively, to capture the fundamental nature of random network processes with regard to the convergence of the consensus algorithms. A series of sufficient and/or necessary conditions are given on the success probability sequence for the network to reach a global consensus with probability one under different stochastic connectivity assumptions, by which a comp...

  7. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently dipping mudstones. Despite more than 18 years of pump and treat (P&T) remediation, and natural attenuation processes, CVOC concentrations in aqueous samples pumped from these deeper strata remain elevated in isolated intervals. DNAPL was detected in one borehole during coring at a depth of 27 m. In contrast to core samples from the weathered zone, concentrations in core samples from deeper unweathered and unfractured strata are typically below detection. However, high CVOC concentrations were found in isolated samples from fissile black carbon-rich strata and fractured gray laminated strata. Aqueous-phase concentrations were correspondingly high in samples pumped from these strata via short-interval wells or packer-isolated zones in long boreholes. A refined conceptual site model considers that prior to P&T remediation groundwater flow was primarily subhorizontal in the higher-permeability near surface strata, and the bulk of contaminant mass was shallow. CVOCs diffused into these fractured and weathered mudstones. DNAPL and high concentrations of CVOCs migrated slowly down in deeper unweathered strata, primarily along isolated dipping bedding-plane fractures. After P&T began in 1995, using wells open to both shallow and deep strata, downward transport of dissolved CVOCs accelerated. Diffusion of TCE and other CVOCs from deeper fractures penetrated only a few centimeters into the unweathered rock matrix, likely due to sorption of CVOCs on rock organic carbon. Remediation in the deep, unweathered strata may benefit from the relatively limited migration of CVOCs into the rock matrix. Synthesis of rock core sampling from closely spaced boreholes with geophysical logging and hydraulic testing improves understanding of the controls on CVOC delineation and informs remediation design and monitoring.

  8. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: Depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently dipping mudstones. Despite more than 18 years of pump and treat (P&T) remediation, and natural attenuation processes, CVOC concentrations in aqueous samples pumped from these deeper strata remain elevated in isolated intervals. DNAPL was detected in one borehole during coring at a depth of 27 m. In contrast to core samples from the weathered zone, concentrations in core samples from deeper unweathered and unfractured strata are typically below detection. However, high CVOC concentrations were found in isolated samples from fissile black carbon-rich strata and fractured gray laminated strata. Aqueous-phase concentrations were correspondingly high in samples pumped from these strata via short-interval wells or packer-isolated zones in long boreholes. A refined conceptual site model considers that prior to P&T remediation groundwater flow was primarily subhorizontal in the higher-permeability near surface strata, and the bulk of contaminant mass was shallow. CVOCs diffused into these fractured and weathered mudstones. DNAPL and high concentrations of CVOCs migrated slowly down in deeper unweathered strata, primarily along isolated dipping bedding-plane fractures. After P&T began in 1995, using wells open to both shallow and deep strata, downward transport of dissolved CVOCs accelerated. Diffusion of TCE and other CVOCs from deeper fractures penetrated only a few centimeters into the unweathered rock matrix, likely due to sorption of CVOCs on rock organic carbon. Remediation in the deep, unweathered strata may benefit from the relatively limited migration of CVOCs into the rock matrix. Synthesis of rock core sampling from closely spaced boreholes with geophysical logging and hydraulic testing improves understanding of the controls on CVOC delineation and informs remediation design and monitoring.

  9. The 'emergent scaling' phenomenon and the dielectric properties of random resistor-capacitor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient algorithm, based on the Frank-Lobb reduction scheme, for calculating the equivalent dielectric properties of very large random resistor-capacitor (R-C) networks has been developed. It has been used to investigate the network size and composition dependence of dielectric properties and their statistical variability. The dielectric properties of 256 samples of random networks containing: 512, 2048, 8192 and 32 768 components distributed randomly in the ratios 60% R-40% C, 50% R-50% C and 40% R-60% C have been computed. It has been found that these properties exhibit the anomalous power law dependences on frequency known as the 'universal dielectric response' (UDR). Attention is drawn to the contrast between frequency ranges across which percolation determines dielectric response, where considerable variability is found amongst the samples, and those across which power laws define response where very little variability is found between samples. It is concluded that the power law UDRs are emergent properties of large random R-C networks

  10. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the field of variable-star research is reviewed. The sections include the most important work and identify the most significant trends. This report comprises ten sections on as many different research topics, each written by a different member of Commission 27, namely T Tauri stars; early-type variable stars; Cepheids; Delta Scuti stars; RR Lyrae; variable stars in globular clusters; Mira variables; flare stars; pulsating degenerate stars; theory of stellar pulsation. (Auth.)

  11. Random-walk enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C ?U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  12. Quantifying randomness in real networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M.; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-10-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks--the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain--and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs.

