WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Anaerobic ferrous oxidation by heterotrophic denitrifying enriched culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterotrophic denitrifying enriched culture (DEC) from a lab-scale high-rate denitrifying reactor was discovered to perform nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO). The DEC was systematically investigated to reveal their denitrification activity, their NAFO activity, and the predominant microbial population. The DEC was capable of heterotrophic denitrification with methanol as the electron donor, and autotrophic denitrification with ferrous salt as the electron donor named NAFO. The conversion ratios of ferrous-Fe and nitrate-N were 87.41 and 98.74 %, and the consumption Fe/N ratio was 2.3:1 (mol/mol). The maximum reaction velocity and half saturation constant of Fe were 412.54 mg/(l h) and 8,276.44 mg/l, and the counterparts of N were 20.87 mg/(l h) and 322.58 mg/l, respectively. The predominant bacteria were Hyphomicrobium, Thauera, and Flavobacterium, and the predominant archaea were Methanomethylovorans, Methanohalophilus, and Methanolobus. The discovery of NAFO by heterotrophic DEC is significant for the development of wastewater treatment and the biogeochemical iron cycle and nitrogen cycle. PMID:24619339

Wang, Ru; Zheng, Ping; Xing, Ya-Juan; Zhang, Meng; Ghulam, Abbas; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Li, Wei; Wang, Lan

2014-05-01

2

Degradation of toluene and m-xylene and transformation of o-xylene by denitrifying enrichment cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven different sources of inocula that included sediments, contaminated soils, groundwater, process effluent, and sludge were used to establish enrichment cultures of denitrifying bacteria on benzene, toluene, and xylenes in the absence of molecular oxygen. All of the enrichment cultures demonstrated complete depletion of toluene and partial depletion of o-xylene within 3 months of incubation. The depletion of o-xylene was correlated to and dependent on the metabolism of toluene. No losses of benzene, p-xylene, or m-xylene were observed in these initial enrichment cultures. However, m-xylene was degraded by a subculture that was incubated on m-xylene alone. Complete carbon, nitrogen, and electron balances were determined for the degradation of toluene and m-xylene. These balances showed that these compounds were mineralized with greater than 50% conversion to CO2 and significant assimilation into biomass. Additionally, the oxidation of these compounds was shown to be dependent on nitrate reduction and denitrification. These microbial degradative capabilities appear to be widespread, since the widely varied inoculum sources all yielded similar results. PMID:2014990

Evans, P J; Mang, D T; Young, L Y

1991-02-01

3

Transformation of o-xylene to o-methyl benzoic acid by a denitrifying enrichment culture using toluene as the primary substrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly enriched denitrifying mixed culture transformed o-xylene co-metabolically along with toluene by methyl group oxidation. o-Methyl benzaldehyde and o-methyl benzoic acid accumulated transiently as metabolic products of o-xylene transformation. Transformation of o-methyl benzyl alcohol and o-methyl benzaldehyde occurred independently of toluene degradation and resulted in the formation of a compound coeluting with o-methyl benzoic acid on a gas chromatograph. The co-metabolic relationship between toluene and o-xylene could be attributed to a mechanism linked to the initial oxidation of the methyl group. PMID:7772940

Jørgensen, C; Nielsen, B; Jensen, B K; Mortensen, E

1995-06-01

4

Rapid succession of uncultured marine bacterial and archaeal populations in a denitrifying continuous culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine denitrification constitutes an important part of the global nitrogen cycle and the diversity, abundance and process rates of denitrifying microorganisms have been the focus of many studies. Still, there is little insight in the ecophysiology of marine denitrifying communities. In this study, a heterotrophic denitrifying community from sediments of a marine intertidal flat active in nitrogen cycling was selected in a chemostat and monitored over a period of 50 days. The chemostat enabled the maintenance of constant and well-defined experimental conditions over the time-course of the experiment. Analysis of the microbial community composition by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), Illumina sequencing and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) revealed strong dynamics in community composition over time, while overall denitrification by the enrichment culture was stable. Members of the genera Arcobacter, Pseudomonas, Pseudovibrio, Rhodobacterales and of the phylum Bacteroidetes were identified as the dominant denitrifiers. Among the fermenting organisms co-enriched with the denitrifiers was a novel archaeon affiliated with the recently proposed DPANN-superphylum. The pan-genome of populations affiliated to Pseudovibrio encoded a NirK as well as a NirS nitrite reductase, indicating the rare co-occurrence of both evolutionary unrelated nitrite reductases within coexisting subpopulations. PMID:24976559

Kraft, Beate; Tegetmeyer, Halina E; Meier, Dimitri; Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Strous, Marc

2014-10-01

5

Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria for application after direct low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A new concept for low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment is proposed. ? In this concept, denitrification and methane oxidation are performed by Methylomirabilis oxyfera. ? The bacteria were enriched from fresh water sediment using sequencing fed-batch reactors. ? The volumetric consumption rate has to be increased by an order of magnitude for practical application. ? Further research should focus on systems with improved biomass retention. - Abstract: Despite many advantages of anaerobic sewage treatment over conventional activated sludge treatment, it has not yet been applied in temperate zones. This is especially because effluent from low-temperature anaerobic treatment contains nitrogen and dissolved methane. The presence of nitrogen and methane offers the opportunity to develop a reactor in which methane is used as electron donor for denitrification. Such a reactor could be used in a new concept for low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment, consisting of a UASB-digester system, a reactor for denitrification coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation, and a nitritation reactor. In the present study denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria similar to ‘Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera’ were enriched. Maximum volumetric nitrite consumption rates were 33.5 mg NO2?-N/L d (using synthetic medium) and 37.8 mg NO2?-N/L d (using medium containing effluent from a sewage treatment plant), which are sment plant), which are similar to the maximum rate reported so far. Though the goal was to increase the rates, in both reactors, after reaching these maximum rates, volumetric nitrite consumption rates decreased in time. Results indicate biomass washout may have significantly decelerated enrichment. Therefore, to obtain higher volumetric consumption rates, further research should focus on systems with complete biomass retention.

6

Anaerobic Toluene Activation by Benzylsuccinate Synthase in a Highly Enriched Methanogenic Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Permeabilized cells of a highly enriched, toluene-mineralizing, methanogenic culture catalyzed the addition of toluene to fumarate to form benzylsuccinate under anaerobic conditions. The specific in vitro rate of benzylsuccinate formation was >85% of the specific in vivo rate of toluene consumption. This is the first report of benzylsuccinate synthase activity in a methanogenic culture; the activity has previously been reported to occur in denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and anoxygenic photot...

Beller, Harry R.; Edwards, Elizabeth A.

2000-01-01

7

Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria from municipal wastewater sludge in a membrane bioreactor at 20°C.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous nitrogen and methane removal by the slow growing denitrifying methanotrophic bacterium 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' offers opportunities for a new approach to wastewater treatment. However, volumetric nitrite consumption rates should be increased by an order of magnitude before application in wastewater treatment becomes possible. A maximum volumetric nitrite consumption rate of 36 mg NO2(-)-N/L d was achieved in a membrane bioreactor inoculated with wastewater sludge and operated at 20°C. This rate is similar to maximum rates reported in literature, though it was thought that by strict biomass retention using membranes, higher rates would be achieved. In experiments lasting several years, growth was not stable: every experiment showed a decrease in activity after 1-2 years. The cause remains unknown. Rates increased after addition of copper and operating a membrane bioreactor at shorter hydraulic retention times. Further research should focus on long-term effects of copper addition and operation at hydraulic retention times in the order of hours using membrane bioreactors. PMID:24809733

Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J N

2014-06-15

8

[Rapid enrichment and cultivation of denitrifying phosphate-removal bacteria and its identification by fluorescence in situ hybridization technology].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work focused on a rapid enrichment and cultivation of denitrifying phosphate-removal bacteria (DPB) in a membrane bio-reactor(MBR) by using A2/O anaerobic sludge from a wastewater treatment plant as seed, as well as providing an identification method. In the experiments, sodium acetate was used as the carbon source and a certain amount of nitrate was added to the MBR in the anoxic stage. Results showed that, with the efficient trap of the hollow-fiber membrane module, the proportion of DPB in all the phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) increased from 24% to 93% within 35 days after two-stage's cultivation including anaerobic/aerobic and anaerobic/anoxic, during which the removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus reached more than 90%. The activated sludge was identified by combining a regular method and the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, which demonstrated that Pseudomonas sp. and Rhodocyclus sp. were the dominant bacteria in the used bioreactor. PMID:24028025

Liu, Li; Tang, Bing; Huang, Shao-Song; Fu, Feng-Lian; Zhang, Qi-Qin; Li, Jian-Bin; Luo, Jian-Zhong

2013-07-01

9

21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330...866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device...vitamins, and extracts of plant or animal tissues. The device is...

2010-04-01

10

21 CFR 866.2330 - Enriched culture medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched culture medium. 866.2330 Section 866.2330...Microbiology Devices § 866.2330 Enriched culture medium. (a) Identification. An enriched culture medium is a device that...

2010-04-01

11

Enrichment of high ammonia tolerant methanogenic culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ammonia is the major toxicant in full scale anaerobic digesters of animal wastes which are rich in proteins and/or urea, such as pig or poultry wastes. Ammonia inhibition decreases methane production rates, increases volatile fatty acids concentration and leads to economic losses for the biogas plants. The methods used today to counteract ammonia inhibition are slow and costexpensive. A new biological approach to avoid or counteract ammonia inhibition by using ammonia tolerant methanogens, could provide a sustainable solution for cost-effective digestion of abundant ammonia-rich wastes. The aim of the current study was to isolate and identify methanogenic cultures tolerant to high ammonia concentrations. A mixed methanogenic population was stepwise exposed to ammonia concentrations (1 to 9.26 g NH4+-N L-1) during an enrichment process with successive batch cultivations. The methanogenic population was derived from a full scale biogas reactor (Hashøj, Denmark), fed with 75% animal manure and 25% food industries organic waste. Basal anaerobic medium was used for the enrichment along with sodium acetate (1 g HAc L-1) as a carbon source. Fluorescence insitu hybridization (FISH) was used to determine microbial community composition. The outcome of the enrichment process was a mesophilic aceticlastic methanogenic enriched culture able to withstand high ammonia loads and utilize acetate and form methane stoichiometrically. FISH analysis showed that the methanogens of the enriched culture belonged exclusively to strict aceticlastic methanogens. Results obtained in this study, demonstrated for the first time that strictly aceticlastic methanogens, derived from an enriched culture, can efficiently produce methane under high ammonia levels.

Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

12

Metatranscriptome of an anaerobic benzene-degrading, nitrate-reducing enrichment culture reveals involvement of carboxylation in benzene ring activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzymes involved in the initial steps of anaerobic benzene catabolism are not known. To try to elucidate this critical step, a metatranscriptomic analysis was conducted to compare the genes transcribed during the metabolism of benzene and benzoate by an anaerobic benzene-degrading, nitrate-reducing enrichment culture. RNA was extracted from the mixed culture and sequenced without prior mRNA enrichment, allowing simultaneous examination of the active community composition and the differential gene expression between the two treatments. Ribosomal and mRNA sequences attributed to a member of the family Peptococcaceae from the order Clostridiales were essentially only detected in the benzene-amended culture samples, implicating this group in the initial catabolism of benzene. Genes similar to each of two subunits of a proposed benzene-carboxylating enzyme were transcribed when the culture was amended with benzene. Anaerobic benzoate degradation genes from strict anaerobes were transcribed only when the culture was amended with benzene. Genes for other benzoate catabolic enzymes and for nitrate respiration were transcribed in both samples, with those attributed to an Azoarcus species being most abundant. These findings indicate that the mineralization of benzene starts with its activation by a strict anaerobe belonging to the Peptococcaceae, involving a carboxylation step to form benzoate. These data confirm the previously hypothesized syntrophic association between a benzene-degrading Peptococcaceae strain and a benzoate-degrading denitrifying Azoarcus strain for the complete catabolism of benzene with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. PMID:24795366

Luo, Fei; Gitiafroz, Roya; Devine, Cheryl E; Gong, Yunchen; Hug, Laura A; Raskin, Lutgarde; Edwards, Elizabeth A

2014-07-01

13

Mineralization of trichloroethylene by heterotrophic enrichment cultures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial consortia capable of aerobically degrading greater than 99% of 50 mg/l exogenous trichloroethylene (TCE) have been enriched from TCE contaminated subsurface sediments. Concentrations of TCE greater than 300 mg/l were not degraded nor was TCE used as a sole energy source. Successful electron donors for growth included tryptone-yeast extract, methanol, methane or propane. The optimum temperature for growth was 22--37 C and the ph optimum was 7.0--8.1. Utilization of TCE occurred only after apparent microbial growth had ceased. The major end products recovered were hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Minor products included dichloroethylene, vinylidine chloride and possibly chloroform.

Phelps, T.J.; Ringelberg, D.; Mikell, A.T.; White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Inst. for Applied Microbiology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States); Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.

1988-12-31

14

Absence of microbial mineralization of lignin in anaerobic enrichment cultures.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The existence of anaerobic biodegradation of lignin was examined in mixed microflora. Egyptian soil samples, in which rapid mineralization of organic matter takes place in the presence of an important anaerobic microflora, were used to obtain the anaerobic enrichment cultures for this study. Specifically, 14CO2 or [14C]lignin wood was used to investigate the release of labeled gaseous or soluble degradation products of lignin in microbial cultures. No conversion of 14C-labeled lignin to 14CO2...

Odier, E.; Monties, B.

1983-01-01

15

Culture of Piscirickettsia salmonis on enriched blood agar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of piscirickettsiosis, an economically significant disease of fish. Isolation of P. salmonis by culturing on fish cell lines has been the standard technique since the initial isolation of the organism. The ability to grow P. salmonis on artificial media would relieve facilities of the cost of maintaining cell lines, permit isolation at fish culture sites with fewer contamination problems, and allow easier transport of isolates to diagnostic facilities for confirmation assays. This report describes the successful culture of P. salmonis on enriched blood agar. PMID:18319435

Mauel, Michael J; Ware, Cynthia; Smith, Pedro A

2008-03-01

16

Who is actively denitrifying in activated sludge?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denitrification is of crucial importance in nitrogen removal from wastewater. However, due to the polyphyletic taxonomy of denitrifiers, little is known about the composition and ecophysiology of the actively denitrifying community in activated sludge. To identify the active denitrifiers in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant the transcripts (mRNA) of the nirS, nirK and nosZ denitrification genes expressed under acetate or amino acid consumption were amplified, sequenced and identified. This revealed that the majority of the denitrifiers belonged to Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, while only few transcripts came from Gammaproteobacteria. A clear taxonomic discrepancy was observed between the nirS and nirK expressing bacteria, which primarily belonged to Beta- and Alphaproteobacteria, respectively. The nosZ gene was expressed by both taxonomic groups and it was therefore surprising that the highest genetic diversity was observed from the nirS transcripts and not the nosZ transcripts. Likewise, denitrifying cultures obtained from the activated sludge affiliated with the same Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria as detected with the denitrification genes, except one culture, which affiliated with Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, potential denitrifying genera of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria were quantified in the activated sludge with 16S rRNA gene probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This revealed that Aquaspirillum-related bacteria were dominant followed by bacteria related to Azoarcus, Thauera and Paracoccus, respectively. Few bacteria were related to Acidovorax, Zoogloea and Rhodobacter. Except from Aquaspirillum, these genera were also identified with the denitrification genes. The substrate preferences of the bacteria affiliated with these genera were further evaluated by microautoradiography combined with FISH.

Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

17

Highly enriched Betaproteobacteria growing anaerobically with p-xylene and nitrate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The identity of the microorganisms capable of anaerobic p-xylene degradation under denitrifying conditions is hitherto unknown. Here, we report highly enriched cultures of freshwater denitrifying bacteria that grow anaerobically with p-xylene as the sole organic carbon source and electron donor. Long curved rods, with 95% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to Denitratisoma oestradiolicum, dominated the enrichment cultures (>91% of all cells), as detected by phylotype-specific probes. These Rhodocyclaceae microorganisms were distantly related to other denitrifying hydrocarbon-degrading Betaproteobacteria from the Azoarcus-Thauera clade. Complete oxidation p-xylene to CO(2) coupled to denitrification was suggested by quantitative measurements of substrate consumption. Metabolite analysis identified (4-methylbenzyl)succinate and (4-methylphenyl)itaconate, suggesting addition to fumarate as an initial activation reaction.

Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

2010-01-01

18

Effect of carbon source during enrichment on BTEX degradation by anaerobic mixed bacterial cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive study on the effects of different carbon sources during the bacterial enrichment on the removal performances of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) compounds when present as a mixture was conducted. Batch BTEX removal kinetic experiments were performed using cultures enriched with individual BTEX compounds or BTEX as a mixture or benzoate alone or benzoate-BTEX mixture. An integrated Monod-type non-linear model was developed and a ratio between maximum growth rate (? max) and half saturation constant (Ks) was used to fit the non-linear model. A higher ? max/Ks indicates a higher affinity to degrade BTEX compounds. Complete removal of BTEX mixture was observed by all the enriched cultures; however, the removal rates for individual compounds varied. Degradation rate and the type of removal kinetics were found to be dependent on the type of carbon source during the enrichment. Cultures enriched on toluene and those enriched on BTEX mixture were found to have the greatest ? max/Ks and cultures enriched on benzoate had the least ? max/Ks. Removal performances of the cultures enriched on all different carbon sources, including the ones enriched on benzoate or benzoate-BTEX mixture were also improved during a second exposure to BTEX. A molecular analysis showed that after each exposure to the BTEX mixture, the cultures enriched on benzoate and those enriched on benzoate-BTEX mixture had increased similarities to the culture enriched on BTEX mixture. PMID:22893304

Kasi, Murthy; Wadhawan, Tanush; McEvoy, John; Padmanabhan, G; Khan, Eakalak

2013-04-01

19

Identification of toluene degraders in a methanogenic enrichment culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanogenic biodegradation involves the cooperative metabolism of syntrophic bacteria that catalyse the initial attack and subsequent degradation of hydrocarbons, and methanogens that convert intermediates such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide, formate, and/or acetate to methane. The identity of syntrophic microbes and the nature of their interactions with other syntrophs and methanogens are not well understood. Furthermore, it is difficult to isolate the organisms responsible for the initial activation and subsequent degradation of hydrocarbon substrates under methanogenic conditions due to the thermodynamic relationships that exist among microbes in methanogenic communities. We used time-resolved RNA stable isotope probing and RT-qPCR to identify the organisms involved in the initial attack on toluene and subsequent degradation reactions in a highly enriched toluene-degrading methanogenic culture. Our results reveal the importance of a Desulfosporosinus sp. in anaerobic toluene activation in the culture. Other organisms that appear to play roles in toluene degradation include Syntrophaceae, Desulfovibrionales and Chloroflexi. The high bacterial diversity observed in this culture and the extensive labelling of different phylogenetic groups over the course of the stable isotope probing experiment highlight the complexity of the relationships that exist in methanogenic ecosystems. PMID:24910080

Fowler, S Jane; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Manefield, Mike; Gieg, Lisa M

2014-09-01

20

Methanogenic octadecene degradation by syntrophic enrichment culture from brackish sediments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A microbial enrichment culture from brackish sediments was able to grow on octadec-1-ene (an unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon) as sole source of carbon and energy, under methanogenic conditions. Octadecene degradation is stopped either when bromoethanesulfonic acid, a selective inhibitor of methanogenesis is introduced, or when hydrogen is introduced. In the presence of bromoethanesulfonic acid, the degradation is restored by the addition of a hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing microorganism with sulfate. Results of molecular biodiversity, which revealed the presence of bacteria as well as of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, are consistent with a syntrophic degradation involving Bacteria and Archaea. This is the first demonstration of syntrophic alkene degradation by microbial communities, showing that syntrophy is more widespread than we could have thought so far. These results highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial interactions and their role in the organic-matter degradation in polluted environments. PMID:22842907

Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Casalot, Laurence; Matheron, Robert

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.  

Science.gov (United States)

For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella. PMID:22496847

Gorski, Lisa

2012-01-01

22

Kinetics of microbial bromate reduction in a hydrogen-oxidizing, denitrifying biofilm reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bromate (BrO(3)(-)) is an oxidized contaminant produced from bromide (Br(-)) during ozonation and advanced oxidation of drinking water. Previous research shows that denitrifying bioreactors can reduce bromate to innocuous bromide. We studied a hydrogen-based, denitrifying membrane-biofilm reactor (MBfR) for bromate reduction, and report the first kinetics for a hydrogen-based bromate reduction process. A mixed-culture MBfR reduced up to 1,500 microg/L bromate to below 10 microg/L with a 50-min hydraulic residence time. Kinetics were determined using short-term tests on a completely mixed MBfR at steady state with an influent of 5 mg N/L nitrate plus 100 microg/L bromate. Short-term tests examined the impact of pH, nitrite, nitrate, and bromate on bromate reduction rates in the MBfR. Kinetic parameters for the process were estimated based on the short-term bromate tests. The q(max) for bromate reduction was 0.12 mg BrO(3)(-) x mg(x)(-1) x day(-1), and the K was 1.2 mg BrO(3)(-)/L. This q(max) is 2-3 times higher than reported for heterotrophic enrichments, and the K is the first reported in the literature. Nitrite and nitrate partially inhibited bromate reduction, with nitrite exerting a stronger inhibitory effect. Bromate was self-inhibitory at concentrations above 15 mg/L, but up to 50 mg/L of bromate had no inhibitory effect on denitrification. The optimum pH was approximately 7. We also examined the performance of an MBfR containing pure culture of the denitrifying bacterium Ralstonia eutropha. Under conditions similar to the mixed-culture tests, no bromate reduction was detected, showing that not all denitrifying bacteria are active in bromate reduction. Our results suggest the presence of specialized, dissimilatory bromate-reducing bacteria in the mixed-culture MBfR. PMID:17405178

Downing, Leon S; Nerenberg, Robert

2007-10-15

23

Co-enriching microflora associated with culture based methods to detect Salmonella from tomato phyllosphere.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to detect a specific organism from a complex environment is vitally important to many fields of public health, including food safety. For example, tomatoes have been implicated numerous times as vehicles of foodborne outbreaks due to strains of Salmonella but few studies have ever recovered Salmonella from a tomato phyllosphere environment. Precision of culturing techniques that target agents associated with outbreaks depend on numerous factors. One important factor to better understand is which species co-enrich during enrichment procedures and how microbial dynamics may impede or enhance detection of target pathogens. We used a shotgun sequence approach to describe taxa associated with samples pre-enrichment and throughout the enrichment steps of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual's (BAM) protocol for detection of Salmonella from environmental tomato samples. Recent work has shown that during efforts to enrich Salmonella (Proteobacteria) from tomato field samples, Firmicute genera are also co-enriched and at least one co-enriching Firmicute genus (Paenibacillus sp.) can inhibit and even kills strains of Salmonella. Here we provide a baseline description of microflora that co-culture during detection efforts and the utility of a bioinformatic approach to detect specific taxa from metagenomic sequence data. We observed that uncultured samples clustered together with distinct taxonomic profiles relative to the three cultured treatments (Universal Pre-enrichment broth (UPB), Tetrathionate (TT), and Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV)). There was little consistency among samples exposed to the same culturing medias, suggesting significant microbial differences in starting matrices or stochasticity associated with enrichment processes. Interestingly, Paenibacillus sp. (Salmonella inhibitor) was significantly enriched from uncultured to cultured (UPB) samples. Also of interest was the sequence based identification of a number of sequences as Salmonella despite indication by all media, that samples were culture negative for Salmonella. Our results substantiate the nascent utility of metagenomic methods to improve both biological and bioinformatic pathogen detection methods. PMID:24039862

Ottesen, Andrea R; Gonzalez, Antonio; Bell, Rebecca; Arce, Caroline; Rideout, Steven; Allard, Marc; Evans, Peter; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven; Knight, Rob; Brown, Eric; Pettengill, James B

2013-01-01

24

Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different methods: (1) the conventional culture method (agar plating) and (2) the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on avera...

Alessandra Valle Daur; Francisco Klimak Jr.; Laura Lúcia Cogo; Gislene Diógenes Botão; Cristina Leise Bastos Monteiro; Libera Maria Dalla Costa

2006-01-01

25

Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different methods: (1 the conventional culture method (agar plating and (2 the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

Alessandra Valle Daur

2006-12-01

26

Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different [...] methods: (1) the conventional culture method (agar plating) and (2) the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

Alessandra Valle, Daur; Francisco, Klimak Jr.; Laura Lúcia, Cogo; Gislene Diógenes, Botão; Cristina Leise Bastos, Monteiro; Libera Maria, Dalla Costa.

27

Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different [...] methods: (1) the conventional culture method (agar plating) and (2) the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

Alessandra Valle, Daur; Francisco, Klimak Jr.; Laura Lúcia, Cogo; Gislene Diógenes, Botão; Cristina Leise Bastos, Monteiro; Libera Maria, Dalla Costa.

2006-12-01

28

Enhanced production and isotope enrichment of recombinant glycoproteins produced in cultured mammalian cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NMR studies of post-translationally modified proteins are complicated by the lack of an efficient method to produce isotope enriched recombinant proteins in cultured mammalian cells. We show that reducing the glucose concentration and substituting glutamate for glutamine in serum-free medium increased cell viability while simultaneously increasing recombinant protein yield and the enrichment of non-essential amino acids compared to culture in unmodified, serum-free medium. Adding dichloroacetate, a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, further improves cell viability, recombinant protein yield, and isotope enrichment. We demonstrate the method by producing partially enriched recombinant Thy1 glycoprotein from Lec1 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using U-{sup 13}C-glucose and {sup 15}N-glutamate as labeled precursors. This study suggests that uniformly {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled recombinant proteins may be produced in cultured mammalian cells starting from a mixture of labeled essential amino acids, glucose, and glutamate.

Skelton, David; Goodyear, Abbey [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Ni, DaQun; Walton, Wendy J.; Rolle, Myron; Hare, Joan T. [Florida State University, Institute of Molecular Biophysics (United States); Logan, Timothy M., E-mail: tlogan@fsu.ed [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

2010-10-15

29

Enhanced production and isotope enrichment of recombinant glycoproteins produced in cultured mammalian cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NMR studies of post-translationally modified proteins are complicated by the lack of an efficient method to produce isotope enriched recombinant proteins in cultured mammalian cells. We show that reducing the glucose concentration and substituting glutamate for glutamine in serum-free medium increased cell viability while simultaneously increasing recombinant protein yield and the enrichment of non-essential amino acids compared to culture in unmodified, serum-free medium. Adding dichloroacetate, a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, further improves cell viability, recombinant protein yield, and isotope enrichment. We demonstrate the method by producing partially enriched recombinant Thy1 glycoprotein from Lec1 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using U-13C-glucose and 15N-glutamate as labeled precursors. This study suggests that uniformly 15N,13C-labeled recombinant proteins may be produced in cultured mammalian cells starting from a mixture of labeled essential amino acids, glucose, and glutamate.

30

Use of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane as a terminal electron acceptor by an anaerobic enrichment culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Use of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane as a terminal electron acceptor was demonstrated. ? H2 served as the electron donor for an enrichment culture that dechlorinated ?-HCH. ? H2 consumption for acetogenesis and methanogenesis stopped in HEPES media. ? Addition of vancomycin significantly slowed the rate of ?-HCH dechlorination. ? Previously identified chlororespiring microbes were not detected in the enrichment. - Abstract: The use of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) as a terminal electron acceptor via organohalide respiration was demonstrated for the first time with an enrichment culture grown in a sulfate-free HEPES-buffered anaerobic mineral salts medium. The enrichment culture was initially developed with soil and groundwater from an industrial site contaminated with HCH isomers, chlorinated benzenes, and chlorinated ethenes. When hydrogen served as the electron donor, 79–90% of the electron equivalents from hydrogen were used by the enrichment culture for reductive dechlorination of the ?-HCH, which was provided at a saturation concentration of approximately 10 mg/L. Benzene and chlorobenzene were the only volatile transformation products detected, accounting for 25% and 75% of the ?-HCH consumed (on a molar basis), respectively. The enrichment culture remained active with only hydrogen as the electron donor and ?-HCH as the electron acceptor through several transfers to fresh mineral salts medium for more than one year. Addition of vancomycin to the culture significantly slowed the rate of ?-HCH dechlorination, suggesting that a Gram-positive organism is responsible for the reduction of ?-HCH. Analysis of the ?-HCH dechlorinating enrichment culture did not detect any known chlororespiring genera, including Dehalobacter. In bicarbonate-buffered medium, reductive dechlorination of ?-HCH was accompanied by significant levels of acetogenesis as well as methanogenesis.

31

Use of {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane as a terminal electron acceptor by an anaerobic enrichment culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane as a terminal electron acceptor was demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2} served as the electron donor for an enrichment culture that dechlorinated {gamma}-HCH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2} consumption for acetogenesis and methanogenesis stopped in HEPES media. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of vancomycin significantly slowed the rate of {gamma}-HCH dechlorination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Previously identified chlororespiring microbes were not detected in the enrichment. - Abstract: The use of {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) as a terminal electron acceptor via organohalide respiration was demonstrated for the first time with an enrichment culture grown in a sulfate-free HEPES-buffered anaerobic mineral salts medium. The enrichment culture was initially developed with soil and groundwater from an industrial site contaminated with HCH isomers, chlorinated benzenes, and chlorinated ethenes. When hydrogen served as the electron donor, 79-90% of the electron equivalents from hydrogen were used by the enrichment culture for reductive dechlorination of the {gamma}-HCH, which was provided at a saturation concentration of approximately 10 mg/L. Benzene and chlorobenzene were the only volatile transformation products detected, accounting for 25% and 75% of the {gamma}-HCH consumed (on a molar basis), respectively. The enrichment culture remained active with only hydrogen as the electron donor and {gamma}-HCH as the electron acceptor through several transfers to fresh mineral salts medium for more than one year. Addition of vancomycin to the culture significantly slowed the rate of {gamma}-HCH dechlorination, suggesting that a Gram-positive organism is responsible for the reduction of {gamma}-HCH. Analysis of the {gamma}-HCH dechlorinating enrichment culture did not detect any known chlororespiring genera, including Dehalobacter. In bicarbonate-buffered medium, reductive dechlorination of {gamma}-HCH was accompanied by significant levels of acetogenesis as well as methanogenesis.

Elango, Vijai, E-mail: velango@g.clemson.edu [Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest, Louisiana State University, 3221 Patrick Taylor Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Kurtz, Harry D. [Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, 100 Jordan Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Anderson, Christina; Freedman, David L. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Box 340919, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0919 (United States)

2011-12-15

32

Characteristics of enriched cultures for bio-huff-`n`-puff tests at Jilin oil field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three enriched cultures (48, 15a, and 26a), selected from more than 80 soil and water samples, could grow anaerobically in the presence of crude oil at 30{degrees}C and could ferment molasses to gases and organic acids. Oil recovery by culture 48 in the laboratory model experiment was enhanced by 25.2% over the original reserves and by 53.7% over the residual reserves. Enriched culture 48 was composed of at least 4 species belonging to the genera Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides. This enriched culture was used as inoculum for MEOR field trials at Jilin oil field with satisfactory results. The importance of the role of these isolates in EOR was confirmed by their presence and behavior in the fluids produced from the microbiologically treated reservoir.

Xiu-Yuan Wang; Gang Dai; Yan-Fen Xue; Shu-Hua Xie [Institute of Microbiology, Beijing (China)] [and others

1995-12-31

33

Proteolysis and utilization of albumin by enrichment cultures of subgingival microbiota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subgingival dental plaque consists mainly of microorganisms that derive their energy from amino acid fermentation. Their nutrient requirements are met by the subgingival proteolytic system, which includes proteases from microorganism and inflammatory cells, and substrate proteins from sulcus exudate, including albumin. To determine the selective effect of individual proteins on microbiota, we used albumin as the main substrate for growth. Eight subgingval plaque samples from untreated periodontal pockets of patients with adult periodontitis were inoculated in peptone yeast medium with bovine albumin (9 g/l). After three subculture steps, cell yields of the enrichment cultures at the medium with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 g/l albumin were determined. Proteolytic activity (U/absorbance at 550 nm) of the enrichment cultures and different isolates derived from the cultures was estimated by the degradation of resorufin-labeled casein. It was observed that the yield of the mixed culture was albumin limited, and the proteolytic activities of the cultures in albumin broth were higher than in control (peptone broth). Among the isolates from the enrichment cultures, Peptostreptococcus micros, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella buccae and Prevotella bivia demonstrated proteolysis. The frequent occurrence of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus anginosus in the albumin cultures is explained by their ability to utilize arginine as an energy source for growth. Albumin in the medium was partly degraded by pure cultures but completely consumed in enrichment cultures, indicating synergy of bacterial proteinases. It is concluded that the subgingival microbiota possesses proteolytic activity and may use albumin as a substrate for their growth. Enrichment cultures on albumin may serve as a relatively simple in vitro model to evaluate the effects of proteinase inhibitors. PMID:10895689

Wei, G X; van der Hoeven, J S; Smalley, J W; Mikx, F H; Fan, M W

1999-12-01

34

A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated to the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Relative abundance of the culture members, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, were 87 +/- 5% and 13 +/- 5% for Bacillus and Clostridium, respectively. An extreme thermophilic, strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with H-2-producing potential was enriched from digested household wastes. This study provided a culture with a potential to be applied in reactor systems for extreme thermophilic H-2 production from complex organic wastes.

Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher

2009-01-01

35

Enrichment Culture of Hydrogen Fermentation Microorganisms and Analysis of Microbial Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was aimed at enrichment of hydrogen fermentative microflora that can utilize garbage as fermentation substrate. It was shown that stable hydrogen fermentation was performed using enriched microbes from sewage sludge compost. During the enrichment culture, the microflora were analyzed by the FISH method and the PCR-DGGE method. As a result, predominant microbes of hydrogen production were determined to be from the genus Clostridium belonging to a Gram positive Low G+C group. Furthermore, it was supposed that genus Bacillus contributed to the stability of hydrogen productivity from garbage by genus Clostridium. In the batch culture, under pH control at 6.0, it was ascertained that enriched microflora obtained from sewage sludge compost had sufficient hydrogen productivity using garbage, and yielded 2.03mol-H2/mol-hexose. It is supposed that the microflora of sewage sludge compost is effective as inoculum of the hydrogen fermentation system when using garbage as substrate.

Huang, Xiaoyu; Matsumoto, Akiko; Ohnishi, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Masaru; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu

36

Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments.

Coyne, P.; Smith, G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

1995-08-15

37

Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments

38

Enriching Chinese Cultural Heritage at the Queens Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

???13-18

The Queens Borough Public Library through its New Americans Program has been providing opportunities for the Chinese Community to experience quality library service for many years. By building collections, providing opportunities to learn English, providing job information, coping skills classes, cultural programs and electronic access to Chinese vernacular script, the Library provides a unique public library experience to its many immigrants. Through demographic analysis, the Library places its collections in the communities where immigrants live and provides programs of relevance to celebrate the cultures and traditions of the Chinese community.

Gary E. Strong

2001-10-01

39

Synergistic degradation of deca-BDE by an enrichment culture and zero-valent iron.  

Science.gov (United States)

Debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE) by microbe and by zero-valent iron (ZVI) has been reported previously. However, no study has indicated the presence of microorganisms and their effect on ZVI-mediated reduction of deca-BDE. Synergistic degradation of deca-BDE by an enrichment culture and ZVI was studied. It was found that synergistic effects enhanced the debromination of deca-BDE as well as promoting the reduction of lower brominated products. ZVI stimulated microbial debromination by serving as an electron donor. Correlation analysis also confirmed that ZVI was capable of enhancing microbial population in the debromination of deca-BDE. Conversely, the enrichment culture produced acid which maintained pH stability and stimulated the oxidation of ZVI. The enrichment culture supplied its energy requirements by the oxidation of ZVI and concomitant reduction of deca-BDE, but incapable of growth and reduction of BDE-209 without ZVI and vice versa. Compared to the initial culture, the microbial community of the enrichment culture became dominated by several bacterial genera based on the results of 16S rRNA-gene pyrosequencing. PMID:24643388

Chen, Xingjuan; Chen, Guilan; Qiu, Mengde; Sun, Guoping; Guo, Jun; Xu, Meiying

2014-07-01

40

Anaerobic Degradation of 2-Methylnaphthalene by a Sulfate-Reducing Enrichment Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anaerobic degradation of 2-methylnaphthalene was investigated with a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture. Metabolite analyses revealed two groups of degradation products. The first group comprised two succinic acid adducts which were identified as naphthyl-2-methyl-succinic acid and naphthyl-2-methylene-succinic acid by comparison with chemically synthesized reference compounds. Naphthyl-2-methyl-succinic acid accumulated to 0.5 ?M in culture supernatants. Production of naphthyl-2-methyl-suc...

Annweiler, Eva; Materna, Arne; Safinowski, Michael; Kappler, Andreas; Richnow, Hans H.; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pig tonsils: enumeration and detection by enrichment versus direct plating culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tonsil samples from 139 slaughter pigs were examined for the presence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica by enrichment procedures based on the standard method ISO 10273:2003. In addition, samples were tested by direct plating method to evaluate its efficiency compared to the enrichment culture methods and to quantify the level of contamination in porcine tonsils. In total, 52 samples (37.4%) were positive for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, all belonging to bioserotype 4/O:3. Fifty out of the 52 positive samples (96.2%) were detected by direct plating. Enumeration showed an average concentration of 4.5 log(10) CFU g(-1) and 4.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) tonsil on Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) and cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar plates, respectively. The enrichment procedures recommended by the ISO 10273:2003 method were not optimal for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils: two days enrichment in irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth resulted in an isolation rate of 84.6%, while 5 days enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth recovered only 59.6% of positive samples. Reducing the enrichment time in PSB from 5 to 2 days resulted in a significantly higher recovery rate (94.2%) and might serve as an appropriate enrichment protocol for the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Compared to enrichment culture methods, results based on direct plating can be obtained in a shorter time course and provide quantitative data that might be needed for further risk assessment studies. PMID:19913707

Van Damme, Inge; Habib, Ihab; De Zutter, Lieven

2010-02-01

42

Identification of active denitrifiers in full-scale nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denitrification is essential to the removal of nitrogen from wastewater during treatment, yet an understanding of the diversity of the active denitrifying bacteria responsible in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is lacking. In this study stable isotope probing (SIP) was applied in combination with microautoradiography (MAR)-fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to identify the active denitrifiers in a full-scale WWTP with biological N and P removal. Recognising that a range of carbon sources likely drive denitrification, a fully 13 C-labelled complex substrate was used for SIP incubations, under nitrite reducing conditions, in order to better capture the diversity of active denitrifiers present. Members of the Rhodoferax, Dechloromonas and Sulfuritalea were well represented in the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from DNA enriched in 13 C, with FISH probes designed here for their in situ characterisation. FISH and MAR confirmed that they were core active denitrifiers in the community. The SIP clone library was additionally represented by a phylogenetically diverse group of organisms, with many previously not considered as important denitrifiers. The combined approach of SIP and MAR-FISH represents an excellent approach for identifying and characterising un-described diversity of active denitrifiers in full-scale systems.

McIlroy, Simon Jon; Szyszka, Anna

2014-01-01

43

Identification of triclosan-degrading bacteria in a triclosan enrichment culture using stable isotope probing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triclosan, a widely used antimicrobial agent, is an emerging contaminant in the environment. Despite its antimicrobial character, biodegradation of triclosan has been observed in pure cultures, soils and activated sludge. However, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the degradation in mixed cultures. In this study, active triclosan degraders in a triclosan-degrading enrichment culture were identified using stable isotope probing (SIP) with universally (13)C-labeled triclosan. Eleven clones contributed from active microorganisms capable of uptake the (13)C in triclosan were identified. None of these clones were similar to known triclosan-degraders/utilizers. These clones distributed among ?-, ?-, or ?-Proteobacteria: one belonging to Defluvibacter (?-Proteobacteria), seven belonging to Alicycliphilus (?-Proteobacteria), and three belonging to Stenotrophomonas (?-Proteobacteria). Successive additions of triclosan caused a significant shift in the microbial community structure of the enrichment culture, with dominant ribotypes belonging to the genera Alicycliphilus and Defluvibacter. Application of SIP has successfully identified diverse uncultivable triclosan-degrading microorganisms in an activated sludge enrichment culture. The results of this study not only contributed to our understanding of the microbial ecology of triclosan biodegradation in wastewater, but also suggested that triclosan degraders are more phylogenetically diverse than previously reported. PMID:23592331

Lee, Do Gyun; Cho, Kun-Ching; Chu, Kung-Hui

2014-02-01

44

Enrichment of tumor-initiating breast cancer cells within a mammosphere-culture microdevice.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report for the first time a microdevice that enables the selective enrichment, culture, and identification of tumor-initiating cells on native polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For nearly a decade, researchers have identified tumor-initiating breast cancer cells within heterogeneous populations of breast cancer cells by utilizing low-attachment serum-free culture conditions, which lead to the formation of spheroidal colonies (mammospheres) that are enriched for tumor-initiating cells. However, the utility of this assay has been limited by difficulties in combining this culture-plate-based technique with other cellular and molecular analyses. Integrating the mammosphere technique into a microsystem can enable it to be combined directly with a number of functions, such as cell sorting, drug screens, and molecular assays. In this work, we demonstrate mammosphere culture within a PDMS microdevice. We first prove that a native hydrophobic PDMS surface is as effective as commercial low-attachment plates at selectively promoting the formation of mammospheres. We then experimentally assess the PDMS microdevice. Time-lapse images of mammosphere formation within the microdevice show that mammospheres form from single cells or small clusters of cells. Following formation of the mammospheres, it is desirable to evaluate the cells within the spheroids for enrichment of tumor initiating cells. To perform assays such as this (which require the loading and rinsing of reagents) without flushing the cells (which are in suspension) from the device, the culture chamber is separated from a reagent reservoir by a commercially available microporous membrane, and thus reagents are exchanged between the reservoir and the culture chamber by diffusion only. Using this capability, we verify that the mammospheres are enriched for tumor initiating cells by staining aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, a cancer stem cell marker. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first assay that enables the direct observation of tumor-initiating cells within a suspended mammosphere. PMID:23515914

Saadin, Katayoon; Burke, Jeffrey M; Patel, Neerav P; Zubajlo, Rebecca E; White, Ian M

2013-08-01

45

Utilization of aminoaromatic acids by a methanogenic enrichment culture and by a novel Citrobacter freundii strain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following incubation of mesophilic methanogenic floccular sludge from a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor used to treat cattle manure wastewater, a stable 5-aminosalicylate-degrading enrichment culture was obtained. Subsequently, a Citrobacter freundii strain, WA1, was isolated from the 5-aminosalicylate-degrading methanogenic consortium. The methanogenic enrichment culture degraded 5-aminosalicylate completely to CH4, CO2 and NH4+, while C. freundii strain WA1 reduced 5-aminosalicylate with simultaneous deamination to 2-hydroxybenzyl alcohol during anaerobic growth with electron donors such as pyruvate, glucose or serine. When grown on pyruvate, C. freundii WA1 converted 3-aminobenzoate to benzyl alcohol and also reduced benzaldehyde to benzyl alcohol. Pyruvate was fermented to acetate, CO2, H2 and small amounts of lactate, succinate and formate. Less lactate (30%) was produced from pyruvate when C. freundii WA1 grew with 5-aminosalicylate as co-substrate. PMID:14716473

Savelieva, Olga; Kotova, Irina; Roelofsen, Wim; Stams, Alfons J M; Netrusov, Alexander

2004-02-01

46

Salmonella isolation with Rappaport-Vassiliadis enrichment medium seeded with different sized inocula of pre-enrichment cultures of meat products and sewage polluted water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 574 samples, of seven different types, were examined for the presence of salmonellas. All the specimens were pre-enriched in buffered peptone water and enriched in Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium (RV medium). In one trial 0.1 ml of pre-enrichment culture of 497 samples (79 chicken carcasses, 228 specimens of minced meat, 100 pork sausages, 19 samples of dried powdered chicken meat, 11 specimens of faeces of healthy pigs and 60 samples of sewage polluted natural sea water) was seeded t...

Vassiliadis, P.; Mavrommati, C.; Kalapothaki, V.; Chronas, G.; Efstratiou, M.

1985-01-01

47

Metabolic by-products of anaerobic toluene degradation by sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two dead-end metabolites of anaerobic toluene transformation, benzylsuccinic acid and benzylfumaric acid, accumulated in sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures that were fed toluene as the sole carbon source. Stable isotope-labeled toluene and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to confirm that the compounds resulted from toluene metabolism. The two metabolites constituted less than 10% of the toluene carbon (over 80% was mineralized to carbon dioxide, according to a previous study)....