  13. Quantifying randomness in real networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Chiara; Dankulov, Marija M; Colomer-de-Simón, Pol; Jamakovic, Almerima; Mahadevan, Priya; Vahdat, Amin; Bassler, Kevin E; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Boguñá, Marián; Caldarelli, Guido; Fortunato, Santo; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Represented as graphs, real networks are intricate combinations of order and disorder. Fixing some of the structural properties of network models to their values observed in real networks, many other properties appear as statistical consequences of these fixed observables, plus randomness in other respects. Here we employ the dk-series, a complete set of basic characteristics of the network structure, to study the statistical dependencies between different network properties. We consider six real networks-the Internet, US airport network, human protein interactions, technosocial web of trust, English word network, and an fMRI map of the human brain-and find that many important local and global structural properties of these networks are closely reproduced by dk-random graphs whose degree distributions, degree correlations and clustering are as in the corresponding real network. We discuss important conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of this evaluation of network randomness, and release software to generate dk-random graphs. PMID:26482121

  14. El ejercicio físico aeróbico incrementa la vasodilatación dependiente del endotelio y el consumo de oxígeno de mujeres primigestantes saludables. Ensayo clínico controlado, aleatorizado. NCT00741312 Aerobic physical exercise increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation and oxygen consumption in healthy primigravida. Controlled randomized clinical trial. NCT00741312

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto del ejercicio aeróbico en la función dependiente del endotelio (VDE y en el consumo de oxígeno en mujeres primigestantes. MÉTODOS: ensayo clínico controlado, enmascarado y aleatorizado, llevado a cabo en 67 mujeres saludables, primigestantes, entre 16 a 20 semanas de gestación. Grupo de intervención: ejercicio aeróbico entre 50% y 65% de la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, durante 45 minutos, tres veces por semana, durante dieciséis semanas. Grupo control: actividad física habitual. Mediciones: VDE: vasodilatación mediada por flujo (VMF, consumo de oxígeno VO2max: prueba de caminata de seis minutos; antropometría: peso y talla. RESULTADOS: en las mediciones iniciales no se encontraron diferencias entre grupos en ninguna de las variables. Al finalizar la intervención, las participantes que realizaron ejercicio tenían mayor capacidad física, medida por la distancia recorrida en el test de caminata (p=0,043 y por el VO2max (p=0,023. Además, el grupo de ejercicio tuvo menor frecuencia cardiaca en reposo y mayor VMF que el grupo control (pOBJECTIVE: evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent function (EDF and oxygen consumption in primigravida. METHODS: double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial carried out in primigravida between 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. The intervention group had aerobic exercise between 50% to 65% of the maximum heart rate during 45 minutes, three times a week for sixteen weeks. The control group had habitual physical activity. MEASUREMENTS REALIZED: EDF: flow-mediated dilation (FMD, oxygen consumption VO2max: 6 minute walking test, anthropometry: weight and size. RESULTS: no differences were found between the two groups in any variables in the initial measurements. At the end of the intervention, participants who exercised had greater physical capacity, measured by the distance covered in walking test (p = 0.043 and VO2max (p = 0.023. In addition, the exercise group had lower resting heart rate and increased FMD than the control group (p <0.05. Both groups increased the resting heart rate, basal diameter and post-hyperemia diameter of the brachial artery at the end of the intervention (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: regular practice of controlled aerobic exercise improves endothelial function and physical capacity in primigravida. For this reason, interventions like this could be an early and effective alternative to strengthen prevention of pathologies associated with endothelial dysfunction during pregnancy.

  15. Random volumes from matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Umeda, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.

  16. Internal state of granular assemblies near random close packing

    CERN Document Server

    Roux, J N

    2004-01-01

    The structure of random sphere packings in mechanical equilibrium in prescribed stress states, as studied by molecular dynamics simulations, strongly depends on the assembling procedure. Frictionless packings in the limit of low pressure are devoid of dilatancy, and consequently share the same random close packing density, but exhibit fabric anisotropy related to stress anisotropy. Efficient compaction methods can be viewed as routes to circumvent the influence of friction. Simulations designed to resemble two such procedures, lubrication and vibration (or ``tapping'') show that the resulting granular structures differ, the less dense one having, remarkably, the larger coordination number. Density, coordination number and fabric can thus vary independently. Calculations of elastic moduli and comparisons with experimental results suggest that measurable elastic properties provide information on those important internal state variables.

  17. The generalised sequentially rejective Bonferroni test applied to non-stationary, random signal classification

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, G.; Zoubir, A.M.; Boashash, B.

    1996-01-01

    We present a new non-stationary signal classification algorithm based on a time-frequency distribution and multiple hypothesis testing. The time-frequency distribution is used to construct a time-dependent quadratic discriminant function. At selected points in time we evaluate the discriminant function and form a set of statistics which are used to test multiple hypotheses. We show that the statistics are a linear combinations of chi square random variables with consta...

  18. Welfare gains of the poor: An endogenous Bayesian approach with spatial random effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ram??rez Hassan ,Andr??s; Montoya Bland??n, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian instrumental variable procedure with spatial random effects that handles endogeneity, and spatial dependence with unobserved heterogeneity. We find through a limited Monte Carlo experiment that our proposal works well in terms of point estimates and prediction. Then, we apply our method to analyze the welfare effects on the poorest households generated by a process of electricity tariff unification. In particular, we deduce an Equivalent Variation measure where there i...

  19. Record process on the Continuum Random Tree

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Romain

    2011-01-01

    We consider the number of cuts $X_n^*$ needed to isolate the root of the sub-tree spanned by $n$ leaves uniformly chosen at random in Aldous's continuum random tree $\\ct$. We prove the almost sure convergence of $X_n^*/\\sqrt{2 n}$ to a Rayleigh random variable $Z$. We get from the a.s. convergence a representation of $Z$ as the integral on the leaves of $\\ct$ of a record process indexed by the tree $\\ct$. The proof relies on a Brownian Snake approach. This result was motivated by Janson's convergence in distribution of the renormalized number of cuts in a discrete random tree.

  20. Random permutations with cycle weights

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Volker; Velenik, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    We study the distribution of cycle lengths in models of nonuniform random permutations with cycle weights. We identify several regimes. Depending on the weights, the length of typical cycles grows like the total number n of elements, or a fraction of n, or a logarithmic power of n.