Beller, H. R.; Reinhard, M.; Grbic?-galic?, D.

1992-01-01

48

Biodegradation of munitions compounds by a sulfate reducing bacterial enrichment culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degradation of several munitions compounds was studied. The compounds included 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocine, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TNB), and 2,4-dinitrotoluene. All of the compounds studied were degraded by the sulfate reducing bacterial (SRB) enrichment culture. The SRB culture did not use the munitions compounds as their sole source of carbon. However, all the munitions compounds tested served as the sole source of nitrogen for the SRB culture. Degradation of munitions compounds was achieved by a co-metabolic process. The SRB culture used a variety of carbon sources including pyruvate, ethanol, formate, lactate, and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}. The SRB culture was an incomplete oxidizer, unable to carry out the terminal oxidation of organic substrates to CO{sub 2} as the sole product, and it did not use acetate or methanol as a carbon source. In addition to serving as nitrogen sources, the munitions compounds also served as electron acceptors in the absence of sulfate. A soil slurry experiment with 5% and 10% munitions compounds-contaminated soil showed that the contaminant TNT was metabolized by the SRB culture in the presence of pyruvate as electron donor. This culture may be useful in decontaminating munitions compounds-contaminated soil and water under anaerobic conditions.

Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1997-08-01

49

High-efficiency hydrogen production by an anaerobic, thermophilic enrichment culture from an Icelandic hot spring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dark fermentative hydrogen production from glucose by a thermophilic culture (33HL), enriched from an Icelandic hot spring sediment sample, was studied in two continuous-flow, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR1, CSTR2) and in one semi-continuous, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) at 58 degrees C. The 33HL produced H2 yield (HY) of up to 3.2 mol-H2/mol-glucose along with acetate in batch assay. In the CSTR1 with 33HL inoculum, H2 production was unstable. In the ASBR, maintained with 33HL, the H2 production enhanced after the addition of 6 mg/L of FeSO4 x H2O resulting in HY up to 2.51 mol-H2/mol-glucose (H2 production rate (HPR) of 7.85 mmol/h/L). The H2 production increase was associated with an increase in butyrate production. In the CSTR2, with ASBR inoculum and FeSO4 supplementation, stable, high-rate H2 production was obtained with HPR up to 45.8 mmol/h/L (1.1 L/h/L) and HY of 1.54 mol-H2/mol-glucose. The 33HL batch enrichment was dominated by bacterial strains closely affiliated with Thermobrachium celere (99.8-100%). T. celere affiliated strains, however, did not thrive in the three open system bioreactors. Instead, Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense (98.5-99.6%) affiliated strains, producing H2 along with butyrate and acetate, dominated the reactor cultures. This culture had higher H2 production efficiency (HY and specific HPR) than reported for mesophilic mixed cultures. Further, the thermophilic culture readily formed granules in CSTR and ASBR systems. In summary, the thermophilic culture as characterized by high H2 production efficiency and ready granulation is considered very promising for H2 fermentation from carbohydrates. PMID:18814296

Koskinen, Perttu E P; Lay, Chyi-How; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Lin, Ping-Jei; Wu, Shu-Yii; Orlygsson, Jóhann; Lin, Chiu-Yue

2008-11-01

50

Immunochromatographic detection of the group B streptococcus antigen from enrichment cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends GBS screening for all pregnant women during the 35th to 37th weeks of gestation. Although GBS screening has been performed mainly by the culture-based method, it takes several days to obtain a reliable result. In this study, we developed a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of GBS-specific surface immunogenic protein in 15 min using an overnight enrichment culture. The ICT was prepared using two anti-Sip monoclonal antibodies. This ICT was able to detect recombinant Sip levels of 0.5 ng/ml, or about 10(6) CFU/ml of GBS cells, in tests with 9 GBS strains of different serotypes. The cross-reactivity test using 26 species of microorganism showed no detectable false-positive result. Reactivity of the ICT with 229 GBS strains showed one false-negative result that was attributable to the production of truncated Sip. Among 260 enrichment cultures of vaginal swabs, 17 produced red to orange pigments in Granada medium, and they were all GBS and Sip positive. Among 219 pigment-negative cultures, 12 were GBS positive and 10 were Sip positive. Two Sip-negative cultures contained GBS cells below the limit of detection by the ICT. Among 207 GBS-negative cultures, only one was Sip positive, which was attributable to GBS cell debris. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICT appeared to be 93.1% and 99.6%, respectively. The newly developed ICT is readily applicable to clinical use in the detection of GBS. PMID:23825191

Matsui, Hidehito; Kimura, Juri; Higashide, Masato; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Okue, Kuniyuki; Cui, Longzhu; Nakae, Taiji; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Hanaki, Hideaki

2013-09-01

51

Establishment and Characterization of an Anaerobic Thermophilic (55 degrees C) Enrichment Culture Degrading Long-Chain Fatty Acids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A thermophilic, long-chain fatty acid-oxidizing culture was enriched. Stearate was used as the substrate, and methane and carbon dioxide were the sole end products. Cultivation was possible only when a fed-batch system was used or with addition of activated carbon or bentonite. The enrichment culture consisted of a short rod and two bacteria antigenically related to Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DELTA-H and Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1.

Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

1995-01-01

52

Integrated biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization in an anaerobic reactor containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogenic culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion, is mainly used in a gas motor for heat and electricity production. However, after removal of CO2, biogas can be upgraded to natural gas quality, giving more utilization possibilities, such as utilization as autogas, or distant utilization by using the existing natural gas grid. The current study presents a new biological method for biogas upgrading in a separate biogas reactor, containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens and fed with biogas and hydrogen. Both mesophilic- and thermophilic anaerobic cultures were enriched to convert CO2 to CH4 by addition of H2. Enrichment at thermophilic temperature (55°C) resulted in CO2 and H2 bioconversion rate of 320?mL CH4/(gVSS?h), which was more than 60% higher than that under mesophilic temperature (37°C). Different dominant species were found at mesophilic- and thermophilic-enriched cultures, as revealed by PCR–DGGE. Nonetheless, they all belonged to the order Methanobacteriales, which can mediate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Biogas upgrading was then tested in a thermophilic anaerobic reactor under various operation conditions. By continuous addition of hydrogen in the biogas reactor, high degree of biogas upgrading was achieved. The produced biogas had a CH4 content, around 95% at steady-state, at gas (mixture of biogas and hydrogen) injection rate of 6?L/(L?day). The increase of gas injection rate to 12?L/(L?day) resulted in the decrease of CH4 content to around 90%. Further study showed that by decreasing the gas–liquid mass transfer by increasing the stirring speed of the mixture the CH4 content was increased to around 95%. Finally, the CH4 content around 90% was achieved in this study with the gas injection rate as high as 24?L/(L?day). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012; 109: 2729–2736. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

2012-01-01

53

Large scale production of Blackleg vaccine by fermenter and enriched culture medium in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In all biological systems growth is defined as increase of chemical compounds. Bacteria can achieve to balanced growth if they are growing in a medium, which are completely adapted to it. Clostridium chauvoei, (Clostridium feseri is an anaerobic, spore forming, motile, and polymorph bacteria, which its size varies from 0.5-1 to 3-8 micron and could be observed as individual bacterium, diplo, and rarely streptococcus. Blackleg is a fatal disease of young cattle. It produces an acute local infection, and the resulting blood poisoning leads to rapid death. Clostridium chauvoei and, less frequently, Clostridium septicum are the most commonly responsible organisms. Vaccination is the only effective means for controlling of blackleg disease. Several kinds of vaccine are available commercially. It is 4 decades that blackleg vaccine is produced in Razi institute and because of enhanced demand of country, decision was made to improve the production procedure of this vaccine using large-scale fermenter, so the aim of this study was adaptation of Clostridium chauvoei to growth and proliferation in fermenter for preparation of a potent vaccine. Accordingly attempts were made to prepare and formulate the ingredients in order to obtain high yield of Clostridium chauvoei in culture medium by fermenter. All experiments were done in two sets: A-growth in glass bottles using conventional culture medium and B-growth in fermenter using conventional culture medium similar to A and also enriched culture medium. Results showed high yield of Clostridium chauvoei suspension in fermenter after 10 hours, using enriched culture medium (more than 1,480,000,000 organisms/ml, but no significant changes was obtained in glass bottles conditions comparing to the fermenter conditions. The safety and potency of the prepared vaccine was determined in sheep and guinea pigs according to British pharmacopoeia (veterinary with satisfactory results. Since this research has been successfully done in Razi research institute, so the mono valent inactivated blackleg vaccine, using the enriched culture medium is currently producing by fermenter and is used for immunization of cattles in Iran.

Pilehchian Langroudi, R.

2012-06-01

54

DEPENDENCE OF A HIGH-RATE, PCE-DECHLORINATING ENRICHMENT CULTURE ON METHANOGENIC ACTIVITY. (R825549C053)  

Science.gov (United States)

The role served by the presence of methanogenic activity within a tetrachloroethene (PCE)-dechlorinating culture was investigated through a series of supplementation experiments. An acclimated lactate-enrichment culture (LEC 1) capable of rapidly converting PCE to ethene was s...

55

Selective enrichment broth culture for detection of Clostridium difficile and associated cytotoxin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure was devised for routine examination of feces for Clostridium difficile with selective enrichment broth culture containing increased levels of carbohydrates and antibiotics to detect cytotoxin and volatile acids in broths inoculated with fecal samples. C. difficile was detected and identified with a rapidity comparable to that of conventional culture on selective cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose agar. Detection rates for C. difficile in inoculated broths (111/401 or 27%) were significantly higher than for culture on cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose agar (47/401 or 11%, P greater than 0.001). All fecal samples containing C. difficile and cytotoxin were correctly identified by the procedure. Isocaproic acid peak heights greater than 2 mm in selective enrichment broths inoculated with fecal samples indicated that C. difficile was present in the fecal sample examined. Of the positive specimens examined, 58% (64/111) produced peak heights greater than 10 mm. Peak heights less than 2 mm were not associated with C. difficile in the fecal sample. The investigated procedure provided a reliable alternative to the routine processing of feces for detecting C. difficile and associated cytotoxin in feces. Inoculated broths with isocaproic acid peak heights greater than 2 mm, after 24 to 48 h of incubation, and in which cytotoxin was detected, were subcultured to blood agar to obtain isolates of the organism as required. Broths which showed isocaproic acid peak heights less than 2 mm, and in which cytotoxin was not detected, were discarded as negative for C. difficile. The procedure was deemed potentially useful for epidemiological surveys of C. difficile. PMID:6746889

Buchanan, A G

1984-07-01

56

Impact of arachidonic acid enrichment of live rotifer prey on bacterial communities in rotifer and larval fish cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), commonly used at first feeding in commercial fish hatcheries, carry a large bacteria load. Because they are relatively poor in essential fatty acids, it is common practice to enrich them with fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA). This study aims to determine whether prey enrichment with AA may act as a prebiotic and modify the microbial community composition either in AA-enriched rotifer cultures or in larval-rearing water using winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) as a larval fish model. AA enrichment modified the bacterial community composition in both the rotifer culture tanks and the larval-rearing tanks. We observed an increase in the number of cultivable bacteria on TCBS (thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose) agar, used as a proxy for the abundance of Vibrio sp. The results suggest that AA may also play an indirect role in larval health. PMID:23540337

Seychelles, Laurent H; Doiron, Kim; Audet, Céline; Tremblay, Réjean; Pernet, Fabrice; Lemarchand, Karine

2013-03-01

57

Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to cis-1, 2-dichloroethene by a thermophilic anaerobic enrichment culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophilic anaerobic biodegradation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) was investigated with various inocula from geothermal and nongeothermal areas. Only polluted harbor sediment resulted in a stable enrichment culture that converted PCE via trichloroethene to cis-1, 2-dichloroethene at the optimum temperature of 60 to 65 degrees C. After several transfers, methanogens were eliminated from the culture. Dechlorination was supported by lactate, pyruvate, fructose, fumarate, and malate as electron donor but not by H2, formate, or acetate. Fumarate and L-malate led to the highest dechlorination rate. In the absence of PCE, fumarate was fermented to acetate, H2, CO2, and succinate. With PCE, less H2 was formed, suggesting that PCE competed for the reducing equivalents leading to H2. PCE dechlorination, apparently, was not outcompeted by fumarate as electron acceptor. At the optimum dissolved PCE concentration of approximately 60 microM, a high dechlorination rate of 1.1 micromol h-1 mg-1 (dry weight) was found, which indicates that the dechlorination is not a cometabolic activity. Microscopic analysis of the fumarate-grown culture showed the dominance of a long thin rod. Molecular analysis, however, indicated the presence of two dominant species, both belonging to the low-G+C gram positives. The highest similarity was found with the genus Dehalobacter (90%), represented by the halorespiring organism Dehalobacter restrictus, and with the genus Desulfotomaculum (86%). PMID:10347007

Kengen, S W; Breidenbach, C G; Felske, A; Stams, A J; Schraa, G; de Vos, W M

1999-06-01

58

Functional gene pyrosequencing and network analysis: an approach to examine the response of denitrifying bacteria to increased nitrogen supply in salt marsh sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional gene pyrosequencing is emerging as a useful tool to examine the diversity and abundance of microbes that facilitate key biogeochemical processes. One such process, denitrification, is of particular importance because it converts fixed nitrate (NO?3) to N2 gas, which returns to the atmosphere. In nitrogen limited salt marshes, removal of NO?3 prior to entering adjacent waters helps prevent eutrophication. Understanding the dynamics of salt marsh microbial denitrification is thus imperative for the maintenance of healthy coastal ecosystems. We used pyrosequencing of the nirS gene to examine the denitrifying community response to fertilization in experimentally enriched marsh plots. A key challenge in the analysis of sequence data derived from pyrosequencing is understanding whether small differences in gene sequences are ecologically meaningful. We applied a novel approach from information theory to determine that the optimal similarity level for clustering DNA sequences into OTUs, while still capturing the ecological complexity of the system, was 88%. With this clustering, phylogenetic analysis yielded 6 dominant clades of denitrifiers, the largest of which, accounting for more than half of all the sequences collected, had no close cultured representatives. Of the 638 OTUs identified, only 11 were present in all plots and no single OTU was dominant. We did, however, find a large number of specialist OTUs that were present only in a single plot. The high degree of endemic OTUs, while accounting for a large proportion of the nirS diversity in the plots, were found in lower abundance than the generalist taxa. The proportion of specialist taxa increased with increasing supply of nutrients, suggesting that addition of fertilizer may create conditions that expand the niche space for denitrifying organisms and may enhance the genetic capacity for denitrification. PMID:24348464

Bowen, Jennifer L.; Byrnes, Jarrett E. K.; Weisman, David; Colaneri, Cory

2013-01-01

59

Fermentative bio-hydrogen production from cellulose by cow dung compost enriched cultures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of hydrogen production from cellulose by the cow dung compost enriched continuously in defined medium containing cellulose was investigated. In the initial experiments, batch-fermentation was carried out to observe the effects of different substrate concentration conditions on the rate of cellulose-degrading, growth of bacteria and the capability of hydrogen-producing from cellulose. The result showed that the cellulose degradation decreased from 55% at 5 g/l to 22% at 30 g/l. The maximum cumulative hydrogen production and the rate of hydrogen production first increased from 828 ml/l at 5 g/l to 1251 ml/l at 10 g/l then remained constant beyond 10 g/l. The maximum hydrogen production potential, the rate of hydrogen production and the yield of hydrogen was 1525 ml/l, 33 ml/l.h, and 272 ml/g-cellulose (2.09 mol/mol-hexose) was obtained at substrate concentration 10 g/l, the hydrogen concentration in biogas was 47-50%(v/v) and there was no methane observed. During the conversion of cellulose into hydrogen, acetate and butyrate were main liquid end-products in the metabolism of hydrogen fermentation. These results proposed that cow dung compost enriched cultures were ideal microflora for hydrogen production from cellulose. (author)

Ren, Nan-Qi; Xu, Ji-Fei; Gao, Ling-Fang; Xin, Liang; Qiu, Jie; Su, Dong-Xia [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

2010-04-15

60

Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 ?mol min?¹ ml?¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field. PMID:23892419

Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Complete reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to ethene by anaerobic microbial enrichment culture developed from sediment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mixed, anaerobic microbial enrichment culture, AMEC-4P, was developed that uses lactate as the electron donor for the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to ethene. AMEC-4P consistently and completely converted 2 mM PCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) within 13 days, and the intermediate, cis-DCE, was then completely dechlorinated to ethene after 130 days. Dechlorination rates for PCE to cis-DCE, cis-DCE to VC, and VC to ethene were 243, 27, and 41 ?mol/l/day, respectively. Geobacter lovleyi and a Dehalococcoides sp. were identified from their 16S rRNA sequences to be the dominant phylotypes in AMEC-4P. PMID:20714784

Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Sung, Youlboong; Koh, Sung-Cheol; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

2010-12-01

62

Study of selenocompounds from selenium-enriched culture of edible sprouts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selenium is recognised as an essential micronutrient for humans and animals. One of the main sources of selenocompounds in the human diet is vegetables. Therefore, this study deals with the Se species present in different edible sprouts grown in Se-enriched media. We grew alfalfa, lentil and soy in a hydroponic system amended with soluble salts, containing the same proportion of Se, in the form of Se(VI) and Se(IV). Total Se in the sprouts was determined by acidic digestion in a microwave system and by ICP/MS. Se speciation was carried out by enzymatic extraction (Protease XIV) and measured by LC-ICP/MS. The study shows that the Se content of plants depends on the content in the growth culture, and that part of the inorganic Se was biotransformed mainly into SeMet. These results contribute to our understanding of the uptake of inorganic Se and its biotransformation by edible plants. PMID:23993543

Funes-Collado, Virginia; Morell-Garcia, Albert; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

2013-12-15

63

Selective enrichment yields robust ethene-producing dechlorinating cultures from microcosms stalled at cis-dichloroethene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are of particular importance for bioremediation due to their unique capability of transforming perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to non-toxic ethene, through the intermediates cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC). Despite the widespread environmental distribution of Dehalococcoides, biostimulation sometimes fails to promote dechlorination beyond cis-DCE. In our study, microcosms established with garden soil and mangrove sediment also stalled at cis-DCE, albeit Dehalococcoides mccartyi containing the reductive dehalogenase genes tceA, vcrA and bvcA were detected in the soil/sediment inocula. Reductive dechlorination was not promoted beyond cis-DCE, even after multiple biostimulation events with fermentable substrates and a lengthy incubation. However, transfers from microcosms stalled at cis-DCE yielded dechlorination to ethene with subsequent enrichment cultures containing up to 10(9) Dehalococcoides mccartyi cells mL(-1). Proteobacterial classes which dominated the soil/sediment communities became undetectable in the enrichments, and methanogenic activity drastically decreased after the transfers. We hypothesized that biostimulation of Dehalococcoides in the cis-DCE-stalled microcosms was impeded by other microbes present at higher abundances than Dehalococcoides and utilizing terminal electron acceptors from the soil/sediment, hence, outcompeting Dehalococcoides for H2. In support of this hypothesis, we show that garden soil and mangrove sediment microcosms bioaugmented with their respective cultures containing Dehalococcoides in high abundance were able to compete for H2 for reductive dechlorination from one biostimulation event and produced ethene with no obvious stall. Overall, our results provide an alternate explanation to consolidate conflicting observations on the ubiquity of Dehalococcoides mccartyi and occasional stalling of dechlorination at cis-DCE; thus, bringing a new perspective to better assess biological potential of different environments and to understand microbial interactions governing bioremediation. PMID:24950250

Delgado, Anca G; Kang, Dae-Wook; Nelson, Katherine G; Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Miceli, Joseph F; Done, Hansa Y; Popat, Sudeep C; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

2014-01-01

64

Rapid and specific detection of Salmonella spp. in animal feed samples by PCR after culture enrichment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A PCR procedure has been developed for routine analysis of viable Salmonella spp. in feed samples. The objective was to develop a simple PCR-compatible enrichment procedure to enable DNA amplification without any sample pretreatment such as DNA extraction or cell lysis. PCR inhibition by 14 different feed samples and natural background flora was circumvented by the use of the DNA polymerase Tth. This DNA polymerase was found to exhibit a high level of resistance to PCR inhibitors present in these feed samples compared to DyNAzyme II, FastStart Taq, Platinum Taq, Pwo, rTth, Taq, and Tfl. The specificity of the Tth assay was confirmed by testing 101 Salmonella and 43 non-Salmonella strains isolated from feed and food samples. A sample preparation method based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water and DNA amplification with Tth DNA polymerase was developed. The probability of detecting small numbers of salmonellae in feed, in the presence of natural background flora, was accurately determined and foundto follow a logistic regression model. From this model, the probability of detecting I CFU per 25 g of feed in artificially contaminated soy samples was calculated and found to be 0.81. The PCR protocol was evaluated on 155 naturally contaminated feed samples and compared to an established culture-based method, NMKL-71. Eight percent of the samples were positive by PCR, compared with 3% with the conventional method. The reasons for the differences in sensitivity are discussed. Use of this method in the routine analysis of animal feed samples would improve safety in the food chain.

Löfström, Charlotta; Knutsson, R.

2004-01-01

65

Reconstructing a Thauera genome from a hydrogenotrophic-denitrifying consortium using metagenomic sequence data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was conducted to reveal the hydrogen-oxidizing autotrophic-denitrifying metabolism in an enriched Thauera-dominated consortium. A draft genome named Thauera R4 of over 90 % completeness (3.8 Mb) was retrieved mainly by a coverage-defined binning method from 3.5 Gb paired-end Illumina reads. We identified 1,263 genes (accounting for 33 % of total genes in the finished genome of Thauera aminoaromatica MZ1T) with average nucleotide identity of 87.6 % shared between Thauera R4 and T. aminoaromatica MZ1T. Although Thauera R4 and T. aminoaromatica shared quite similar nitrogen metabolism and a high nucleotide similarity (98.8 %) in their 16S ribosomal RNA genes, they showed different functional potentials in several important environmentally relevant processes. Unlike T. aminoaromatica MZ1T, Thauera R4 carries an operon of [NiFe]-hydrogenase (EC 1.12.99.6) catalyzing molecular hydrogen oxidation in nitrate-rich solution. Moreover, Thauera R4 is a mixtrophic bacterium possessing key enzymes for autotrophic CO2-fixation and heterotrophic acetate assimilation metabolism. This Thauera R4 bin provides another genetic reference to better understand the niches of Thauera and demonstrates a model pipeline to reveal functional profiles and reconstruct novel and dominant genomes from a simplified mixed culture in environmental studies. PMID:24769905

Mao, Yanping; Xia, Yu; Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Tong

2014-08-01

66

Cometabolic degradation of MTBE using methane-propane- and butane-utilizing enrichment cultures and rhodococcus sp. BU3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fuel oxygenated methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used worldwide to replace leaded organic compounds. Although MTBE is persistent in the environment, chiefly due to its low biodegradability, some microbial cultures are able to mineralize it. This paper reports on the cometabolic degradation of MTBE by methane-, propane- and butane-utilizing enrichment cultures and the pure Rhodococcus sp. BU3 culture isolated from natural habitats. Three methane-, three propane- and four butane-utilizing cultures, which degrade MTBE cometabolically, were enriched. In experiments with resting cells at 20 C, enrichment cultures grown on methane degraded MTBE at a maximum rate of 1.0 mg MTBE/(g biomass . h). Propane- and butane-utilizing enrichment cultures degraded MTBE and the intermediate tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) cometabolically at temperatures of 20 C at maximum rates of 7.2 mg MTBE/(g biomass . h) and 5.2 mg MTBE/(g biomass . h), respectively. Propane-utilizing cultures were also able to degrade MTBE and TBA consecutively after growth on 1-propanol. However, the MTBE degradation rate after growth on 1-propanol was lower than on propane. The isolated pure culture BU3 specified as Rhodococcus sp. degraded MTBE at maximum rates of 5.4 mg MTBE/(g biomass . h) when grown on propane and 2.3 mg MTBE/(g biomass . h) when grown on 1-propanol, respectively. In column systems with recirculation, it is shown that Rhodococcus sp. BU3 degraded 95 mg/L MTBE over a time period of 6 days. The degradation activity of the immobilized bacteria could be regenerated by the addition of growth substrates (propanol or propane). The results of these experiments provide a promising basis for their implementation in an enhanced natural attenuation approach. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Haase, K.; Wendlandt, K.D.; Graeber, A.; Stottmeister, U. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

2006-10-15

67

Denitrifying bacteria in bulk and maize-rhizospheric soil: diversity and N2O-reducing abilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the rhizosphere of maize on the diversity of denitrifying bacteria. Community structure comparison was performed by constructing a collection of isolates recovered from bulk and maize planted soil. A total of 3240 nitrate-reducing isolates were obtained and 188 of these isolates were identified as denitrifiers based on their ability to reduce nitrate to N2O or N2. 16S rDNA fragments amplified from the denitrifying isolates were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Isolates were grouped according to their restriction patterns, and 16S rDNA of representatives from each group were sequenced. A plant dependent enrichment of Agrobacterium-related denitrifiers has been observed resulting in a modification of the structure of the denitrifying community between planted and bulk soil. In addition, the predominant isolates in the rhizosphere soil were not able to reduce N2O while dominant isolates in the bulk soil evolve N2 as a denitrification product. PMID:15381970

Chèneby, D; Perrez, S; Devroe, C; Hallet, S; Couton, Y; Bizouard, F; Iuretig, G; Germon, J C; Philippot, L

2004-07-01

68

Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate by novel bacteria isolated from enrichment cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is an organophosphorous compound, used extensively (3000-5000 tonnes/annum) as a solvent for nuclear fuel processing and as a base stock in the formulation of fire-resistant aircraft hydraulic fluids and other applications. Because of its wide applications and relative stability in the natural environment TBP poses the problem of pollution and health hazards. In the present study, fifteen potent bacterial strains capable of using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as sole carbon and phosphorus source were isolated from enrichment cultures. These isolates were identified on the basis of biochemical and morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that two isolates belonged to class Bacilli and thirteen to ? and ?-Proteobacteria. All these isolates were found to be members of genera Alcaligenes, Providencia, Delftia, Ralstonia, and Bacillus. These isolates were able to tolerate and degrade up to 5 mM TBP, the highest concentration reported to date. The GC-MS method was developed to monitor TBP degradation. Two strains, Providencia sp. BGW4 and Delftia sp. BGW1 showed respectively, 61.0 ± 2.8% and 57.0 ± 2.0% TBP degradation within 4 days. The degradation rate constants, calculated by first order kinetic model were between 0.0024 and 0.0099 h(-1). These bacterial strains are novel for TBP degradation and could be used as an important bioresource for efficient decontamination of TBP polluted waste streams. PMID:21755325

Ahire, Kedar C; Kapadnis, Balu P; Kulkarni, Girish J; Shouche, Yogesh S; Deopurkar, Rajendra L

2012-02-01

69

Bioremediation of single and mixture of pesticide-contaminated soils by mixed pesticide-enriched cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, degradation efficiencies for individual as well as mixed pesticide in different Indian soils, by mixed pesticide-enriched cultures, were evaluated under submerged and unsaturated conditions, Lindane (L), methyl parathion (MP), carbofuran (C), and a mixture of L, MP, and C were used in the study. For all the various conditions considered, methyl parathion degradation was the maximum and lindane degradation was the minimum. The degradation kinetics of the pesticides in sandy, clayey, compost, and red soils by various microbial isolates were studied. It was observed that adsorption was maximum and degradation of pesticides was minimum in compost soil. The degradation efficiencies of pesticides in liquid phase associated with soil sediment were less than those under the normal liquid phase conditions as leaching of pesticides from soil phase was continuous. Pesticide degradation was more in submerged soils compared to that in unsaturated soils. The degradation by-products of individual and mixed pesticides in liquid, unsaturated, and submerged soils were identified. Different metabolites were produced under submerged and unsaturated conditions. PMID:21424248

Rama Krishna, K; Philip, Ligy

2011-08-01

70

Development of PCR Primer Systems for Amplification of Nitrite Reductase Genes (nirK and nirS) To Detect Denitrifying Bacteria in Environmental Samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A system was developed for the detection of denitrifying bacteria by the amplification of specific nitrite reductase gene fragments with PCR. Primer sequences were found for the amplification of fragments from both nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) after comparative sequence analysis. Whenever amplification was tried with these primers, the known nir type of denitrifying laboratory cultures could be confirmed. Likewise, the method allowed a determination of the nir type of five laborato...

Braker, Gesche; Fesefeldt, Andreas; Witzel, Karl-paul

1998-01-01

71

In situ detection of denitrifying bacteria by mRNA-targeted nucleic acid probes and catalyzed reporter deposition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In situ detection of denitrifying bacteria by mRNA-targeted nucleic acid probes and catalyzed reporter deposition   Michael V.W. Kofoed, Peter Stief, Morten Poulsen, and Andreas Schramm Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, University of Aarhus, Denmark Denitrification, the sequential reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas, is essential for the removal of fixed nitrogen from natural and engineered ecosystems. However, community structure and activity dynamics of denitrifying bacteria in most systems are poorly understood, partially due to difficulties in identifying and quantifying (active) denitrifiers. The goal of this study was therefore to develop a protocol for the in situ detection of denitrifying bacterial cells by targeting the mRNA of denitrification genes, hereby linking denitrification activity directly to the single-cell level. Target genes were narG (encoding nitrate reductase) and nosZ (encoding nitrous oxide reductase), to detect nitrate-reducing and completely denitrifying bacteria, respectively. Enzyme-labelled oligonucleotide probes and digoxygenin-labelled polynucleotide probes were evaluated for in situ hybridization in combination with immunochemical detection and catalyzed fluorescent reporter deposition (CARD-FISH). The general feasibility of the approach was first tested with pure cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and various denitrifying and nitrate-reducing isolates. Detailed studies of probe specificity and hybridization conditions using Clone-FISH of narG and nosZ libraries prepared from freshwater sediment revealed a sequence similarity threshold of about 80% for detectable hybridization with polynucleotide probes. Consequently, polynucleotide probes need to be designed based on habitat-specific sequence information. In contrast, oligonucleotide probes can be designed to target a broader range of denitrifying bacteria; however, they require two-pass CARD-FISH, which may result in (too) high background fluorescence. In a first application example, habitat-specific polynucleotide probes were used to quantify bacteria expressing narG and nosZ in freshwater sediments and the guts of benthic invertebrates.    

Kofoed, Michael Vedel; Stief, Peter

72

Passive markers as a low-cost method of enriching cultural visits on user’s demand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The idea of enriching a cultural heritage visitor’s experience by employing mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets is an active research domain. This is mainly due to the worldwide user penetration of such devices along with their continuous hardware performance enhancement. This work presents the experience and feedback gained by one year of operation of an experimental information system that aims in enhancing the experience of a visitor on his/her demand. The evaluated system is based on the use case-scenario where the a mobile device is used to capture and decode passive markers (such as QR-codes that are located on facades of selected important buildings in the old town of Xanthi, Greece, in order to enrich the visitor’s experience through a broad context of historical and architectural information delivered over the Web.   Keywords: On-demand information, Passive marker, QR-code, Smartphone, Visit enrichment.

Anestis Koutsoudis

2014-01-01

73

Identification of active denitrifiers in full-scale nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems by application of stable-isotope probing, microautoradiography and FISH  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denitrification is essential to the removal of nitrogen from wastewater during treatment, yet an understanding of the diversity of the active denitrifying bacteria responsible in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is lacking. In this study stable isotope probing (SIP) was applied in combination with microautoradiography (MAR)-fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to identify the active denitrifiers in a full-scale WWTP with biological N and P removal. Recognising that a range of carbon sources likely drive denitrification, a fully 13 C-labelled complex substrate was used for SIP incubations, under nitrite reducing conditions, in order to better capture the diversity of active denitrifiers present. Members of the Rhodoferax, Dechloromonas and Sulfuritalea were well represented in the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from DNA enriched in 13 C, with FISH probes designed here for their in situ characterisation. FISH and MAR confirmed that they were core active denitrifiers in the community. The SIP clone library was additionally represented by a phylogenetically diverse group of organisms, with many previously not considered as important denitrifiers. The combined approach of SIP and MAR-FISH represents an excellent approach for identifying and characterising un-described diversity of active denitrifiers in full-scale systems.

McIlroy, Simon Jon; Szyszka, Anna

2014-01-01

74

PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood and enrichment blood cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cats appear to be the primary reservoir host for Bartonella koehlerae, an alpha Proteobacteria that is most likely transmitted among cat populations by fleas (Ctenocephalides felis. Bartonella koehlerae has caused endocarditis in a dog and in one human patient from Israel, but other clinically relevant reports involving this bacterium are lacking. Despite publication of numerous, worldwide epidemiological studies designed to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. bacteremia in cats, B. koehlerae has never been isolated using conventional blood agar plates. To date, successful isolation of B. koehlerae from cats and from the one human endocarditis patient has consistently required the use of chocolate agar plates. Results In this study, Bartonella koehlerae bacteremia was documented in eight immunocompetent patients by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, either prior to or after enrichment blood culture using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium. Presenting symptoms most often included fatigue, insomnia, joint pain, headache, memory loss, and muscle pain. Four patients were also infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II. After molecular documentation of B. koehlerae infection in these patients, a serological test was developed and serum samples were tested retrospectively. Bartonella koehlerae antibodies were not detected (titers B. koehlerae antibody titers of 1:64 or greater. Conclusions Although biased by a study population consisting of individuals with extensive arthropod and animal exposure, the results of this study suggest that B. koehlerae bacteremia is more common in immunocompetent people than has been previously suspected. Future studies should more thoroughly define modes of transmission and risk factors for acquiring infection with B. koehlerae. In addition, studies are needed to determine if B. koehlerae is a cause or cofactor in the development of arthritis, peripheral neuropathies or tachyarrhythmias in patients.

Breitschwerdt Edward B

2010-08-01

75

Assessing the influence of CH4 concentration during culture enrichment on the biodegradation kinetics and population structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanotrophic communities were enriched in three stirred tank reactors continuously supplied with CH4-laden air at 20, 2 and 0.2 gCH4 m(-3) in order to evaluate the influence of CH4 concentration on the biodegradation kinetics, population structure and potential polyhydroxyalkanoate production under sequential nitrogen limitations. The population structure of the enriched cultures, dominated by type I methanotrophs, was influenced by CH4 concentration. No significant correlation between CH4 concentration and the maximum specific degradation rate (qmax) or the half-saturation constant (KS) was recorded, microorganisms enriched at 2 gCH4 m(-3) presenting the highest qmax and those enriched at 20 and 0.2 gCH4 m(-3) exhibiting the lowest KS. Maximum polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) contents of 1.0% and 12.6% (w/w) were achieved at 20 and 2 g CH4 m(-3), respectively. Polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) was also detected at PHV:PHB ratios of up to 12:1 and 4:1 in the communities enriched at 20 and 0.2 gCH4 m(-3), respectively. PMID:25169644

López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Pérez, Rebeca; Muñoz, Raúl

2014-12-15

76

Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and o-Xylene in Sediment-Free Iron-Reducing Enrichment Cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monoaromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are widespread contaminants in groundwater. We examined the anaerobic degradation of BTEX compounds with amorphous ferric oxide as electron acceptor. Successful enrichment cultures were obtained for all BTEX substrates both in the presence and absence of AQDS (9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid). The electron balances showed a complete anaerobic oxidation of the aromatic compounds to CO2. This is the first...

Jahn, Michael K.; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

2005-01-01

77

Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microbial consortia enriched from three soils using two different culture media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A consortium composed of many different bacterial species is required to efficiently degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in oil-contaminated soil. We obtained six PAH-degrading microbial consortia from three oil-contaminated soils using two different isolation culture media. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequence analyses of amplified 16s rRNA genes confirmed the bacterial community was greatly affected by both the culture medium and the soil from which the consortia were enriched. Three bacterial consortia enriched using malt yeast extract (MYE) medium showed higher degradation rates of PAHs than consortia enriched using Luria broth (LB) medium. Consortia obtained from a soil and then added back to that same soil was more effective in degrading PAHs than adding, to the same soil, consortia isolated from other, unrelated soils. This suggests that inoculum used for bioremediation should be from the same, or very similar nearby soils, as the soil that is actually being bioremediated. -- Highlights: •Six PAH-degrading microbial consortia were isolated from three oil-contaminated soils. •The bacterial community by 16s rRNA genes was affected by culture media and source soil. •Inoculum should be from the same or similar soil as the soil being bioremediated. -- Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils was most effective when using inoculum of microbial consortia from the same or similar soil as the so

78

Fermentative degradation of nonionic surfactants and polyethylene glycol by enrichment cultures and by pure cultures of homoacetogenic and propionate-forming bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Linear alkyl ethoxylates (polyethylene glycol alkyl ethers) were fermented completely to methane and CO2 in enrichment cultures inoculated with anoxic sewage sludge. Long-chain fatty acids were released as intermediates. No degradation was found with polypropylene glycol and polypropylene glycol-containing surfactants. Two types of primary ethoxylate-degrading bacteria were isolated and characterized. Both degraded polyethylene glycols with molecular weights of 1,000 completely. Strain KoB35 ...

Wagener, Stefan; Schink, Bernhard

1988-01-01

79

Signatures of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Metabolic Activity in Enrichment Cultures from a Sulphur Oxidizing Acid Mine Site  

Science.gov (United States)

Delineating the role of microorganisms in geochemical processes of interest in natural environments requires the development of tools that provide the ability to distinguish amongst microbial activity associated with different metabolic guilds. The gap between phylogenetic characterization and phenotypic understanding remains, underscoring the need to consider alternative methods. Compound specific analysis of cellular components has the potential to differentiate between active metabolic processes supporting microbial communities and may be especially useful in extreme environments. The goal of this study was to determine whether the phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) distribution and isotopic signatures associated with autotrophs and heterotrophs enriched from an acid mine drainage (AMD) system differed, and further whether natural consortial autotrophic isolates showed similar signatures to autotrophic pure strains of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans. Two distinct initial enrichments with tetrathionate and CO2 yielded primarily autotrophic (95%) Acidithiobaccillus spp. sulphur oxidizing communities. The remaining microbial members of theses enrichments (selectively resulted in their visible growth. PLFA profiles and ?13C signatures from autotrophic (1) natural enrichments, pure cultures of (2) A. ferrooxidans and (3) A. thiooxidans were similar, but collectively differed from those of the natural heterotrophic enrichment cultures. The PLFA profiles for the heterotrophic communities were made up of primarily (88-99%) C16:0 and two isomers of C18:1. In contrast, the autotrophic communities had high proportions of C16:1 (up to 18%) as well as cyclo C17 and cyclo C19 PLFA that combined comprised 18 to 58% of the observed PLFA. The ?13C signatures of the PLFA also differed strongly between the two trophic levels. The ?13C of the autotrophic PLFA, - 24 to -30 ‰, were significantly more negative than that for the heterotrophic PLFA, which ranged from -7 to -14 ‰. This distinction in PLFA pattern and isotopic composition demonstrates the ability to distinguish the relative importance of these two metabolic processes in situ in AMD, and likely extends in utility to other types of extreme environments.

Slater, G. F.; Bernier, L.; Cowie, B. R.; Warren, L. A.

2006-12-01

80

Enrichment and dynamics of novel syntrophs in a methanogenic hexadecane-degrading culture from a Chinese oilfield.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanogenic communities that degrade alkanes have been reported. However, little is known about the key players involved in the process. Methanogenic hexadecane-degrading consortia were enriched from an oilfield (Shengli, China). The microbial dynamics during the transfer incubations were monitored using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of 16S rRNA genes in combination with cloning and sequencing. The archaeal community shifted from a predominance of aceticlastic Methanosaeta during early cultivation to a substantial increase in hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus in the highly enriched culture. Bacterial T-RFs 161 and 164 bp were consistently detected during the incubation and became dominant in the highly enriched culture. T-RF 161 bp primarily represented uncultured Waste Water of Evry 1 bacterium, which was possibly associated with Candidatus Cloacamonas acidaminovorans (99.7% sequence similarity). T-RF 164 bp could be assigned to both Thermotogaceae, with the closest relative being Candidatus Mesotoga sulfurreducens (similarity of 97%) and Syntrophaceae, with Smithella propionica as the closest relative (similarity of 96-97%). These bacterial lineages were potentially capable of syntrophic interactions with methanogen partners during hexadecane degradation. Partial assA genes (encoding the ?-subunit of alkylsuccinate synthase) were also detected, implying that the mechanism of fumarate addition may function in the hexadecane activation. PMID:23066709

Cheng, Lei; Rui, Junpeng; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Yahai

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation of culture media for selective enrichment and isolation of Salmonella in seafood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seafood, including fish, shrimp, clam, crab, mussel, oyster, lobster, squid, octopus, and cuttlefish samples, was used to compare the recovery of Salmonella serovars by different selective enrichment and isolation media. The samples were selectively enriched in Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth and tetrathionate broth (TT), followed by selective isolation on Hektoen enteric (HE) agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate (XLD) agar, bismuth sulfite (BS) agar, and Brilliant Green (BG) agar media. Of 443 seafood samples analyzed, 108 were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The role of selective enrichment in Salmonella spp. recovery with RV medium was distinctly high (70%) compared to TT broth (30%). The selective enrichment in RV broth followed by selective isolation on XLD, HE, BS, and BG agar recovered Salmonella at levels of 56, 41, 28, and 16%, respectively. Similarly, after enrichment in TT broth, XLD and HE agars recovered 27 and 23% respectively. The recovery of Salmonella with enrichment in TT followed by isolation on BS and BG was abysmally low at 4.6 and 5%, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the recovery of Salmonella using the combinations of XLD and HE media with selective enrichment in RV broth. However, performance difference (P < 0.05) was observed in the recovery when BS and BG with RV, and XLD, HE, BS, and BG agars with TT broth were used. The present study showed that the combination of RV with XLD was the most efficient media for isolation of Salmonella from seafood when compared to other isolation media combinations. PMID:21140659

Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, Poothuvallil K; Thampuran, Nirmala

2010-01-01

82

Differential requirements for enriched atmospheric carbon dioxide content for intracellular growth in cell culture among selected members of the genus Rickettsia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an in vitro chicken embryo cell culture system, strains of Rickettsia prowazekii, R. mooseri, and R. rickettsii, but not of R. tsutsugamushi, required an atmosphere enriched in CO2 for intracellular growth.

Kopmans-gargantiel, A. I.; Wisseman, C. L.

1981-01-01

83

Site-specific variability in BTEX biodegradation under denitrifying conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Nine different sources of inocula, including contaminated and uncontaminated soil cores from four different sites and activated sludge, were used to establish microcosms. BTEX was not degraded under denitrifying conditions in microcosms inoculated with aquifer material from Rocky Point and Traverse City. However, rapid depletion of glucose under denitrifying conditions was observed in microcosms containing Rocky Point aquifer material. TEX degradation was observed in microcosms containing Rocky Point aquifer material. TEX degradation was observed in microcosms containing aquifer material from Fort Bragg and Sleeping Bear Dunes and sewage sludge. Benzene was recalcitrant in all microcosms tested. The degradation of o-xylene ceased after toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were depleted in the Fort Bragg and sludge microcosms, but o-xylene continued to degrade in microcosms with contaminated Sleeping Bear Dunes soil. The most probable number (MPN) of denitrifiers in these nine different inocula were measured using a microtiter technique. There was no correlation between the MPN of denitrifiers and the TEX degradation rate under denitrifying conditions. Experimental results indicate that the degradation sequence and TEX degradation rate under denitrifying conditions may differ among siteitrifying conditions may differ among sites. Results also indicate that denitrification alone may not be a suitable bioremediation technology for gasoline-contaminated aquifers because of the inability of denitrifiers to degrade benzene

84

Microbial and metabolic characterization of a denitrifying phosphorus-uptake/side stream phosphorus removal system for treating domestic sewage.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, an advanced wastewater treatment process, the denitrifying phosphorus/side stream phosphorus removal system (DPR-Phostrip), was developed for the purpose of enhancing denitrifying phosphorus removal. The enrichment of denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) and the microbial community structure of DPR-Phostrip were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and the metabolic activity of seed sludge and activated sludge collected after 55 days of operation were evaluated by Biolog™ analysis. This experimental study of DPR-Phostrip operation showed that nutrients were removed effectively, and denitrifying phosphorus removal was observed during the pre-anoxic period. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip supported DPAO growth while inhibiting PAOs and GAOs. The major dominant species in DPR-Phostrip were Bacteroidetes bacterium, Saprospiraceae bacterium, and Chloroflexi bacterium. Moreover, the functional diversity indices calculated on the basis of Biolog analysis indicated that DPR-Phostrip had almost no effect on microbial community diversity but was associated with a shift in the dominant species, which confirms the results of the PCR-DGGE analysis. The results for average well color development, calculated via Biolog analysis, showed that DPR-Phostrip had a little impact on the metabolic activity of sludge. Further principal component analysis suggested that the ability to utilize low-molecular-weight organic compounds was reduced in DPR-Phostrip. PMID:25073616

Jin, Zhan; Ji, Fang-Ying; Xu, Xuan; Xu, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Qing-Kong; Li, Qi

2014-11-01

85

The Control of Microcystis spp. Bloom by Combining Indigenous Denitrifying Bacteria From Sutami Reservoir with Fimbristylis globulosa and Vetiveria zizanoides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the ability of polyculture macrophyte (Fimbristylis globulosa and Vetiveria zizanoides and the combination of both with consortium of indigenous denitrifying bacteria from Sutami reservoir that was added by Microcystis spp. or not to reduce the concentration of nitrate, dissolved phosphate and the carrying capacity of Microcystis spp. The experiment was done in a medium filled up with Sutami reservoir water enriched with 16 ppm of nitrate and 0.4 ppm of phosphate. The denitrifying bacteria used in this research were DR-14, DU-27-1, DU-30-1, DU-30-2, TA-8 and DU-27-4 isolated from Sutami reservoir. The treatments were incubated within 15 days. Microcystis spp. abundance was calculated every day, but the measurement of the concentration of nitrate and dissolved phosphate was done every six days. The results showed that both treatment and the combination of both macrophytes with a consortium of denitrifying indigenous bacteria were added or not either Microcystis able to reduce nitrate at 99% and 93-99% orthophosphoric. The combination of macrophytes with denitrifying indigenous bacterial consortium from Sutami reservoir was able to inhibit the carrying capacity of Microcystis spp. highest up to 47.87%. They could also significantly reduce the abundance of Microcystis from 107 cells/mL in earlier days of the treatment into 0.35x104 cells/mL after fifteen days of incubation.

Bayu Agung Prahardika

2013-04-01

86

Anaerobic oxidation of 1-n-heptadecene by a marine denitrifying bacterium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A denitrifying bacterium showing typical characteristics of Pseudomonas sp. (Al1) capable of growth on 1-heptadecene as the sole source of carbon and energy has been isolated from a hydrocarbon-poluted marine sediment by using classical enrichment techniques. The generation time for anaerobic growth on 1-heptadecene was 24 h, and the percentage of hydrocarbon degradation under anaerobic conditions ranged from 19 to 23%. The emulsifying capacity was observed and suggested that Al1 cultivated anaerobically on heptadecene produced surface-active agents. (orig.).

Gilewicz, M.; Acquavira, M.; Bertrand, J.C. (Centre d' Oceanologie de Marseille (OSU), 13 (France)); Monpert, G.; Mille, G. (Centre de Spectroscopie Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences et Technique de Saint Jerome, 13 - Marseille (France))

1991-11-01

87

Bacterial and Archaeal direct counts: a faster method of enumeration, for enrichment cultures and aqueous environmental samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new presence/absence method has been developed to count fluorochrome-stained bacterial and archaeal cells on membrane filters using epifluorescence microscopy. This approach was derived from the random distribution of cells on membranes that allowed the use of the Poisson distribution to estimate total cell densities. Comparison with the standard Acridine Orange Direct Count (AODC) technique shows no significant difference in the estimation of total cell populations, or any reduction in the precision of these estimations. The new method offers advantages over the standard AODC in considerably faster counting, as there is no need to discriminate between every potential cell visible on a field and fluorescent detritus, it is only necessary to confirm the presence of one cell. Additionally, the new method requires less skill, so has less reliance on expert counters, and that should reduce inter-counter variability. Although this work used the fluorochrome Acridine Orange, clearly the results are applicable to any fluorochrome used to count bacterial and archaeal cells. This method was developed using enrichment cultures for use with enrichment cultures and aqueous environmental samples where interfering detrital and mineral particles are minimal e.g., freshwater/seawater, therefore, it is not suitable for estimating total cells from sediment samples. This method has the potential for use in any situation where counts of randomly distributed items are made using a grid or quadrat system. PMID:24361191

Cragg, Barry A; Parkes, R John

2014-03-01

88

Macrofaunal Impact on the Denitrifying Bacterial Community in Freshwater Sediment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrates alter their habitat by transporting oxic water into the sediment and enriching it for organic matter, thereby affecting microbial processes in the sediment. Here we report that burrowing macroinvertebrates can also have a pronounced effect on microbial diversity, with nitrate-reducing and denitrifying bacteria as examples. The diversity of these functional groups was compared in sediment microcosms with and without Chironomus plumosus larvae, using the genes encoding nitrate reductase (narG) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) as functional markers. The estimated phylotype richness of narG increased from 68 in sediment without larvae to 170 in sediment with larvae. Part of this increase in narG diversity could be explained by metabolic activation of certain nitrate-reducing bacteria in the gut of C. plumosus, since 18.3 % of the additional phylotypes were found actively expressed in the gut contents of C. plumosus. The remaining increase may be due to the creationof a (on the microscale) more structured habitat by larval activities like burrow construction, bioturbation, and water pumping, possibly combined with a general activation of microbes by enriching the sediment with partly degraded organic material excreted by the larvae. In contrast to narG, nosZ phylotype richness was unaffected by the presence of chironomid larvae, and very few nosZ phylotypes were actively expressed in the larvae gut. Our results suggest that burrowing macroinvertebrates affect the microbial diversity in sediments, both indirectly by their behaviour and directly by activating certain functional groups of microorganisms passing through their gut.

Poulsen, Morten; Stief, Peter

89

Culturing bias in marine heterotrophic flagellates analyzed through seawater enrichment incubations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of heterotrophic flagellates is generally based on cultivated strains, on which ultrastructural, physiological, and molecular studies have been performed. However, the relevance of these cultured strains as models of the dominant heterotrophic flagellates in the marine planktonic environment is unclear. In fact, molecular surveys typically recover novel eukaryotic lineages that have refused cultivation so far. This study was designed to directly address the culturing bias in planktonic marine heterotrophic flagellates. Several microcosms were established adding increasing amounts and sources of organic matter to a confined natural microbial community pre-filtered by 3 ?m. Growth dynamics were followed by epifluorescence microscopy and showed the expected higher yield of bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates at increased organic matter additions. Moreover, protist diversity analyzed by molecular tools showed a clear substitution in the community, which differed more and more from the initial sample as the organic matter increased. Within this gradient, there was also an increase of sequences related to cultured organisms as well as a decrease in diversity. Culturing bias is partly explained by the use of organic matter in the isolation process, which drives a shift in the community to conditions closer to laboratory cultures. An intensive culturing effort using alternative isolation methods is necessary to allow the access to the missing heterotrophic flagellates that constitute the abundant and active taxa in marine systems. PMID:23749062

del Campo, Javier; Balagué, Vanessa; Forn, Irene; Lekunberri, Itziar; Massana, Ramon

2013-10-01

90

[Taxonomy of denitrifying bacteria in soddy podzolic soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

The taxonomic composition of denitrifying bacteria in soddy podzolic soil was studied by the succession analysis method. This method revealed a significant variation in the taxonomic composition of denitrifying microorganisms in the course of succession. In contrast to succession analysis, the single microbiological analysis of soil samples reflected only the late stage of succession and thus led to an underestimation of the major members of succession. Myxobacteria were found to be the most active denitrifiers at the early stages of succession, whereas bacilli dominated at its late stages. The bacilli were represented by three facultatively anaerobic species, Bacillus cereus, Bac. circulans, and Bac. polymyxa. PMID:10776633

Manucharova, N A; Dobrovol'skaia, T G; Stepanov, A L

2000-01-01

91

Effect of pH on N?O reduction and accumulation during denitrification by methanol utilizing denitrifiers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acidic pH has previously been found to increase nitrous oxide (N?O) accumulation during heterotrophic denitrification in biological wastewater treatment. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon still needs to be clarified. By using an enriched methanol utilizing denitrifying culture as an example, this paper presents a comprehensive study on the effect of pH (6.0-9.0) on N?O reduction kinetics with N?O as the sole electron acceptor, as well as the effect of pH on N?O accumulation with N?O as an intermediate of nitrate reduction. The pH dependency of nitrate and nitrite reduction was also investigated. The maximum biomass-specificN?O reduction rate is higher than the corresponding maximum nitrate and nitrite reduction rates in the entire pH range studied. However, the maximum biomass-specific N?O reduction rate is much more sensitive to pH variation outside of the optimal range (pH 7.5 to pH 8.0) than the maximum biomass-specific nitrate and nitrite reduction rates. The half-saturation coefficient of the N?O reductase increased from 0.10 mg N?O-N/L to 0.92 mg N?O-N/L as pH increased from pH 6.0 to 9.0. At pH 6.0, approximately 20% and 40% of the denitrified nitrate accumulated as N?O in the presence and absence of methanol (as an exogenous carbon source), respectively. However, at pH 6.5, these fractions decreased to 0% and 30%, respectively. No N?O accumulation occurred at pH 7.0 to 9.0 independent of the availability of methanol. These results suggest that the competition for electrons among different nitrogen oxides reductases likely plays a role in N?O accumulation at low pH conditions. PMID:22749904

Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

2012-10-01

92

Atrazine biodegradation efficiency, metabolite detection, and trzD gene expression by enrichment bacterial cultures from agricultural soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atrazine is a selective herbicide used in agricultural fields to control the emergence of broadleaf and grassy weeds. The persistence of this herbicide is influenced by the metabolic action of habituated native microorganisms. This study provides information on the occurrence of atrazine mineralizing bacterial strains with faster metabolizing ability. The enrichment cultures were tested for the biodegradation of atrazine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Nine cultures JS01.Deg01 to JS09.Deg01 were identified as the degrader of atrazine in the enrichment culture. The three isolates JS04.Deg01, JS07.Deg01, and JS08.Deg01 were identified as efficient atrazine metabolizers. Isolates JS04.Deg01 and JS07.Deg01 produced hydroxyatrazine (HA) N-isopropylammelide and cyanuric acid by dealkylation reaction. The isolate JS08.Deg01 generated deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and cyanuric acid by N-dealkylation in the upper degradation pathway and later it incorporated cyanuric acid in their biomass by the lower degradation pathway. The optimum pH for degrading atrazine by JS08.Deg01 was 7.0 and 16S rDNA phylogenetic typing identified it as Enterobacter cloacae strain JS08.Deg01. The highest atrazine mineralization was observed in case of isolate JS08.Deg01, where an ample amount of trzD mRNA was quantified at 72 h of incubation with atrazine. Atrazine bioremediating isolate E. cloacae strain JS08.Deg01 could be the better environmental remediator of agricultural soils and the crop fields contaminated with atrazine could be the source of the efficient biodegrading microbial strains for the environmental cleanup process. PMID:24302716

Solomon, Robinson David Jebakumar; Kumar, Amit; Satheeja Santhi, Velayudhan

2013-12-01

93

Limited nutritional benefit to the seagrass Halophila ovalis, in culture, following sediment organic matter enrichment  

Science.gov (United States)

Essential nutrients for seagrass growth may be derived from benthic decomposition of organic matter. To test this idea, cores of Halophila ovalis (seagrass-vegetated) and unvegetated sediment (control) were amended with either particulate organic matter (POM) or dissolved organic matter (DOM) to test whether a positive feed-back loop exists, where increased organic matter results in increased seagrass nutrients. POM was added in the form of seagrass wrack (0, 1, 5, 12 g core -1) and DOM was added with sucrose diffusion tubes at the root zone (0, 0.8, 2.4, 5.2 g core -1). Cores were incubated under saturating light conditions (12 h light/12 h dark) at 18 °C, for 4 weeks. Results suggest a complex balance between positive and negative effects of organic matter enrichment. Whilst leaf molar concentrations of N and P of H. ovalis increased (by 15 and 30% respectively), plant growth declined (up to 50% relative to control) for both DOM and POM enrichments. Phosphate was removed from sediment porewater following POM addition and most likely translocated to the leaves. Stressors other than nutrient limitation (e.g. biogeochemical constraints) reduce growth and affect the nutrient dynamics of the seagrass and should be the focus of future work.

Kilminster, K. L.; Walker, D. I.; Thompson, P. A.; Raven, J. A.

2006-07-01

94

Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70?C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens  

Science.gov (United States)

The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 ± 0.06, 1.0 ± 0.13 and 0.4 ± 0.05?mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4?g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation. PMID:24920064

Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jing; Dai, Kun; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Zeng, Raymond J.

2014-01-01

95

Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens  

Science.gov (United States)

The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 +/- 0.06, 1.0 +/- 0.13 and 0.4 +/- 0.05 mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4 g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation.

Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jing; Dai, Kun; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Zeng, Raymond J.

2014-06-01

96

Growth yields and fermentation balance of Bacteroides fragilis cultured in glucose-enriched medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteroides fragilis is an obligate anaerobic bacterium classified with the gram-negative, non-sporeforming bacilli and is the Bacteroides species most frequently isolated from human infections. In the present study, experiments were designed to investigate growth characteristics of B. fragilis in a complex medium. In a minimal defined medium, which was employed for comparison purposes, B. fragilis grew with a generation time of 2 h. Growth of the organism in glucose-enriched medium used in the present study was superior. Maximum generation time was 60 min. Total and viable cells (colony-forming units) were 8.9 x 10(9) and 2.1 x 10(9), respectively, at maximum measurable growth. The molar growth yield (Ym) was 51.5. Growth yields were found to reach a maximum 2 to 3 h before maximum growth and to vary with respect to the phase of growth. Estimates of the fermentation products indicated that glucose was the sole energy substrate. Major products included acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid. Other products included ethyl alcohol, pyruvic acid, and fumaric acid. No attempt was made to recover CO2 or formic acid. The OR balances from two experiments were 0.013 and -0.093 and the respective carbon recoveries were 6.268 and 6.241. The results of the present study show that B. fragilis is capable of rapid rates of growth in vitro by using glucose as the sole energy source. PMID:438119

Frantz, J C; McCallum, R E

1979-03-01

97

Isolation and Molecular Identification of an Aerobic Denitrifier  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Six bacteria strains of which total nitrogen removal efficiency is over 70% were isolated from the activated sludge after enrichment culture. The strain Z31 with higher nitrogen removal was selected and its characteristic of aerobic denitrification was confirmed by the nitrogen element track. The results showed that the nitrate in the culture could be efficiently removed by strain Z31 and the nitrate nitrogen removal rate was up to above 95%. There was obvious nitrite accumulation during the ...

Hongyu Wang; Kai Yang; Bin Ji; Yu Jiang

2013-01-01

98

Antitumoural activity of viniferin-enriched extracts from Vitis vinifera L. cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of stilbenes from different cultivars of Vitis vinifera on tumour proliferation. Extracts were obtained from elicited V. vinifera cell cultures and characterised by HPLC/DAD/MS. Cell growth was evaluated in four human cancer cell lines and in normal human fibroblasts. The cells were exposed to the extracts or to trans-resveratrol, used as reference molecule, for 48 h, at 1-10 ?M concentrations of total stilbenoids. All the extracts exhibited antiproliferative activity, mediated by modulation of the cell cycle and induction of cytotoxicity in cancer but not in normal cell lines, and positively correlated with the content in dimeric stilbenoids. The Alphonse Lavallée extract was the most active, and the obtained stilbenoid fraction resulted 8-10 times more active than trans-resveratrol. Extracts from V. vinifera cell cultures could represent new sources of active stilbenoid compounds to be further assayed in in vivo studies for their antitumoural properties. PMID:24949881

Giovannelli, L; Innocenti, M; Santamaria, A R; Bigagli, E; Pasqua, G; Mulinacci, N

2014-11-01

99

Enhancement of Phenolics, Resveratrol and Antioxidant Activity by Nitrogen Enrichment in Cell Suspension Culture of Vitis vinifera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, an important nitrogen source (34% N, has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement of cell biomass, total phenolics, resveratrol levels, and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera cv. Pok Dum by nitrogen enrichment (MS medium supplemented with NH4NO3 at 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L. The highest accumulations of biomass, phenolics and resveratrol contents were observed at 8.8-fold (86.6 g DW/L, 15.9-fold (71.91 mg GAE/g DW and 5.6-fold (277.89 µg/g DW by the 14th day, in the medium supplemented with 500 mg/L NH4NO3. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of cultured grape cells estimated by the DPPH· and ABTS·+ assay were positively correlated with phenolics and resveratrol, and the maximum activity was also observed in cultured cells with 500 mg/L NH4NO3 at 176.11 and 267.79 mmol TE/100 g DW, respectively.

Napaporn Sae-Lee

2014-06-01

100

Antepartum screening for group B Streptococcus by three FDA-cleared molecular tests and effect of shortened enrichment culture on molecular detection rates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae infections cause significant morbidity and mortality, and antenatal screening is recommended. We compared three U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to culture using 314 vaginal/rectal swabs after 18 to 24 h (recommended period) and 4 to 8 h (shortened period) of broth enrichment. Agreement of the NAATs with each other was high (97.1% to 98.4%), but culture was less sensitive than all NAATs (67% to 73%). A shortened period of broth culture enrichment resulted in 1 false-negative result in 68 (1.5%). The NAATs performed comparably and were more sensitive than culture. PMID:25009049

Couturier, Brianne A; Weight, Trent; Elmer, Haley; Schlaberg, Robert

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Proteins differentially expressed in human beta-cells-enriched pancreatic islet cultures and human insulinomas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In view of the great demand for human beta-cells for physiological and medical studies, we generated cell lines derived from human insulinomas which secrete insulin, C-peptide and express neuroendocrine and islet markers. In this study, we set out to characterize their proteomes, comparing them to those of primary beta-cells using DIGE followed by MS. The results were validated by Western blotting. An average of 1800 spots was detected with less than 1% exhibiting differential abundance. Proteins more abundant in human islets, such as Caldesmon, are involved in the regulation of cell contractility, adhesion dependent signaling, and cytoskeletal organization. In contrast, almost all proteins more abundant in insulinoma cells, such as MAGE2, were first described here and could be related to cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Our proteomic data provides, for the first time, a molecular snapshot of the orchestrated changes in expression of proteins involved in key processes which could be correlated with the altered phenotype of human beta-cells. Collectively our observations prompt research towards the establishment of bioengineered human beta-cells providing a new and needed source of cultured human beta-cells for beta-cell research, along with the development of new therapeutic strategies for detection, characterization and treatment of insulinomas.

Terra, Letícia F; Teixeira, Priscila C

2013-01-01

102

Proteins differentially expressed in human beta-cells-enriched pancreatic islet cultures and human insulinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of the great demand for human beta-cells for physiological and medical studies, we generated cell lines derived from human insulinomas which secrete insulin, C-peptide and express neuroendocrine and islet markers. In this study, we set out to characterize their proteomes, comparing them to those of primary beta-cells using DIGE followed by MS. The results were validated by Western blotting. An average of 1800 spots was detected with less than 1% exhibiting differential abundance. Proteins more abundant in human islets, such as Caldesmon, are involved in the regulation of cell contractility, adhesion dependent signaling, and cytoskeletal organization. In contrast, almost all proteins more abundant in insulinoma cells, such as MAGE2, were first described here and could be related to cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Our proteomic data provides, for the first time, a molecular snapshot of the orchestrated changes in expression of proteins involved in key processes which could be correlated with the altered phenotype of human beta-cells. Collectively our observations prompt research towards the establishment of bioengineered human beta-cells providing a new and needed source of cultured human beta-cells for beta-cell research, along with the development of new therapeutic strategies for detection, characterization and treatment of insulinomas. PMID:23891624

Terra, Letícia F; Teixeira, Priscila C; Wailemann, Rosangela A M; Zelanis, André; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Kalil, Jorge; Larsen, Martin R; Labriola, Leticia; Sogayar, Mari C

2013-12-01

103

Enrichment of hepatocytes in a HepaRG culture using spatially selective photodynamic treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The human hepatoma HepaRG cell line is an in vitro cell model that is becoming an important tool in drug metabolism, hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and enzyme induction studies. The cells are highly proliferative during their undifferentiated state but once committed, they differentiate into two distinctly different cell types, namely, hepatocyte-like and biliary epithelial-like cells. The presence of the latter in the cell culture is considered to be a drawback of the cell model. Since the proliferating undifferentiated HepaRG cells have a bipotent character, the only way to improve the content ratio of hepatic versus biliary cells of differentiated HepaRG cells is to eradicate biliary cells in situ, in a way that free surface space does not become available and thus no transdifferentiation can occur. Spatially selective photodynamic therapy has proven to be effective for that purpose. First, all the cells were administered aminolevulinic acid (?-ALA) to stimulate the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a naturally occurring photosensitizer. Then, the biliary cells were automatically identified and outlined by bright-field image processing. Last, UV light patterns were projected onto the epithelial cells alone by a spatial light modulation device connected to an optical microscope; therefore, only these cells were destroyed by photodynamic therapy.

Bednarkiewicz, Artur; Rodrigues, Robim M.; Whelan, Maurice P.

2010-03-01

104

The metabolism of neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam by soil enrichment cultures, and the bacterial diversity and plant growth-promoting properties of the cultured isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

A soil enrichment culture (SEC) rapidly degraded 96% of 200 mg L(-1) neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam (TMX) in MSM broth within 30 d; therefore, its metabolic pathway of TMX, bacterial diversity and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) activities of the cultured isolates were studied. The SEC transformed TMX via the nitro reduction pathway to form nitrso, urea metabolites and via cleavage of the oxadiazine cycle to form a new metabolite, hydroxyl CLO-tri. In addition, 16S rRNA gene-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that uncultured rhizobacteria are predominant in the SEC broth and that 77.8% of the identified bacteria belonged to uncultured bacteria. A total of 31 cultured bacterial strains including six genera (Achromobacter, Agromyces, Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Microbacterium and Pseudoxanthomonas) were isolated from the SEC broth. The 12 strains of Ensifer adhaerens have the ability to degrade TMX. All six selected bacteria showed PGPR activities. E. adhaerens TMX-23 and Agromyces mediolanus TMX-25 produced indole-3-acetic acid, whereas E. adhaerens TMX-23 and Mesorhizobium alhagi TMX-36 are N2-fixing bacteria. The six-isolated microbes were tolerant to 200 mg L(-1) TMX, and the growth of E. adhaerens was significantly enhanced by TMX, whereas that of Achromobacter sp. TMX-5 and Microbacterium sp.TMX-6 were enhanced slightly. The present study will help to explain the fate of TMX in the environment and its microbial degradation mechanism, as well as to facilitate future investigations of the mechanism through which TMX enhances plant vigor. PMID:24762175

Zhou, Guang-Can; Wang, Ying; Ma, Yuan; Zhai, Shan; Zhou, Ling-Yan; Dai, Yi-Jun; Yuan, Sheng

2014-06-01

105

Geochemical diversity in S processes mediated by culture-adapted and environmental-enrichments of Acidithiobacillus spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coupled S speciation and acid generation resulting from S processing associated with five different microbial treatments, all primarily Acidithiobacillus spp. (i.e. autotrophic S-oxidizers) were evaluated in batch laboratory experiments. Microbial treatments included two culture-adapted strains, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, their consortia and two environmental enrichments from a mine tailings lake that were determined to be >95% Acidithiobacillus spp., by whole-cell fluorescent hybridization. Using batch experiments simulating acidic mine waters with no carbon amendments, acid generation, and S speciation associated with the oxidation of three S substrates (thiosulfate, tetrathionate, and elemental S) were evaluated. Aseptic controls showed no observable pH decrease over the experimental time course (1 month) for all three S compounds examined. In contrast, pH decreased in all microbial treatments from starting pH values of 4 to 2 or less for all three S substrates. Results show a non-linear relationship between the pH dynamics of the batch cultures and their corresponding sulfate concentrations, and indicate how known microbial S processing pathways have opposite impacts, ultimately on pH dynamics. Associated geochemical modeling indicated negligible abiogenic processes contributing to the observed results, indicating strong microbial control of acid generation extending over pH ranges from 4 to less than 2. However, the observed acid generation rates and associated S speciation were both microbial treatment and substrate-specific. Results reveal a number of novel insights regarding microbial catalysis of S oxidation: (1) metabolic diversity in S processing, as evidenced by the observed geochemical signatures in S chemical speciation and rates of acid generation amongst phylogenetically similar organisms (to the genus level); (2) consortial impacts differ from those of individual strain members; (3) environmental enrichments of Acidithiobacillus spp. catalyze different S reaction arrays than pure strain Acidithiobacillus spp.; and (4) microbial catalysis of S reactions involves significant disproportionation tied to substantial H + consumption, with the formation of as yet, poorly characterized intermediate S species, most likely polythionates and polysulfane monosulfonic acids that are thought to be involved in microbial S storage mechanisms.

Bernier, Luc; Warren, Lesley A.

2007-12-01

106

Cultivation and irradiation of human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For over 30 years, the use of culture medium, enriched with bovine serum, and murines fibroblasts, with the rate of proliferation controlled by irradiation or by share anticarcinogenic drugs, has been playing successfully its role in assisting in the development of keratinocytes in culture, for clinical purposes. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and animals viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, the present work aims to cultivate human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with human platelets lysate and determine the irradiation dose of these cells, for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture. For carrying out the proposed objective, platelets lysis has standardized, this lysate was used for human fibroblasts cultivation and the irradiation dose enough to inhibit its duplication was evaluated. Human keratinocytes were cultivated in these feeder layers, in culture medium enriched with the lysate. With these results we conclude that the 10% platelets lysate promoted a better adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts and in all dose levels tested (60 to 300 Gy), these had their mitotic activity inactivated by ionizing irradiation, being that the feeder layers obtained with doses from 70 to 150 Gy were those that provided the best development of keratinocytes in medium containing 2.5% of human platelet lysate. Therefore, it was possible to standardize both the cultivation of human fibroblasts as its inactivation for use as feeder layer in culture of keratinocytes, so as to eliminate xenobiotics components. (author)

107

Using enriched cultures for elevation of anaerobic syntrophic interactions between acetogens and methanogens in a high-load continuous digester.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are key intermediates in anaerobic digestion. Enriched acetogenic and methanogenic cultures were used for syntrophic anaerobic digestion of VFAs in a high-load continuous reactor fed with acetic (HAc), propionic (HPr) and butyric (HBu) acids at maximum concentrations of 5, 3 and 4 g/L, respectively. Interactive effects of HPr, HBu and HAc were analyzed. Furthermore, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and methanogen to acetogen population ratio (M/A) were investigated as key microbiological and operating variables of VFA anaerobic degradations. Optimum conditions were found to be HPr=1125.0mg/L, HBu=1833.4 mg/L, HAc=1727.4 mg/L, HRT=21 h and M/A=2.5 (corresponding to maximum VFA removal and biogas production rate (BPR)). Results of verification experiments and predicted values from fitted correlations were in close agreement at 95% confidence interval. HRT and M/A had positive effects on VFA removal and BPR. M/A was the most important factor that affected BPR. All VFAs inhibited VFA removals. PMID:21186121

Amani, T; Nosrati, M; Mousavi, S M

2011-02-01

108

Analysis of the syntrophic anaerobic digestion of volatile fatty acids using enriched cultures in a fixed-bed reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are key intermediates in anaerobic digestion. Enriched acetogenic and methanogenic cultures were used for the syntrophic anaerobic digestion of VFAs in a continuous fixed-bed reactor at mesophilic conditions. The interactive effects of propionic (HPr), butyric (HBu), and acetic (HAc) acids were analyzed. Furthermore, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and methanogen-to-acetogen ratios (M/As) were investigated as the key microbiological and operating variables of VFA anaerobic degradations. Experiments were carried out based on central composite design (CCD) and results were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). Effluent concentrations of HPr, HBu, HAc, and biogas production rate (BPR) were directly measured as responses. The optimum conditions were found to be HPr = 1122.9 mg/L, HBu = 1792.4 mg/L, HAc = 1735.4 mg/L, HRT = 21 hours, and M/A = 2.4 (corresponding to the maximum VFA removal and BPR). The results of verification experiments and predicted values from fitted correlations were in close agreement at a 95% confidence interval. PMID:22852432

Amani, T; Nosrati, M; Mousavi, S M; Kermanshahi, R K

2012-05-01

109

Optimizing BTEX biodegradation under denitrifying conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaking underground storage tanks are a major source of ground water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons. Gasoline and other fuels contain benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively known as BTEX), which are hazardous compounds, regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Laboratory tests were conducted to determine optimum conditions for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (collectively known as BTEX) biodegradation by aquifer microorganisms under denitrifying conditions. Microcosms, constructed with aquifer samples from Traverse City, Michigan, were amended with selected concentrations of nutrients and one or more hydrocarbons. Toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and p-xylene, were degraded to below 5 micrograms/L when present as sole source substrates; stoichiometric calculations indicated that nitrate removal was sufficient to account for 70 to 80% of the compounds being mineralized. o-Xylene was recalcitrant when present as a sole source substrate, but was slowly degraded in the presence of the other hydrocarbons. Benzene was not degraded within one year, regardless of whether it was available as a sole source substrate or in combination with toluene, phenol, or catechol. Pre-exposure to low levels of BTEX and nutrients had variable effects, as did the addition of different concentrations of ammonia and phosphate. Nitrate concentrations as high as 500 mg/L NO3-N were slightly inhibitory. These data indicate that nitrate-medtory. These data indicate that nitrate-mediated biodegradation of BTEX at Traverse City can occur under a variety of environmental conditions with rates relatively independent of nutrient concentrations. However, the data reaffirm that benzene is recalcitrant under strictly anaerobic conditions in these samples

110

Optimizing BTEX biodegradation under denitrifying conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leaking underground storage tanks are a major source of ground water contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons. Gasoline and other fuels contain benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (collectively known as BTEX), which are hazardous compounds, regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Laboratory tests were conducted to determine optimum conditions for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (collectively known as BTEX) biodegradation by aquifer microorganisms under denitrifying conditions. Microcosms, constructed with aquifer samples from Traverse City, Michigan, were amended with selected concentrations of nutrients and one or more hydrocarbons. Toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and p-xylene, were degraded to below 5 micrograms/L when present as sole source substrates; stoichiometric calculations indicated that nitrate removal was sufficient to account for 70 to 80% of the compounds being mineralized. o-Xylene was recalcitrant when present as a sole source substrate, but was slowly degraded in the presence of the other hydrocarbons. Benzene was not degraded within one year, regardless of whether it was available as a sole source substrate or in combination with toluene, phenol, or catechol. Pre-exposure to low levels of BTEX and nutrients had variable effects, as did the addition of different concentrations of ammonia and phosphate. Nitrate concentrations as high as 500 mg/L NO3-N were slightly inhibitory. These data indicate that nitrate-mediated biodegradation of BTEX at Traverse City can occur under a variety of environmental conditions with rates relatively independent of nutrient concentrations. However, the data reaffirm that benzene is recalcitrant under strictly anaerobic conditions in these samples.

Hutchins, S.R.

1991-01-01

111

Diversity and activity of denitrifiers of chilean arid soil ecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chilean sclerophyllous matorral is a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem affected by erosion, with low soil fertility, and limited by nitrogen. However, limitation of resources is even more severe for desert soils such as from the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme arid deserts on Earth. Topsoil organic matter, nitrogen and moisture content were significantly higher in the semiarid soil compared to the desert soil. Although the most significant loss of biologically preferred nitrogen from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via denitrification, virtually nothing is known on the activity and composition of denitrifier communities thriving in arid soils. In this study we explored denitrifier communities from two soils with profoundly distinct edaphic factors. While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification activity. To elucidate the genetic potential of the soils to sustain denitrification processes we performed community analysis of denitrifiers based on nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) genes as functional marker genes for this physiological group. Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests very low abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers shedding light on the lack of denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed a very low diversity of nirK with only three distinct genotypes in the desert soil which conditions presumably exert a high selection pressure. While nirK diversity was also limited to only few, albeit distinct genotypes, the semiarid matorral soil showed a surprisingly broad genetic variability of the nirS gene. The Chilean matorral is a shrub land plant community which form vegetational patches stabilizing the soil and increasing its nitrogen and carbon content. These islands of fertility may sustain the development and activity of the overall microbial community and of denitrifiers in particular. PMID:22493591

Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita; Pommerenke, Bianca; Braker, Gesche

2012-01-01

112

Diversity and activity of denitrifiers of Chilean arid soil ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Chilean sclerophyllous matorral is a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem affected by erosion, with low soil fertility and limited by nitrogen. However, limitation of resources is even more severe for desert soils such as from the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme arid deserts on Earth. Topsoil organic matter, nitrogen and moisture content were significantly higher in the semiarid soil compared to the desert soil. Although the most significant loss of biologically preferred nitrogen from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via denitrification, virtually nothing is known on the activity and composition of denitrifier communities thriving in arid soils. In this study, we explored denitrifier communities from two soils with profoundly distinct edaphic factors. While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification activity. To elucidate the genetic potential of the soils to sustain denitrification processes we performed community analysis of denitrifiers based on nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS genes as functional marker genes for this physiological group. Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests very low abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers shedding light on the lack of denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed a very low diversity of nirK with only three distinct genotypes in the desert soil which conditions presumably exert a high selection pressure. While nirK diversity was also limited to only few, albeit distinct genotypes, the semiarid matorral soil showed a surprisingly broad genetic variability of the nirS gene. The Chilean matorral is a shrub land plant community which form vegetational patches stabilizing the soil and increasing its nitrogen and carbon content. These islands of fertility may sustain the development and activity of the overall microbial community and of denitrifiers in particular.

GescheBraker

2012-04-01

113

Effects of A2ON Process on Denitrifying Dephosphatation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In combination with activated sludge process and biomembrance process, based on the principle of denitrifying dephosphatation, A2ON processes for biphase sequencing batch reactor biological nutrient removal (BNR treatment have been developed, with an emphasis on the effects of the ratio of COD to TN (COD/TN variations on the BNR treatment. Results indicated that the process possessed stable effects, showed strong flexibility for water quality, could attenuate the aerobic requirement and decrease the competition of denitrifying and dephosphation for carbon source to a greater degree, and meanwhile guaranteed that nitrifying bacteria about a generation time could grow stably.

Lifang Guo

2010-10-01

114

Rate of denitrification and the accumulation of intermediates in a denitrifying bioreactor  

Science.gov (United States)

Denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs) are an emerging mechanism to mitigate the impact of excess reactive nitrogen by harnessing the activity of ubiquitous denitrifying soil microbes. DNBRs fundamentally consist of an organic carbon energy source sufficiently saturated to develop anaerobic conditions and support heterotrophic reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen. Although recent research has well established achievable nitrate removal in DNBRs upwards of 90%, few studies experimentally determine the fate of nitrogen in these systems. This study differentiates between denitrification to inert nitrogen gas, which permanently removes reactive nitrogen from an enriched ecosystem, and transformation of nitrate to another bioavailable form (such as N2O or NOX, powerful greenhouse gases). Previous research has failed to make this distinction and as both are perceived as a reduction in nitrate concentration at the outlet, the utility of DNBRs in reducing downstream reactive nitrogen has not been sufficiently established. In order to quantify the rate of nitrate removal and the products produced, dissolved gas samples are collected from the DNBR with passive diffusion gas samplers while the influent and effluent nitrate concentration and chemical oxygen demand are monitored in real time with spectrometer probes. Nitrate removal is compared with the denitrification rate and the ratio of dinitrogen to nitrous oxide is reported. Denitrification is quantified from the proportion of nitrogen gas products produced from the nitrate pool, indicated by the negative congruence of the regression of 15N enrichment in the nitrate pool and temporal depletion in the gaseous products. The proportion of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen is examined with respect to saturation and redox potential. This research informs the interpretation of previous studies as well as advises the focus of long-term system level monitoring that will provide further information on the design and application of DNBRs to mitigate nitrate pollution.

Parsignault, D. R.; Gursky, H.; Kellogg, E. M.; Matilsky, T.; Murray, S.; Schreier, E.; Tananbaum, H.; Giacconi, R.; Brinkman, A. C.

2012-12-01

115

Nitrate removal, communities of denitrifiers and adverse effects in different carbon substrates for use in denitrification beds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Denitrification beds are containers filled with wood by-products that serve as a carbon and energy source to denitrifiers, which reduce nitrate (NO(3)(-)) from point source discharges into non-reactive dinitrogen (N(2)) gas. This study investigates a range of alternative carbon sources and determines rates, mechanisms and factors controlling NO(3)(-) removal, denitrifying bacterial community, and the adverse effects of these substrates. Experimental barrels (0.2 m(3)) filled with either maize cobs, wheat straw, green waste, sawdust, pine woodchips or eucalyptus woodchips were incubated at 16.8 °C or 27.1 °C (outlet temperature), and received NO(3)(-) enriched water (14.38 mg N L(-1) and 17.15 mg N L(-1)). After 2.5 years of incubation measurements were made of NO(3)(-)-N removal rates, in vitro denitrification rates (DR), factors limiting denitrification (carbon and nitrate availability, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and concentrations of NO(3)(-), nitrite and ammonia), copy number of nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes, and greenhouse gas production (dissolved nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane), and carbon (TOC) loss. Microbial denitrification was the main mechanism for NO(3)(-)-N removal. Nitrate-N removal rates ranged from 1.3 (pine woodchips) to 6.2 g N m(-3) d(-1) (maize cobs), and were predominantly limited by C availability and temperature (Q(10) = 1.2) when NO(3)(-)-N outlet concentrations remained above 1 mg L(-1). The NO(3)(-)-N removal rate did not depend directly on substrate type, but on the quantity of microbially available carbon, which differed between carbon sources. The abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) was similar in replicate barrels under cold incubation, but varied substantially under warm incubation, and between substrates. Warm incubation enhanced growth of nirS containing bacteria and bacteria that lacked the nosZ gene, potentially explaining the greater N(2)O emission in warmer environments. Maize cob substrate had the highest NO(3)(-)-N removal rate, but adverse effects include TOC release, dissolved N(2)O release and substantial carbon consumption by non-denitrifiers. Woodchips removed less than half of NO(3)(-) removed by maize cobs, but provided ideal conditions for denitrifying bacteria, and adverse effects were not observed. Therefore we recommend the combination of maize cobs and woodchips to enhance NO(3)(-) removal while minimizing adverse effects in denitrification beds. PMID:21880343

Warneke, Sören; Schipper, Louis A; Matiasek, Michael G; Scow, Kate M; Cameron, Stewart; Bruesewitz, Denise A; McDonald, Ian R

2011-11-01

116

Development of PCR primer systems for amplification of nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) to detect denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system was developed for the detection of denitrifying bacteria by the application of specific nitrite reductase gene fragments with PCR. Primer sequences were found for the amplification of fragments from both nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) after comparative sequence analysis. Whenever amplification was tried with these primers, the known nir type of denitrifying laboratory cultures could be confirmed. Likewise, the method allowed a determination of the nir type of five laboratory strains. The nirK gene could be amplified from Blastobacter denitrificans, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, and Alcaligenes sp. (DSM 30128); the nirS gene was amplified from Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 530 and from the denitrifying isolate IFAM 3698. For each of the two genes, at least one primer combination amplified successfully for all of the test strains. Specific amplification products were not obtained wit h nondenitrifying bacteria or with strains of the other nir type. The specificity of the amplified products was confirmed by subsequent sequencing. These results suggest the suitability of the method for the qualitative detection of denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples. This was shown by applying the generally amplifying primer combination for each nir gene developed in this study to total DNA preparations from aquatic habitats.

Braker, G.; Witzel, K.P. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Limnologie, Ploen (Germany); Fesefeldt, A. [Univ. Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Mikrobiologie

1998-10-01

117

Use of stable-isotope probing, full-cycle rRNA analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization-microautoradiography to study a methanol-fed denitrifying microbial community.  

Science.gov (United States)

A denitrifying microbial consortium was enriched in an anoxically operated, methanol-fed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with a mineral salts medium containing methanol as the sole carbon source and nitrate as the electron acceptor. The SBR was inoculated with sludge from a biological nutrient removal activated sludge plant exhibiting good denitrification. The SBR denitrification rate improved from less than 0.02 mg of NO(3)(-)-N mg of mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)(-1) h(-1) to a steady-state value of 0.06 mg of NO(3)(-)-N mg of MLVSS(-1) h(-1) over a 7-month operational period. At this time, the enriched microbial community was subjected to stable-isotope probing (SIP) with [(13)C]methanol to biomark the DNA of the denitrifiers. The extracted [(13)C]DNA and [(12)C]DNA from the SIP experiment were separately subjected to full-cycle rRNA analysis. The dominant 16S rRNA gene phylotype (group A clones) in the [(13)C]DNA clone library was closely related to those of the obligate methylotrophs Methylobacillus and Methylophilus in the order Methylophilales of the Betaproteobacteria (96 to 97% sequence identities), while the most abundant clone groups in the [(12)C]DNA clone library mostly belonged to the family Saprospiraceae in the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oligonucleotide probes for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were designed to specifically target the group A clones and Methylophilales (probes DEN67 and MET1216, respectively) and the Saprospiraceae clones (probe SAP553). Application of these probes to the SBR biomass over the enrichment period demonstrated a strong correlation between the level of SBR denitrification and relative abundance of DEN67-targeted bacteria in the SBR community. By contrast, there was no correlation between the denitrification rate and the relative abundances of the well-known denitrifying genera Hyphomicrobium and Paracoccus or the Saprospiraceae clones visualized by FISH in the SBR biomass. FISH combined with microautoradiography independently confirmed that the DEN67-targeted cells were the dominant bacterial group capable of anoxic [(14)C]methanol uptake in the enriched biomass. The well-known denitrification lag period in the methanol-fed SBR was shown to coincide with a lag phase in growth of the DEN67-targeted denitrifying population. We conclude that Methylophilales bacteria are the dominant denitrifiers in our SBR system and likely are important denitrifiers in full-scale methanol-fed denitrifying sludges. PMID:14711691

Ginige, Maneesha P; Hugenholtz, Philip; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael; Keller, Jürg; Blackall, Linda L

2004-01-01

118

Enrichment of a microbial culture capable of reductive debromination of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A, and identification of the intermediate metabolites produced in the process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tetrabromobisphenol-A is a reactive flame retardant used in the production of many plastic polymers. In previous research, it was demonstrated that anaerobic microorganisms from contaminated sediment debrominate tetrabromobisphenol-A to bisphenol-A, but an enrichment culture was not established. The current study was carried out to identify the intermediate metabolites in this process and to determine the factors facilitating enrichment of debrominating microorganisms. During the enrichment process in an anaerobic semi-continuous batch reactor, tetrabromobisphenol-A debromination gradually slowed down with concurrent accumulation of three intermediate products. These compounds were tentatively identified using GC-MS as tri-, di-, and mono-brominated bisphenol-A. GC-MS and HPLC analyses showed one dominant metabolite of dibromobisphenol-A, and NMR analysis identified it as 2,2'-dibromobisphenol-A. Addition of sterile sediment (15% wt/wt) to the reactor stimulated debromination of tetrabromobisphenol-A. Furthermore, different solid amendments such as surface soil and pulverized gray chalk from the site subsurface (100 m below ground) were also stimulating agents. We conclude that organic matter is involved in stimulation since the stimulation effect of the sediment, soil and gray chalk was abolished after it was heat-treated to 550 degrees C. Our study suggests that the debrominating culture requires some organic components found in the sediment, soil, and chalk in order to sustain activity and perhaps to survive. The possible mechanisms of stimulation by these solids are discussed. PMID:14669869

Arbeli, Ziv; Ronen, Zeev

2003-12-01

119

Diversity of Denitrifying Bacteria in the San Francisco Bay  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria from the San Francisco Bay to investigate whether environmental factors affect diversity. To do this, we studied the sequence diversity of the marker gene nirK. nirK codes for the enzyme nitrite reductase which helps reduce nitrite to nitric oxide, an important step in denitrification. Sediment samples were collected spatially from five different locations and temporally during the four different seasons along a salinity gradient in the bay. After collecting samples and extracting DNA from them, we used PCR to amplify our gene of interest, created clone libraries for sequencing, and compared phylogenetic trees from the different communities. Based on several phylogenetic analyses on our tree and environments, we saw that denitrifying bacteria from the North and Central Bay form distinct spatial clusters; Central Bay communities are very similar to each other, while communities from the North Bay are more distinct from each other and from communities in the Central Bay. Bacteria from site 8.1M (Carquinez Strait) showed the most cm-scale spatial diversity, and there was the most species richness during the winter. All this suggests that diversity of communities of denitrifying bacteria may be affected by spatial and temporal environmental factors.

Atluri, A.; Lee, J.; Francis, C. A.

2012-12-01

120

Comparison of culture media for enrichment and isolation of Salmonella spp. from frozen Channel catfish and Vietnamese basa fillets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frozen fillets of Channel catfish and Vietnamese basa fish were used to compare Salmonella spp. recovery effectiveness of selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth and tetrathionate broth (TT) and selective isolation on Hekteon enteric (HE) agar, xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD) agar, and bismuth sulfite (BS) agar. Isolate confirmation was through fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Of 60 samples analyzed, 25 were found contaminated with Salmonella (42% incidence). Salmonella spp. recovery after enrichment in RV medium was 35% on HE agar, 30% on XLD agar, and 42% on BS agar. Similarly, after enrichment in TT broth, HE and XLD agars recovered 22% each and BS agar recovered 37%. No performance difference (p>0.05) was observed in the recovery of Salmonella using the combinations of BS, HE, and XLD agars with RV broth and BS agar with TT broth. The combination of selective enrichment in RV and selective isolation on BS gave numerically greatest isolation of Salmonella from Channel catfish and Vietnamese basa fish compared to other isolation combinations. PMID:19269575

Pal, Amit; Marshall, Douglas L

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Cultivo del nematodo Panagrellus redivivus (Goodey, 1945) en un medio de avena enriquecida con Spirulina sp. / Nematode culture of Panagrellus redivivus (Goodey, 1945) with Spirulina sp. - enriched oatmeal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El nematodo Panagrellus redivivus se cultivó en dos medios: uno con hojuelas de avena y otro con hojuelas de avena enriquecido con Spirulina sp., en recipientes de plástico de 15x15x5 cm de altura con 200 g de hojuela de avena y 300 mL de agua purificada. Se utilizaron 5 g de Spirulina en el medio. [...] Se utilizó el programa SYSTAT versión 10.2 para el análisis estadístico; para determinar las diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, se usó un análisis de varianza unidireccional (ANDEVA) con una confiabilidad ?= 0,05. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el crecimiento de las poblaciones de nematodos en el medio enriquecido con Spirulina presentó la mayor abundancia de individuos a la segunda semana del cultivo, mientras que la población que creció en el medio de avena, presentó su mayor registro a la quinta semana del cultivo y no alcanzó el número de organismos que tuvo la población cultivada en el medio con Spirulina. El contenido de aminoácidos de las poblaciones de ambos medios se comparó y se cotejaron con los reportados para Artemia alimentada con Spirulina, observándose que en la mayoría de los aminoácidos las cantidades fueron mayores en P. redivivus cultivado en el medio con Spirulina. La composición de ácidos grasos en los nematodos cultivados en ambos medios presentó diferencias significativas entre los ácidos grasos linoleico, araquidónico y eicosapentenoico los cuales fueron en mayor porcentaje que los reportados en P. redivivus cultivado en avena con aceite de girasol. Estos datos demuestran que la cianobacteria Spirulina sp. acelera el crecimiento de la población del nematodo y permite la presencia de aminoácidos y ácidos grasos, y hace que estos nematodos puedan cubrir los requerimientos nutritivos de larvas de peces dulceacuícolas, sin embargo, se requieren estudios que lo demuestren Abstract in english The nematode Pangrellus redivivus was cultured in two media: one with oat flakes and the other with Spirulina sp.-enriched oat flakes, in 15x15x5 cm plastic containers with 200 g oat flakes and 300 mL purified water. Five grams of Spirulina was used in the medium. SYSTAT version 10.2 was used for st [...] atistical analysis; to determine the significant differences between treatment a unidirectional analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used with a confidence level of ?= 0.05. The results show that growth of the nematode population in the Spirulina-enriched medium presented the highest abundance of individuals on the second week of culture, whereas the population grown in the oat flakes medium showed the highest abundance on the fifth week of culture and did not reach the number of organisms attained by the population cultured in the Spirulina-enriched medium. The amino acids content of the populations from both media were compared to those reported for Artemia fed with Spirulina, observing that the amounts were higher for most amino acids in P. redivivus cultured in the Spirulina-enriched medium. The composition of fatty acids in the nematode cultures in both media depicted significant differences for the linoleic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids, which were found in a higher percentage than reported for P. redivivus cultures in oat flakes supplemented with sunflower oil. These data reveal that the cyanobacterium Spirulina sp. accelerates growth of the nematode populations and allows the presence of amino and fatty acids, making these nematodes suitable to cover the nutritional requirements of freshwater fish larvae, but further studies are needed to demonstrate it

Ramón, de Lara; Thalía, Castro; Jorge, Castro; Germán, Castro.

2007-04-01

122

Molecular and Stable Isotope Investigation of Nitrite Respiring Bacterial Communities Capable of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) and Denitrifying Anaerobic Methane Oxidation (DAMO) in Nitrogen Contaminated Groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) are two recently discovered N2 production pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle. ANAMMOX has been relatively well investigated in various aquatic ecosystems, while DAMO has been examined only in freshwater wetlands. However, neither ANAMMOX nor DAMO have been studied in groundwater ecosystems as microbial N removal processes where they could compliment or compete with denitrification to remediate N contaminated aquifers. Thus, we conducted molecular and stable isotope analyses to detect and measure ANAMMOX and DAMO in a nitrogen contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The study site has a plume of nitrogen contaminated groundwater as a result of continuous discharge of treated wastewater over 60 years. Groundwater was collected from multiport sampling devices installed at two sites, near the waste-water disposal location (A) and more than 3 km down gradient (B) along the contamination plume. Biomass was collected from water samples for DNA extraction and 15N tracer incubation experiments. PCR with specific 16S rRNA gene primers detected the presence of ANAMMOX and DAMO bacteria at both sites. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the ANAMMOX community at site A was most associated with Kuenenia spp. while site B had a community more closely related to Brocadia spp. The DAMO communities at the two sites were quite different based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The communities at site B are closely associated with Candidatus “Methylomirabilis oxyfera”, which is the first enriched DAMO culture. Most of the 16S rRNA sequences detected in site A were related to those found in other DAMO enrichment cultures established from a eutrophic ditch sediment. In order to determine active members of ANAMMOX communities, the transcriptional expression of hydrazine oxidase (hzo) and hydrazine hydrolase (hh) genes was examined at both sites. In addition, 15N tracer incubation experiments were used to measure the rates of ANAMMOX and denitrification. ANAMMOX was found to be higher than denitrification at site A where ANAMMOX accounted for 60% of the 15N2 production. In contrast, denitrification was higher than ANAMMOX at site B where Methylomirabilis spp. were found. Thus, this study clearly demonstrates the potential importance of ANAMMOX and DAMO in the nitrogen removal from groundwater and suggests that detailed characterization of the processes under in situ subsurface conditions could provide new information regarding the ecology of these microbes.

Song, B.; Hirsch, M.; Taylor, J.; Smith, R. L.; Repert, D.; Tobias, C. R.

2010-12-01

123

Relative binding and biochemical effects of heterodimeric and homodimeric isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor in osteoblast-enriched cultures from fetal rat bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exists as a homodimer or a heterodimer comprising either PDGF-A or PDGF-B subunits, and each isoform occurs in various tissues, including bone. Although the stimulatory effects of PDGF-BB have been studied in cultures of bone cells and intact bone fragments, the influence of other isoforms that may arise locally or systematically in vivo, has not been reported. Therefore recombinant human PDGF-BB, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-AA were evaluated in osteoblast-enriched cultures from fetal rat bone. Within 24 hours these factors produced a graded response in bone cell DNA and protein synthesis, with half-maximal effects at approximately 0.6, 2.1, and 4.8 nM PDGF-BB, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-AA, respectively. Increases in collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis were abrogated when DNA synthesis was blocked with hydroxyurea. Furthermore, each factor reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, PDGF-BB being the most inhibitory. Binding studies with 125I-PDGF-BB or 125I-PDGF-AA and each unlabeled PDGF isoform produced discrete ligand binding and displacement patterns: 125I-PDGF-BB binding was preferentially displaced by PDGF-BB (Ki approximately 0.7 nM), less by PDGF-AB (Ki approximately 2.3 nM) and poorly by PDGF-AA. In contrast, 125I-PDGF-AA binding was measurably reduced by PDGF-AA (Ki approximately 4.0 nM), but was more effectively displaced by PDGF-BB or PDGF-AB (each with Ki approximately 0.7 nM). These studies indicate that each PDGF isoform produces indicate that each PDGF isoform produces biochemical effects proportional to binding site occupancy and suggest that receptors that favor PDGF-B subunit binding preferentially mediate these results in osteoblast-enriched bone cell cultures

124

Relative binding and biochemical effects of heterodimeric and homodimeric isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor in osteoblast-enriched cultures from fetal rat bone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exists as a homodimer or a heterodimer comprising either PDGF-A or PDGF-B subunits, and each isoform occurs in various tissues, including bone. Although the stimulatory effects of PDGF-BB have been studied in cultures of bone cells and intact bone fragments, the influence of other isoforms that may arise locally or systematically in vivo, has not been reported. Therefore recombinant human PDGF-BB, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-AA were evaluated in osteoblast-enriched cultures from fetal rat bone. Within 24 hours these factors produced a graded response in bone cell DNA and protein synthesis, with half-maximal effects at approximately 0.6, 2.1, and 4.8 nM PDGF-BB, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-AA, respectively. Increases in collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis were abrogated when DNA synthesis was blocked with hydroxyurea. Furthermore, each factor reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, PDGF-BB being the most inhibitory. Binding studies with 125I-PDGF-BB or 125I-PDGF-AA and each unlabeled PDGF isoform produced discrete ligand binding and displacement patterns: 125I-PDGF-BB binding was preferentially displaced by PDGF-BB (Ki approximately 0.7 nM), less by PDGF-AB (Ki approximately 2.3 nM) and poorly by PDGF-AA. In contrast, 125I-PDGF-AA binding was measurably reduced by PDGF-AA (Ki approximately 4.0 nM), but was more effectively displaced by PDGF-BB or PDGF-AB (each with Ki approximately 0.7 nM). These studies indicate that each PDGF isoform produces biochemical effects proportional to binding site occupancy and suggest that receptors that favor PDGF-B subunit binding preferentially mediate these results in osteoblast-enriched bone cell cultures.

Centrella, M.; McCarthy, T.L.; Kusmik, W.F.; Canalis, E. (Department of Research, Saint Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, CT (USA))

1991-06-01

125

Anaerobic degradation of toluene by a denitrifying bacterium.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A denitrifying bacterium, designated strain T1, that grew with toluene as the sole source of carbon under anaerobic conditions was isolated. The type of agar used in solid media and the toxicity of toluene were determinative factors in the successful isolation of strain T1. Greater than 50% of the toluene carbon was oxidized to CO2, and 29% was assimilated into biomass. The oxidation of toluene to CO2 was stoichiometrically coupled to nitrate reduction and denitrification. Strain T1 was toler...

Evans, P. J.; Mang, D. T.; Kim, K. S.; Young, L. Y.

1991-01-01

126

Survival of Denitrifiers in Nitrate-Free, Anaerobic Environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments were undertaken to explain the occurrence of a high denitrification capacity in anaerobic, NO3--free habitats. Deep layers of freshwater sediments that were buried more than 40 years ago and digested sludge were the habitats studied. The denitrifier populations were 3.1 × 103 and 3.1 × 105 cells cm-3 in deep sediments from a river and lake, respectively, and 5.3 × 106 cells cm-3 in digested sludge. The denitrification capacities of the samples reflected the population densities...

Jørgensen, Kirsten S.; Tiedje, James M.

1993-01-01

127

An enrichment and acclimation procedure to obtain photo heterotrophic cultures for H2 production from organic effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Production of H2 via photo heterotrophic is an attractive alternative, due to the capacity of photo heterotrophic organisms to convert the organic matter of effluents into H2. The objective of our work was to develop a protocol for selecting undefined mixed cultures of photo heterotrophic microorganism with the capability of producing of H2. (Author)

128

Characterization of denitrifying activity by the alphaproteobacterium, Sphingomonas wittichii RW1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 has no reported denitrifying activity yet encodes nitrite and nitric oxide reductases. The aims of this study were to determine conditions under which S. wittichii RW1 consumes nitrite (NO2- and produces nitrous oxide (N2O, examine expression of putative genes for N-oxide metabolism, and determine the functionality of chromosomal (ch and plasmid (p encoded quinol-dependent nitric oxide reductases (NorZ. Batch cultures of wildtype (WT and a norZch mutant of S. wittichii RW1 consumed NO2- and produced N2O during stationary phase. The norZch mutant produced N2O, although at significantly lower levels (c.a. 66-87% relative to the WT. Rates of N2O production were 2-3 times higher in cultures initiated at low relative to atmospheric O2 per unit biomass, although rates of NO2- consumption were elevated in cultures initiated with atmospheric O2 and 1 mM NaNO2. Levels of mRNA encoding nitrite reductase (nirK, plasmid-encoded nitric oxide dioxygenase (hmpp and plasmid-encoded nitric oxide reductase (norZp were significantly higher in the norZch mutant over a growth curve relative to WT. The presence of NO2- further increased levels of nirK and hmpp mRNA in both the WT and norZch mutant; levels of norZp mRNA compensated for the loss of norZch expression in the norZch mutant. Together, the results suggest that S. wittichii RW1 denitrifies NO2- to N2O and expresses gene products predicted to detoxify N-oxides. So far, only S. wittichii strains within four closely related taxa have been observed to encode both nirK and norZ genes, indicating a species-specific lateral gene transfer that may be relevant to the niche preference of S. wittichii.

LisaYStein

2014-08-01

129

A Fungal Cytochrome P-450nor Confers Denitrifying Ability to Tobacco By-2 Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen gases progressively contribute to the global warming. Development of gas-gas denitrifying plants that can efficiently reduce reactive nitrogen gases to dinitrogen (N2 could help to mitigate the effect of these gases. Taking the advances in gene manipulation technology, tobacco BY-2 cells were transformed with the fungus Cylindrocarpon tonkinense cytochrome P-450nor2 (Cnor2 gene. The product of this gene acts as nitric oxide reductase (nor. Transgenic BY-2 cell clones cultured in 15N-labelled nitrate (15NO3- actively evolved 15N2O gas up to 35-folds compared to the wild-type cells. In 15N-labelled ammonium (15NH4+, the transgenic and wild-type cells produced comparable amounts of 15N2O. This indicates that ammonium is not a direct substrate for nor and the small amount of N2O observed may be due to the nitrification of ammonium to nitrite. Addition of tungstate (a nitrate reductase inhibitor and cyanide to the transgenic cell cultures strongly inhibited 15N2O production. Activity of nor enzyme was also confirmed by in vitro activity assay. These observations together suggest that Cnor2 is actively expressed and enhanced the reduction of nitrate to N2O in plant cells. This finding indicates that plant cells are capable to tackle the denitrification pathway.

Babiker M.A. Abdel-Banat

2008-01-01

130

Isotope enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this chapter of the textbook for chemists the isotope enrichment methods are overviewed. The subsections are: General characterization of the methods used for isotope enrichment, Distillation and chemical exchange, Electrochemical methods, Diffusion methods, Isotope enrichment through centrifugation, Single-stage methods, Cascades

131

Effects of resveratrol on enrichment of adipose-derived stem cells and their differentiation to osteoblasts in two-and three-dimensional cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to develop a method for increasing the yield of multipotent adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) and osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs) from subcutaneous fat. After removing mature adipocytes and haematopoietic cells from rat inguinal fat, ASCs in the remaining cell population were verified by their attachment to plastic, surface marker profile (CD271(+), CD73(+) and CD45(-)) and ability to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. OPCs were defined as E11(+) and OCN(+). Adherent cells were cultured in growth medium (GM) or osteogenic medium (OM) and treated with resveratrol (0, 12.5, and 25 µM) for 7 days; ASCs and OPCs were assessed by flow cytometry. Osteogenic potential was determined in two-dimensional (2D) cultures as a function of alkaline phosphatase-specific activity and osteocalcin production. In addition, cells were seeded onto three-dimensional (3D) poly-?-caprolactone scaffolds and cultured under dynamic conditions; mineralization was quantified by micro-CT at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Resveratrol increased the percentage of ASCs in the population (population%) and number of ASCs in both GM and OM, but increased only the number of OPCs in GM. In both media types resveratrol increased alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin levels. In 3D cultures, resveratrol-treated cells significantly increased mineralized matrix volume at early time points. Resveratrol exerted a biphasic effect on adherent cells by enriching the ASC and OPC populations and enhancing osteogenic differentiation. Resveratrol pretreatment induced more mineralization at earlier time points and represents a clinically viable technique for orthopaedic and dental applications for autologous stem cell therapy. PMID:22467433

Erdman, Christopher P; Dosier, Christopher R; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Baile, Clifton; Guldberg, Robert E; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

2012-12-01

132

Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C) and acidophilic conditions (pH 6) with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW) as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS) through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h) coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C) to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB) prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861 +- 14ml/L-WW/d) compared to 370C (651 +- 30ml/L-ww/d). The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India); Narasu, M. Lakshmi [Centre for Biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India)

2010-07-01

133

Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C and acidophilic conditions (pH 6 with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861±14ml/L-WW/d compared to 370C (651±30ml/L-ww/d. The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

D.Sivaramakrishna, D.Sreekanth, V.Himabindu, M.Lakshmi Narasu

2010-07-01

134

Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process under micro-aerobic condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process with bio-granules comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide and acetate into di-nitrogen gas, elementary sulfur and carbon dioxide, respectively, at high loading rates. This study determines the reaction rate of sulfide oxidized into sulfur, as well as the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, would be enhanced under a micro-aerobic condition. The presence of limited oxygen mitigated the inhibition effects of sulfide on denitrifier activities, and enhanced the performance of DSR granules. The advantages and disadvantages of applying the micro-aerobic condition to the DSR process are discussed.

135

Determination of the cause of the symptoms on yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.) leaf tissue and their eradication, enriching the culture medium and using techniques of meristem culture, thermo and chemotherapy on in vitro conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yams (Dioscorea spp) has been cultivated for exportation in Costa Rica, in North Huetar region. In vitro culture technique has been used for multiplying planting material for many advantages. However, cleaning of viruses that affect has been ineffective. Viruses such as: the potyvirus, potexvirus, cucumovirus . Methods like meristem culture, chemotherapy, thermotherapy and combinations of these have been used for the elimination of virus in plant species. The plants were evaluated in indexing assays, observing symptoms, serological methods and electron microscopy, among others. Other problems that have been affecting in vitro plant are deficient culture media in some nutrient. The presence of some abnormal characteristics in leaf tissue was determined whether have been caused by a virus or a nutritional deficiency in the culture medium. The presence of the virus has tried to find using ELISA and electron microscopy. Tests meristem culture, thermotherapy and chemotherapy have been made for the eradication of a possible virus; which have been assessed by observation of symptomatology and ELISA. The efficiency of the culture medium was evaluated to enrich it with nitrogen or excess iron. None of the suspected virus found in ELISA tests. Filaments are presumably viral particles were found through analysis of ultrastructure, as well as alterations in chloroplasts which indicated the presence of a pathogen or toxicity. Thermotherapy and chemotherapy with the concentration o and chemotherapy with the concentration of 40 mg/L of ribavirin have been the most effective for the elimination of symptoms in virus eradication treatments. Assessments nutrient concentrations have shown that the differences between the various treatments used were undetectable. The symptoms presented were caused, according to the conclusions, by a virus which should preferably deal with thermotherapy. (author)

136

Heavy metal incorporation in foraminiferal calcite: results from multi-element enrichment culture experiments with Ammonia tepida  

Science.gov (United States)

The incorporation of heavy metals into carbonate tests of the shallow water benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Temperature, salinity, and pH of the culture solutions were kept constant throughout the duration of this experiment, while trace metal concentrations were varied. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were set 5-, 10-, and 20 times higher than levels found in natural North Sea water; for reference, a control experiment with pure filtered natural North Sea water was also analysed. The concentrations of Cu and Ni from newly grown chambers were determined by means of both ?-synchrotron XRF and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS). The results of both independent analytical techniques agreed within the analytical uncertainty. In general, the concentration of the analysed elements in the tests increased in line with their concentration in the culture solutions. Potential toxic and/or chemical competition effects might have resulted in the decreased incorporation of Ni and Cu into the calcite of the specimens exposed to the highest elemental concentrations. Mn incorporation exhibited large variability in the experiment with the 20-fold increased element concentrations, potentially due to antagonistic effects with Cu. The partition coefficients of Cu and Ni were calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 and 1.0 ± 0.5, respectively, whereas the partition coefficient of Mn was estimated to be least 2.4. These partition coefficients now open the way for reconstructing past concentrations for these elements in sea water.

Munsel, D.; Kramar, U.; Dissard, D.; Nehrke, G.; Berner, Z.; Bijma, J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Neumann, T.

2010-08-01

137

Greenhouse Gas Emission from In-situ Denitrifying Bioreactors  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication, which continues to be a serious and chronic problem. Two primary processes for removing excess NO3- from water are biological assimilation and denitrification. Denitrifying bacteria use NO3- as the electron acceptor for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas (GHG). A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs), though research has been limited to NO3- level reduction and omitted process mechanisms. DNBRs work by providing an anaerobic environment with plenty of organic matter (commonly woodchips) for denitrifying bacteria to flourish. While, initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, GHG emission could be an unintended consequence. The study's goal is to determine how bioreactor design promotes microbial denitrification while limiting N2O production. It specifically focuses on expanding the body of knowledge concerning DNBRs in the areas of design implications and internal processes by measuring intermediate compounds and not solely NO3-. Nutrient samples are collected at inflow and outflow structures and tested for NO3- and nitrite (NO2-). Dissolved and headspace gas samples are collected and tested for N2O. Additional gas samples will be analyzed for naturally-occurring isotopic N2 to support proposed pathways. Designs will be analyzed both through the N2O/N2 production ratio and NO2- production caused by various residence times and inflow NO3- concentrations. High GHG ratios and NO2- production suggest non-ideal conditions or flow patterns for complete denitrification. NO3- reduction is used for comparison with previous studies. Few studies have focused on the reactions and products of DNBRs and instead note NO3- reductions in outflows as evidence that this should be used to treat agricultural discharges. It is, however, critical to understand all of the potential impacts that this treatment solution may have, which means identifying processes and design specifications that may affect them. This study addresses this lack of mechanistic understanding of DNBRs by means of sampling for incomplete products. Results will quantify gaseous products and internal processes and present a more complete picture of the potential for widespread use of DNBRs.

Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

2013-12-01

138

Heavy metal incorporation in foraminiferal calcite: results from multi-element enrichment culture experiments with Ammonia tepida  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The incorporation of heavy metals into carbonate tests of the shallow water benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Temperature, salinity, and pH of the culture solutions were kept constant throughout the duration of this experiment, while trace metal concentrations were varied. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were set 5-, 10-, and 20 times higher than levels found in natural North Sea water; for reference, a control experiment with pure filtered natural North Sea water was also analysed. The concentrations of Cu and Ni from newly grown chambers were determined by means of both ?-synchrotron XRF and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS. The results of both independent analytical techniques agreed within the analytical uncertainty. In general, the concentration of the analysed elements in the tests increased in line with their concentration in the culture solutions. Potential toxic and/or chemical competition effects might have resulted in the decreased incorporation of Ni and Cu into the calcite of the specimens exposed to the highest elemental concentrations. Mn incorporation exhibited large variability in the experiment with the 20-fold increased element concentrations, potentially due to antagonistic effects with Cu. The partition coefficients of Cu and Ni were calculated to be 0.14 ± 0.02 and 1.0 ± 0.5, respectively, whereas the partition coefficient of Mn was estimated to be least 2.4. These partition coefficients now open the way for reconstructing past concentrations for these elements in sea water.

G.-J. Reichart

2010-08-01

139

Spatial distribution of total, ammonia-oxidizing, and denitrifying bacteria in biological wastewater treatment reactors for bioregenerative life support  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioregenerative life support systems may be necessary for long-term space missions due to the high cost of lifting supplies and equipment into orbit. In this study, we investigated two biological wastewater treatment reactors designed to recover potable water for a spacefaring crew being tested at Johnson Space Center. The experiment (Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project-Phase III) consisted of four crew members confined in a test chamber for 91 days. In order to recycle all water during the experiment, an immobilized cell bioreactor (ICB) was employed for organic carbon removal and a trickling filter bioreactor (TFB) was utilized for ammonia removal, followed by physical-chemical treatment. In this study, the spatial distribution of various microorganisms within each bioreactor was analyzed by using biofilm samples taken from four locations in the ICB and three locations in the TFB. Three target genes were used for characterization of bacteria: the 16S rRNA gene for the total bacterial community, the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and the nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) gene for denitrifying bacteria. A combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), sequence, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the microbial community composition in the ICB and the TFB consisted mainly of Proteobacteria, low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, and a Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group. Fifty-seven novel 16S rRNA genes, 8 novel amoA genes, and 12 new nosZ genes were identified in this study. Temporal shifts in the species composition of total bacteria in both the ICB and the TFB and ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria in the TFB were also detected when the biofilms were compared with the inocula after 91 days. This result suggests that specific microbial populations were either brought in by the crew or enriched in the reactors during the course of operation.

Sakano, Yuko; Pickering, Karen D.; Strom, Peter F.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

140

Growth characteristics of aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient-enriched water. I. Water hyacinth, water lettuce, and pennywort  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seasonal growth characteristics and biomass yield potential of 3 floating aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient nonlimiting conditions were evaluated in central Florida's climatic conditions. Growth cycle (growth curve) of the plants was found to be complete when maximum plant density was reached and no additional increase in growth was recorded. Biomass yield per unit area and time was found to be maximum in the linear phase of the growth curve; plant density in this phase was defined as operational plant density, a density range in which a biomass production system is operated to obtain the highest possible yields. Biomass yields were found to be 106, 72, and 41 t (dry wt) ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/, respectively, for water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), and pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata). Operational plant density was found to be in the range of 500-2,000 g dry wt m/sup -2/ for water hyacinth, 200-700 g dry wt m/sup -2/ for water lettuce, and 250-650 g dry wt m/sup -2/ for pennywort. Seasonality was observed in growth rates but not in operational plant density. Specific growth rate (% increase per day) was found to maximum at low plant densities and decreased as the plant density increased. Results show that water hyacinth and water lettuce can be successfully grown for a period of about 10 mo, while pennywort, a cool season plant, can be integrated into water hyacinth/water lettuce biomass production system to obtain high yields in the winter.

Reddy, K.R.; DeBusk, W.F.

 
 
 
 
141

Growth characteristics of aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient-enriched water. I. Water hyacinth, water lettuce, and pennywort  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seasonal growth characteristics and biomass yield potential of 3 floating aquatic macrophytes cultured in nutrient nonlimiting conditions were evaluated in central Florida's climatic conditions. Growth cycle (growth curve) of the plants was found to be complete when maximum plant density was reached and no additional increase in growth was recorded. Biomass yield per unit area and time was found to be maximum in the linear phase of the growth curve; plant density in this phase was defined as ''operational plant density,'' a density range in which a biomass production system is operated to obtain the highest possible yields. Biomass yields were found to be 106, 72, and 41 t(dry wt) ha/sup -1/yr/sup -1/, respectively, for water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), and pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata). Operational plant density was found to be in the range of 500-2000 g dry wt m/sup -2/ for water hyacinth, 200-700 g dry wt m/sup -2/ for water lettuce, and 250-650 g dry wt/sup -2/ for pennywort. Seasonality was observed in growth rates but not in operational plant density. Specific growth rate (% increase per day) was found to maximum at low plant densities and decreased as the plant density increased. Results show that water hyacinth and water lettuce can be successfully grown for a period of about 10 mo, while pennywort, a cool season plant, can be integrated into water hyacinth/water lettuce biomass production system to obtain high yields in the winter.

Reddy, K.R.; DeBusk, W.F.

142

Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of a range of alkyl sulfides by a denitrifying marine bacterium  

Science.gov (United States)

A pure culture of a bacterium was obtained from a marine microbial mat by using an anoxic medium containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and nitrate. The isolate grew aerobically or anaerobically as a denitrifier on alkyl sulfides, including DMS, dimethyl disulfide, diethyl sulfide (DES), ethyl methyl sulfide, dipropyl sulfide, dibutyl sulfide, and dibutyl disulfide. Cells grown on an alkyl sulfide or disulfide also oxidized the corresponding thiols, namely, methanethiol, ethanethiol, propanethiol, or butanethiol. Alkyl sulfides were metabolized by induced or derepressed cells with oxygen, nitrate, or nitrite as electron acceptor. Cells grown on DMS immediately metabolized DMS, but there was a lag before DES was consumed; with DES-grown cells, DES was immediately used but DMS was used only after a lag. Chloramphenicol prevented the eventual use of DES by DMS-grown cells and DMS use by DES-grown cells, respectively, indicating separate enzymes for the metabolism of methyl and ethyl groups. Growth was rapid on formate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate but slow on methanol. The organism also grew chemolithotrophically on thiosulfate with a decrease in pH; growth required carbonate in the medium. Growth on sulfide was also carbonate dependent but slow. The isolate was identified as a Thiobacillus sp. and designated strain ASN-1. It may have utility for removing alkyl sulfides, and also nitrate, nitrite, and sulfide, from wastewaters.

Visscher, P. T.; Taylor, B. F.

1993-01-01

143

Habitat specialization along a wetland moisture gradient differs between ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying microorganisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gradients in abiotic parameters, such as soil moisture,can strongly influence microbial community structure and function. Denitrifying and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms,in particular, have contrasting physiological responses to abiotic factors such as oxygen concentration and soil moisture. Identifying abiotic factors that govern the composition and activity of denitrifying and ammonia-oxidizing communities is critical for understanding the nitrogen cycle.The objectives of this study were to (i) examine denitrifier andarchaeal ammonia oxidizer community composition and (ii) assess the taxa occurring within each functional group related to soil conditions along an environmental gradient. Soil was sampled across four transects at four locations along a dry to saturated environmental gradient at a restored wetland. Soil pH and soil organic matter content increased from dry to saturated plots. Composition of soil denitrifier and ammonia oxidizer functional groups was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community analysis, and local soil factors were also characterized. Microbial community composition of denitrifiers and ammonia oxidizers differed along the moisture gradient (denitrifier:ANOSIM R = 0.739, P nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:24658457

Peralta, Ariane L; Matthews, Jeffrey W; Kent, Angela D

2014-08-01

144

Analysis of denitrifier community in a bioaugmented sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The denitrifier community and associated nitrate and nitrite reduction in the bioaugmented and general sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) during the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline were investigated. The efficiency and stability of nitrate and nitrite reduction in SBR was considerably improved after inoculation with four pyridine- or quinoline-degrading bacterial strains (including three denitrifying strains). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on the nosZ gene revealed that the structures of the denitrifier communities in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors were distinct and varied during the course of the experiment. Bioaugmentation protected indigenous denitrifiers from disruptions caused by pyridine and quinoline. Clone library analysis showed that one of the added denitrifiers comprised approximately 6% of the denitrifier population in the bioaugmented sludge. (orig.)

Bai, Yaohui; Xing, Rui; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Sun, Qinghua [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

2011-05-15

145

Uranium enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Enrichment Group of Australia (UEGA) has been conducting a feasibility study on the establishment of a uranium enrichment industry in Australia. The group has reported to the Government on choice of technology, site selection, market opportunities and the nature and timing of further work. UEGA recommended that the centrifuge technology offered by URENCO-CENTEC should be the basis for further study

146

Investigation of an acetate-fed denitrifying microbial community by stable isotope probing, full-cycle rRNA analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization-microautoradiography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acetate-utilizing microbial consortium in a full-scale activated sludge process was investigated without prior enrichment using stable isotope probing (SIP). [13C]acetate was used in SIP to label the DNA of the denitrifiers. The [13C]DNA fraction that was extracted was subjected to a full-cycle rRNA analysis. The dominant 16S rRNA gene phylotypes in the 13C library were closely related to the bacterial families Comamonadaceae and Rhodocyclaceae in the class Betaproteobacteria. Seven oligonucleotide probes for use in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were designed to specifically target these clones. Application of these probes to the sludge of a continuously fed denitrifying sequencing batch reactor (CFDSBR) operated for 16 days revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFDSBR denitrification rate and the relative abundance of all probe-targeted bacteria in the CFDSBR community. FISH-microautoradiography demonstrated that the DEN581 and DEN124 probe-targeted cells that dominated the CFDSBR were capable of taking up [14C]acetate under anoxic conditions. Initially, DEN444 and DEN1454 probe-targeted bacteria also dominated the CFDSBR biomass, but eventually DEN581 and DEN124 probe-targeted bacteria were the dominant bacterial groups. All probe-targeted bacteria assessed in this study were denitrifiers capable of utilizing acetate as a source of carbon. The rapid increase in the number of organisms positively correlated with the immediate increase in denitrification rates observed by plant operators when acetate is used as an external source of carbon to enhance denitrification. We suggest that the impact of bacteria on activated sludge subjected to intermittent acetate supplementation should be assessed prior to the widespread use of acetate in the wastewater industry to enhance denitrification. PMID:16332863

Ginige, Maneesha P; Keller, Jürg; Blackall, Linda L

2005-12-01

147

Comparing spatial and temporal dynamics of anammox and denitrifying communities at Cape Fear River Estuary and New River Estuary, North Carolina  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and denitrification are two main microbial processes capable of removing fixed nitrogen by conversion into a gaseous species. Both microbial processes are known to occur in anoxic estuarine sediments and are capable of remediating excess nitrogen loadings from anthropogenic activities. In order to understand the importance of anammox and denitrification in estuarine ecosystems, we investigated both processes in two different estuaries of North Carolina to compare sedimentary nitrogen removal capacity and to identify key players of N2 production pathways. Both Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) and New River Estuary (NRE) are highly enriched with nitrogen from anthropogenic sources in spite of distinct geomorphological and geochemical characteristics. We conducted seasonal samplings to collect sediments across transects at fifteen stations along each estuary. 15N tracer techniques were used to measure spatial and temporal variations of N2 production by denitrification and anammox in estuarine sediments. Molecular analysis of nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) and hydrazine oxidase (hzo) genes was conducted to examine community structures of denitrifying and anammox bacteria, respectively. Denitrification was found to be the dominant N2 production processes in both estuaries. Anammox contributed up to 19% and 15 % of total N2 productions in the CFEE and the NRE, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of hzo genes identified that the anammox bacteria at both estuaries are closely associated with five known genera in the order Brocadiales. Anammox communities at the CFRE showed biogeographical distribution along the estuarine gradients while high seasonal variations were observed in the NRE communities. Spatial and temporal variations of denitrifying communities at both estuaries were also found based on nosZ gene analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted to define key biogeochemical parameters influencing the community dynamics and activities of anammox and denitrifying bacteria in these ecosystems. Thus, this study reveals the importance of community structure to its function, as well as estimates and compares potential N removal capacity in two geologically distinct estuarine ecosystems.

Lisa, J. A.; Hirsch, M. D.; Duernberger, K. A.; Tobias, C. R.; Song, B.

2010-12-01

148

Isolation and characterization of a mesophilic heavy-metals-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomicrobium sp. from an enrichment culture using phosphogypsum as a sulfate source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sulfate-reducing bacterium, was isolated from a 6 month trained enrichment culture in an anaerobic media containing phosphogypsum as a sulfate source, and, designated strain SA2. Cells of strain SA2 were rod-shaped, did not form spores and stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that it was related to members of the genus Desulfomicrobium (average sequence similarity of 98%) with Desulfomicrobium baculatum being the most closely related (sequence similarity of 99%). Strain SA2 used thiosulfate, sulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors and produced sulfide. Strain SA2 reduced sulfate contained in 1-20 g/L phosphogypsum to sulfide with reduction of sulfate contained in 2 g/L phosphogypsum being the optimum concentration. Strain SA2 grew with metalloid, halogenated and non-metal ions present in phosphogypsum and with added high concentrations of heavy metals (125 ppm Zn and 100 ppm Ni, W, Li and Al). The relative order for the inhibitory metal concentrations, based on the IC{sub 50} values, was Cu, Te > Cd > Fe, Co, Mn > F, Se > Ni, Al, Li > Zn.

Azabou, Samia [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP ' K' , 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Mechichi, Tahar [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP ' K' , 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)]. E-mail: mechichi.tahar@cbs.rnrt.tn; Patel, Bharat K.C. [Microbial Gene Research and Resources Facility, School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia); Eskitis Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia); Sayadi, Sami [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP ' K' , 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)

2007-02-09

149

Uranium enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The separation of uranium isotopes in order to enrich the fuel for light water reactors with the light isotope U-235 is an important part of the nuclear fuel cycle. After the basic principals of isotope separation the gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process are explained. Both these techniques are employed on an industrial scale. In addition a short review is given on other enrichment techniques which have been demonstrated at least on a laboratory scale. After some remarks on the present situation on the enrichment market the progress in the development and the industrial exploitation of the gas centrifuge process by the trinational Urenco-Centec organisation is presented. (orig.)

150

Denitrifying bacteria from the terrestrial subsurface exposed to mixed waste contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In terrestrial subsurface environments where nitrate is a critical groundwater contaminant, few cultivated representatives are available with which to verify the metabolism of organisms that catalyze denitrification. In this study, five species of denitrifying bacteria from three phyla were isolated from subsurface sediments exposed to metal radionuclide and nitrate contamination as part of the U.S. Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (OR-IFRC). Isolates belonged to the genera Afipia and Hyphomicrobium (Alphaproteobacteria), Rhodanobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), Intrasporangium (Actinobacteria) and Bacillus (Firmicutes). Isolates from the phylum Proteobacteria were confirmed as complete denitrifiers, whereas the Gram-positive isolates reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide. Ribosomal RNA gene analyses reveal that bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter comprise a diverse population of circumneutral to moderately acidophilic denitrifiers at the ORIFRC site, with a high relative abundance in areas of the acidic source zone. Rhodanobacter species do not contain a periplasmic nitrite reductase and have not been previously detected in functional gene surveys of denitrifying bacteria at the OR-IFRC site. Sequences of nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes were recovered from the isolates and from the terrestrial subsurface by designing primer sets mined from genomic and metagenomic data and from draft genomes of two of the isolates. We demonstrate that a combination of cultivation, genomic and metagenomic data are essential to the in situ characterization of denitrifiers and that current PCR-based approaches are not suitable for deep coverage of denitrifying microorganisms. Our results indicate that the diversity of denitrifiers is significantly underestimated in the terrestrial subsurface.

Green, Stefan [Florida State University; Prakash, Om [Florida State University; Gihring, Thomas [Florida State University; Akob, Denise M. [Florida State University; Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University

2010-01-01

151

Denitrifier community in the oxygen minimum zone of a subtropical deep reservoir.  

Science.gov (United States)

Denitrification is an important pathway for nitrogen removal from aquatic systems and this could benefit water quality. However, little is known about the denitrifier community composition and key steps of denitrification in the freshwater environments, and whether different bacteria have a role in multiple processes of denitrification reduction. In this study, quantitative PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, clone library and 454 pyrosequencing were used together to investigate the bacterial and denitrifier community in a subtropical deep reservoir during the strongly stratified period. Our results indicated that the narG gene recorded the highest abundance among the denitrifying genes (2.76×109 copies L-1 for DNA and 4.19×108 copies L-1 for RNA), and the lowest value was nosZ gene (7.56×105 copies L-1 for DNA and undetected for RNA). The RNA: DNA ratios indicated that narG gene was the most active denitrifying gene in the oxygen minimum zone of Dongzhen Reservoir. Further, ?-, ?- and ?- Proteobacteria were the overwhelmingly dominant classes of denitrifier communities. Each functional gene had its own dominant groups which were different at the genus level: the narG gene was dominated by Albidiferax, while nirS gene was dominated by Dechloromonas. The main OTU of nirK gene was Rhodopseudomonas palustris, but for norB and nosZ genes, they were Bacillus and Bradyrhizobium, respectively. These results contribute to the understanding of linkages between denitrifier community, function and how they work together to complete the denitrification process. Studies on denitrifier community and activity may be useful in managing stratified reservoirs for the ecosystem services and aiding in constructing nitrogen budgets. PMID:24664112

Yu, Zheng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian

2014-01-01

152

Denitrifying bacteria from the terrestrial subsurface exposed to mixed waste contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In terrestrial subsurface environments where nitrate is a critical groundwater contaminant, few cultivated representatives are available with which to verify the metabolism of organisms that catalyze denitrification. In this study, five species of denitrifying bacteria from three phyla were isolated from subsurface sediments exposed to metal radionuclide and nitrate contamination as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (OR-IFRC). Isolates belonged to the genera Afipia and Hyphomicrobium (Alphaproteobacteria), Rhodanobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), Intrasporangium (Actinobacteria) and Bacillus (Firmicutes). Isolates from the phylum Proteobacteria were confirmed as complete denitrifiers, whereas the Gram-positive isolates reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide. Ribosomal RNA gene analyses reveal that bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter comprise a diverse population of circumneutral to moderately acidophilic denitrifiers at the ORIFRC site, with a high relative abundance in areas of the acidic source zone. Rhodanobacter species do not contain a periplasmic nitrite reductase and have not been previously detected in functional gene surveys of denitrifying bacteria at the OR-IFRC site. Sequences of nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes were recovered from the isolates and from the terrestrial subsurface by designing primer sets mined from genomic and metagenomic data and from draft genomes of two of the isolates. We demonstratemes of two of the isolates. We demonstrate that a combination of cultivation, genomic and metagenomic data are essential to the in situ characterization of denitrifiers and that current PCR-based approaches are not suitable for deep coverage of denitrifying microorganisms. Our results indicate that the diversity of denitrifiers is significantly underestimated in the terrestrial subsurface.

153

Metaproteogenomic analysis of a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture reveals genomic organization of key enzymes in the m-xylene degradation pathway and metabolic activity of proteobacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to ascertain the functional and phylogenetic relationships within an m-xylene degrading sulfate-reducing enrichment culture, which had been maintained for several years in the laboratory with m-xylene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Previous studies indicated that a phylotype affiliated to the Desulfobacteraceae was the main m-xylene assimilating organism. In the present study, genes and gene products were identified by a metaproteogenomic approach using LC-MS/MS analysis of the microbial community, and 2426 peptides were identified from 576 proteins. In the metagenome of the community, gene clusters encoding enzymes involved in fumarate addition to a methyl moiety of m-xylene (nms, bss), as well as gene clusters coding for enzymes involved in modified beta-oxidation to (3-methyl)benzoyl-CoA (bns), were identified in two separate contigs. Additionally, gene clusters containing homologues to bam genes encoding benzoyl-CoA reductase (Bcr) class II, catalyzing the dearomatization of (3-methyl)benzoyl-CoA, were identified. Time-resolved protein stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) experiments using (13)C-labeled m-xylene showed that the respective gene products were highly (13)C-labeled. The present data suggested the identification of gene products that were similar to those involved in methylnaphthalene degradation even though the consortium was not capable of growing in the presence of naphthalene, methylnaphthalene or toluene as substrates. Thus, a novel branch of enzymes was found that was probably specific for anaerobic m-xylene degradation. PMID:25156802

Bozinovski, Dragana; Taubert, Martin; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; von Bergen, Martin; Vogt, Carsten; Seifert, Jana

2014-10-01

154

Differential isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by an aquifer-derived bacterium under arobic versus denitrifying conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied Cr isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2. Despite the fact that strain RCH2 reduces Cr(VI) co-metabolically under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions and at similar specific rates, fractionation was markedly different under these two conditions (ε ~2? aerobically and ~0.4? under denitrifying conditions).

Han, R.; Qin, L.; Brown, S. T.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.

2012-02-01

155

Effects of plant biomass on denitrifying genes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Typha latifolia and its litter on density and abundance of three denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) were investigated in six laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms. Results showed that the copy numbers of nirS, nirK and nosZ in wetland microcosms were ranged between 10(8)-10(9), 10(6)-10(7) and 10(7)-10(8) copies g(-1), respectively. The presence of T. latifolia encouraged the growth of nirK containing bacteria. Addition of cattail litter could greatly stimulate the growth of bacteria containing nirS and nosZ gene. Path analysis illustrated that the presence of plants and litters had no significant direct impact on denitrifying genes, while it affected the denitrifying genes via alteration of dissolved oxygen and carbon sources. PMID:24565872

Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

2014-04-01

156

[Identification and denitrification characteristics of a psychrotolerant facultative basophilic aerobic denitrifier].  

Science.gov (United States)

An aerobic denitrifier was isolated from the activated sludge of landfill leachate through traditional microbiological methods. Based on its morphological feature, physiological and biochemical properties, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp., named as GL19 with an accession number of KC710974 in GenBank. Its aerobic denitrification characteristics and nitrification function were studied to show that the factors including carbon source, C/N, pH and cultivation temperature were important for denitrification. The optimized condition for aerobic denitrification was as follows: sodium citrate as the carbon resource, C/N no less than 15, pH of 6-10, DO of 4.8-7.7 mg x L(-1), culture temperature of 15-34 degrees C and the initial nitrate nitrogen of 140 mg x L(-1). Combining these conditions, the removal rate of nitrate nitrogen and average removal rate of TN reached 100% and 96.5%, respectively, without the accumulation of nitrite nitrogen. The strain had the capability to utilize nitrite nitrogen or ammonia nitrogen to achieve high nitrogen removal efficiency: the nitrite nitrogen removal rate reached 100% in 20 hours with an initial nitrite nitrogen of 140 mg x L(-1); the ammonia nitrogen was efficiently removed from 280 mg x L(-1) to 3.11 mg x L(-1) in 28 hours with the removal rate of up to 98.9%. These results suggested that strain GL19 with the function of cold resistance and highly effective aerobic denitrification could achieve simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Hence, GL19 could have high potential in practical wastewater treatment in winter of south area. PMID:25158516

Wang, Zhao-Yang; Chen, Guo-Yao; Jiang, Ke; Xu, Pei-Ya

2014-06-01

157

Mapping spatial patterns of denitrifiers for bridging community ecology and microbial processes along environmental gradients  

Science.gov (United States)

While there is ample evidence that microbial processes can exhibit large variations at a field scale, very little is known about the spatial distribution of the communities mediating these processes. To explore spatial patterns of size and activity of the denitrifying community, a functional guild involved in N-cycling, in a grassland field subjected to different cattle grazing regimes.We used geostatistical modeling to map the distribution of size and activity of the denitrifier community in the pasture. Size of the denitrifier community was estimated by PCR quantification of the denitrification gene copy numbers while its activity was estimated by measuring potential denitrification activity and potential N2O emissions. Non-random distribution patterns of the size and of the activity of the denitrifier community were observed with a field-scale spatial dependence. The soil properties, which were strongly affected by presence of cattle, imposed significant control on potential denitrification activity, potential N2O production but not on the size of the denitrifier community. The relative abundance of bacteria possessing the nosZ gene encoding the N2O reductase within the total bacterial community was a strong predictor of the N2O/N2 ratio. Our results clearly indicated that patterns of distribution of the abundance of denitrifiers can be modelled at a field scale. Characterization of such pattern at a field-scale constitutes the first step in modelling distribution of functional bacterial communities at a scale compatible with land management strategies. The absolute abundance of most denitrification genes was not correlated with potential denitrification activity or potential N2O production. However, the relative abundance of bacteria possessing the nosZ gene in the total bacterial community was a strong predictor of the N2O/(N2+N2O) ratio, suggesting a relationship between ecosystem processes and bacterial community composition.

Bru, D.; Cuhel, J.; Saby, N.; Cheneby, D.; Chronokova, A.; Arrouays, D.; Martin-Laurent, F.; Simek, M.

2010-12-01

158

Enriched Uranium  

Science.gov (United States)

This Wikipedia website provides information about the various concentrations of uranium used for different applications. Topics include a brief description of the grades of uranium and methods of isotope separation. There are also links to other aspects of uranium enrichment and related information. This information lays the foundation for informed discussion about the potential of nuclear energy and the risks of nuclear proliferation.

Wikipedia

159

Triple oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate using the denitrifier method and thermal decomposition of N2O.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interaction with ozone transfers its anomalous (non-mass-dependent) 17O enrichment to atmospheric nitrogen oxides and nitrate. The 17O anomaly (Delta17O) in nitrate can be used to identify atmospheric nitrate inputs into terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as to study the role of ozone in the atmosphere's reactive nitrogen cycle. We report here on an online method for analysis of the 17O anomaly, using a strain of denitrifiers to convert nitrate to N2O, which decomposes quantitatively to N2 and O2 in a gold furnace at 800 degrees C, followed by gas chromatographic separation and isotope analysis of O2. This method requires approximately 50 nmol of nitrate, 2-3 orders of magnitude less than previous offline thermal decomposition methods to achieve a similar analytical precision of 0.5 per thousand for Delta17O. There is no significant memory effect, but calibration via nitrate or N2O reference materials is required for scale normalization. The N2O decomposition method is shown to be well-suited for nitrate analysis in freshwater and seawater samples from various environments. PMID:17222025

Kaiser, Jan; Hastings, Meredith G; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Röckmann, Thomas; Sigman, Daniel M

2007-01-15

160

Uranium enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that in 1990 the Department of Energy began a two-year project to illustrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new uranium enrichment technology-the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. GAO believes that completing the AVLIS demonstration project will provide valuable information about the technical viability and cost of building an AVLIS plant and will keep future plant construction options open. However, Congress should be aware that DOE still needs to adequately demonstrate AVLIS with full-scale equipment and develop convincing cost projects. Program activities, such as the plant-licensing process, that must be completed before a plant is built, could take many years. Further, an updated and expanded uranium enrichment analysis will be needed before any decision is made about building an AVLIS plant. GAO, which has long supported legislation that would restructure DOE's uranium enrichment program as a government corporation, encourages DOE's goal of transferring AVLIS to the corporation. This could reduce the government's financial risk and help ensure that the decision to build an AVLIS plant is based on commercial concerns. DOE, however, has no alternative plans should the government corporation not be formed. Further, by curtailing a planned public access program, which would have given private firms an opportunity to learn about the technology during the demonstration project, DOE may limit its ability to transfer AVLIS to the private sector

 
 
 
 
161

Salinity Decreases Nitrite Reductase Gene Diversity in Denitrifying Bacteria of Wastewater Treatment Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investigation of the diversity of nirK and nirS in denitrifying bacteria revealed that salinity decreased the diversity in a nitrate-containing saline wastewater treatment system. The predominant nirS clone was related to nirS derived from marine bacteria, and the predominant nirK clone was related to nirK of the genus Alcaligenes.

Yoshie, Sachiko; Noda, Naohiro; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Hirata, Akira; Inamori, Yuhei

2004-01-01

162

Nitrite reductase genes as functional markers to investigate diversity of denitrifying bacteria during agricultural waste composting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of denitrifier community during agricultural waste composting. The diversity and dynamics of the denitrifying genes (nirK and nirS) were determined using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Relationships between physico-chemical parameters and denitrifying genes structures were simultaneously evaluated by redundancy analysis (RDA). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that nirK clones grouped into six clusters and nirS clones into two major clusters, respectively. The results showed a very high diversity of nir gene sequences within composting samples. RDA showed that the nirK and nirS gene structures were significantly related to pH and pile temperature (P?nirK and nirS genes, respectively) were explained by pH and pile temperature, suggesting that those two parameters were the most likely ones to influence, or be influenced by the denitrifiers harboring nirK and nirS genes. PMID:24442505

Chen, Yaoning; Zhou, Wei; Li, Yuanping; Zhang, Jiachao; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Aizhi; Huang, Jingxia

2014-05-01

163

Impact of Flood Spates on Denitrifying Bacteria in Low Order Streams  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of flood events on channel design, macroinvertebrates, and periphyton in stream ecosystems has been well studied. Little is known, however, about how flood spates affect microorganisms found in stream sediments. Denitrifying bacteria are beneficial organisms because they convert nitrates to nitrogen gas. Providing data that describes the impact of flood events on denitrifiers and the time required after the disturbance for the bacteria to recover are crucial in understanding nitrogen dynamics in stream ecosystems. Three low order streams in central Wisconsin, USA are being monitored during several flood spates during July and August of 2011. Discharge is being continuously monitored in all three streams and sediments are being collected before and after several flood events for laboratory assays. Specifically, sediments are being processed for denitrification rates using the acetylene inhibition technique, microbial biomass carbon using chloroform fumigation, and the quantification of denitrifying bacteria (i.e., nirS, nirK, and nosZ genes) using real-time quantitative PCR. Preliminary data show that within 36 hours after a 90 mm rain event, microbial biomass carbon in all three streams (580 ?g C g sediment-1) significantly increased (F1,23 = 650 ± 140; p bacteria in stream sediments. Denitrification rates and quantification of denitrifying bacteria still need to be analyzed to determine if these specific bacteria follow a similar pattern or if the bacterial recolonization of stream sediments follows a unique pattern.

Herrman, K.; Stokdyk, J.

2011-12-01

164

Post cold-storage conditioning time affects soil denitrifying enzyme activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soil denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is often assessed after cold storage. Previous studies using the short-term acetylene inhibition method have not considered conditioning time (post-cold-storage warm-up time prior to soil analysis) as a factor influencing results. We observed fluctuations in DEA following cold storage, suggesting a need to consider conditioning time when planning and interpreting results.

Chirinda, Ngoni; Olesen, JØrgen E

2011-01-01

165

Response of Marine Denitrifying Bacterial Populations to Nitrous Oxide: a Natural Sink?  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of nitrous oxide upon denitrifying populations was investigated in moderately saline shallow Texas coastal bays. Homogenized sediment samples were incubated under a N2O atmosphere for one week, after which nosZ DNA marker for nitrous oxide reductase enzyme was extracted and analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE). qPCR analysis indicated a significant (over an order of magnitude) increase in nosZ copy number in response to N2O addition, with PCR/DGGE indicating a significant population shift towards a small number of select organisms. Intriguingly, nirK and nirS markers for nitrite reductase enzymes in denitrifying bacteria did not show a corresponding increase, suggesting that observed nosZ peak was not associated with typical denitrifying populations. It is possible that N2O consumption in these sediments might not be driven by normally abundant denitrifiers, but rather by a niche-specific guild of bacteria converting N2O to N2 and naturally present in sediments at low numbers. These organisms are capable of responding rapidly to increased N2O supply. Our results suggest that net biological emission of N2O from the sediments is regulated by bacteria at both production and consumption stage, and disturbance of either could result in enhanced N2O emission.

Sobolev, D.; Brandes, J. A.

2004-12-01

166

Diversity and distribution of nirK-harboring denitrifying bacteria in the water column in the Yellow River estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the diversity and community composition of denitrifying bacteria in surface water from the Yellow River estuary. Our results indicated that the diversity of the denitrifying community in freshwater based on the nirK gene was higher than that in seawater. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the bacteria community could be distributed into eight clusters (Clusters I to VIII). Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that community compositions were related to multiple environment factors, such as salinity and nitrate concentration. The results of the present study have provided a novel insight into the denitrifying community in water columns in estuaries. PMID:24621509

Li, Jing; Wei, Guangshan; Wang, Ningxin; Gao, Zheng

2014-01-01

167

Spatially tripartite interactions of denitrifiers in arctic ecosystems: activities, functional groups and soil resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil denitrification is one of the most significant contributors to global nitrous oxide (N(2) O) emissions, and spatial patterns of denitrifying communities and their functions may reveal the factors that drive denitrification potential and functional consortia. Although denitrifier spatial patterns have been studied extensively in most soil ecosystems, little is known about these processes in arctic soils. This study aimed to unravel the spatial relationships among denitrifier abundance, denitrification potential and soil resources in 279 soil samples collected from three Canadian arctic ecosystems encompassing 7° in latitude and 27° in longitude. The abundance of nirS (10(6) -10(8) ?copies?g(-1) dry soil), nirK (10(3) -10(7) ?copies?g(-1) dry soil) and nosZ (10(6) -10(7) ?copies?g(-1) dry soil) genes in these soils is in the similar range as non-arctic soil ecosystems. Potential denitrification in Organic Cryosols (1034?ng?N(2) O-N?g(-1) soil) was 5-11 times higher than Static/Turbic Cryosols and the overall denitrification potential in Cryosols was also comparable to other ecosystems. We found denitrifier functional groups and potential denitrification were highly spatially dependent within a scale of 5?m. Functional groups and soil resources were significantly (P?activities and the correlations were stronger in Organic Cryosols. Soil moisture, organic carbon and nitrogen content were the predominant controls with nirK abundance also linked to potential denitrification. This study suggests that the dominant control on arctic ecosystem-level denitrification potential is moisture and organic carbon. Further, microbial abundance controls on ecosystem level activity while undoubtedly present, are masked in the nutrient-poor arctic environment by soil resource control on denitrifier ecosystem level activity. PMID:22759091

Banerjee, Samiran; Siciliano, Steven D

2012-09-01

168

ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF O-, M- AND P-CRESOL BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIAL ENRICHMENT CULTURES OBTAINED FROM A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichments were obtained from a shallow anoxic aquifer for their ability to metabolize either o-, or p-cresol. C/MS and simultaneous adaptation experiments suggested that the anaerobic decomposition of p-cresol proceeds by the initial oxidation of the ...

169

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONCENTRATION OF DENITRIFIERS AND PSEUDOMONAS SPP. IN SOILS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BTX BIOREMEDIATION (R823420)  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquifer microcosms were used to investigate the effect of stimulating denitrification on microbial population shifts and BTX degradation potential. Selective pressure for facultative denitrifiers was applied to a treatment set by feeding acetate and nitrate, and cycling electr...

170

Use of Enrichment Culture for Directed Evolution of the Vibrio fluvialis JS17 ?-Transaminase, Which Is Resistant to Product Inhibition by Aliphatic Ketones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel high-throughput screening method that overcame product inhibition was used to isolate a mutant ?-transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis JS17. An enzyme library was generated using error-prone PCR mutagenesis and then enriched on minimal medium containing 2-aminoheptane as the sole nitrogen source and 2-butanone as an inhibitory ketone. An identified mutant enzyme, ?-TAmla, showed significantly reduced product inhibition by aliphatic ketone. The product inhibition constants of the mutant...

Yun, Hyungdon; Hwang, Bum-yeol; Lee, Jae-hun; Kim, Byung-gee

2005-01-01

171

Relationship between Nitrite Reduction and Active Phosphate Uptake in the Phosphate-Accumulating Denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. Strain JR 12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phosphate uptake by the phosphate-accumulating denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. JR12 was examined with different combinations of electron and carbon donors and electron acceptors. Phosphate uptake in acetate-supplemented cells took place with either oxygen or nitrate but did not take place when nitrite served as the final electron acceptor. Furthermore, nitrite reduction rates by this denitrifier were shown to be significantly reduced in the presence of phosphate. Phosphate uptake assays in the pr...

Barak, Yoram; Rijn, Jaap

2000-01-01

172

Simultaneous removal of sulfide, nitrate and acetate under denitrifying sulfide removal condition: Modeling and experimental validation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Model evaluation applied to case study 1: (A-G) S2?, NO3?-N, NO2?-N, and Ac?-C profiles under initial sulfide concentrations of 156.2 (A), 539 (B), 964 (C), 1490 (D), 342.7 (E), 718 (F), and 1140.7 (G) mg L?1. The solid line represents simulated result and scatter represents experimental result. -- Highlights: • This work developed a mathematical model for DSR process. • Kinetics of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between denitrifiers were studied. • Kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting. • The model described kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric range. -- Abstract: Simultaneous removal of sulfide (S2?), nitrate (NO3?) and acetate (Ac?) under denitrifying sulfide removal process (DSR) is a novel biological wastewater treatment process. This work developed a mathematical model to describe the kinetic behavior of sulfur–nitrogen–carbon and interactions between autotrophic denitrifiers and heterotrophic denitrifiers. The kinetic parameters of the model were estimated via data fitting considering the effects of initial S2? concentration, S2?/NO3?-N ratio and Ac?-C/NO3?-N ratio. Simulation supported that the heterotrophic denitratation step (NO3? reduction to NO2?) was inhibited by S2? compared with the denitritation step (NO2? reduction to N2). Also, the S2? oxidation by autotrophic denitrifiers was shown two times lower in rate with NO2? as electron acceptor than that with NO3? as electron acceptor. NO3? reduction by autotrophic denitrifiers occurs 3–10 times slower when S0 participates as final electron donor compared to the S2?-driven pathway. Model simulation on continuous-flow DSR reactor suggested that the adjustment of hydraulic retention time is an efficient way to make the reactor tolerating high S2? loadings. The proposed model properly described the kinetic behaviors of DSR processes over wide parametric ranges and which can offer engineers with basis to optimize bioreactor operation to improve the treatment capacity

173

Performance of a reactor containing denitrifying immobilized biomass in removing ethanol and aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) in a short operating period  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor (HAIB) containing denitrifying biomass was evaluated with respect to its ability to remove, separately and in a short operating period (30 days), organic matter, nitrate, and the hydrocarbons benzene (41.4 mg L-1), toluene (27.8 mg L-1), ethylbenzene (31.1 mg L-1), o-xylene (28.5 mg L-1), m-xylene (28.4 mg L-1) and p-xylene (32.1 mg L-1). The purified culture, which was grown in the presence of the specific hydrocarbon, was used as the source of cells to be immobilized in the polyurethane foam. After 30 days of operation, the foam was removed and a new immobilized biomass was grown in the presence of another hydrocarbon. The average hydrocarbon removal efficiency attained was 97%. The organic matter, especially ethanol, was removed with an average efficiency of 83% at a mean influent concentration of 1185.0 mg L-1. A concomitant removal of 97% of nitrate was observed for a mean influent concentration of 423.4 mg L-1. The independent removal of each hydrocarbon demonstrated that these contaminants can be biodegraded separately, without the need for a compound to be the primary substrate for the degradation of another. This study proposes the application of the system for treatment of areas contaminated with these compounds, with substitution and formation of a biofilm in a 30-day period

174

Impacts of vegetation, tidal process, and depth on the activities, abundances, and community compositions of denitrifiers in mangrove sediment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal mangrove wetland is well known to be intense in nitrogen cycling. The tidal process and plants are key factors in controlling the microbial processes in wetlands. However, mechanisms on how these factors and their interactions affect the microorganisms involved in denitrification remain poorly understood. In this study, the impacts of vegetation (bulk, Kandelia obovata, and Spartina alterniflora) and tidal process (falling tide and rising tide) on denitrification activities, abundances, and community compositions of denitrifiers in the sediments from different depths (0-5 and 5-10 cm) were investigated in a microcosm experiment. A significant enhancement of denitrification activities and gene abundances (nirS, nirK, and nosZ) in the vegetated sediments was observed. Activities and abundances were significantly higher in the 0-5-cm sediments when compared with the 5-10-cm counterparts. The effect of interaction between vegetation and tide or depth was also significant. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that not only vegetation but also plant species had a significant impact on the community compositions of nirK denitrifiers, while the tidal process affected the community compositions of nirS and nosZ denitrifiers but not nirK denitrifiers. However, depth only significantly shaped the nirS denitrifier communities. These findings demonstrate the effects of these factors and their interactions in shaping the denitrifiers in sediments. PMID:25149447

Wang, Hai-Tao; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zheng, Tian-Ling; Yang, Xiao-Ru

2014-11-01

175

A denitrifying bacterium from the deep sea at 11,000-m depth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The denitrifying bacterium strain MT-1 was isolated from the mud of the Mariana Trench. The optimal temperature and pressure for growth of this bacterium were found to be 30 degrees C and 0.1 MPa, respectively. However, it showed greater tolerance to low temperature (4 degrees C) and high hydrostatic pressure (50 MPa) as compared with denitrifiers obtained from land. From the results, it can be said that this organism is adapted to the environment of the deep sea. Strain MT-1 was shown to belong to the genus Pseudomonas by analysis of its 16S rDNA. The cytochrome contents of the bacterium were similar to those of Ps. stutzeri in spectrophotometric studies. PMID:9680302

Tamegai, H; Li, L; Masui, N; Kato, C

1997-11-01

176

Aerobic and Anaerobic Toluene Degradation by a Newly Isolated Denitrifying Bacterium, Thauera sp. Strain DNT-1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A newly isolated denitrifying bacterium, Thauera sp. strain DNT-1, grew on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. When this strain was cultivated under oxygen-limiting conditions with nitrate, first toluene was degraded as oxygen was consumed, while later toluene was degraded as nitrate was reduced. Biochemical observations indicated that initial degradation of toluene occurred through a dioxygenase-mediated pathway and the benzylsuccinate pa...

Shinoda, Yoshifumi; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Uenishi, Hiroshi; Uchihashi, Yasumitsu; Hiraishi, Akira; Yukawa, Hideaki; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo

2004-01-01

177

Substrate induction and metabolite accumulation during anaerobic toluene utilization by the denitrifying strain T1.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The denitrifying strain T1 utilizes toluene anaerobically. We now report that anaerobic toluene degradation is inducible in strain T1. Fluoracetate treatment of cell suspensions inhibited both the rate of toluene metabolism and the formation of the toluene dead-end products benzylsuccinate and benzylfumarate, which is consistent with the pathway proposed by Evans et al. (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:496-501, 1992). In addition, when either nitrate was limiting or fluoroacetate was added, benz...

Frazer, A. C.; Ling, W.; Young, L. Y.

1993-01-01

178

Anaerobic toluene oxidation to benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde in a denitrifying Pseudomonas strain.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The denitrifying Pseudomonas strain K172 was grown with a generation time of 6 h to a cell density of 0.4 g (dry weight) per liter with toluene and nitrate as substrates. We found that anaerobic cell suspensions oxidize [14C]toluene first to [14C]benzyl alcohol and subsequently to [14C]benzaldehyde. This proves that the methyl group of toluene is oxidized without molecular oxygen to a hydroxymethyl group.

Altenschmidt, U.; Fuchs, G.

1992-01-01

179

Community structures and activities of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in industrial wastewater-treating biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial community structure, in situ spatial distributions and activities of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in biofilms treating industrial wastewater were investigated by combination of the 16S rRNA gene clone analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microelectrodes. These results were compared with the nitrogen removal capacity of the industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP). Both nitrification and denitrification occurred in the primary denitrification (PD) tank and denitrification occurred in the secondary denitrification (SD) tank. In contrast, nitrification and denitrification rates were very low in the nitrification (N) tank. 16S rRNA gene clone sequence analysis revealed that the bacteria affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Betaproteobacteria, were numerically important microbial groups in three tanks. The many clones affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria were closely related to the denitrifying bacteria (e.g., Hyphomicrobium spp., Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Rhodobacter spp.). In addition, Methylophilus leisingeri affiliated with Betaproteobacteria, which favorably utilized methanol, was detected only in the SD-tank to which methanol was added. Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas marina were detected as the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria affiliated with Betaproteobacteria throughout this plant, although the dominant species of them was different among three tanks. Nitrifying bacteria were mainly detected in the upper parts of the PD-biofilm whereas their populations were low in the upper parts of the N-biofilm. The presence of denitrifying bacteria affiliated with Hyphomicrobium spp. in SD- and N-biofilms was verified by FISH analysis. Microelectrode measurements showed that the nitrifying bacteria present in the N- and PD-biofilms were active and the bacteria present in the SD-biofilm could denitrify. PMID:16477661

Satoh, Hisashi; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi

2006-07-01

180

Novel Denitrifying Bacterium Ochrobactrum anthropi YD50.2 Tolerates High Levels of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most studies of bacterial denitrification have used nitrate (NO3?) as the first electron acceptor, whereas relatively less is understood about nitrite (NO2?) denitrification. We isolated novel bacteria that proliferated in the presence of high levels of NO2? (72 mM). Strain YD50.2, among several isolates, was taxonomically positioned within the ? subclass of Proteobacteria and identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi YD50.2. This strain denitrified NO2?, as well as NO3?. The gene cluste...

Doi, Yuki; Takaya, Naoki; Takizawa, Noboru

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Denitrifying Bacterial Communities Affect Current Production and Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in a Microbial Fuel Cell  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The ...

Vilar Sanz, Ariadna; Puig Broch, Sebastia?; Garci?a Lledo?, Arantzazu; Trias Mansilla, Rosalia; Balaguer I Condom, Maria Dolors; Colprim Galceran, Jesu?s; Ban?eras Vives, Llui?s

2013-01-01

182

Relating Phylogenetic and Functional Diversity among Denitrifiers and Quantifying their Capacity to Predict Community Functioning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genetic diversity of phylogenetic or functional markers is widely used as a proxy of microbial diversity. However, it remains unclear to what extent functional diversity (FD), gene sequence diversity and community functioning are linked. For a range of denitrifying bacteria, we analyzed the relationships between (i) the similarity of functional traits evaluated from metabolic profiles (BIOLOG plates) or from N2O accumulation patterns on different carbon sources and (ii) the similarity of phyl...

Salles, Joana Falca?o; Le Roux, Xavier; Poly, Franck

2012-01-01

183

Drinking Water Denitrification using Autotrophic Denitrifying Bacteria in a Fluidized Bed Bioreactor   

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: Contamination of drinking water sources with nitrate may cause adverse effects on human health. Due to operational and maintenance problems of physicochemical nitrate removal processes, using biological denitrification processes have been performed. The aim of this study is to evaluate nitrate removal efficiency from drinking water using autotrophic denitrifying bacteria immobilized on sulfur impregnated activated carbon in a fluidized bed bioreactor. Materials and ...

Abdolmotaleb Seid-mohammadi; Hossein Movahedian Attar; Mahnaz Nikaeen

2013-01-01

184

Sediment denitrifier community composition and nirS gene expression investigated with functional gene microarrays  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A functional gene microarray was used to investigate denitrifier community composition and nitrite reductase (nirS) gene expression in sediments along the estuarine gradient in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The nirS oligonucleotide probe set was designed to represent a sequence database containing 539 Chesapeake Bay clones, as well as sequences from many other environments. Greatest nirS diversity was detected at the freshwater station at the head of the bay and least diversity at the higher salinity station near the mouth of the Bay. The most common OTUs from the sequence database were detected on the array with high signal strength in most samples. One of the most abundant OTUs, CB2-S-138, was identified as dominant at the mid-bay site by both microarray and quantitative PCR assays, but it comprised a much smaller fraction of the assemblage in the north and south bay samples. cDNA (transcribed from total RNA extracts) targets were hybridized to the same array to compare the profiles of community composition at the DNA (relative abundance) and mRNA (gene expression) levels. Only the three dominant denitrifying groups (in terms of relative strength of DNA hybridization signal) were detected at the mRNA level. These results suggest that the most actively denitrifying groups are responsible for most nirS expression as well Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11

Francis, C.A.; Jackson, G.A.

2008-01-01

185

Bioavailability and biodegradation of weathered diesel fuel in aquifer material under denitrifying conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the in situ bioremediation of a diesel fuel-contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Switzerland, aquifer material containing weathered diesel fuel (WDF) and indigenous microorganisms was excavated. This material was used to identify factors limiting WDF biodegradation under denitrifying conditions. Incubations of this material for 360 to 390 d under denitrifying conditions resulted in degradation of 23% of the WDF with concomitant consumption of NO3- and production of inorganic carbon. The biodegradation of WDF and the rate of NO3- consumption was stimulated by agitation of the microcosms. Biodegradation was not stimulated by the addition of a biosurfactant (rhamnolipids) or a synthetic surfactant (Triton X-100) at concentrations above their critical micelle concentrations. The rhamnolipids were biodegraded preferentially to WDF, whereas Triton X-100 was not degraded. Both surfactants reduced the surface tension of the growth medium from 72 to <35 dynes/cm and enhanced the apparent aqueous solubility of the model hydrocarbon n-hexadecane by four orders of magnitude. Solvent-extracted WDF, added at a concentration equal to that already present in the aquifer material, was also biodegraded by the microcosms, but not at a higher rate than the WDF already present in the material. The results show that the denitrifying biodegradation of WDF is not necessarily limited by bioavailability but rather by the inherent recalcitrance ofut rather by the inherent recalcitrance of WDF

186

Disentangling the rhizosphere effect on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers: insight into the role of root exudates.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine to which extent root-derived carbon contributes to the effects of plants on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers, four solutions containing different proportions of sugar, organic acids and amino acids mimicking maize root exudates were added daily to soil microcosms at a concentration of 150 microg C g(-1) of soil. Water-amended soils were used as controls. After 1 month, the size and structure of the nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities were analysed using the narG and napA, and the nirK, nirS and nosZ genes as molecular markers respectively. Addition of artificial root exudates (ARE) did not strongly affect the structure or the density of nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities whereas potential nitrate reductase and denitrification activities were stimulated by the addition of root exudates. An effect of ARE composition was also observed on N(2)O production with an N(2)O:(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio of 0.3 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 80% of sugar and of 1 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 40% of sugar. Our study indicated that ARE stimulated nitrate reduction or denitrification activity with increases in the range of those observed with the whole plant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the composition of the ARE affected the nature of the end-product of denitrification and could thus have a putative impact on greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:18393993

Henry, S; Texier, S; Hallet, S; Bru, D; Dambreville, C; Chèneby, D; Bizouard, F; Germon, J C; Philippot, L

2008-11-01

187

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts as inoculum enrichment for the production of gowé, a sour beverage from Benin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella confusa, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Pichia anomala, previously isolated during natural fermentation of traditional gowé, were tested as inoculum enrichment for controlled fermentation of gowé. The final product was subjected to chemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Growth of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were verified by determination of colony forming units (CFU) and molecular biology techniques. A significant decrease in pH from 6.1 to 3.3, with a concomitant increase in titratable acidity (11 to 60 g/kg as lactic acid, dry weight), was observed after 24 h of fermentation when LAB was used either alone or in combination with yeasts. The LAB count increased significantly from 6.1 to 9.4 log CFU/ml, while the yeast count remained constant throughout fermentation. Repetitive-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) assays performed on isolates during the fermentation confirmed the dominance of the added LAB strains. Sensory evaluation revealed that the product fermented for 7 h with L. fermentum alone or in combination with K. marxianus was as acceptable as the traditional product normally obtained after a minimum of 24 h of fermentation. Consequently, gowé can be obtained by controlled fermentation, using L. fermentum as inoculum enrichment, in a small scale industry.  

Vieira-Dalodé, G.; Madodé, Y.E.

2008-01-01

188

Nutrient Cycles and Marine Microbes in a CO2-Enriched Ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ocean carbon cycle is tightly linked with the cycles of the major nutrient elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon. It is therefore likely that enrichment of the ocean with anthropogenic CO2 and attendant acidification will have large consequences for marine nutrient biogeochemistry, and for the microbes that mediate many key nutrient transformations. The best available evidence suggests that the nitrogen cycle may respond strongly to higher CO2 through increases in global N2 fixation and possibly denitrification, as well as potential decreases in nitrification. These trends could cause nitrification to become a nitrogen cycle “bottleneck,” by increasing the flux of N2 fixed into ammonium while decreasing the fraction being oxidized to nitrite and nitrate. The consequences could include reduced supplies of oxidized nitrogen substrates to denitrifiers, lower levels of nitrate-supported new primary production, and expansion of the regenerated production system accompanied by shifts in current phytoplankton communities. The phosphorus and silicon cycles seem less likely to be directly affected by enhanced CO2 conditions, but will undoubtedly respond indirectly to changing carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry. A review of culture experiments that examined the effects of increased CO2 on elemental ratios of phytoplankton suggests that for most cyanobacteria and eukaryotes, C:N and N:P ratios will either remain at Redfield values or increase substantially. Natural plankton community CO2 manipulation experiments show much more mixed outcomes, with both increases and decreases in C:N and N:P ratios reported at future CO2 levels. We conclude our review with projections of overall trends in the cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon over the next century as they respond to the steady accumulation of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in a rapidly changing ocean.

David A. Hutchins

2009-12-01

189

Primers for overlooked nirK, qnorB, and nosZ genes of thermophilic Gram-positive denitrifiers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although efforts have been made the past few years, knowledge on genomic and phenotypic diversity and occurrence of the denitrification ability in Gram-positive bacteria are still fragmentary. Many environmental monitoring approaches have used nir, nor, and nos genes as marker genes for detection of denitrification or denitrifying bacteria. However, primers used in these methods often fail to detect the genes in specific bacterial taxa, such as Gram-positive denitrifiers. In this study, novel primer sets specifically targeting nirK, qnorB, and nosZ genes of the Firmicute genus Geobacillus were developed by genomic mining and tested in parallel with commonly used primers on a set of phylogenetically closely related denitrifying geobacilli. Novel nirK and qnorB sequences were recovered from all strains tested, whereas nosZ was detected in part of the strain set, which was in agreement with observed phenotypes. Interspecies and modest intraspecies variations in amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) patterns were observed, verifying presence of genomic variation within the strain set. Our study shows that closely related Gram-positive denitrifiers may differ in denitrification phenotype and genotype. But foremost, novel primers targeting very divergent nirK, qnorB, and nosZ gene sequences of Gram-positive denitrifiers, are now available for cultivation-independent environmental surveys. PMID:24784780

Verbaendert, Ines; Hoefman, Sven; Boeckx, Pascal; Boon, Nico; De Vos, Paul

2014-07-01

190

Relating Phylogenetic and Functional Diversity among Denitrifiers and Quantifying their Capacity to Predict Community Functioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic diversity of phylogenetic or functional markers is widely used as a proxy of microbial diversity. However, it remains unclear to what extent functional diversity (FD), gene sequence diversity and community functioning are linked. For a range of denitrifying bacteria, we analyzed the relationships between (i) the similarity of functional traits evaluated from metabolic profiles (BIOLOG plates) or from N(2)O accumulation patterns on different carbon sources and (ii) the similarity of phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene) or functional (nir gene) markers. We also calculated different proxies for the diversity of denitrifier community based on taxa richness, phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene) or functional similarities (based either on metabolic profiles or N(2)O accumulation patterns), and evaluated their performance in inferring the functioning of assembled denitrifying communities. For individual strains, the variation in the 16S rRNA gene sequence was weakly correlated with the variation in metabolic patterns (??=?0.35) and was not related to N(2)O accumulation. The latter was correlated with the similarity of nitrite reductase residues. When nir genes were analyzed separately, the similarity in amino acids coded by the nirS genes was highly correlated with the observed patterns of N(2)O accumulation (??=?0.62), whereas nirK amino acid residues were unrelated to N(2)O accumulation. For bacterial assemblages, phylogenetic diversity (average similarity among species in a community) and mean community dissimilarity (average distance between species) calculated using 16S rRNA gene sequences, and FD measures associated with metabolic profiles, poorly predicted the variation in the functioning of assembled communities (?15%). In contrast, the proxies of FD based on N(2)O accumulation patterns performed better and explained from 23 to 42% of the variation in denitrification. Amongst those, community niche was the best metric, indicating the importance of complementarity for resources in the context of bacterial community functioning. PMID:22701450

Salles, Joana Falcão; Le Roux, Xavier; Poly, Franck

2012-01-01

191

Nitrogen Removal by a Fungal Aerobic Denitrifier of Penicillium Strain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A kind of aerobic Penicillium that can remove ammonia, nitrite and nitrate was isolated through an improved bromothymol blue (BTB selective culture medium method in this experiment and then the nitrogen removal by the strain was detailedly investigated. The results showed that this strain was able to make use of many kinds of organic carbon compounds as sole carbon source for the removal of the three types of inorganic nitrogen compounds but the way of removal was different. Ammonia was assimilated for forming cell components such as amino acid and protein, different from which, nitrite and nitrate were eliminated by the aid of dual assimilation and denitrification. When the three types of nitrogen coexist, the removal order was as follows: ammonia>nitrite>nitrate. Type of carbon source, initial nitrogen concentration and carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N all had different effect on final solution pH, dry weight, nitrogen removal rate and removal ability of the strain. It was tested that non-polar organic carbon source containing -CH3 group like sucrose was inclined to be used by the strain. When sucrose was carbon source, the optimum C/N of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate removal were separate 4-6, 8-12 and 12-16. In addition, it was demonstrated with calculation that the removal abilities of the above mentioned three nitrogen of the strain were about 50, 60 and 90 mg g-1 respectively, showing its tremendous capability of nitrogen removal.

Chaocheng Zhao

2012-01-01

192

Effect of CO2 enrichment and high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) on rubisco and PEP-case activities of in vitro cultured strawberry plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Standard growing conditions in vitro (low light and CO2) are not conducive to autotrophy. An experiment was conducted to improve photosynthesis in vitro in the hope of increasing survival in acclimatization. A factorial experiment was elaborated where CO2 and PPFD were supplied to in vitro cultured strawberry plants in the rooting stage. Activities of carboxylating enzymes were determined after 4 weeks of culture. The activities of non-activated and activated rubisco and PEP-Case were measured after extraction of the enzymes and a reaction with NaH14CO3 followed by scintillation counting spectroscopy. High CO2 concentration significantly increased net assimilation rates (NAR) by 165% over the control for both 1650 and 3000 ppm CO2. High PPFD only increased NAR by 12 and 35% for 150 and 250 ?mol·m-2·s-1 respectively over the control. Plants grown at 3000 ppm CO2 had the highest level of chlorophyll/g FW with 97% more than the control. The activity of PEP-Case was the highest at high light levels and high CO2 with rates of 1.65 for 1650 ppm versus 1.22 mmol CO2 mg-1 chl. h-1 at 250 ?mol·m-2·s-1. There was no difference in PEP activity at low light levels. The rubisco activity was lower at 1650 and 3000 ppm CO2. Increases in NAR correlate more closely to the PEP-Case than to Rubisco activity.e PEP-Case than to Rubisco activity. Physiological significance of high activity of PEP-Case over rubisco will be discussed

193

Effect of CO sub 2 enrichment and high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) on rubisco and PEP-case activities of in vitro cultured strawberry plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Standard growing conditions in vitro (low light and CO{sub 2}) are not conducive to autotrophy. An experiment was conducted to improve photosynthesis in vitro in the hope of increasing survival in acclimatization. A factorial experiment was elaborated where CO{sub 2} and PPFD were supplied to in vitro cultured strawberry plants in the rooting stage. Activities of carboxylating enzymes were determined after 4 weeks of culture. The activities of non-activated and activated rubisco and PEP-Case were measured after extraction of the enzymes and a reaction with NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} followed by scintillation counting spectroscopy. High CO{sub 2} concentration significantly increased net assimilation rates (NAR) by 165% over the control for both 1650 and 3000 ppm CO{sub 2}. High PPFD only increased NAR by 12 and 35% for 150 and 250 {mu}mol{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} respectively over the control. Plants grown at 3000 ppm CO{sub 2} had the highest level of chlorophyll/g FW with 97% more than the control. The activity of PEP-Case was the highest at high light levels and high CO{sub 2} with rates of 1.65 for 1650 ppm versus 1.22 mmol CO{sub 2} mg{sup {minus}1} chl. h{sup {minus}1} at 250 {mu}mol{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1}. There was no difference in PEP activity at low light levels. The rubisco activity was lower at 1650 and 3000 ppm CO{sub 2}. Increases in NAR correlate more closely to the PEP-Case than to Rubisco activity. Physiological significance of high activity of PEP-Case over rubisco will be discussed.

Desjardins, Y.; Beeson, R.; Gosselin, A. (Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada))

1989-04-01

194

Development of a macrophage cell culture method to isolate and enrich Francisella tularensis from food matrices for subsequent detection by real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause gastrointestinal or oropharyngeal tularemia in humans from ingestion of contaminated food or water. Despite the potential for accidental or intentional contamination of foods with F. tularensis, there are no techniques currently available to detect this organism in specific food matrices. In this study, a macrophage cell culture system is combined with real-time PCR to identify F. tularensis in food matrices. The method utilizes a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) as host for the isolation and intracellular replication of F. tularensis. Exposure of macrophages to F. tularensis-contaminated food matrices results in uptake and intracellular replication of the bacteria, which can be subsequently detected by real-time PCR analysis of the DNA released from infected macrophage cell lysates. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, liquid egg whites, and lettuce contaminated with varying quantities of F. tularensis. As few as 10 CFU/ml (or CFU per gram) F. tularensis was detected in infant formula and lettuce after 5 h postinfection. As few as 10 CFU/ml F. tularensis was detected in liquid egg whites after 18 h postinfection. Intracellular F. tularensis could also be isolated on Mueller-Hinton medium from lysates of macrophages infected with the bacteria in infant formula, liquid egg whites, and lettuce for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method is the first to successfully identify F. tularensis from select food matrices. PMID:19610325

Day, J B; Whiting, R C

2009-06-01

195

Molecular approaches to understand the regulation of N2O emission from denitrifying bacteria - model strains and soil communities (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions of N2O from agricultural soils are largely caused by denitrifying bacteria. Field measurements of N2O fluxes show large variations and depend on several environmental factors, and possibly also on the composition of the denitrifying microbial community. The temporal and spatial variation of fluxes are not adequately captured by biogeochemical models, and few options for mitigations have been invented, which underscores the need to understand the mechanisms underlying the emissions of N2O. Analyses of denitrification genes and transcripts extracted from soils are important for describing the system, but may have limited value for prediction of N2O emissions. In contrast, phenotypic analyses are direct measures of the organisms’ responses to changing environmental conditions. Our approach is to combine phenotypic characterizations using high-resolution gas kinetics, with gene transcription analyses to study denitrification regulatory phenotypes (DRP) of bacterial strains or complex microbial communities. The rich data sets obtained provide a basis for refinement of biochemical and physiological research on this key process in the nitrogen cycle. The strength of this combined approach is illustrated by a series of experiments investigating effects of soil pH on denitrification. Soil pH emerges as a master variable determining the microbial community composition as well as its denitrification product ratio (N2O/N2), with higher ratio in acid than in alkaline soil. It is therefore likely that emissions of N2O from agro-ecosystems will increase in large parts of the world where soil pH is decreasing due to intensified management and increased use of chemical fertilizers. Considering its immense implications, surprisingly few attempts have been made to unravel the mechanisms involved in the pH-control of the product stoichiometry of denitrification. We investigated the kinetics of gas transformations (O2, NO, N2O and N2) and transcription of functional genes in intact soil samples from long-term liming experiments. Expression of nirS (encoding nitrite reductase) and nosZ (encoding N2OR) was generally lower at pH6 compared to pH8, but the nosZ/nirS transcript ratios were similar or even higher at pH6. These results were largely corroborated in refined experiments using extracted bacterial communities from the same soils, which allowed us to better control the pH levels experienced by the cells. The findings indicated that the higher N2O/N2 product ratios at pH6 were due to a post-transcriptional effect. Pure culture experiments using Paracoccus denitrificans demonstrated very low N2O/N2 ratios at pH7 while N2O reduction was severely inhibited by suboptimal pH, and that this inhibition occurred during protein synthesis/assembly rather than at the transcription level. The results are important for the understanding of main factors affecting N2O emissions from terrestrial ecosystems.

Frostegard, A.; Bakken, L. R.

2010-12-01

196

Characterization of the denitrifying fraction of phosphate accumulating organisms in biological phosphate removal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Results of experimental investigations are presented that strongly support the hypothesis that PAO from activated sludge systems consist of two groups: a) denitrifying PAO (DNPAO) capable of using oxygen and nitrate and b) non-denitrifying PAO (non-DNPAO) only able to use oxygen. Batch experiments were performed in which activated sludge obtained from a pilot scale BIODENIPHO(TM) was submitted to a sequence of anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic or anaerobic/anoxic conditions while monitoring the course of NOX-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, PHB and PHV. Several methods for the determination of the two fractions of PAO are performed and compared. This study extends on previously reported results (Kerrn-Jespersen and Henze, 1993) in that the pH was controlled to around pH 7 to assure that phosphate precipitation was minimal, and in the measurement of PHB and PHV. With regards to the latter, the paper also examines the influence of the size of the internal PHA pool on the anoxic phosphorus uptake rate. Simulations implementing existing models for the growth of non-DNPAO and DNPAO are used to confirm the experimental results and to gain a better understanding of some of the observations. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Meinhold, Jens; Isaacs, Steven Howard

1999-01-01

197

Community size and composition of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in an alluvial intertidal wetland ecosystem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global nitrogen cycling is mainly mediated by the activity of microorganisms. Nitrogen cycle processes are mediated by functional groups of microorganisms that are affected by constantly changing environmental conditions and substrate availability. In this study, we investigated the temporal and spatial patterns of nitrifier and denitrifier communities in an intertidal wetland. Soil samples were collected over four distinct seasons from three locations with different vegetative cover. Multiple environmental factors and process rates were measured and analyzed together with the community size and composition profiles. We observed that the community size and composition of the nitrifiers and denitrifiers are affected significantly by seasonal factors, while vegetative cover affected the community composition. The seasonal impacts on the community size of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA are much higher than that of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB. The seasonal change was a more important indicator for AOA community composition patterns, while vegetation was more important for the AOB community patterns. The microbial process rates were correlated with both the community size and composition.

Zhe-XueQuan

2014-07-01

198

Evaluation of the microbial diversity of denitrifying bacteria in batch reactor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Microbial communities in an industrial activated sludge plant may contribute to the denitrification process, but the information on the microorganisms present in denitrifying reactors is still scarce. Removal of inorganic nitrogen compounds can be accomplished by the addition of carbon sources to th [...] e biological process of denitrification. Ethanol is an economically viable alternative as a carbon source in tropical countries like Brazil, with large-scale production from sugarcane. This paper reports the successful aplication of activated sludge with nitrate and ethanol in a batch anaerobic reactor. The operation lasted 61.5 h with total consumption of nitrate in 42.5 h, nitrite generation (2.0 mg/L) and ethanol consumption (830.0 mg/L) in 23.5 h. Denitrifying cell counts by the most probable number at the start of the operation were lower than at the end, confirming the ability of the inoculum from activated sludge for the denitrification process. The samples from cell counts were identified as Acidovorax sp., Acinetobacter sp., Comamonas sp. and uncultured bacteria. Therefore, these species may be involved in nitrate reduction and ethanol consumption in the batch reactor.

S. I., Maintinguer; I. K., Sakamoto; M. A. T., Adorno; M. B. A., Varesche.

2013-09-01

199

Cultivation and irradiation of human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture; Cultivo e irradiacao de fibroblastos humanos em meio enriquecido com lisado de plaquetas para obtencao de camada de sustentacao em culturas de celulas da epiderme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For over 30 years, the use of culture medium, enriched with bovine serum, and murines fibroblasts, with the rate of proliferation controlled by irradiation or by share anticarcinogenic drugs, has been playing successfully its role in assisting in the development of keratinocytes in culture, for clinical purposes. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and animals viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, the present work aims to cultivate human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with human platelets lysate and determine the irradiation dose of these cells, for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture. For carrying out the proposed objective, platelets lysis has standardized, this lysate was used for human fibroblasts cultivation and the irradiation dose enough to inhibit its duplication was evaluated. Human keratinocytes were cultivated in these feeder layers, in culture medium enriched with the lysate. With these results we conclude that the 10% platelets lysate promoted a better adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts and in all dose levels tested (60 to 300 Gy), these had their mitotic activity inactivated by ionizing irradiation, being that the feeder layers obtained with doses from 70 to 150 Gy were those that provided the best development of keratinocytes in medium containing 2.5% of human platelet lysate. Therefore, it was possible to standardize both the cultivation of human fibroblasts as its inactivation for use as feeder layer in culture of keratinocytes, so as to eliminate xenobiotics components. (author)

Yoshito, Daniele

2011-07-01

200

Using T-RFLP data on denitrifier community composition to inform understanding of denitrification in stream sediments (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), a molecular fingerprinting method, to characterize denitrifier communities in sediments taken from 48 study streams in North Carolina, USA. In addition to characterizing denitrifier communities, we also used denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) assays to measure potential denitrification rates. Due to differences in watershed land-use, study streams covered a gradient of nitrogen and carbon concentrations, as well as a gradient of contaminant loading from stormwater and sanitary sewers. Nitrogen and carbon (i.e., substrate) concentrations are commonly used to make predictions about denitrification rates in streams. Such models do not take into account denitrifier community composition, which may be an important, independent control of denitrification rates, particularly under stressful conditions (e.g., high contaminant loading) that prevent communities from capitalizing on high substrate availability. Our results indicate that substrate availability by itself was a weak predictor of denitrification rates; the same was also true for denitrifier community composition. However, when both factors were incorporated in a multiple regression model, the percent variation explained increased substantially. These findings suggest that T-RFLP, a relatively cost-effective method, can be used to improve our understanding of controls on denitrification rates in streams with varying watershed land-uses.

Wang, S.; Somers, K.; Sudduth, E.; Hassett, B.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Urban, D. L.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

High-efficient nitrogen removal by coupling enriched autotrophic-nitrification and aerobic-denitrification consortiums at cold temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study paid particular attention to total nitrogen removal at low temperature (10°C) by excellent coupling of enriched autotrophic nitrifying and heterotrophic denitrifying consortiums at sole aerobic condition. The maximum specific nitrifying rate of the nitrifying consortium reached 8.85mgN/(gSSh). Further test in four identical lab-scale sequencing batch reactors demonstrated its excellent performance for bioaugmentation in potential applications. On the other hand, the aerobic denitrifying consortium could achieve a specific denitrifying rate of 32.93mgN/(gSSh) under dissolved oxygen of 1.0-1.5mg/L at 10°C. Coupling both kinds of consortiums was proved very successful for a perfect total nitrogen (TN) removal at COD/N of 4 and dissolved oxygen of 1.5-4.5mg/L, which was hardly reached by any single consortium reported previously. The encouraging results from coupling aerobic consortiums implied a huge potential in practical treatment of low-strength domestic wastewater (200-300mg/L COD) during wintertime. PMID:24717321

Zou, Shiqiang; Yao, Shuo; Ni, Jinren

2014-06-01

202

Long-term effect of temperature on N2O emission from the denitrifying activated sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term effect of various temperature (4°C, 12°C, 20°C, 25°C and 34°C) on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from lab-scale denitrifying activated sludge was studied in terms of activation energy, abundance of functional gene nosZ and its transcription. Results showed that temperature had a positive effect on N2O emissions as well as the maximum biomass-specific reduction rates of N2O and NO3(-), ranging from 0.006% to 0.681% of (N2O + N2), 17.3-116.2 and 5.2-66.2 mg N g(-1) VSS h(-1), respectively. The activation energies (Ea) for N2O and NO3(-) reduction of 44.1 kJ mol(-1) and 54.9 kJ mol(-1), shed light on differences in denitrifying rate variation. The maximum NO3(-) reduction rates were more sensitive to temperature variation than the corresponding N2O reduction rates under long-term acclimation. As a result, the ratio between N2O and NO3(-) reduction rates declined to 1.87 at 34°C from 3.31 at 4°C, suggesting great potential capacity for N2O losses at high temperature. The copy numbers of denitrifiers as nosZ gene (×10(8) copies mL(-1)) and total bacteria as 16S rRNA gene (×10(10) copies mL(-1)) did not show obvious relationship with temperature, having relative abundance of 0.42% on average. The transcriptional regulation of nosZ gene, in the range of 10(8)-10(5) copies mL(-1), was affected by reductase activity, substrate concentration as well as its duration. The active nosZ gene expression was accompanied with low reductase capacity, high dissolved N2O and the duration of N2O accumulation. These results provide insights into activation energy and gene expression responsible for N2O emission. PMID:24480748

Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Zhaoji; Ye, Xin; Kao, Chih Ming; Chen, Shaohua

2014-03-01

203

Uranium Enrichment, an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This general presentation on uranium enrichment will be followed by lectures on more specific topics including descriptions of enrichment processes and assessments of the prevailing commercial and industrial situations. I shall therefore avoid as much as possible duplications with these other lectures, and rather dwell on: some theoretical aspects of enrichment in general, underlying the differences between statistical and selective processes, a review and comparison between enrichment processes, remarks of general order regarding applications, the proliferation potential of enrichment. It is noteworthy that enrichment: may occur twice in the LWR fuel cycle: first by enriching natural uranium, second by reenriching uranium recovered from reprocessing, must meet LWR requirements, and in particular higher assays required by high burn up fuel elements, bears on the structure of the entire front part of the fuel cycle, namely in the conversion/reconversion steps only involving UF6 for the moment. (author). tabs., figs., 4 refs

204

Soil functional operating range linked to microbial biodiversity and community composition using denitrifiers as model guild.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil microorganisms are key players in biogeochemical cycles. Yet, there is no consistent view on the significance of microbial biodiversity for soil ecosystem functioning. According to the insurance hypothesis, declines in ecosystem functioning due to reduced biodiversity are more likely to occur under fluctuating, extreme or rapidly changing environmental conditions. Here, we compare the functional operating range, a new concept defined as the complete range of environmental conditions under which soil microbial communities are able to maintain their functions, between four naturally assembled soil communities from a long-term fertilization experiment. A functional trait approach was adopted with denitrifiers involved in nitrogen cycling as our model soil community. Using short-term temperature and salt gradients, we show that the functional operating range was broader and process rates were higher when the soil community was phylogenetically more diverse. However, key bacterial genotypes played an important role for maintaining denitrification as an ecosystem functioning under certain conditions. PMID:23284833

Hallin, Sara; Welsh, Allana; Stenström, John; Hallet, Stephanie; Enwall, Karin; Bru, David; Philippot, Laurent

2012-01-01

205

Denitrifying bacterial communities affect current production and nitrous oxide accumulation in a microbial fuel cell.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production decreased from 15.0 A · m(-3) NCC (Net Cathodic Compartment), when nitrate was used as an electron acceptor, to 14.1 A · m(-3) NCC in the case of nitrite. Contrarily, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation in the MFC was higher when nitrite was used as the main electron acceptor and accounted for 70% of gaseous nitrogen. Relative abundance of nitrite to nitrous oxide reducers, calculated as (qnirS+qnirK)/qnosZ, correlated positively with N2O emissions. Collectively, data indicate that bacteria catalysing the initial denitrification steps in a MFC are highly influenced by main electron acceptors and have a major influence on current production and N2O accumulation. PMID:23717427

Vilar-Sanz, Ariadna; Puig, Sebastià; García-Lledó, Arantzazu; Trias, Rosalia; Balaguer, M Dolors; Colprim, Jesús; Bañeras, Lluís

2013-01-01

206

Phylogenetically diverse denitrifying and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in corals Alcyonium gracillimum and Tubastraea coccinea.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, the association of coral-bacteria and the ecological roles of bacterial symbionts in corals remain largely unknown. In particular, little is known about the community components of bacterial symbionts of corals involved in the process of denitrification and ammonia oxidation. In this study, the nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes were used as functional markers. Diverse bacteria with the potential to be active as denitrifiers and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were found in two East China Sea corals: stony coral Alcyonium gracillimum and soft coral Tubastraea coccinea. The 16S rRNA gene library analysis demonstrated different communities of bacterial symbionts in these two corals of the same location. Nitrite reductase nirK gene was found only in T. coccinea, while both nirK and nirS genes were detected in A. gracillimum, which might be the result of the presence of different bacterial symbionts in these two corals. AOB rather than ammonia-oxidizing archaea were detected in both corals, suggesting that AOB might play an important role in the ammonia oxidation process of the corals. This study indicates that the coral bacterial symbionts with the potential for nitrite reduction and ammonia oxidation might have multiple ecological roles in the coral holobiont, which promotes our understanding of bacteria-mediated nitrogen cycling in corals. To our knowledge, this study is the first assessment of the community structure and phylogenetic diversity of denitrifying bacteria and AOB in corals based on nirK, nirS, and amoA gene library analysis. PMID:23564007

Yang, Shan; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

2013-10-01

207

Nitrogen cycling and relationships between ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in a clay-loam soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (0, 50, and 100 t/ha) on N cycling and the microorganisms involved in it, in a clay-loam soil. After a release of nitrates (NO3(-)-N) in the first 6 days after compost incorporation, soil NO3(-)-N content remained constant in all the treatments until day?62, suggesting N immobilization induced by the soil used in this study. Then, soil NO3(-)-N content increased in all treatments and especially in the highest compost dose, providing evidence that immobilization effect has been at least partially relieved. amoA gene copies of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) followed the overall pattern of soil NO3(-)-N content; however, no differences were found in amoA gene copies among treatments, except in the last sampling, an effect attributed to the slight differences in the potential nitrification rate among them. Ammonia oxidizer pattern provided evidence that both groups were involved in ammonia oxidation and changes in their abundance can be used as 'indicator' to predict changes in soil nitrification status. Moreover, the strong correlation between AOA and AOB amoA copies (R(2)?=?0.94) and the high slope (13) of the curve suggest that AOA had probably an important role on ammonia oxidation. Denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK, nosZ) also followed the general pattern of soil NO3(-)-N, and they were strongly correlated with both groups of ammonia oxidizers, and particularly AOA, suggesting strong interrelationships among them. Losses of N through denitrification, as they were estimated by total nitrogen, were inversely related to soil NO3(-)-N content. Similar to ammonia oxidizers, denitrifying gene copies did not differ among compost treatments an effect that could be probably explained by the low availability of organic-C in the MSW compost and hence the competition with aerobic heterotrophs. PMID:23435941

Paranychianakis, N V; Tsiknia, M; Giannakis, G; Nikolaidis, N P; Kalogerakis, N

2013-06-01

208

Isolation and functional analysis of denitrifiers in an aquifer with high potential for denitrification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquifers are among the main freshwater sources. The Raigón aquifer is susceptible to contamination, mainly by nitrate and pesticides, such as atrazine, due to increasing agricultural activities in the area. The capacity of indigenous bacteria to attenuate nitrate contamination in different wells of this aquifer was assessed by measuring denitrification rates with either acetate plus succinate or nitrate amendments. Denitrification activity in nitrate-amended assays was significantly higher than in unamended assays, particularly in groundwater from wells where nitrate concentration was 33.5 mg L(-1) or lower. Furthermore, groundwater denitrifiers capable of using acetate or succinate as electron donors were isolated, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluated for functional denitrification genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ). Phylogenetic affiliation of 54 isolates showed that all members belonged to nine different genera within the Proteobacteria (Bosea, Ochrobactrum, Azospira, Zoogloea, Acidovorax, Achromobacter, Vogesella, Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). In addition, isolate AR28 that clustered separately from validly described species could potentially belong to a new genus. The majority of the isolates were related to species belonging to previously reported denitrifying genera. However, the phylogeny of the nirS and nosZ genes revealed new sequences of these functional genes. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation and sequencing of the nirS gene from the genus Vogesella, as well as the nosZ gene from the genera Acidovorax and Zoogloea. The results indicated that indigenous bacteria in the Raigón aquifer had the capacity to overcome high nitrate contamination and exhibited functional gene diversity. PMID:23972399

Bellini, M Inés; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Tarlera, Silvana; Scavino, Ana Fernández

2013-10-01

209

Coexistence of nitrifying, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale Sequencing Batch Reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of 8.0 and 7.8-8.0, rispectively. Short term effect of nitrite on anammox activity was studied, showing nitrite up to 42 mg/L did not result in inhibition. Both denitrification via nitrate and nitrite were measured. To reduce nitrite-oxidizing activity, high of NH3 – N (1.9-10 mg N-NH3/L and low nitrite (3-8 mg TNN/L are required conditions during the whole SBR cycle.Molecular analysis showed the nitritation-anammox sludge harbored a high microbial diversity, where each microorganism has a specific role. Using ammonia monooxygenase ? –subunit (amoA gene as a marker, our analyses suggested different macro- and micro-environments in the reactor strongly affect the AOB community, allowing the development of different AOB species, such as N. europaea/eutropha and N. oligotropha groups, which improve the stability of nitritation process. A specific PCR primer set, used to target the 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, confirmed the presence of the “Ca. Brocadia fulgida” type, able to grow in precence of organic matter and to tolerate high nitrite concentrations. The diversity of denitrifiers was assessed by using dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nirS gene-based analyses, who showed denitifiers were related to different betaproteobacterial genera, such as Thauera, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Aromatoleum, able to assist in forming microbial aggregates. Concerning possible secondary processes, no n-damo bacteria were found while NOB from the genus of Nitrobacter was detected.

MichelaLangone

2014-02-01

210

BTEX removal in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor under denitrifying conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and ethanol are important contaminants present in Brazilian gasoline, it is essential to develop technology that can be used in the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated aquifers. This paper evaluates the performance of a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB) reactor fed with water containing gasoline constituents under denitrifying conditions. Two HAIB reactors filled with polyurethane foam matrices (5 mm cubes, 23 kg/m(3) density and 95 % porosity) for biomass attachment were assayed. The reactor fed with synthetic substrate containing protein, carbohydrates, sodium bicarbonate and BTEX solution in ethanol, at an Hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13.5 h, presented hydrocarbon removal efficiencies of 99 % at the following initial concentrations: benzene 6.7 mg/L, toluene 4.9 mg/L, m-xylene and p-xylene 7.2 mg/L, ethylbenzene 3.7 mg/L, and nitrate 60 mg N/L. The HAIB reactor fed with gasoline-contaminated water at an HRT of 20 h showed hydrocarbon removal efficiencies of 96 % at the following initial concentrations: benzene, 4.9 mg/L; toluene, 7.2 mg/L; m-xylene, 3.7 mg/L; and nitrate 400 mg N/L. Microbiological observations along the length of the HAIB reactor fed with gasoline-contaminated water confirmed that in the first segment of the reactor, denitrifying metabolism predominated, whereas from the first sampling port on, the metabolism observed was predominantly methanogenic. PMID:22910812

Ribeiro, Rogers; de Nardi, Ivana Ribeiro; Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Foresti, Eugenio; Zaiat, Marcelo

2013-04-01

211

Coexistence of nitrifying, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale sequencing batch reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of 8.0 and 7.8-8.0, respectively. Short term effect of nitrite on anammox activity was studied, showing nitrite up to 42 mg/L did not result in inhibition. Both denitrification via nitrate and nitrite were measured. To reduce nitrite-oxidizing activity, high NH3-N (1.9-10 mg NH3-N/L) and low nitrite (3-8 mg TNN/L) are required conditions during the whole SBR cycle. Molecular analysis showed the nitritation-anammox sludge harbored a high microbial diversity, where each microorganism has a specific role. Using ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) gene as a marker, our analyses suggested different macro- and micro-environments in the reactor strongly affect the AOB community, allowing the development of different AOB species, such as N. europaea/eutropha and N. oligotropha groups, which improve the stability of nitritation process. A specific PCR primer set, used to target the 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, confirmed the presence of the "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" type, able to grow in presence of organic matter and to tolerate high nitrite concentrations. The diversity of denitrifiers was assessed by using dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nirS) gene-based analyses, who showed denitifiers were related to different betaproteobacterial genera, such as Thauera, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Aromatoleum, able to assist in forming microbial aggregates. Concerning possible secondary processes, no n-damo bacteria were found while NOB from the genus Nitrobacter was detected. PMID:24550899

Langone, Michela; Yan, Jia; Haaijer, Suzanne C M; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Andreottola, Gianni

2014-01-01

212

Modeling of Cr(VI) Bioreduction Under Fermentative and Denitrifying Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms of bioreductive immobilization of Cr(VI) were investigated by reactive transport modeling of a set of flow-through column experiments performed using natural Hanford 100H aquifer sediment. The columns were continuously eluted with 5 ?M Cr(VI), 5 mM lactate as the electron donor, and selected electron acceptors (tested individually). Here we focus on the two separate experimental conditions that showed the most removal of Cr(VI) from solution: fermentation and denitrification. In each case, a network of enzymatic and abiotic reaction pathways was considered to interpret the rate of chromate reduction. The model included biomass growth and decay, and thermodynamic limitations on reaction rates, and was constrained by effluent concentrations measured by IC and ICP-MS and additional information from bacterial isolates from column effluent. Under denitrifying conditions, Cr(VI) reduction was modeled as co-metabolic with nitrate reduction based on experimental observations and previous studies on a denitrifying bacterium derived from the Hanford 100H aquifer. The reactive transport model results supported this interpretation of the reaction mechanism and were used to quantify the efficiency of the process. The models results also suggest that biomass growth likely relied on a nitrogen source other than ammonium (e.g. nitrate). Under fermentative conditions and based on cell suspension studies performed on a bacterial isolate from the columns, the model assumes that Cr(VI) reduction is carried out directly by fermentative bacteria that convert lactate into acetate and propionate. The evolution to complete lactate fermentation and Cr(VI) reduction took place over a week's time and simulations were used to determine an estimate for a lower limit of the rate of chromate reduction by calibration with the flow-through column experimental results. In spite of sulfate being added to these columns, sulfate reduction proceeded at a slow rate and was not well constrained.

Molins, S.; Steefel, C.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.

2011-12-01

213

The role of plant type and salinity in the selection for the denitrifying community structure in the rhizosphere of wetland vegetation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal wetlands, as transient links from terrestrial to marine environments, are important for nitrogen removal by denitrification. Denitrification strongly depends on both the presence of emergent plants and the denitrifier communities selected by different plant species. In this study, the effects of vegetation and habitat heterogeneity on the community of denitrifying bacteria were investigated in nine coastal wetlands in two preserved areas of Spain. Sampling locations were selected to cover a range of salinity (0.81 to 31.3 mS/cm) and nitrate concentrations (0.1 to 303 ?M NO3-), allowing the evaluation of environmental variables that select for denitrifier communities in the rhizosphere of Phragmites sp., Ruppia sp., and Paspalum sp. Potential nitrate reduction rates were found to be dependent on the sampling time and plant species and related to the denitrifier community structure, which was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the functional genes nirS, nirK and nosZ. The results showed that denitrifier community structure was also governed by plant species and salinity, with significant influences of other variables, such as sampling time and location. Ruppia sp. and Phragmites sp. selected for certain communities, whereas this was not the case for Paspalum sp. The plant species effect was strongest on nirK-type denitrifiers, whereas water carbon content was a significant factor defining the structure of the nosZ-harboring community. The differences recognized using the three functional gene markers indicated that different drivers act on denitrifying populations capable of complete denitrification, compared to the overall denitrifier community. This finding may have implications for emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. PMID:22847270

Bañeras, Luís; Ruiz-Rueda, Olaya; López-Flores, Rocío; Quintana, Xavier D; Hallin, Sara

2012-06-01

214

Nitrite Reductase Genes (nirK and nirS) as Functional Markers To Investigate Diversity of Denitrifying Bacteria in Pacific Northwest Marine Sediment Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genetic heterogeneity of denitrifying bacteria in sediment samples from Puget Sound and two sites on the Washington continental margin was studied by PCR approaches amplifying nirK and nirS genes. These structurally different but functionally equivalent single-copy genes coding for nitrite reductases, a key enzyme of the denitrification process, were used as a molecular marker for denitrifying bacteria. nirS sequences could be amplified from samples of both sampling sites, whereas nirK sequen...

Braker, Gesche; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Liyou; Devol, Allan H.; Tiedje, James M.

2000-01-01

215

The Role of plant type and salinity in the selection for the denitrifying community structure in the rhizosphere of wetland vegetation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coastal wetlands, as transient links from terrestrial to marine environments, are important for nitrogen removal by denitrification. Denitrification strongly depends on both the presence of emergent plants and the denitrifier communities selected by different plant species. In this study, the effects of vegetation and habitat heterogeneity on the community of denitrifying bacteria were investigated in nine coastal wetlands in two preserved areas of Spain. Sampling locations were selected to c...

Ban?eras Vives, Llui?s; Ruiz Rueda, Olaya; Lo?pez I Flores, Roci?o; Quintana Pou, Xavier; Hallin, Sara

2012-01-01

216

Advanced enrichment techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

217

Advanced enrichment techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

218

Alternative isotope enrichment processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alternative processes such as gas centrifugation, plasma separation, and laser excited separation are evaluated for use at the ORNL Stable Isotope Enrichment Facility. The applicabiliy of each process to the isotopic enrichment of the calutron feed material and to the selective production of isotopes is determined. The process energy demands are compared to those of the existing facilities. The isotopic enrichment of the feed material prior to a first-pass through the calutrons can result in a significant saving in energy

219

Population analysis in a denitrifying sand filter: conventional and in situ identification of Paracoccus spp. in methanol-fed biofilms.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbial community of a denitrifying sand filter in a municipal wastewater treatment plant was examined by conventional and molecular techniques to identify the bacteria actively involved in the removal of nitrate. In this system, denitrification is carried out as the last step of water treatment by biofilms growing on quartz grains with methanol as a supplemented carbon source. The biofilms are quite irregular, having a median thickness of 13 to 20 microns. Fatty acid analysis of 56 den...

Neef, A.; Zaglauer, A.; Meier, H.; Amann, R.; Lemmer, H.; Schleifer, K. H.

1996-01-01

220

Cultural Literacy: Negotiating Language, Culture, and Thought  

Science.gov (United States)

Our schools see increasing numbers of students who reflect the wide diversity of this country's population, but too often these differences--culture, language, socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicity are viewed from negative or deficit perspectives when they are, in fact, the cultural capital that enriches discussion, broadens viewpoints, and…

Clark, Ellen Riojas; Flores, Belinda Bustos

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

TRIGA low enrichment fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

222

The ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying prokaryotes associated with sponges from different sea areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine sponges have been suggested to play an important role in the marine nitrogen cycling. However, the role of sponge microbes in the nitrogen transformation remains limited, especially on the bacterial ammonia oxidization and denitrification. Hence, in the present study, using functional genes (amoA, nirS, nirK, and nxrA) involved in ammonia oxidization and denitrification and 16S rRNA genes for specific bacterial groups as markers, phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes including bacteria and archaea, which may be involved in the ammonia oxidization and denitrification processes in sponges, were revealed in seven sponge species. Ammonia oxidizers were found in all species, whereas three sponges (Placospongia sp., Acanthella sp., and Pericharax heteroraphis) harbor only ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), two sponges (Spirastrellidae diplastrella and Mycale fibrexilis) host only ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), while the remaining two sponges (Haliclona sp. and Lamellomorpha sp.) harbor both AOB and AOA. S. diplastrella and Lamellomorpha sp. also harbor denitrifying bacteria. Nitrite reductase gene nirK was detected only in Lamellomorpha sp. with higher phylogenetic diversity than nirS gene observed only in S. diplastrella. The detected functional genes related to the ammonia oxidization and nitrite reduction in deep-sea and shallow-water sponges highlighted the potential ecological roles of prokaryotes in sponge-related nitrogen transformation. PMID:23435827

Han, Minqi; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Fengli

2013-08-01

223

Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed-1. A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantities among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions.

O'Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, Dina; Lapara, Timothy M.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Brezonik, Patrick L.

2006-12-01

224

Sustainable nitrogen removal by denitrifying anammox applied for anaerobic pre-treated potato wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of sustainable nitrogen removal was investigated in a two stage biofilm configuration consisting of a MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor) and a Deamox reactor (Biobed-EGSB). The MBBR is used for nitrification and the denitrifying ammonium oxidation (Deamox) is aimed at a nitrogen removal process in which part of the required nitrite for the typical anammox reaction originated from nitrate. Anaerobic pre-treated potato wastewater was supplied to a MBBR and Deamox reactor operated in series with a bypass flow of 30%. The MBBR showed stable nitrite production at ammonium-loading rates of 0.9-1.0 kg NH?-N/m³ d with ammonium conversion rates of 0.80-0.85 kg NH?-N/m³ d. The nitrogen-loading rate and conversion rate of the Deamox reactor were 1.6-1.8 and 1.6 kg N/m³ d. The maximum ammonium removal capacity in the Deamox reactor was 0.6 kg NH?-N/m³ d. The removal efficiency of soluble total nitrogen reached 90%. The Deamox process performance was found to be negatively affected during decline of the operating temperature from 33 to 22 °C and by organic loading rates with a chemical oxygen demand (COD)/NO?-N ratio >1. PMID:23109579

Mulder, A; Versprille, A I; van Braak, D

2012-01-01

225

Influence of particles properties on biofilm structure and energy consumption in denitrifying fluidized bed bioreactors (DFBBRs).  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of particles properties on biofilm structure, reactor performance, and energy consumption for denitrifying fluidized bed bioreactors (DFBBRs) using maxi-blast plastic (MX), multi-blast plastic (MB), natural zeolite (NZ), and lava rock (LR) was investigated. The work showed that the particles with sphericity of 0.9 (MB and NZ) maintained a fluffy protruding biofilm and achieved slightly higher nutrient removal efficiencies as compared to the particles with sphericity of 0.5 (MX and LR) which exhibited a patchy biofilm at low C/N ratio. As a results, lower detachment rate and biomass yields were observed for MB and NZ of 0.12 g VSS/g COD, as compared to 0.19 g VSS/g COD for both the MX and LR. This study showed that increasing the biofilm thickness, though not significantly impacting nutrient removal efficiencies, would decrease the annualized energy costs and therefore reduce the long-term operational cost. Moreover, MB appears to be the superior media. PMID:23073104

Eldyasti, Ahmed; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

2012-12-01

226

Tertiary Denitrification of the Secondary Effluent by Denitrifying Biofilters Packed with Different Sizes of Quartz Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tertiary denitrification of the secondary effluent in wastewater treatment plants is necessary to control the eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Two denitrifying biofilters (DNBF, one packed with quart sand with sizes of 2–4 mm (DNBFS and the other of 4–6 mm (DNBFL, were operated for tertiary denitrification under empty bed retention times (EBRTs of 30 min, 15 min and 7.5 min, respectively. Under EBRTs of 30 min, 15 min and 7.5 min, the NO3?-N removal percentages were 93%, 82% and 83% in DNBFS, and were 92%, 68% and 36% in DNBFL, respectively. The nitrogen removal loading rates increased with decreasing EBRTs, and at the EBRT of 7.5 min, the rate was 2.15 kg/(m3·d in DNBFS and 1.08 kg/(m3·d in DNBFL. The half-order denitrification coefficient of DNBFS increased from 0.42 (mg/L1/2/min at the EBRT of 30 min to 0.70 (mg/L1/2/min at the EBRT of 7.5 min, while did not vary much in DNBFL with values from 0.22 to 0.25 (mg/L1/2/min. The performance of both DNBFs was stable within each backwashing cycle, with the NO3?-N removal percentage variation within 5%. Better denitrification was achieved in DNBFS but with a slightly high decreased flow rate during the operation.

Nan Wei

2014-05-01

227

What is Enrichment For (?)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has long been held that schooling, the curriculum (hidden or otherwise), and the pedagogical practices pertaining to them are the perpetrators of social and economic inequalities in Western society. My interest surrounds the role of ‘enrichment’, as an auxiliary of education, in perpetuating or restricting social justice. As the enrichment coordinator within an inner city Sixth Form college, it became part of my remit to research the dispositions held by our largely underprivileged stu...

Matsangos, P.

2011-01-01

228

The competitive enrichment market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the enactment of the ''Private Ownership of Special Nuclear Materials Act'' in 1964, the U.S. Government made provisions to enter into the uranium enrichment services business. Since nuclear power was in its infancy and the Government was promoting its growth as well as trying to help U.S. industry sell reactors overseas, the initial contracts (Requirements Contracts) for enrichment services placed most of the risks associated with the supplying of the services on the Government. Projections of nuclear power additions continued to grow and in 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) stopped contracting under Requirements Contracts in order to study which mode of contracting best suited the commercial development of the industry. In mid-1973, the AEC introduced the Long-Term Fixed Commitment (LTFC) contract which shifted the risk to the customer. By mid-1974, AEC had contracts which completely used the enrichment capacity of its complex and refused to accept requests for additional contracts. This action further convinced European nations that they should continue to develop their own enrichment capacity and resulted in the EURODIF and URENCO projects. Before this time the U.S. supplied 100% of the world market for enriching services

229

Evaluation of different culture media and enrichment in orange juice upon the growth of Alicyclobacillus spp. / Avaliação de diferentes meios de cultura e enriquecimento em suco de laranja sobre o crescimento de Alicyclobacillus spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As bactérias do gênero Alicyiclobacillus spp. formam esporos e se desenvolvem em meios ácidos, podendo causar deterioração em sucos cítricos. O Brasil é o maior exportador de suco de laranja concentrado do mundo e, assim, este gênero vem sendo estudado por causar alterações de odor e sabor. Vários e [...] studos relatam diferentes meios de culturas empregados para a detecção e enumeração de Alicyclobacillus spp. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a recuperação de esporos de Alicyclobacillus spp. nos meios ALI, BAT, K ágar e YSG, utilizando a metodologia indicada pela ABECitrus. Cinco inóculos diferentes foram utilizados, sendo dois de linhagens-referência e os outros três isolados de suco concentrado de laranja pasteurizado. Também foi verificada a recuperação das células após o enriquecimento em suco de laranja reconstituído. Foi inoculada uma população inicial de 6 log UFC/mL. Os meios ALI, BAT e YSG conseguiram recuperar esta população nos diferentes inóculos, não existindo diferenças significativas entre os resultados. Contudo, devido à facilidade do preparo, os meios ALI e YSG mostraram-se mais vantajosos quando comparados ao meio BAT. O meio K ágar apresentou recuperação inferior aos outros meios para todos os inóculos, porém, houve diferença significativa apenas para Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius 0298 T (3,66 log UFC/mL) e Alicyclobacillus pomorum-like CBMAI 0278 (4,11 log UFC/mL). Abstract in english Bacteria of the genus Alicyiclobacillus spp. form spores and develop in acid media, leading to the spoilage of citrus juices. Brazil is the largest exporter of orange juice concentrate, and yet, it has been extensively studied due to changes in taste and smell. Several investigations have reported d [...] ifferent culture media used to detect and enumerate Alicyiclobacillus spp. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the recovery of Alicyiclobacillus spp. spores grown in ALI, BAT, K agar and YSG media using the methodology suggested by ABECitrus. Five inocula were used, two from reference strains and three from pasteurized concentrated orange juice. Cell recovery after the enrichment in reconstituted orange juice was also analyzed. An initial population of 6 log CFU/mL was inoculated. ALI, BAT and YSG media were able to recover the initial population of all different inocula, with no significant differences between the results. When compared to BAT, however, the preparation of ALI and YSG media was simpler and had more advantages. The recovery with K agar medium was lower than the other media for all the tested inocula, with significant differences found for Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius 0298T (3.66 log CFU/mL) and Alicyclobacillus pomorum-like CBMAI 0278 (4.11 log CFU/mL).

Márcia Maria, Anjos; Suelen Pereira, Ruiz; Benício Alves, Abreu Filho.

2014-04-01

230

Identification of the functional periplasmic nitrate reductase (nap) gene cluster from the deep-sea denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. strain MT-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nap gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase was identified from Pseudomonas sp. strain MT-1, a deep-sea denitrifier isolated from the Mariana Trench. The ORFs identified were highly homologous with those of Pseudomonas stutzeri, but the cluster included only four ORFs (napDABC), less than those in other organisms. For other bacteria, some additional small ORFs (such as napE, napF, napG, napH, and napK) are found in the nap gene cluster, although their physiological function is still unclear. The soluble fraction of MT-1 grown under denitrifying condition showed significant nitrate reductase activity. This observation suggests that the periplasmic nitrate reductase encoded by the gene cluster identified in this study is functional. The activity was highest when the organism was grown under denitrifying conditions, suggesting that the enzyme participates in dissimilatory nitrite reduction. PMID:17690469

Tamegai, Hideyuki; Ikeda, Eriko; Kato, Chiaki; Horikoshi, Koki

2007-08-01

231

Different response of nitrifiers and denitrifiers to re-wetting shape the NO release from soils in laboratory incubation experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory incubation studies incubating soils at a wide range of soil moistures, soil temperatures and mixing ratios of NO in the headspace and inorganic nutrient contents (NH4+,NO3-, NO2-) showed that release rates of NO follow an exponential function with increasing soil temperature and an optimum function for soil moisture. This approach assumes that environmental factors play the dominant role in shaping an ecosystem and thereby microbial communities and control the NO release from soil. We determined the NO release rate for a dryland farming soil under flooding irrigation in Xinjiang, China, a mid-latitude agricultural soil (Mainz, Germany), and a rice paddy (Ambai, India) upon wetting and subsequent drying out of soils. Only the release rate for the mid-latitude agricultural soil followed an optimum function for soil moisture. Release rates for the dryland farming soil and rice paddy, however, followed a two maxima function with distinct maxima at higher and lower soil moisture. Acknowledgement of two distinct maxima is critical for more accurately assessing regional biogenic NO emissions of soils under field conditions. To analyse the response of nitrifiers and denitrifiers involved in NO turnover in more detail we linked molecular analysis of functional gene expression (nirK and nirS, bacterial and archaeal amoA) and microbial community composition to NO release rates. We could show that the maximal transcriptional activity of denitrifiers and ammonia oxidizers differs with soil moisture and that higher transcriptional activity of nirS-type denitrifiers at higher soil moisture and of archaeal ammonia oxidizers at lower soil moisture may explain the two maxima for NO release.

Behrendt, Thomas; Wu, Dianming; Song, Guozheng; Pommerenke, Bianca; Braker, Gesche

2014-05-01

232

Denitrifiers in the surface zone are primarily responsible for the nitrous oxide emission of dairy manure compost  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Nitrous oxide (N2O) productions of each compost zones were compared. ? The pile surface emitted significant fluxes of N2O. ? The isotopic signature of N2O from surface and NO2? amended core were different. ? The denitrifying gene abundance was significantly higher in pile surface than the pile core. -- Abstract: During the dairy manure composting process, significant nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions occur just after the pile turnings. To understand the characteristics of this N2O emission, samples were taken from the compost surface and core independently, and the N2O production was monitored in laboratory incubation experiments. Equal amounts of surface and core samples were mixed to simulate the turning, and the 15N isotope ratios within the molecules of produced N2O were analyzed by isotopomer analysis. The results showed that the surface samples emitted significant levels of N2O, and these emissions were correlated with NOx?-N accumulation. Moreover, the surface samples and surface-core mixed samples incubated at 30 °C produced N2O with a low site preference (SP) value (?0.9 to 7.0‰) that was close to bacteria denitrification (0‰), indicating that denitrifiers in the surface samples are responsible for this N2O production. On the other hand, N2O produced by NO2?-amended core samples and surface samples incubated at 60 °C showed unrecognized isotopic signatures (SP = 11.4–20.3‰). From these results, it was revealed that the N2O production occurring just after the turnings was mainly derived from bacterial denitrification (including nitrifier denitrification) of NOx?-N under mesophilic conditions, and surface denitrifying bacteria appeared to be the main contributor to this process

233

Denitrifiers in the surface zone are primarily responsible for the nitrous oxide emission of dairy manure compost  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) productions of each compost zones were compared. ? The pile surface emitted significant fluxes of N{sub 2}O. ? The isotopic signature of N{sub 2}O from surface and NO{sub 2}{sup ?} amended core were different. ? The denitrifying gene abundance was significantly higher in pile surface than the pile core. -- Abstract: During the dairy manure composting process, significant nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions occur just after the pile turnings. To understand the characteristics of this N{sub 2}O emission, samples were taken from the compost surface and core independently, and the N{sub 2}O production was monitored in laboratory incubation experiments. Equal amounts of surface and core samples were mixed to simulate the turning, and the {sup 15}N isotope ratios within the molecules of produced N{sub 2}O were analyzed by isotopomer analysis. The results showed that the surface samples emitted significant levels of N{sub 2}O, and these emissions were correlated with NO{sub x}{sup ?}-N accumulation. Moreover, the surface samples and surface-core mixed samples incubated at 30 °C produced N{sub 2}O with a low site preference (SP) value (?0.9 to 7.0‰) that was close to bacteria denitrification (0‰), indicating that denitrifiers in the surface samples are responsible for this N{sub 2}O production. On the other hand, N{sub 2}O produced by NO{sub 2}{sup ?}-amended core samples and surface samples incubated at 60 °C showed unrecognized isotopic signatures (SP = 11.4–20.3‰). From these results, it was revealed that the N{sub 2}O production occurring just after the turnings was mainly derived from bacterial denitrification (including nitrifier denitrification) of NO{sub x}{sup ?}-N under mesophilic conditions, and surface denitrifying bacteria appeared to be the main contributor to this process.

Maeda, Koki, E-mail: k_maeda@affrc.go.jp [Dairy Research Division, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-8555 (Japan); Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Toyoda, Sakae [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hanajima, Dai [Dairy Research Division, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

2013-03-15

234

Decaying Cyanobacteria decrease N2O emissions related to diversity of intestinal denitrifiers of Chironomus plumosus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O emission of fresh invertebrates has too long been neglected in eutrophic lakes, although the sediments these animals inhabit are presumably hot spots of N2O emission. Thus, the experiment in this research was designed to gain insight into the influence of cyanobacterial degradation on the N2O emission by fresh water invertebrates (Chironomus plumosus. The presence of decaying cyanobacteria in Lake Taihu decreased the N2O emission rate of Chironomus plumosus larvae from the larvae body by almost 400% for the larvae as a whole. The N2O emission rate decreased by 350% based on readings from studies of their gut, which was mostly due to stimulation of intestinal complete denitrification. The quantitative PCR results showed that intestinal gene abundance of nirK, nosZ (encoding the copper nitrite reductase and N2O reductase, respectively were significantly increased with the presence of decaying cyanobacteria. In contrast nirS (encoding the cytochrome cd1 heme nitrite reductase and the total bacteria decreased. In the gut of Chironomus plumosus, the diversity and richness of nosZ and nirK were lower with the cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of the intestinal function genes (nosZ and nirK showed that the nosZ- and nirK-type denitrifying bacterial sequences were related to different phylotypes. Hence, additional cyanobacteria increased the abundance, but decreased the richness and diversity of intestinal nitrate-reducing bacteria, probably by providing more carbon source in the gut. The data obtained in this study elucidates that the decaying cyanobacteria decreased the emissions of N2O by the aquatic invertebrates in freshwater sediment and could serve as a valuable resource for nitrogen removal affecting greenhouse gas emissions.

Xu Sun

2014-02-01

235

Characterization of Two Efficient Aerobic Denitrifying Strains Isolated from Shallow Aquifers in Suzhou City, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty two stains that can utilize nitrate as source of nitrogen under aerobic conditions were isolated from shallow aquifer samples in Suzhou city, China. Two of the strains, XK42 and PJ21, can convert nitrate into nitrogen gas efficiently without obvious accumulation of nitite. According to morphological, biochemical/biophysical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, XK42 and PJ21 were identified as Pseudomonas Stutzeri and Pseudomonas Mendocica, respectively. The generation time, optimum pH value range and optimum growth temperature range were 4.64h, 6.5˜8.0, 25˜35°C for XK42 and 8.39h, 6.5˜8.5, 25˜35°C for PJ21. Under aerobic conditions (DO=6.9˜7.8 mg/L), the nitrate concentrations in the medium inoculated with XK42 and PJ21 decreased to 42.35 mg/L and 35.69 mg/L with initial nitrate concentration of 276.25 mg/L within 12 hours, respectively. The nitrite concentrations reached to 3.06 mg/L and 3.70 mg/L, and their nitrate removal rates reached 18.24 mg/L?h and 17.51 mg/L?h. The total nitrogen loss through denitrification of XK42 and PJ21 were 70.9% and 66.3%, respectively. The nitrate reduction efficiencies within 60 hours was up to 95.13% (strain XK42) and 95.55% (strain PJ21). The results indicate that the isolated strians XK42 and PJ21 are aerobic denitrifiers with high nitrogen removal efficiency, and can be used for in-situ bioremediation of nitrogen-contaminated shallow groundwater and biotreatment of wasterwater.

Ruan, X.; Zhu, X.; Sun, H.; Li, M.

2010-12-01

236

Structure of a new azurin from the denitrifying bacterium Alcaligenes xylosoxidans at high resolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported previously that Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (NC1MB 11015) grown under denitrifying conditions produces two azurins instead of the single previously identified azurin [Dodd, Hasnain, Hunter, Abraham, Debenham, Kanzler, Eldridge, Eady, Ambler & Smith (1995). Biochemistry. In the press]. The new azurin, called azurin II, has been crystallized as blue elongated rectangular prisms with the tetragonal space group P4(1)22 and unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.65, c = 100.63 A. X-ray crystallographic data extending to 1.9 A resolution were collected by the Weissenberg method using 200 x 400 mm image plates and synchrotron X-rays of wavelength 0.97 A. The three-dimensional structure of azurin II has been solved by the molecular-replacement method using the structure of azurin from Alcaligenes denitrificans NCTC 8582 with which this new azurin shows a close homology. The quality of the initial map was sufficient to predict a number of sequence differences. The model is currently refined to an R-factor of 18.8% with X-ray data between 8.5 and 1.9 A. The final model of 961 protein atoms, one Cu atom and 50 water molecules has r.m.s. deviations from ideality of 0.009 A for bond lengths and 1.7 degrees for bond angles. The overall structure is similar to that of the azurin from A. denitrificans NCTC 8582. It has a beta-barrel structure with the Cu atom located near the top end of the molecule. The Cu atom is coordinated to Ndelta of His46 and His117 at 2.02 A and to Sgamma of Cys112 at 2.12 A, while the carbonyl O atom of Gly45 and Sdelta atom of Met121 provide the additional interactions at 2.75 and 3.26 A, respectively. PMID:15299774

Dodd, F E; Hasnain, S S; Abraham, Z H; Eady, R R; Smith, B E

1995-11-01

237

Oxygen enrichment incineration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

238

[Effects of different fertilization regimes on abundance and community structure of the nirK-type denitrifying bacteria in greenhouse vegetable soils].  

Science.gov (United States)

The community structure and abundance of nirK-type denitrifying bacteria in different soil layers (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) under various fertilization regimes in Wuwei, Gansu Province were investigated by the combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR. Results showed that the nirK-type denitrifying bacteria community structure was significantly affected by fertilization regimes, especially for 70, 156 and 190 bp T-RFs that represented the dominant populations in greenhouse soil. Fertilization regimes significantly influenced the abundance of nirK gene in the 0-20 cm soil layer with the highest abundance of nirK gene copy number (2.16 x 10(7) copies x g(-1) soil) detected in the manure treatment (M), which was 2.04 and 2.02 times of that in the control (CK) and chemical fertilizer (NPK) treatments, respectively. Both the dominant population and abundance of nirK-type denitrifying bacteria in the greenhouse soil were significantly different between the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers, and the nirK-type denitrifying bacteria community structure and abundance in the greenhouse soil were obviously different from that in the field. Soil pH, soil organic matter content and nitrate-N content had the greatest influence on the bacterial community composition. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were not only anaerobic nirK-type denitrifying bacteria in greenhouse soil, but also aerobic denitrifying bacteria, such as Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Agrobacterium. PMID:24830252

Zeng, Xi-Bai; Wang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Bai, Ling-Yu; Li, Lian-Fang; Duan, Ran; Su, Shi-Ming; Wu, Cui-Xia

2014-02-01

239

Differential responses of nirK- and nirS-carrying bacteria to denitrifying conditions in the anoxic rice field soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Denitrification occurs actively in rice field soils. In the present study, the responses of nirK and nirS denitrifier communities to nitrate addition in the anoxic rice soil were determined through molecular analyses of nitrite reductase genes nirK and nirS and 16S rRNA genes. Denitrification occurred rapidly when nitrate was added at the beginning of anoxic incubation (experiment I). The structure of nirK-type denitrifiers did not change; but their abundance as determined by quantitative (real-time) PCR increased in nitrate treatments compared with control. Both the structure and abundance of nirS denitrifiers remained unaffected in experiment I. The rate of denitrification was slowed down when nitrate was added 20 days after the onset of anoxic incubation (experiment II). The structure and abundance of nirK-type denitrifier community did not respond to nitrate addition; but the nirS community changed substantially in this experiment. The copy number of nirS genes increased by an order of magnitude in the treatments of 5?mM and 10?mM nitrate compared with control. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of nirS genes revealed that the 100?bp T-RF substantially increased in the nitrate treatments. Cloning and sequence analysis indicated that this T-RF had similarity of up to 90% with Herbaspirillum sp. T-RFLP profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes also showed that Herbaspirillum sp. increased after nitrate amendments. Collectively, the nirK-type denitrifiers were probably active at the beginning of anaerobic incubation, while the nirS denitrifiers, especially those related with Herbaspirillum sp. probably were more active when anaerobic condition was fully developed. PMID:23757237

Yuan, Quan; Liu, Pengfei; Lu, Yahai

2012-02-01

240

Denitrifier communities in tank bromeliads and prospected N2O emissions from tank substrate upon increasing N-deposition  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that tropical rainforest soils with total emissions of 1.34 Tg N/yr from the tropics, play a significant role in the global N2O emissions scenarios. Significant contributions were reported particularly for tropical rainforest soils in South and Central America due to the large areas covered by rainforest in this region. In tropical rainforests of the Americas tank bromeliads constitute a prominent group of plants and were shown to significantly contribute to the production of the greenhouse gas methane from tropical forests. It is, however, essentially unknown whether and how bromeliads may contribute to the production of N2O, another important greenhouse gas. It is also unknown whether N2O emissions relate to atmospheric N-deposition and whether an increase in emissions is to be expected upon the prospected increase in N-deposition. We studied the propensity of tank substrate of the bromeliad Werauhia gladioliflora to emit N2O and how this potential is related to the underlying denitrifier communities. In tropical forests of Costa Rica Werauhia gladioliflora is very abundant with 9.85 specimen m-2. Incubation of the tank substrate with increasing amounts of fertilizer to reflect predicted N-deposition scenarios resulted in proportionally increasing net N2O production. Based on the abundance of Werauhia gladioliflora we estimated annual emissions of 395 µg N2O-N m-2 day-1 for N-deposition levels to date which is in the range of tropical soils. At a surplus of N 70% of N2O produced were not reduced leading to accumulation of N2O which agreed well with the finding that 95% of the denitrifiers detected lacked a gene encoding a N2O-reductase and are therefore unable to reduce N2O to dinitrogen. Generally, denitrifiers were highly abundant and ready to denitrify immediately after provision of a nitrogen source because carbon is non-limiting in tank substrate. Our results suggest that tank bromeliad substrate may be a significant source of N2O in neotropical forests and that with prospected increasing future N-depositions annual N2O emissions might increase.

Suleiman, Marcel; Brandt, Franziska; Brenzinger, Kristof; Martinson, Guntars; Braker, Gesche

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Coupled carbon, sulfur and nitrogen cycles of mixotrophic growth of Pseudomonas sp. C27 under denitrifying sulfide removal conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomonas sp. C27 is a facultative autotrophic bacterium (FAB) that can effectively conduct mixotrophic denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) reactions using organic matters and sulfide as electron donors. Quantitative proteomics analysis of C27 using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and bioinformatics techniques identified 1916 unique proteins, based on which a novel pathway utilizing couple carbon, sulfide and nitrogen cycles for mixotrophic growth of C27. DSR experiments at different C/N ratios confirmed the presence of the new pathway. This novel pathway may be of great significance for C27-alike strains to conduct sulfide and nitrate removals in biological treatments. PMID:25189517

Guo, Hongliang; Chen, Chuan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wang, Aijie; Gao, Dawen; Ren, Nanqi

2014-11-01

242

Advanced uranium enrichment processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

243

Uranium enrichment techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article includes an introduction about the isotopes of natural uranium, their existence and the difficulty of the separation between them. Then it goes to the details of a number of methods used to enrich uranium: Gaseous Diffusion method, Electromagnetic method, Jet method, Centrifugal method, Chemical method, Laser method and Plasma method.

244

Availability of enrichment services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report summarizes major uncertainties which are likely to influence future demands for uranium isotopic enrichment. Since for the next decade the development of nuclear power will be largely concerned with the increment in demand the timely need for enrichment capacity will be particularly sensitive to assumptions about growth rates. Existing worldwide capacity together with capacities under construction will be sufficient well into the 1980's. However, long decision and construction leadtime, uncertainty as to future demand as well as other factors, specifically high capital need, all of which entail financial risks, create hindrances to a timely development of increment. The adequacy of current technology is well demonstrated in plant operation and new technology is under way. Technology is, however, not freely available on a purely commercial basis. Commercial willingness, which anticipates a limited degree of financial risk, is requesting both long term back-up from the utilities that would parallel their firm decisions on the acquisition of nuclear power units, and a protective government umbrella. This situation depends on the symbiotic relationship that exists between the nuclear power generating organizations, the enrichment undertakings and the governments involved. The report accordingly stresses the need for a more cooperative approach and this, moreover, at the multinational level. There is otherwise a risk that proper resources and financing means will not be allocated to the enrichment sector. Export limitations that request the highest degree of industrial processing of nuclear fuel, i.e. the compulsory enrichment of natural uranium, do not serve the interests of overall industrial efficiency

245

Denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter dominate bacterial communities in the highly contaminated subsurface of a nuclear legacy waste site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of long-term mixed-waste contamination, particularly uranium and nitrate, on the microbial community in the terrestrial subsurface was investigated at the field scale at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site in Oak Ridge, TN. The abundance, community composition, and distribution of groundwater microorganisms were examined across the site during two seasonal sampling events. At representative locations, subsurface sediment was also examined from two boreholes, one sampled from the most heavily contaminated area of the site and another from an area with low contamination. A suite of DNA- and RNA-based molecular tools were employed for community characterization, including quantitative PCR of ribosomal RNA and nitrite reductase genes, community composition fingerprinting analysis, and high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of rRNA genes. The results demonstrate that pH is a major driver of the subsurface microbial community structure, and denitrifying bacteria from the genus Rhodanobacter (class Gammaproteobacteria) dominate at low pH. The relative abundance of bacteria from this genus was positively correlated with lower pH conditions, and these bacteria were abundant and active in the most highly contaminated areas. Other factors, such as concentration of nitrogen species, oxygen and sampling season did not appear to strongly influence the distribution of Rhodanobacter. Results indicate that these organisms are acid-tolerant denitrifiers, well suited to the acidic, nitrate-rich subsurface conditions, and pH is confirmed as a dominant driver of bacterial community structure in this contaminated subsurface environment.

Green, Stefan [Florida State University; Prakash, Om [Florida State University; Jasrotia, Puja [Florida State University; Overholt, Will [Florida State University; Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hubbard, Daniela [Florida State University; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Watson, David B [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University

2011-01-01

246

Impacts of nitrogen application rates on the activity and diversity of denitrifying bacteria in the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial denitrification results in the loss of fertilizer nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions as nitrous oxides, but ecological factors in soil influencing denitrifier communities are not well understood, impeding the potential for mitigation by land management. Communities vary in the relative abundance of the alternative dissimilatory nitrite reductase genes nirK and nirS, and the nitrous oxide reductase gene nosZ; however, the significance for nitrous oxide emissions is unclear. We assessed the influence of different long-term fertilization and cultivation treatments in a 160-year-old field experiment, comparing the potential for denitrification by soil samples with the size and diversity of their denitrifier communities. Denitrification potential was much higher in soil from an area left to develop from arable into woodland than from a farmyard manure-fertilized arable treatment, which in turn was significantly higher than inorganic nitrogen-fertilized and unfertilized arable plots. This correlated with abundance of nirK but not nirS, the least abundant of the genes tested in all soils, showing an inverse relationship with nirK. Most genetic variation was seen in nirK, where sequences resolved into separate groups according to soil treatment. We conclude that bacteria containing nirK are most probably responsible for the increased denitrification potential associated with nitrogen and organic carbon in this soil. PMID:22451109

Clark, Ian M; Buchkina, Natalya; Jhurreea, Deveraj; Goulding, Keith W T; Hirsch, Penny R

2012-05-01

247

Quantitative response of nitrifying and denitrifying communities to environmental variables in a full-scale membrane bioreactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abundance and transcription levels of specific gene markers of total bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira-like) and denitrifiers (N2O-reducers) were analyzed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse-transcription qPCR during 9 months in a full-scale membrane bioreactor treating urban wastewater. A stable community of N-removal key players was developed; however, the abundance of active populations experienced sharper shifts, demonstrating their fast adaptation to changing conditions. Despite constituting a small percentage of the total bacterial community, the larger abundances of active populations of nitrifiers explained the high N-removal accomplished by the MBR. Multivariate analyses revealed that temperature, accumulation of volatile suspended solids in the sludge, BOD5, NH4(+) concentration and C/N ratio of the wastewater contributed significantly (23-38%) to explain changes in the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers. However, each targeted group showed different responses to shifts in these parameters, evidencing the complexity of the balance among them for successful biological N-removal. PMID:25043345

Gómez-Silván, C; Vílchez-Vargas, R; Arévalo, J; Gómez, M A; González-López, J; Pieper, D H; Rodelas, B

2014-10-01

248

Preliminary insights into ?15N and ?18O of nitrate in natural mosses: A new application of the denitrifier method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural mosses have been employed as reactive and accumulative indicators of atmospheric pollutants. Using the denitrifier method, the concentration, ?15N and ?18O of moss nitrate (NO3?) were measured to elucidate the sources of NO3? trapped in natural mosses. Oven drying at 55–70 °C, not lyophilization, was recommended to dry mosses for NO3? analyses. An investigation from urban to mountain sites in western Tokyo suggested that moss [NO3?] can respond to NO3? availability in different habitats. NO3? in terricolous mosses showed isotopic ratios as close to those of soil NO3?, reflecting the utilization of soil NO3?. Isotopic signatures of NO3? in corticolous and epilithic mosses elucidated atmospheric NO3? sources and strength from the urban (vehicle NOx emission) to mountain area (wet-deposition NO3?). However, mechanisms and isotopic effects of moss NO3? utilization must be further verified to enable the application of moss NO3? isotopes for source identification. - Highlights: ? Plant [NO3?] has been used to get insights into forest N saturation. ? However, detailed protocols were not established for plant [NO3?] analysis. ? Moreover, nitrogen/oxygen isotopic ratios of plant NO3? cannot be measured. ? We developed a new protocol for concentration and isotopic measurement of plant NO3?. ? The new method can open a new window to use these parameters for NO3? physiology. - Plant nitrate isotopes can be measured using the denitrifier method and nitrate isotopes of mosses are useful to differentiate atmospheric nitrate sources.

249

Membrane vesicle formation is associated with pyocin production under denitrifying conditions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa?PAO1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many Gram-negative bacteria produce membrane vesicles (MVs) that serve as vehicles to mediate intraspecies and interspecies interactions. Despite their ubiquity in Gram-negative bacteria and their biological importance, how MV formation is regulated is poorly understood. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous bacterium that is one of the most extensively studied model organism in MVs. Recent studies highlight the importance of a quorum-sensing signal, Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), in the formation of MVs; however, PQS synthesis requires oxygen and is not produced under anoxic conditions. This situation leads to the question of MV production under anoxic conditions. Here, we examined whether MVs are produced under denitrifying conditions and what kind of factors are involved in the MV production under such condition. Under denitrifying condition, P.?aeruginosa?PAO1 produced a considerable amount of MVs. Interestingly, pyocin components were found to be accumulated in the isolated MVs. Pyocin-related protein mutants produced less MVs compared with the wild type. We further indicate that pyocin production is activated by nitric oxide, in which the SOS response is involved. This study presents a regulatory mechanism where pyocin is associated with MV production, and further implies how the environment impacts MV production in P.?aeruginosa. PMID:24112564

Toyofuku, Masanori; Zhou, Shengmin; Sawada, Isao; Takaya, Naoki; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Nomura, Nobuhiko

2014-09-01

250

The Enriched Xenon Observatory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe. The EXO Collaboration is actively pursuing both liquid-phase and gas-phase Xe detector technologies with scalability to the ton-scale. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe is especially attractive because of the possibility of tagging the resulting Ba daughter ion, eliminating all sources of background other than the two neutrino decay mode. EXO-200, the first phase of the project, is a liquid Xe time projection chamber with 200 kg of Xe enriched to 80% in 136Xe. EXO-200, which does not include Ba-tagging, will begin taking data in 2009, with two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4x1025 years. This corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV.

251

South Australia, uranium enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

252

Motif Enrichment Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

The Motif Enrichment Tool (MET) provides an online interface that enables users to find major transcriptional regulators of their gene sets of interest. MET searches the appropriate regulatory region around each gene and identifies which transcription factor DNA-binding specificities (motifs) are statistically overrepresented. Motif enrichment analysis is currently available for many metazoan species including human, mouse, fruit fly, planaria and flowering plants. MET also leverages high-throughput experimental data such as ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from ENCODE and ModENCODE to identify the regulatory targets of a transcription factor with greater precision. The results from MET are produced in real time and are linked to a genome browser for easy follow-up analysis. Use of the web tool is free and open to all, and there is no login requirement. Address: http://veda.cs.uiuc.edu/MET/. PMID:24860165

Blatti, Charles; Sinha, Saurabh

2014-01-01

253

Structure and activity of the denitrifying community in a maize-cropped field fertilized with composted pig manure or ammonium nitrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

One alternative to mineral fertilization is to use organic fertilizers. Our aim was to compare the impacts of 7-year applications of composted pig manure and ammonium nitrate on the structure and activity of the denitrifying community. Mineralization and organization of N, denitrification rates and N2O/N2 ratio were also investigated. Fourteen months after the last application, the potential denitrifying activity (+319%), N mineralization (+110%) and organization (+112%) were higher under pig compost than under ammonium nitrate fertilization. On the other hand, the N2O/(N2O+N2) ratio was lower (P<0.05, n=5) under organic fertilization. These effects of organic fertilization were in accordance with its higher total carbon content and microbial biomass. Fingerprints and clone library analyses showed that the structure of the denitrifying community was affected by the fertilization regime. Our results reveal that organic or mineral fertilizer applications could affect both structure and activity of the denitrifying community, with a possible influence on in situ N2O fluxes. These effects of the fertilization regime persisted for at least 14 months after the last application. PMID:16542410

Dambreville, Christophe; Hallet, Stéphanie; Nguyen, Christophe; Morvan, Thierry; Germon, Jean-Claude; Philippot, Laurent

2006-04-01

254

Chromatin enrichment for proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

During interphase, chromatin hosts fundamental cellular processes, such as gene expression, DNA replication and DNA damage repair. To analyze chromatin on a proteomic scale, we have developed chromatin enrichment for proteomics (ChEP), which is a simple biochemical procedure that enriches interphase chromatin in all its complexity. It enables researchers to take a 'snapshot' of chromatin and to isolate and identify even transiently bound factors. In ChEP, cells are fixed with formaldehyde; subsequently, DNA together with all cross-linked proteins is isolated by centrifugation under denaturing conditions. This approach enables the analysis of global chromatin composition and its changes, which is in contrast with existing chromatin enrichment procedures, which either focus on specific chromatin loci (e.g., affinity purification) or are limited in specificity, such as the analysis of the chromatin pellet (i.e., analysis of all insoluble nuclear material). ChEP takes half a day to complete and requires no specialized laboratory skills or equipment. ChEP enables the characterization of chromatin response to drug treatment or physiological processes. Beyond proteomics, ChEP may preclear chromatin for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. PMID:25101823

Kustatscher, Georg; Wills, Karen L H; Furlan, Cristina; Rappsilber, Juri

2014-09-01

255

Enrichment marketplace - today (and tomorrow)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technologies and capacities of the four primary sources of enrichment services, the United States Department of Energy, Eurodif, Techsnabexport of the Soviet Union, and Urenco, were given. Forecasts of future capacities and prices of enriched uranium were also included

256

Distribution of typical denitrifying functional genes and diversity of the nirS-encoding bacterial community related to environmental characteristics of river sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

Denitrification in river sediments leads to nitrate removal from the aquatic system; therefore, it is necessary to understand functional diversity of denitrifier communities in the system. Sediment samples (0-25 cm depth) were collected from three typical locations along the Pearl River. The real-time PCR approach was used to measure the abundance of nitrate (narG), nitrite (nirS, nirK and nrfA), and nitrous oxide (nosZ) reductase genes from the sediment samples. Assemblages of nirS, nirK and nosZ indicated that complete denitrification occurred in sediment cores, with the greatest number of gene copies from 5-15 cm depth. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction appeared to be important below 15 cm depth, based on increasing gene copies of narG and nrfA with sediment depth. There was a close match (78-94 %) between the nirS sequences recovered from the Pearl River sediment and those detected in estuarine and marine sediments as well as active sludge, suggesting that the nitrogen source in the Pearl River sediment was affected by domestic sewage inputs and irregular tides. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of denitrifying bacteria was highly correlated with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (including NH4+, NO2- and NO3-) concentrations in sediment. It was concluded that the difference in dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations along the sediment profile influenced the distribution of denitrifying genes and the nirS-encoding denitrifier community in the river sediment. In addition, a variety of novel denitrifying bacteria were revealed in the river sediment.

Huang, S.; Chen, C.; Yang, X.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, R.

2011-10-01

257

Distribution of typical denitrifying functional genes and diversity of the nirS-encoding bacterial community related to environmental characteristics of river sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Denitrification in river sediments leads to nitrate removal from the aquatic system; therefore, it is necessary to understand functional diversity of denitrifier communities in the system. Sediment samples (0–25 cm depth were collected from three typical locations along the Pearl River. The real-time PCR approach was used to measure the abundance of nitrate (narG, nitrite (nirS, nirK and nrfA, and nitrous oxide (nosZ reductase genes from the sediment samples. Assemblages of nirS, nirK and nosZ indicated that complete denitrification occurred in sediment cores, with the greatest number of gene copies from 5–15 cm depth. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction appeared to be important below 15 cm depth, based on increasing gene copies of narG and nrfA with sediment depth. There was a close match (78–94 % between the nirS sequences recovered from Pearl River sediment and those detected in estuarine and marine sediments as well as active sludge, suggesting that domestic sewage inputs and irregular tides. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of denitrifying bacteria was highly correlated with dissolved inorganic N (DIN: NH4+, NO2 and NO3? concentrations in sediment. We conclude that changes in DIN within the sediment profile influences the distribution of denitrifying genes and the nirS-encoding denitrifier community in the river sediment. Our results also reveal a variety of novel denitrifying bacteria in the river sediment.

X. Yang

2011-05-01

258

Distribution of typical denitrifying functional genes and diversity of the nirS-encoding bacterial community related to environmental characteristics of river sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Denitrification in river sediments leads to nitrate removal from the aquatic system; therefore, it is necessary to understand functional diversity of denitrifier communities in the system. Sediment samples (0–25 cm depth were collected from three typical locations along the Pearl River. The real-time PCR approach was used to measure the abundance of nitrate (narG, nitrite (nirS, nirK and nrfA, and nitrous oxide (nosZ reductase genes from the sediment samples. Assemblages of nirS, nirK and nosZ indicated that complete denitrification occurred in sediment cores, with the greatest number of gene copies from 5–15 cm depth. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction appeared to be important below 15 cm depth, based on increasing gene copies of narG and nrfA with sediment depth. There was a close match (78–94 % between the nirS sequences recovered from the Pearl River sediment and those detected in estuarine and marine sediments as well as active sludge, suggesting that the nitrogen source in the Pearl River sediment was affected by domestic sewage inputs and irregular tides. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of denitrifying bacteria was highly correlated with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (including NH4+, NO2? and NO3? concentrations in sediment. It was concluded that the difference in dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations along the sediment profile influenced the distribution of denitrifying genes and the nirS-encoding denitrifier community in the river sediment. In addition, a variety of novel denitrifying bacteria were revealed in the river sediment.

R. Zhang

2011-10-01

259

Population analysis in a denitrifying sand filter: conventional and in situ identification of Paracoccus spp. in methanol-fed biofilms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial community of a denitrifying sand filter in a municipal wastewater treatment plant was examined by conventional and molecular techniques to identify the bacteria actively involved in the removal of nitrate. In this system, denitrification is carried out as the last step of water treatment by biofilms growing on quartz grains with methanol as a supplemented carbon source. The biofilms are quite irregular, having a median thickness of 13 to 20 microns. Fatty acid analysis of 56 denitrifying isolates indicated the occurrence of Paracoccus spp. in the sand filter. 16S rRNA-targeted probes were designed for this genus and the species cluster Paracoccus denitrificans-Paracoccus versutus and tested for specificity by whole-cell hybridization. Stringency requirements for the probes were adjusted by use of a formamide concentration gradient to achieve complete discrimination of even highly similar target sequences. Whole-cell hybridization confirmed that members of the genus Paracoccus were abundant among the isolates. Twenty-seven of the 56 isolates hybridized with the genus-specific probes. In situ hybridization identified dense aggregates of paracocci in detached biofilms. Probes complementary to the type strains of P. denitrificans and P. versutus did not hybridize to cells in the biofilms, suggesting the presence of a new Paracoccus species in the sand filter. Analysis using confocal laser scanning microscopy detected spherical aggregates of morphologically identical cells exhibiting a uniform fluorescence. Cell quantification was performed after thorough disruption of the biofilms and filtration onto polycarbonate filters. An average of 3.5% of total cell counts corresponded to a Paracoccus sp., whereas in a parallel sand filter with no supplemented methanol, and no measurable denitrification, only very few paracocci (0.07% of cells stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) could be detected. Hyphomicrobium spp. constituted approximately 2% of all cells in the denitrifying unit and could not be detected in the regular sand filter. This clear link between in situ abundance and denitrification suggests an active participation of paracocci and hyphomicrobia in the process. Possible selective advantages favoring the paracocci in this habitat are discussed. PMID:8953706

Neef, A; Zaglauer, A; Meier, H; Amann, R; Lemmer, H; Schleifer, K H

1996-12-01

260

Autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle by the denitrifying methanotroph "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera".  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas and the most abundant hydrocarbon in the Earth's atmosphere. Methanotrophic microorganisms can use methane as their sole energy source and play a crucial role in the mitigation of methane emissions in the environment. "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" is a recently described intra-aerobic methanotroph that is assumed to use nitric oxide to generate internal oxygen to oxidize methane via the conventional aerobic pathway, including the monooxygenase reaction. Previous genome analysis has suggested that, like the verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" encodes and transcribes genes for the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle for carbon assimilation. Here we provide multiple independent lines of evidence for autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation by "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" via the CBB cycle. The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), a key enzyme of the CBB cycle, in cell extracts from an "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" enrichment culture was shown to account for up to 10% of the total methane oxidation activity. Labeling studies with whole cells in batch incubations supplied with either (13)CH4 or [(13)C]bicarbonate revealed that "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" biomass and lipids became significantly more enriched in (13)C after incubation with (13)C-labeled bicarbonate (and unlabeled methane) than after incubation with (13)C-labeled methane (and unlabeled bicarbonate), providing evidence for autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. Besides this experimental approach, detailed genomic and transcriptomic analysis demonstrated an operational CBB cycle in "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera." Altogether, these results show that the CBB cycle is active and plays a major role in carbon assimilation by "Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera" bacteria. Our results suggest that autotrophy might be more widespread among methanotrophs than was previously assumed and implies that a methanotrophic community in the environment is not necessarily revealed by (13)C-depleted lipids. PMID:24509918

Rasigraf, Olivia; Kool, Dorien M; Jetten, Mike S M; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Ettwig, Katharina F

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Characterization of a murine neuron-enriched model of primary trigeminal ganglia cultures to study the interferon- ? antiviral effect against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 / Caracterización de un modelo murino de cultivos primarios de ganglio trigeminal enriquecido en neuronas para el estudio del efecto antiviral del interferón- ? frente al virus Herpes simple tipo 1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Caracterizar un cultivo primario de ganglio trigeminal (GT) enriquecido en neuronas y evaluar la expresión de interferón- y su actividad frente a la infección con Herpes simple tipo 1 (HSV-1). Materiales y métodos: El porcentaje de neuronas fue determinado por inmunocitoquímica para neurof [...] ilamento. Los cultivos fueron tratados con interferón- ? e infectados con HSV-1, y se cuantificaron las células positivas para antígeno viral por inmunocitoquímica y la expresión de interferón- ? por PCR cuantitativa. Resultados: El cultivo presentó un 15% de neuronas y 85% de células no neuronales. Se encontró efecto citopático, asociado a una alta diseminación de la infección (72,9% neuronas y 48,3% de células no neuronales positivas para antígeno viral). El interferón- ? evitó la aparición de efecto citopático y disminuyó las células infectadas a 16,7% en neuronas y a 7,8% las células no neuronales. La infección viral incrementó la expresión de transcritos de interferón- ? 18,2 veces a las 6 h de infección, mientras que a las 18 h post infección el tratamiento con interferón incrementó esta expresión 3,7 veces. Discusión: Los cultivos presentaron un 15% de neuronas, lo cual es 10 veces más que en otros cultivos reportados. Las células no neuronales representan el 85% de las células del cultivo, y se evidenció que todos los tipos de células se infectaron; similar a lo que ha sido reportado durante infecciones agudas in vivo . Adicionalmente, el interferón- ? disminuyó el porcentaje de células infectadas y evitó la aparición de efecto citopático, similar a lo que ha sido reportado en cultivos de GT porcino. Conclusiones: Se caracterizó un modelo de cultivo primario de GT enriquecido en neuronas. Interferón- ? protegió las células del efecto citopático y la diseminación viral mientras que la infección viral incrementó la expresión de interferón- ?. Por lo tanto, el interferón- ? ejerció un papel antiviral importante frente al HSV-1 en estos cultivos. Abstract in english Objective: To characterize a neuron-enriched primary TG culture and evaluate interferon- ? expression and activity after HSV-1 infection. Materials and methods: The percentage of neurons present in cultures was assessed by neurofilament immunocytochemistry. Cultures were treated with interferon- ? a [...] nd infected with HSV-1, then viral antigen positive cells were counted and interferon- ?expression was assessed by quantitative PCR. Results: The culture contained 15% neurons and 85% non-neuronal cells. A cytopathic effect was observed, associated with high viral spread (72.9% neurons and 48.3% non-neuronal cells were positive for viral antigen). Interferon- ? treatment impaired the cytopathic effect and decreased the infected neurons to 16.7% and infected non-neuronal cells to 7.8%. Viral infection at 6 h postinfection significantly increased the interferon- ? transcripts by 18.2 fold, while at 18 h postinfection Interferon pre-treatment in infected cultures increased interferon- ? transcription by 3.7 fold. Discussion: This culture model contained 15% neurons, which is 10 times higher compared to other reported cultures, and non-neuronal cells comprised 85% of cells in this culture. All types of cells were found to be infected, which is similar to that reported during acute infections in vivo . Additionally, interferon- ?decreased the infected cells, avoiding the cytopathic effect, which is similar to that reported in swine TG cultures. Conclusions: A neuron-enriched primary TG model was characterized. Interferon- ? treatment protected cells from cytopathic effects and viral spread, while viral infection up-regulated interferon- ? expression. This result means that interferon- ? exerts an important antiviral effect against HSV-1 in these cultures.

Ana Maria, Low-Calle; Jeanette, Prada-Arismendy; Jaime E., Castellanos.

2014-06-01

262

Characterization of a murine neuron-enriched model of primary trigeminal ganglia cultures to study the interferon- ? antiviral effect against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 / Caracterización de un modelo murino de cultivos primarios de ganglio trigeminal enriquecido en neuronas para el estudio del efecto antiviral del interferón- ? frente al virus Herpes simple tipo 1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Caracterizar un cultivo primario de ganglio trigeminal (GT) enriquecido en neuronas y evaluar la expresión de interferón- y su actividad frente a la infección con Herpes simple tipo 1 (HSV-1). Materiales y métodos: El porcentaje de neuronas fue determinado por inmunocitoquímica para neurof [...] ilamento. Los cultivos fueron tratados con interferón- ? e infectados con HSV-1, y se cuantificaron las células positivas para antígeno viral por inmunocitoquímica y la expresión de interferón- ? por PCR cuantitativa. Resultados: El cultivo presentó un 15% de neuronas y 85% de células no neuronales. Se encontró efecto citopático, asociado a una alta diseminación de la infección (72,9% neuronas y 48,3% de células no neuronales positivas para antígeno viral). El interferón- ? evitó la aparición de efecto citopático y disminuyó las células infectadas a 16,7% en neuronas y a 7,8% las células no neuronales. La infección viral incrementó la expresión de transcritos de interferón- ? 18,2 veces a las 6 h de infección, mientras que a las 18 h post infección el tratamiento con interferón incrementó esta expresión 3,7 veces. Discusión: Los cultivos presentaron un 15% de neuronas, lo cual es 10 veces más que en otros cultivos reportados. Las células no neuronales representan el 85% de las células del cultivo, y se evidenció que todos los tipos de células se infectaron; similar a lo que ha sido reportado durante infecciones agudas in vivo . Adicionalmente, el interferón- ? disminuyó el porcentaje de células infectadas y evitó la aparición de efecto citopático, similar a lo que ha sido reportado en cultivos de GT porcino. Conclusiones: Se caracterizó un modelo de cultivo primario de GT enriquecido en neuronas. Interferón- ? protegió las células del efecto citopático y la diseminación viral mientras que la infección viral incrementó la expresión de interferón- ?. Por lo tanto, el interferón- ? ejerció un papel antiviral importante frente al HSV-1 en estos cultivos. Abstract in english Objective: To characterize a neuron-enriched primary TG culture and evaluate interferon- ? expression and activity after HSV-1 infection. Materials and methods: The percentage of neurons present in cultures was assessed by neurofilament immunocytochemistry. Cultures were treated with interferon- ? a [...] nd infected with HSV-1, then viral antigen positive cells were counted and interferon- ?expression was assessed by quantitative PCR. Results: The culture contained 15% neurons and 85% non-neuronal cells. A cytopathic effect was observed, associated with high viral spread (72.9% neurons and 48.3% non-neuronal cells were positive for viral antigen). Interferon- ? treatment impaired the cytopathic effect and decreased the infected neurons to 16.7% and infected non-neuronal cells to 7.8%. Viral infection at 6 h postinfection significantly increased the interferon- ? transcripts by 18.2 fold, while at 18 h postinfection Interferon pre-treatment in infected cultures increased interferon- ? transcription by 3.7 fold. Discussion: This culture model contained 15% neurons, which is 10 times higher compared to other reported cultures, and non-neuronal cells comprised 85% of cells in this culture. All types of cells were found to be infected, which is similar to that reported during acute infections in vivo . Additionally, interferon- ?decreased the infected cells, avoiding the cytopathic effect, which is similar to that reported in swine TG cultures. Conclusions: A neuron-enriched primary TG model was characterized. Interferon- ? treatment protected cells from cytopathic effects and viral spread, while viral infection up-regulated interferon- ? expression. This result means that interferon- ? exerts an important antiviral effect against HSV-1 in these cultures.

Ana Maria, Low-Calle; Jeanette, Prada-Arismendy; Jaime E., Castellanos.

263

Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After recalling the physical principles and the techniques of centrifuge enrichment the report describes the centrifuge enrichment programmes of the various countries concerned and compares this technology with other enrichment technologies like gaseous diffusion, laser, aerodynamic devices and chemical processes. The centrifuge enrichment process is said to be able to replace with advantage the existing enrichment facilities in the short and medium term. Future prospects of the process are also described, like recycled uranium enrichment and economic improvements; research and development needs to achieve the economic prospects are also indicated. Finally the report takes note of the positive aspect of centrifuge enrichment as far as safeguards and nuclear safety are concerned. 27 figs, 113 refs

264

Molecular analysis of bacterial community based on 16S rDNA and functional genes in activated sludge enriched with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under different cultural conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential emergence and diversity of bacterial communities from activated sludge in response to varied cultural conditions using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were investigated by coupling molecular analyses based on 16S rDNA with functional genes. We employed three different cultural conditions: (1) a culture sequentially fed a high concentration (300 mg/L) of 2,4-D (HS); (2) a culture continuously fed a low concentration (10 mg/L) of 2,4-D (LC); and (3) a serial batch culture in which 1% (v/v) of culture was transferred to a fresh medium containing a high concentration (300 mg/L) of 2,4-D (HB). The HS and LC bioreactors were operated for 3 months and HB was repeatedly transferred for 1 month. The 2,4-D was stably degraded under all the cultural conditions tested. PCR amplification and cloning-based analysis of functional genes using community DNAs from the cultures revealed five different oxygenase genes that may be involved in the initial step of 2,4-D degradation. All five gene-types were present in HS, while one of the five genes, type V (tftA) was not detected in LC. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that in HS, Ralstonia eutropha JMP 134 type-tfdA4 (type I) was the most abundant in copy number (2.0 +/- 0.1 x 10(7) copies/microg DNA) followed by RASC type-tfdA (type II) (1.8 +/- 1.0 x 10(6) copies/microg DNA), putative cadA-like gene (type IV) (2.6 +/- 0.8 x 10(5) copies/microg DNA), cadA gene (type III) (1.3 +/- 1.0 x 10(4) copies/microg DNA), and tftA gene (type V) (3.5 +/- 1.1 x 10(3) copies/microg DNA). Similar results were obtained in LC. In contrast, HB contained only type I and type III genes, and the type I gene was five orders of magnitude greater in copy number than the type III gene. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR, amplified 16S rDNA fragments of bacterial communities in the three different cultures showed low similarity coefficient values (< or =0.35) when compared to the original activated sludge, suggesting that 2,4-D amendment caused a drastic change in the bacterial community. Particularly, HB showed only six bands (16-18 bands in the other cultures) and very low similarity coefficient values when compared to the other communities (0.10 to HS, 0.17 to LC, and 0.0 to original sludge). These results indicated that serial batch culturing (HB) resulted in a phylogenetically limited number of 2,4-D degrading bacteria carrying limited catabolic genes whereas more diverse 2,4-D degraders and catabolic genes were present in HS and LC. Therefore, the approach used for monitoring should be taken into account when one evaluates the population dynamics of contaminant-degrading bacteria at bioremediation sites. PMID:15883866

Lee, T H; Kurata, S; Nakatsu, C H; Kamagata, Y

2005-01-01

265

Metabolic behavior and enzymatic aspects of denitrifying EBPR sludge in a continuous-flow anaerobic-anoxic system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic aspects of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) were investigated for the first time in a continuous-flow anaerobic-anoxic plant fed with acetate, propionate, or substrates which are involved in the tricarboxylic acid and/or glyoxylate cycle, i.e., fumarate, malate, or oxaloacetate, as the sole carbon source. Although the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) population remained stable with any carbon source examined, no typical EBPR metabolism was observed during fumarate, malate, or oxaloacetate utilization. Specific enzymatic activities related to EBPR were determined in activated sludge homogenates and directly correlated with the nutrient metabolic rates. The experimental results indicated the direct involvement of alkaline phosphatase, pyrophosphatase, and exopolyphosphatase in the denitrifying EBPR process. Metabolic aspects of glyoxylate cycle enzymes are discussed with regard to the biomass anaerobic and anoxic activity. Process performance was highly influenced by the kind of substrate utilized, indicating that specific metabolic pathways should be followed to favor efficient EBPR. PMID:23912208

Zafiriadis, Ilias; Ntougias, Spyridon; Kapagiannidis, Anastasios G; Aivasidis, Alexander

2013-10-01

266

Selection of denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms in IFAS systems: comparison of nitrite with nitrate as an electron acceptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrite and nitrate were compared as electron acceptors to select for denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms (DPAO) in two integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS 1 and IFAS 2) systems operated as sequencing batch reactors. The bench-scale experiment lasted one year and synthetic wastewater was used as feed. During anoxic conditions 20mgNO3(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-1 and 20mgNO2(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-2. Long term phosphorous and ammonia removal via nitritation were achieved in both systems and both attached and suspended biomass contributed to phosphorous and ammonia removal. DPAO showed no specific adaptation to the electron acceptor as evidenced by short term switch of feeding with nitrate or nitrite. Anoxic phosphorus uptake rate was significantly higher with nitrite than with nitrate. Results showed that DPAO activity with nitrite could be integrated into attached and suspended biomass of IFAS systems in long term operation. PMID:24873702

Jabari, Pouria; Munz, Giulio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

2014-08-01

267

Simultaneous removal of organic matter and nitrogen by a heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacterial strain in a membrane bioreactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacterial strain, Bacillus methylotrophicus L7, was inoculated solely into a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) for continuous treatment of artificial sewage. The running conditions were also optimized for improvement of the treatment efficiency. The results indicated that inoculation of this single strain in a single reactor under constant aerobic conditions resulted in simultaneous removal of organic matter and nitrogen, in striking contrast to traditional aerobic nitrification-anaerobic denitrification treatment system and the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems. The optimal running conditions for the MBR were dissolved oxygen (DO) 4.5 mg/L, pH 7.5, loading ammonia <100 mg/L, and C/N ratio 3.5. Under these conditions, the removal percentages of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N, and TN as high as 96%, 77.5% and 53%, respectively, were achieved without nitrite accumulation. PMID:23792656

Yao, Yan-Chun; Zhang, Qing-Ling; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

2013-09-01

268

The world enrichment market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enrichment market can be divided into two periods: the near-term market (1991 to 1995) and the long-term market (1995 and beyond). The near-term market is characterized by limited unfilled requirements of 4% per year, to be supplied by national stockpiles and excess inventories. This low-cost material will be drawn down by about 1993, causing a subsequent price rise. As the price rises, primary supplier activity is expected to increase. In the near-term, two contracting activities are apparent: spot; and intermediate-term. The current spot market is expected to last until available low cost inventories are drawn down. Recently, in attempts to gain market share, suppliers have offered attractively priced intermediate-term (3 year) contracts for 1996 to 1998. While a small spot market will continue after 1995, it is anticipated that utilities will prefer a mix of medium- and long-term (5 to 10 year) contracts from primary suppliers for most of their enrichment requirements. As national stockpiles and utility inventories are consumed, low-cost supply available to the spot market is expected to diminish. Consequently, with little low-cost supply available, the only apparent source of material will be from primary suppliers, and the resulting competition over market share is expected to be intense. (author)

269

Whole-Genome Transcriptional Analysis of Chemolithoautotrophic Thiosulfate Oxidation by Thiobacillus denitrificans Under Aerobic vs. Denitrifying Conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thiobacillus denitrificans is one of the few known obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacteria capable of energetically coupling thiosulfate oxidation to denitrification as well as aerobic respiration. As very little is known about the differential expression of genes associated with ke chemolithoautotrophic functions (such as sulfur-compound oxidation and CO2 fixation) under aerobic versus denitrifying conditions, we conducted whole-genome, cDNA microarray studies to explore this topic systematically. The microarrays identified 277 genes (approximately ten percent of the genome) as differentially expressed using Robust Multi-array Average statistical analysis and a 2-fold cutoff. Genes upregulated (ca. 6- to 150-fold) under aerobic conditions included a cluster of genes associated with iron acquisition (e.g., siderophore-related genes), a cluster of cytochrome cbb3 oxidase genes, cbbL and cbbS (encoding the large and small subunits of form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, or RubisCO), and multiple molecular chaperone genes. Genes upregulated (ca. 4- to 95-fold) under denitrifying conditions included nar, nir, and nor genes (associated respectively with nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and nitric oxide reductase, which catalyze successive steps of denitrification), cbbM (encoding form II RubisCO), and genes involved with sulfur-compound oxidation (including two physically separated but highly similar copies of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase and of dsrC, associated with dissimilatory sulfite reductase). Among genes associated with denitrification, relative expression levels (i.e., degree of upregulation with nitrate) tended to decrease in the order nar > nir > nor > nos. Reverse transcription, quantitative PCR analysis was used to validate these trends.

Beller, H R; Letain, T E; Chakicherla, A; Kane, S R; Legler, T C; Coleman, M A

2006-04-22

270

Community structures and activity of denitrifying microbes in a forested catchment in central Japan: survey using nitrite reductase genes  

Science.gov (United States)

To elucidate the mechanisms of denitrification processes in the forested catchment, microbial ecological approaches have been applied in an experimental watershed that has previously investigated its hydrological processes. The study catchment is located in the Chiba prefecture in central Japan under the temperate Asian monsoon climate. Potential activities of denitrification of soil samples were measured by incubation experiments under anoxic condition associated with Na15NO3 addition. Existence and variety of microbes having nitrite reductase genes were investigated by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencings of nirK and nirS fragments after DNA extraction. Contrary to our early expectation that the potential denitrification activity was higher at deeper soil horizon with consistent groundwater residence than that in the surface soil, denitrification potential was higher in shallower soil horizons than deeper soils. This suggested that the deficiency of NO3- as a respiratory substrate for denitrifier occurred in deeper soils especially in the summer. However, high denitrification activity and presence of microbes having nirK and nirS in surface soils usually under aerobic condition was explainable by the fact that the majority of denitrifying bacteria have been recognized as a facultative anaerobic bacterium. This also suggests the possibility of that denitrification occurs even in the surface soils if the wet condition is provided by rainwater during and after a storm event. Community structures of microbes having nirK were different between near surface and deeper soil horizons, and ones having nirS was different between saturated zone (under groundwater table) and unsaturated soil horizons. These imply that microbial communities with nisK are sensitive to the concentration of soil organic matters and ones with nirS is sensitive to soil moisture contents.

Ohte, N.; Aoki, M.; Katsuyama, C.; Suwa, Y.; Tange, T.

2012-12-01

271

Effect of oxygen on thermophilic denitrifying populations in biofilters treating nitric oxide containing off-gas streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity generation from coal has increased by an average of 51 billion kWh per year over the past 3 years. For this reason cost effective NO{sub x} control strategies must be developed. Compost biofilters operated at 55 C at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 13 seconds have been shown to be feasible for removal of nitric oxide (NO) from synthetic flue gas. Denitrifying microbial populations in these biofilters have been shown to reduce influent NO feeds by 90 to 95% at inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Oxygen has been shown to have a significant effect on the NO removal efficiency demonstrated by these biofilters. Two biofilters were set up under identical conditions for the purpose of monitoring NO removal as well as changes in the microbial population in the bed medium under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Understanding changes in the microbial population will allow for determination of maximum oxygen tolerance of a denitrifying biofilter as well as methods of optimizing microbial populations capable of denitrification in the presence of low oxygen concentrations. Both biofilters showed NO removal efficiency greater than 50% once steady anaerobic operation was achieved. One biofilter was supplied with 2% oxygen after 22 days of anaerobic operation. NO removal dropped to between 10 and 20% when oxygen was present in the influent stream. Incomplete conversion of lactate to carbon dioxide was hypothesized to be the cause for the decreased NO removal efficiency in the anaerobic biofilter compared to previous biofiltration experiments. Bed medium microbes converted the bulk of the lactate to acetate, not fully utilizing reducing equivalents present in the carbon source. The inactive compost used to pack the biofilters may have also caused the decreased NO removal efficiency compared to previous biofiltration experiments.

Lee, B.D.; Apel, W.A.; Smith, W.

1999-07-01

272

Transitions in nirS-type Denitrifier Diversity, Community Composition, and Biogeochemical Activity along the Chesapeake Bay Estuary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in North America, can be characterized as having steep and opposing gradients in salinity and dissolved inorganic nitrogen along the main axis of the Bay. In this study, the diversity of nirS gene fragments (encoding cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase, physical/chemical parameters, and benthic N2-fluxes were analyzed in order to determine how denitrifier communities and biogeochemical activity vary along the estuary salinity gradient. The nirS gene fragments were PCR-amplified, cloned, and sequenced from sediment cores collected at five stations. Sequence analysis of 96 to 123 nirS clones from each station revealed extensive overall diversity in this estuary, as well as distinct spatial structure in the nirS sequence distributions. Both nirS-based richness and community composition varied among stations, with the most dramatic shifts occurring between low-salinity (oligohaline and moderate-salinity (mesohaline sites. For four samples collected in April, the nirS-based richness, nitrate concentrations, and N2-fluxes all decreased in parallel along the salinity gradient from the oligohaline northernmost station to the highest salinity (polyhaline station near the mouth of the Bay. The vast majority of the 550 nirS sequences were distinct from cultivated denitrifiers, although many were closely related to environmental clones from other coastal and estuarine systems. Interestingly, 8 of the 172 OTUs identified accounted for 42% of the total nirS clones, implying the presence of a few dominant and many rare genotypes, which were distributed in a non-random manner along the salinity gradient of Chesapeake Bay. These data, comprising the largest dataset to investigate nirS clone sequence diversity from an estuarine environment, also provided information that was required for the development of nirS microarrays to investigate the interaction of microbial diversity, environmental gradients, and biogeochemical activity.

ChristopherAFrancis

2013-08-01

273

76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Opportunity...construct and operate its proposed Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF) in Bonneville...AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility), 74 FR...

2011-03-02

274

[Influences of long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of long-term organic and inorganic fertilizations on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil. Soil samples were collected from 4 treatments (i. e. no fertilizer treatment, CK; organic manure treatment, OM; chemical fertilizer treatment (NPK) and combination of organic and chemical fertilizers treatment (MNPK)) in Gongzhuling Long-term Fertilization Experiment Station. Composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers were analyzed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and soil properties were also measured. Application of organic fertilizers (OM and MNPK) significantly increased the DEAs of black soil, with the DEAs in OM and MNPK being 5.92 and 6.03 times higher than that in CK treatment, respectively, whereas there was no significant difference between NPK and CK. OM and MNPK treatments increased the abundances of nirS-type denitrifiers by 2.73 and 3.83 times relative to that of CK treatment, respectively. The abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in NPK treatment was not significantly different from that of CK. The T-RFLP analysis of nirS genes showed significant differences in community composition between organic and inorganic treatments, with the emergence of a 79 bp T-RF, a significant decrease in relative abundance of the 84 bp T-RF and a loss of the 99 bp T-RF in all organic treatments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the airS-type denitrifiers in the black soil were mainly composed of alpha, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria. The 79 bp-type denitrifiers inhabiting exclusively in organic treatments (OM and MNPK) were affiliated to Pseudomonadaceae in gamma-Proteobacteria and Burkholderiales in beta-Proteobacteria. The 84 bp-types were related to Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales. Correlation analysis indicated that pH, concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate (NO3(-) -N) and ammonia (NH4(+) -N) were significantly related to abundances of nirS-denitrifers (r = 0.724-0.922, P DEA (r = 0.453-0.938, P DEAs were linearly and positively correlated with the abundances of nirS-type denitrifers (r = 0.85, P P DEAs were significantly correlated with the compositions of nirS-denirifiers (r = 0.863, P DEAs. PMID:23323433

Yin, Chang; Fan, Fen-Liang; Li, Zhao-Jun; Song, A-Lin; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Liang, Yong-Chao

2012-11-01

275

Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low enriched uranium (20% 235U) or medium enriched uranium (35% 235U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which is currently designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology

276

Enrichment of heavy water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop the up-grading process of depleted heavy water, we investigated the enrichment of heavy water over a wide concentration range from less than 1 % to above 99 % using a semi-pilot plant. This plant was composed of a gas-liquid reaction separation type exchange column, a H2-O2 recombiner, and a solid-polymer electrolytic (SPE) cell. The experiments were carried out by total-refluxing and continuous operation. In both cases, the separation efficiencies of the exchange column were evaluated from the efficiencies of the catalysis bed (?C) and the absorption column (?P); both ?C and ?P estimated as averaged values over the exchange units (stage) showed the values as high as 0.95 or above. (author)

277

Enrichment of boron 10  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A isotopic separation pilot plant with five ion exchange columns interconnected in series were designed and built in the IEN. The columns are charged with a strong anionic resin in its alkaline form. The boric acid solution is introduced in the separation columns until it reaches a absorbing zone length which is sufficient to obtain the desired boron-10 isotopic concentration. The boric acid absorbing zone movement is provided by the injection of a diluted hydrochloric acid solution, which replace the boric acid throughout the columns. The absorbing zone equilibrium length is proportional to its total length. The enriched boron-10 and the depleted boron are located in the final boundary and in the initial position of the absorbing zones, respectively. (author)

278

Effects of heavy metal contamination upon soil microbes: lead-induced changes in general and denitrifying microbial communities as evidenced by molecular markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead (Pb) is a common environmental contaminant found in soils. Unlike other metals, Pb has no biological role, and is potentially toxic to microorganisms. Effects of low (1 ppm) and high (500-2000) levels of lead (Pb) upon the soil microbial community was investigated by the PCR/DGGE analysis of the 16S and nirK gene markers, indicative of general microbial community and denitrifying community, respectively. Community analysis by use of those markers had shown that Pb has detectable effects upon the community diversity even at the lowest concentration tested. Analysis of sample diversity and similarity between the samples suggested that there are several thresholds crossed as metal concentration increase, each causing a substantial change in microbial diversity. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the denitrifying microbial community adapts to elevated levels of Pb by selecting for metal-resistant forms of nitrite reductases. PMID:19151442

Sobolev, Dmitri; Begonia, Maria F T

2008-12-01

279

Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination upon Soil Microbes: Lead-induced Changes in General and Denitrifying Microbial Communities as Evidenced by Molecular Markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a common environmental contaminant found in soils. Unlike other metals, Pb has no biological role, and is potentially toxic to microorganisms. Effects of low (1 ppm and high (500-2000 levels of lead (Pb upon the soil microbial community was investigated by the PCR/DGGE analysis of the 16S and nirK gene markers, indicative of general microbial community and denitrifying community, respectively. Community analysis by use of those markers had shown that Pb has detectable effects upon the community diversity even at the lowest concentration tested. Analysis of sample diversity and similarity between the samples suggested that there are several thresholds crossed as metal concentration increase, each causing a substantial change in microbial diversity. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the denitrifying microbial community adapts to elevated levels of Pb by selecting for metal-resistant forms of nitrite reductases.

Maria Begonia

2008-12-01

280

Soil environmental conditions and microbial build-up mediate the effect of plant diversity on soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities in temperate grasslands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number - namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these) and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil processes. We assembled grassland communities including 1 to 16 plant species with a factorial separation of the effects of richness and functional group composition to analyze how plant diversity components influence soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively), the abundance of nitrifiers (bacterial and archaeal amoA gene number) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS and nosZ gene number), and key soil environmental conditions. Plant diversity effects were largely due to differences in functional group composition between communities of identical richness (number of sown species), though richness also had an effect per se. NEA was positively related to the percentage of legumes in terms of sown species number, the additional effect of richness at any given legume percentage being negative. DEA was higher in plots with legumes, decreased with increasing percentage of grasses, and increased with richness. No correlation was observed between DEA and denitrifier abundance. NEA increased with the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. The effect of richness on NEA was entirely due to the build-up of nitrifying organisms, while legume effect was partly linked to modified ammonium availability and nitrifier abundance. Richness effect on DEA was entirely due to changes in soil moisture, while the effects of legumes and grasses were partly due to modified nitrate availability, which influenced the specific activity of denitrifiers. These results suggest that plant diversity-induced changes in microbial specific activity are important for facultative activities such as denitrification, whereas changes in microbial abundance play a major role for non-facultative activities such as nitrification. PMID:23613785

Le Roux, Xavier; Schmid, Bernhard; Poly, Franck; Barnard, Romain L; Niklaus, Pascal A; Guillaumaud, Nadine; Habekost, Maike; Oelmann, Yvonne; Philippot, Laurent; Salles, Joana Falcao; Schloter, Michael; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Weigelt, Alexandra

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Sensitive detection of a novel class of toluene-degrading denitrifiers, Azoarcus tolulyticus, with small-subunit rRNA primers and probes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Azoarcus tolulyticus is a new class of widely distributed toluene-degrading denitrifiers of potential importance in remediating benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX)-contaminated environments. To detect these organisms in the environment, 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic probes were developed. Two sets of specific PCR amplification primers and two oligonucleotide hybridization probes were designed and tested against both closely and distantly related environmental isolates. All of...

Zhou, J.; Palumbo, A. V.; Tiedje, J. M.

1997-01-01

282

Industrial aspects in uranium enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristics of isotope separation processes in operation and under development are discussed. These include the number of stages in series, the number of components, the component unit capacity and enery requirements. The implementation of an enrichment process and the question of an enrichment plant in Australia are also considered

283

Emission of nitrous oxide and dinitrogen by diverse earthworm families from Brazil and resolution of associated denitrifying and nitrate-dissimilating taxa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anoxic earthworm gut augments the activity of ingested microorganisms capable of anaerobiosis. Small earthworms (Lumbricidae) emit denitrification-derived N(2)O, whereas the large Octochaetus multiporus (Megascolecidae) does not. To examine this paradox, differently sized species of the families Glossoscolecidae (Rhinodrilus, Glossoscolex, Pontoscolex), Megascolecidae (Amynthas, Perionyx), Acanthodrilidae (Dichogaster), and Eudrilidae (Eudrilus) from Brazil were analyzed. Small species and the large Rhinodrilus alatus emitted N(2)O, whereas the large Glossoscolex paulistus did not, even though its gut could denitrify. N(2) and N(2)O were emitted concomitantly, and R. alatus emitted the highest amount of N(2). Denitrifiers and dissimilatory nitrate reducers were analyzed by barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing of narG, nirK, and nosZ. Gene sequences in gut and soil of the large G. paulistus were similar, whereas sequences in gut and soil of the small Amynthas gracilis were different and were also different compared with those of the gut and soil of G. paulistus. However, the denitrifying gut microbiota for both earthworms appeared to be soil-derived and dominated by Rhizobiales. The results demonstrated that (1) the emission of denitrification-derived N(2)O is widespread in different earthworm families, (2) large earthworms can also emit nitrogenous gases, and (3) ingested members of Rhizobiales are associated with this emission. PMID:22928867

Depkat-Jakob, Peter S; Brown, George G; Tsai, Siu M; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

2013-02-01

284

City model enrichment  

Science.gov (United States)

The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

285

Hydrogen-enriched fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

1998-08-01

286

CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the conclusions made about clusters of co-expressed genes over using the traditional cluster-wide scores. Using gene-specific coherence scores also simplifies the comparisons of clusterings produced by different clustering algorithms and provides a simple tool for selecting genes with a "functionally coherent" expression profile.

Medvedovic Mario

2009-07-01

287

High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Technical securities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the fulfillment of the technical securities subscribed by INVAP S.E. for the conversion of a high enriched uranium core. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. These are neutronic and thermohydraulic securities. (Author)

288

High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Accidents analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work analyzes the different accidents that may occur in the reactor's facility after the 20% high-enriched uranium core's conversion. The reactor (of 5 thermal Mw), built in the 50's and 60's, is of the 'swimming pool' type, with light water and fuel elements of the curve plates MTR type, enriched at 93.15 %. This analysis includes: a) accidents by reactivity insertion; b) accidents by coolant loss; c) analysis by flow loss and d) fission products release. (Author)

289

World enrichment requirements to 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

290

Uranium enrichment by solvent extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present reports presents the current development program of the French chemical process CHEMEX and describes its latest achievements. The process is based on an isotopic effect between UIII and UIV. The elementary effect reaches separation factor of 1.025. Enriched and depleted fractions are separated by solvent extraction. Enrichment requires the cascading of several thousands of separation stages. Industrial and commercial features of the CHEMEX Plants and economics of the process are indicated. Present achievements and future perspectives of the CHEMEX Project are reviewed. In spite of the depressed state of enrichment need advantages of the process are an excellent economy at small scale, use of conventional techniques and operation flexibility

291

Rectoanal Mucosal Swab Culture Is More Sensitive Than Fecal Culture and Distinguishes Escherichia coli O157:H7-Colonized Cattle and Those Transiently Shedding the Same Organism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enrichment and direct (nonenrichment) rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) culture techniques were developed and compared to traditional fecal culture for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in experimentally infected and naturally infected cattle. Holstein steers (n = 16) orally dosed with E. coli O157:H7 were sampled after bacterial colonization starting 15 days postinoculation. Enrichment RAMS cultures (70.31% positive) were more sensitive than enrichment fecal cultures with 10 g of feces (...

Rice, Daniel H.; Sheng, Haiqing Q.; Wynia, Stacey A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.

2003-01-01

292

Genetic diversity through the looking glass: Effect of enrichment bias  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of enrichment bias on the diversity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D)-degrading (2,4-D{sup +}) bacteria recovered from soil was evaluated by comparing the diversity of isolates obtained by direct plating to the diversity of isolates obtained from 85 liquid batch cultures. By the two methods, a total of 159 isolates were purified from 1 g of soil and divided into populations based on repeated extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (rep-PCR) genomic fingerprints. Approximately 42% of the direct-plating isolates hybridized with the tfdA and tfdB genes from Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4), 27% hybridized with the tfdA and tfdB genes from Burk holderia sp. strain RASC, and 30% hybridized with none of the probes. In contrast, the enrichment isolates not only represented fewer populations than the isolates obtained by direct plating but also exhibited, almost exclusively, a single hybridization pattern with 2,4-D catabolic gene probes. Approximately 98% of the enrichment isolates possessed pJP4-type tfd4 and tfdB genes, whereas isolates containing RASC-type tfdA and tfdB genes were obtained from only 2 of the 85 enrichment cultures. The skewed occurrence of the pJP4-type genes among the isolates obtained by enrichment suggests that the competitive fitness of 2,4-D{sup +} populations during growth with 2,4-D may be influenced either by specific tfd alleles or by genetic factors linked to these alleles. Moreover, the results indicate that evaluation of the diversity and distribution of catabolic pathways in nature can be highly distorted by the use of enrichment culture techniques. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Dunbar, J.; Forney, L. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); White, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-04-01

293

Genetic Diversity through the Looking Glass: Effect of Enrichment Bias.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of enrichment bias on the diversity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D)-degrading (2,4-D(sup+)) bacteria recovered from soil was evaluated by comparing the diversity of isolates obtained by direct plating to the diversity of isolates obtained from 85 liquid batch cultures. By the two methods, a total of 159 isolates were purified from 1 g of soil and divided into populations based on repeated extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (rep-PCR) genomic fingerprints. Approximately 42% of the direct-plating isolates hybridized with the tfdA and tfdB genes from Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4), 27% hybridized with the tfdA and tfdB genes from Burkholderia sp. strain RASC, and 30% hybridized with none of the probes. In contrast, the enrichment isolates not only represented fewer populations than the isolates obtained by direct plating but also exhibited, almost exclusively, a single hybridization pattern with 2,4-D catabolic gene probes. Approximately 98% of the enrichment isolates possessed pJP4-type tfdA and tfdB genes, whereas isolates containing RASC-type tfdA and tfdB genes were obtained from only 2 of the 85 enrichment cultures. The skewed occurrence of the pJP4-type genes among the isolates obtained by enrichment suggests that the competitive fitness of 2,4-D(sup+) populations during growth with 2,4-D may be influenced either by specific tfd alleles or by genetic factors linked to these alleles. Moreover, the results indicate that evaluation of the diversity and distribution of catabolic pathways in nature can be highly distorted by the use of enrichment culture techniques. PMID:16535569

Dunbar, J; White, S; Forney, L

1997-04-01

294

[Effects of pesticide-contamination on population size and denitrification activity of denitrifying bacteria in paddy soils].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of pesticide contamination on the population size and denitrification activity of denitrifying bacteria (DNB) were studied with three types of paddy soil (Huangsong paddy soil, red earth paddy soil and purple paddy soil) treated with carbofuran, carbendazim and butachlor for four weeks. The results showed that the population size of DNB in purple paddy soil, Huangsong paddy soil and red earth paddy soil varied in the range of 59.04 x 10(4)-157.59 x 10(4), 42.89 x 10(4)-108.97 x 10(4) and 32.14 x 10(4)-75.30 x 10(4) cfu.g-1 dried soil, respectively, which was positively related to the quantity of consumed nitrate in paddy soils. The population size and denitrification activity of DNB were increased by adding carbofuran (1 mg.kg-1 dried soil) or butachlor (1 mg.kg-1 dried soil), but decreased significantly by adding 10 mg.kg-1 dried soil of butachlor, 5 mg.kg-1 dried soil of carbofuran, and 10 mg.kg-1 dried soil of carbendazim on 7th d, 14th d and 7th d, respectively. PMID:14986384

Chen, Zhongyun; Min, Hang; Wu, Weixiang; Chen, Meichi; Zhang, Fudao; Zhao, Bingqiang

2003-10-01

295

The effect of poly-?-hydroxyalkanoates degradation rate on nitrous oxide production in a denitrifying phosphorus removal system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly-?-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and free nitrous acid (FNA) have been revealed as significant factors causing nitrous oxide (N2O) production in denitrifying phosphorus removal systems. In this study, the effect of PHA degradation rate on N2O production was studied at low FNA levels. N2O production always maintained at approximately 40% of the amount of nitrite reduced independent of the PHA degradation rate. The electrons distributed to nitrite reduction were 1.6 times that to N2O reduction. This indicated that electron competition between these two steps was not affected by the PHA degradation rate. Continuous feed of nitrate was proposed, and demonstrated to reduce N2O accumulation by 75%. While being kept low, a possible compounding effect of a low-level FNA could not be ruled out. The sludge used likely contained both polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms, and the results could not be simply attributed to either group of organisms. PMID:25129233

Wei, Yan; Wang, Shuying; Ma, Bin; Li, Xiyao; Yuan, Zhiguo; He, Yuelan; Peng, Yongzhen

2014-10-01

296

Enrichment and terminal differentiation of striated muscle progenitors in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enrichment and terminal differentiation of mammalian striated muscle cells is severely hampered by fibroblast overgrowth, de-differentiation and/or lack of functional differentiation. Herein we report a new, reproducible and simple method to enrich and terminally differentiate muscle stem cells and progenitors from mice and humans. We show that a single gamma irradiation of muscle cells induces their massive differentiation into structurally and functionally intact myotubes and cardiomyocytes and that these cells can be kept in culture for many weeks. Similar results are also obtained when treating skeletal muscle-derived stem cells and progenitors with Mitomycin C.

297

Uranium enrichment by chemical exchange  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the new French process for enriching uranium by chemical methods, the development of which was announced at the international conference on the Fuel Cycle, in Salzburg in May 1977. After a brief summary of the necessity for using nuclear energy, the importance of the fuel cycle, and the position of uranium enrichment in this cycle, the situation in the enrichment market is described together with the various enriching processes which are being or can soon be developed industrially on a large scale. A more detailed description is given of the principle of chemical exchange processes. A few important features of the French process from the economical or political aspect are then explained, in particular its non-proliferating nature

298

Extraosseus enrichments in bone scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extraosseus enrichments are common findings in bone scintigraphy. Main causes are artifacts by skin or cloth contamination, paravenous and subcutaneous injection. Physical examination, removal of cloths, skin cleaning or further images in differing projections lead to the correct diagnosis artefact or extraosseous enrichments. Further on, extraosseous enrichments are seen in physiological variants. In different diseases extraosseous enrichments are common, especially in urinary tract, liver and extremities. Further diagnostics, e.g. conventional radiologic procedures, sonography and CT scans, have to be performed. In individual cases side results in bone scintigraphy lead to formerly unknown diagnosis, further diagnostic procedure is influenced decisively. Own cases show for example a cerebral apoplectic insult, formerly unknown liver metastasis or metastasis in extraosseous Ewings's sarcoma. (orig.)

299

Uranium enrichment by displacement chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural Uranium contains 0.72% of fissile isotope 235U. Need for 235U enriched uranium for light water moderated reactors and other uses are well known. Uranium enrichment is a highly complex and tedious process owing to extremely small separation factor. Several processes have been tried; however, gaseous diffusion and centrifugation techniques based on mass dependent isotope effect are being exploited for producing enriched uranium. In the recent past, Isotope fractionation based on mass independent isotope effect such as LASER technique, ion exchange displacement chromatography etc. have drawn the attention of separation scientist and efforts are being made for development and industrial deployment of these technologies. Indian Nuclear Power Programme is based on use of natural uranium (PHWRs) and slightly enriched uranium (BWRs, PWRs) with emphasis on use of vast resources of thorium. Spent fuel from PHWRs, which is depleted in 235U (0.2 to 0.3%), appears to be a promising source of slightly enriched uranium (1 to 3% 235U). Harnessing this source for 235U enrichment would augment fuel supply for PHWR and light water reactors. Ion exchange displacement chromatography is a proliferation resistant novel technique for 235U enrichment. It is based on nuclear field shift - an isotope shift in orbital electrons resulting from the isotopic difference in nuclear size and shape. Due to this effect lighter isotope (235U) exhibits a stronger tendency for a higher valence i.e. UO22+ as compared to heavier isotope (238U). Preliminary laboratory study is being carried out at HWP, Manuguru for exploring feasibility of using ion exchange displacement chromatography for enriching 235U using 4-vinyl pyridine based anion exchange resin

300

Culturally Responsive Teaching for American Indian Learners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers in a multicultural society need to respect cultural differences, know the cultural resources their students bring to class, and be skilled at tapping into learners' cultural resources in the teaching-learning process. They must believe that all students are capable of learning, and they must implement an enriched curriculum for all…

Pewewardy, Cornel D.

 
 
 
 
301

Energetic optimization of algal lipid production in bubble columns: Part II: Evaluation of CO2 enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluated growth and lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis salina under sparging with carbon dioxide-enriched air. Carbon dioxide enrichments ranging from 0.5 to 9.5% and gas-to-culture volume ratios ranging from 0.02 to 1.0 min?1 were tested in 900 mL bubble column batch reactors. An energy-based approach is proposed to optimize CO2 enrichment. Cultures sparged with CO2-enrichments of 0.5–4% grew at nearly double the rate of those sparged with ambient air, accumulating 64% or more lipids. Based on energy efficiency, CO2-enrichment of 0.5% was found to be optimal while CO2-enrichments of 6.5% and greater were observed to cause inhibition. At this optimal CO2-enrichment of 0.5%, no significant changes were noted in the lipid content over the range of gas-to-culture volume ratios tested. These studies indicated that optimal energy recovery from N. salina can be achieved with CO2-enrichment of 0.5% sparged at a gas-to-culture volume ratio 0.18 min?1. Under this optimal condition, biomass growth rate was 0.161 g L?1 d?1, and the lipid content was 67.8%, yielding total lipid production of 0.771 g L?1 over 10 days at a net energy yield of 25 W m?3. -- Highlights: ? Evaluated algal productivity under sparging with CO2-enriched air. ? Proposed net energy to optimize algal productivity. ? Optimized CO2-enrichment and gas flow to maximize net energy. ? Net energy of 25 W/m3 found under optimal conditions.

302

Isotopomeric characterization of nitrous oxide produced by reaction of enzymes extracted from nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and produced in denitrification and nitrification in environmental nitrogen cycle by various microorganism. Site preference (SP of 15N in N2O, which is defined as the difference in the natural abundance of isotopomers 14N15NO and 15N14NO relative to 14N14NO, has been reported to be a useful tool to quantitatively distinguish N2O production pathway. To determine representative SP value for each microbial process, we firstly measured SP of N2O produced in the enzyme reaction of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO purified from two species of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceani, and that of nitric oxide reductase (NOR from Paracoccus denitrificans, respectively. The SP value for NOR reaction (?5.9 ± 2.1‰ showed nearly the same value as that reported for N2O produced by P. denitrificans in pure culture. In contrast, SP value for HAO reaction (36.3 ± 2.3‰ was a little higher than the values reported for N2O produced by AOB in aerobic pure culture. Using the SP values obtained by HAO and NOR reactions, we calculated relative contribution of the nitrite (NO2– reduction (which is followed by NO reduction to N2O production by N. oceani incubated under different O2 availability. Our calculations revealed that previous in vivo studies might have underestimated the SP value for NH2OH oxidation pathway possibly due to a small contribution of NO2– reduction pathway. Further evaluation of isotopomer signatures of N2O using common enzymes of other processes related to N2O would improve the isotopomer analysis of N2O in various environments.

T. Yamazaki

2013-10-01

303

Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive enrichment early in life, as indicated by level of education, complexity of work environment or nature of leisure activities, appears to protect against the development of age-associated cognitive decline and also dementia. These effects are more robust for measures of crystallized intelligence than for measures of fluid intelligence and depend on the ability of the brain to compensate for pathological changes associated with aging. This compensatory ability is referred to as cognitive reserve. The cognitive reserve hypothesis suggests that cognitive enrichment promotes utilization of available functions. Alternatively, late life cognitive changes in cognition may be linked to a factor, such as cholinergic dysfunction, that is also present early in life and contributes to the reduced levels of early life cognitive enrichment. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment early in life have also been observed in rodents and primates. Research with rodents indicates that these changes have structural correlates, which likely include increased synapses in specific brain regions. Dogs also show age-dependent cognitive decline, and both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies indicate that this decline can be attenuated by cognitive enrichment. Furthermore, cognitive enrichment has differential effects, improving some functions more than others. From a neurobiological perspective, behavioral enrichment in the dog may act to promote neurogenesis later in life. This can be distinguished from nutritional interventions with antioxidants, which appear to attenuate the development of neuropathology. These results suggest that a combination of behavioral and nutritional or pharmacological interventions may be optimal for reducing the rate of age-dependent cognitive decline. PMID:16949888

Milgram, Norton W; Siwak-Tapp, Christina T; Araujo, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth

2006-08-01

304

Advances in uranium enrichment processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvement, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fue need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

305

Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

306

Uranium enrichment. Technology, economics, capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R+D efforts on various processes. (author)

307

Do freshwater macrophytes influence the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria in the rhizospere?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

DO FRESHWATER MACROPHYTES INFLUENCE THE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF AMMONIA-OXIDIZING AND DENITRIFYING BACTERIA IN THE RHIZOSPHERE? M. Herrmann, A. Schramm Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark Aquatic macrophytes such as Littorella uniflora and Lobelia dortmanna have been shown to release oxygen from their roots and to stimulate nitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification in the rhizosphere. Together with the excretion of root exudates, this effect leads to strongly modified microenvironments at the root surface and in the rhizosphere compared to unvegetated sediment, especially with respect to the availability of oxygen, organic carbon, and inorganic nitrogen. We hypothesize that macrophyte species create specific niches for ammonia oxidizing and nitrate-reducing bacteria in their rhizosphere, leading to plant-dependant differences in abundance, activity and composition of these microbial communities between root surface (rhizoplane), rhizosphere and unvegetated sediment. Comparative investigations are carried out focussing on the macrophyte species Littorella uniflora, Juncus bulbosus and Myriophyllum spicatum. Microsensor measurements confirmed the photosynthesis-dependant, species-specific release of oxygen into the rhizosphere; batch incubations indicated a higher nitrification potential in the rhizosphere of Littorella uniflora compared to unvegetated sediment, and will be complemented with the determination of rates of coupled nitrification-denitrification using the 15N isotope pairing technique. Ammonia-oxidizing and nitrate-reducing populations are analyzed based on the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) and the nitrate reductase gene (narG) as functional markers. Preliminary data indicate that there in fact exist differences in the community composition of ammonia oxidizing bacteria between the root surface, the rhizosphere and unvegetated sediment and between plant species, however, differences in the community composition among sampling sites also suggest a strong impact of the chemical properties of the sediment.

Herrmann, Martina; Schramm, Andreas

2006-01-01

308

Evaluation of droplet digital PCR for characterizing plasmid reference material used for quantifying ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA reference materials of certified value have a critical function in many analytical processes of DNA measurement. Quantification of amoA genes in ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), and of nirS and nosZ genes in the denitrifiers is very important for determining their distribution and abundance in the natural environment. A plasmid reference material containing nirS, nosZ, amoA-AOB, and amoA-AOA is developed to provide a DNA standard with copy number concentration for ensuring comparability and reliability of quantification of these genes. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was evaluated for characterization of the plasmid reference material. The result revealed that restriction endonuclease digestion of plasmids can improve amplification efficiency and minimize the measurement bias of ddPCR. Compared with the conformation of the plasmid, the size of the DNA fragment containing the target sequence and the location of the restriction site relative to the target sequence are not significant factors affecting plasmid quantification by ddPCR. Liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) was used to provide independent data for quantifying the plasmid reference material. The copy number concentration of the digested plasmid determined by ddPCR agreed well with that determined by LC-IDMS, improving both the accuracy and reliability of the plasmid reference material. The reference value, with its expanded uncertainty (k?=?2), of the plasmid reference material was determined to be (5.19?±?0.41)?×?10(9) copies ?L(-1) by averaging the results of two independent measurements. Consideration of the factors revealed in this study can improve the reliability and accuracy of ddPCR; thus, this method has the potential to accurately quantify DNA reference materials. PMID:24493332

Dong, Lianhua; Meng, Ying; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingying

2014-02-01

309

Effect of land use on the density of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in the Colombian Coffee Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Soil microbial communities involved in the cycling of nitrogen (N are essential to maintaining and improving soil fertility, productivity and functionality of natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, some compounds generated during the metabolic processes performed by nitrifying (NB and denitrifying (DB bacteria are associated with the production of greenhouse gases, groundwater pollution and acidification. Therefore, the study of these bacteria is essential for economic and environmental sustainability. This study evaluated the effect of different land uses in two river basins (La Vieja and Otun on NB and DB densities. Two sampling events (SE were conducted by selecting the most representative land uses. Physicochemical (T °, pH, moisture and nitrate and microbiological properties (NB and DB densities were evaluated. In both SEs, significantly higher densities of NB and DB were observed in the land uses: pasture, guadua (DB only and unshaded coffee (La Vieja and onion (Otun. These land uses, excluding guadua, are dependent on nitrogen fertilizers, which together with the activities of grazing livestock on pastures may lead to greater availability of substrates for the NB. The use of agricultural machinery and overgrazing in pasture and onion uses generate compacted soil and other physical disturbances, encouraging the growth of DB. Forests had the lowest densities of NB and DB possibly due to a reduced availability of N and the releasing of allelopathic compounds from certain plants. Finally, the densities of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria had the greatest differences between the land uses evaluated, demonstrating its high sensitivity to agricultural management practices and livestock. We suggest that changes in the abundance of this community could serve as a relevant and cost-effective bioindicator for soil monitoring.

Vallejo Quintero Victoria Eugenia

2011-12-01

310

Real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in activated sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to improve wastewater treatment processes, a need exists for tools that rapidly give detailed insight into the community structure of activated sludge, supplementary to chemical and physical data. In this study, the advantages of microarrays and quantitative polymerase chin reaction (PCR) methods were combined into a real-time PCR assay that allows the simultaneous quantification of phylogenetic and functional genes involved in nitrification and denitrification processes. Simultaneous quantification was possible along a 5-log dynamic range and with high linear correlation (R{sup 2}>0.98). The specificity of the assay was confirmed by cloning and sequencing analyses of PCR amplicons obtained from activated sludge. The real-time assay was validated on mixed liquid samples of different treatment plants, which varied in nitrogen removal rate. The abundance of ammonia oxidizers was in the order of magnitude of 10{sup 6} down to 10{sup 4} ml{sup -1}, whereas nitrite oxidizers were less abundant (10{sup 3}-10{sup 1} order of magnitude). The results were in correspondence with the nitrite oxidation rate in the sludge types. As for the nirS, nirK, and nosZ gene copy numbers, their abundance was generally in the order of magnitude of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 5}. When sludge samples were subjected to lab-scale perturbations, a decrease in nitrification rate was reflected within 18 h in the copy numbers of nitrifier genes (decrease with 1 to 5 log units), whereas denitrification genes remained rather unaffected. These results demonstrate that the method is a fast and accurate tool for the analysis of the (de)nitrifying community structure and size in both natural and engineered environmental samples. (orig.)

Geets, J.; Cooman, M. de; Wittebolle, L.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N. [Ghent Univ. (BE). Lab. of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Heylen, K.; Vanparys, B.; Vos, P. de [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Microbiology

2007-05-15

311

Enzymes of anaerobic metabolism of phenolic compounds. 4-Hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase (dehydroxylating) from a denitrifying Pseudomonas species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reductive removal of aromatic hydroxyl functions plays an important role in the anaerobic metabolism of many phenolic compounds. We describe a new enzyme from a denitrifying Pseudomonas sp., 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase (dehydroxylating), which reductively dehydroxylates 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA to benzoyl-CoA. The enzyme plays a role in the anaerobic degradation of phenol, 4-hydroxybenzoate, p-cresol, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, and other aromatic compounds of which 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA is an intermediate. The enzyme is therefore induced only under anoxic conditions with these aromatic substrates, but not with benzoate or under aerobic conditions. A similar enzyme which reductively dehydroxylates 3-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA is induced during anaerobic growth with 3-hydroxybenzoate. The soluble enzyme 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase was purified. It has a molecular mass of 260 kDa and consists of three subunits of 75, 35, and 17 kDa. The subunit composition is likely to be a2b2c2. The enzyme contains 12 mol iron/mol and 12 mol acid-labile sulfur/mol and exhibits a typical ultraviolet/visible spectrum of an iron-sulfur protein. The reaction requires a reduced electron donor such as reduced viologen dyes; no other co-catalysts are required, the product is benzoyl-CoA and oxidized dye. The reductase is rapidly inactivated by oxygen. The inactivation by low concentrations of cyanide or azide in a pseudo-first-order time course suggests that it may contain a transition metal in an oxidation state which reacts with these ligands. 4-Hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase represents a type of enzyme which is common in anaerobic aromatic metabolism of phenolic compounds. A similar enzyme is demonstrated in Rhodopseudomonas palustris anaerobically grown with 4-hydroxybenzoate. The biological significance of reductive dehydroxylation of aromatics and a possible reaction mechanism similar to the Birch reduction are discussed. PMID:8477729

Brackmann, R; Fuchs, G

1993-04-01

312

A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

1986-01-01

313

Presence of Two Different Active nirS Nitrite Reductase Genes in a Denitrifying Thauera sp. from a High-Nitrate-Removal-Rate Reactor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nirS nitrite reductase genes were studied in two strains (strains 27 and 28) isolated from two denitrifying reactors and characterized as Thauera according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain 28 contains a single nirS sequence, which is related to the nirS of Thauera mechernichensis, and strain 27 contains two nirS sequences; one is similar to the nirS sequence from Thauera mechernichensis (gene 2), but the second one (gene 8) is from a separate clade with nirS from Pseudomonas stutz...

Etchebehere, Claudia; Tiedje, James

2005-01-01

314

Biotransformation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by Denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. Strain FA1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbial and enzymatic degradation of a new energetic compound, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), is not well understood. Fundamental knowledge about the mechanism of microbial degradation of CL-20 is essential to allow the prediction of its fate in the environment. In the present study, a CL-20-degrading denitrifying strain capable of utilizing CL-20 as the sole nitrogen source, Pseudomonas sp. strain FA1, was isolated from a garden soil. Studies with i...

Bhushan, Bharat; Paquet, Louise; Spain, Jim C.; Hawari, Jalal

2003-01-01

315

Continuous rhamnolipid production using denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in hollow-fiber bioreactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhamnolipids are high-value effective biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Large-scale production of rhamnolipids is still challenging especially under free-cell aerobic conditions in which the highly foaming nature of the culture broth reduces the productivity of the process. Immobilized systems relying on oxygen as electron acceptor have been previously investigated but oxygen transfer limitation presents difficulties for continuous rhamnolipid production. A coupled system using immobilized cells and nitrate instead of oxygen as electron acceptor taking advantage of the ability of P. aeruginosa to perform nitrate respiration was evaluated. This denitrification-based immobilized approach based on a hollow-fiber setup eliminated the transfer limitation problems and was found suitable for continuous rhamnolipid production in a period longer than 1,500 h. It completely eliminated the foaming difficulties related to aerobic systems with a comparable specific productivity of 0.017 g/(g dry cells)-h and allowed easy recovery of rhamnolipids from the cell-free medium. PMID:23359613

Pinzon, Neissa M; Cook, Aaron G; Ju, Lu-Kwang

2013-01-01

316

Advances in uranium enrichment processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

317

Phylogenetic and functional diversity within toluene-degrading, sulphate-reducing consortia enriched from a contaminated aquifer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three toluene-degrading microbial consortia were enriched under sulphate-reducing conditions from different zones of a benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) plume of two connected contaminated aquifers. Two cultures were obtained from a weakly contaminated zone of the lower aquifer, while one culture originated from the highly contaminated upper aquifer. We hypothesised that the different habitat characteristics are reflected by distinct degrader populations. Degradation of toluene with concomitant production of sulphide was demonstrated in laboratory microcosms and the enrichment cultures were phylogenetically characterised. The benzylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (bssA) marker gene, encoding the enzyme initiating anaerobic toluene degradation, was targeted to characterise the catabolic diversity within the enrichment cultures. It was shown that the hydrogeochemical parameters in the different zones of the plume determined the microbial composition of the enrichment cultures. Both enrichment cultures from the weakly contaminated zone were of a very similar composition, dominated by Deltaproteobacteria with the Desulfobulbaceae (a Desulfopila-related phylotype) as key players. Two different bssA sequence types were found, which were both affiliated to genes from sulphate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. In contrast, the enrichment culture from the highly contaminated zone was dominated by Clostridia with a Desulfosporosinus-related phylotype as presumed key player. A distinct bssA sequence type with high similarity to other recently detected sequences from clostridial toluene degraders was dominant in this culture. This work contributes to our understanding of the niche partitioning between degrader populations in distinct compartments of BTEX-contaminated aquifers. PMID:24623528

Kuppardt, Anke; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Vogt, Carsten; Lüders, Tillmann; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

2014-08-01

318

Uranium enriched granites in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Granites with uranium contents higher than normal occur in a variety of geological settings in the Swedish Precambrian, and represent a variety of granite types and ages. They may have been generated by (1) the anatexis of continental crust (2) processes occurring at a much greater depth. They commonly show enrichement in F, Sn, W and/or Mo. Only in one case is an important uranium mineralization thought to be directly related to a uranium-enriched granite, while the majority of epigenetic uranium mineralizations with economic potential are related to hydrothermal processes in areas where the bedrock is regionally uranium-enhanced. (Authors)

319

Uranium enrichment. 1980 annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains data and related information on the production of enriched uranium at the gaseous diffusion plants and an update on the construction and project control center for the gas centrifuge plant. Power usage at the gaseous diffusion plants is illustrated. The report contains several glossy color pictures of the plants and processes described. In addition to gaseous diffusion and the centrifuge process, three advanced isotope separation process are now being developed. The business operation of the enrichment plants is described; charts on revenue, balance sheets, and income statements are included

320

Enrichment of meiotic recombination hotspot sequences by avidin capture technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 40% of the hotspots for meiotic recombination contain the degenerate consensus sequence 5'-CCNCCNTNNCCNC-3'. Here we present a novel protocol for enriching hotspot sequences from digested genomic DNA by using biotinylated oligonucleotides and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. The captured hotspots can be released by simple digestion with restriction enzymes for subsequent characterization by second generation sequencing or PCR. The capture protocol specifically enriches hotspot sequences, judged by using fluorophore-conjugated synthetic oligonucleotides and synthetic double-stranded oligonucleotides in combination with PCR. The capture protocol enriches single-stranded DNA, denatured double-stranded DNA, and large fragments (>3000 bp) of digested plasmid DNA with good efficacy. No false positive and false negatives were detected when enriching digested DNA from human cell cultures and primary human cells. The protocol can probably be adapted to enriching sequences other than the hotspot sequence by altering the sequence in the capture oligonucleotide. We intend to apply this protocol in studies assessing effects of micronutrient status on meiotic recombination events in human sperm. PMID:23270922

Camara Teixeira, Daniel; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Zempleni, Janos

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Enriched uranium recovery flowsheet improvements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Savannah River uses 7.5% TBP to recover and purify enriched uranium. Adequate decontamination from fission products is necessary to reduce personnel exposure and to ensure that the enriched uranium product meets specifications. Initial decontamination of the enriched uranium from the fission products is carried out in the 1A bank, 16 stages of mixer-settlers. Separation of the enriched uranium from the fission product, 95Zr, has been adequate, but excessive solvent degradation caused by the long phase contact times in the mixer-settlers has limited the 95Zr decontamination factor (DF). An experimental program is investigating the replacement of the current 1A bank with either centrifugal contactors or a combination of centrifugal contactors and mixer-settlers. Experimental work completed has compared laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors and mixer-settlers for 95Zr removal efficiencies. Feed solutions spiked with actual plant solutions were used. The 95Zr DF was significantly better in the mixer-settlers than in the centrifugal contactors. As a result of this experimental study, a hybrid equipment flowsheet has been proposed for plant use. The hybrid equipment flowsheet combines the advantages of both types of solvent extraction equipment. Centrifugal contactors would be utilized in the extraction and initial scrub sections, followed by additional scrub stages of mixer-settlers

322

Enriched Fell Bundles and Spaceoids  

CERN Document Server

We propose a definition of involutive categorical bundle (Fell bundle) enriched in an involutive monoidal category and we argue that such a structure is a possible suitable environment for the formalization of different equivalent versions of spectral data for commutative C*-categories.

Bertozzini, Paolo; Lewkeeratiyutkul, Wicharn

2011-01-01

323

Environmental Development Plan: uranium enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Environmental Development Plan identifies and examines the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns and corresponding requirements associated with the DOE research, development, demonstration, and operation of the Uranium Enrichment program, including the gaseous diffusion process, the centrifuge process, centrifuge rotor fabrication, and related research and development activities

324

People, Places, and Environments: Social Studies and Spanish Cultural Enrichment  

Science.gov (United States)

If the young people are to become effective participants in a democratic society, then social studies must be an essential part of the curriculum in the early childhood/elementary years. In a world that demands independent and cooperative problem solving to address complex social, economic, ethical, and personal concerns, the social studies are as…

Helms, Ronald G.; Ankenbauer, Mary

2009-01-01

325

AN ENRICHMENT CULTURE THAT DEGRADES MTBE UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodegradation of MTBE in ground water may be a significant factor helping to reduce MTBE contamination from gasoline spills. Previously, decreases in MTBE concentrations in wells at release sites were thought to be due exclusively to dispersion and dilution. Researchers have i...

326

21 CFR 136.115 - Enriched bread, rolls, and buns.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. 136.115 Section...Bakery Products § 136.115 Enriched bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods enriched bread, enriched rolls, and enriched...

2010-04-01

327

Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

328

Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

2007-04-01

329

Insight into the effects of biochar on manure composting: evidence supporting the relationship between N2O emission and denitrifying community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from composting contribute to the accelerated greenhouse effect, it is difficult to implement practical methods to mitigate these emissions. In this study, the effects of biochar amendment during pig manure composting were investigated to evaluate the inter-relationships between N2O emission and the abundance of denitrifying bacteria. Analytical results from two pilot composting treatments with (PWSB, pig manure + wood chips + sawdust + biochar) or without (PWS, pig manure + wood chips + sawdust) biochar (3% w/w) demonstrated that biochar amendment not only lowered NO2(-)-N concentrations but also lowered the total N2O emissions from pig manure composting, especially during the later stages. Quantification of functional genes involved in denitrification and Spearman rank correlations matrix revealed that the N2O emission rates correlated with the abundance of nosZ, nirK, and nirS genes. Biochar-amended pig manure had a higher pH and a lower moisture content. Biochar amendment altered the abundance of denitrifying bacteria significantly; less N2O-producing and more N2O-consuming bacteria were present in the PWSB, and this significantly lowered N2O emissions in the maturation phase. Together, the results demonstrate that biochar amendment could be a novel greenhouse gas mitigation strategy during pig manure composting. PMID:23745957

Wang, Cheng; Lu, Haohao; Dong, Da; Deng, Hui; Strong, P J; Wang, Hailong; Wu, Weixiang

2013-07-01

330

[Construction of a landscaping-type wetland system for wastewater treatment construction of a landscaping-type wetland system for wastewater treatment and analysis of plant denitrifying effect].  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot landscaping-type wetland system for wastewater treatment was constructed by introduction of 15 selected ornamental plant species (including 4 terrestrial plant species). The pilot system consists of 2 sequenced treatment units and 12 sub-units, i.e., a primary treatment unit with 4 parallel cells and a secondary treatment unit with 8 subsurface flow cells. Designed experiments were conducted in the established system to investigate the characteristics of nitrogen accumulation in different plants and the contribution of plant nitrogen uptake to total nitrogen removal of the constructed wetland system. The result shows that the direct contribution by plant uptake to the total nitrogen removal is low, ca. 1%-3% within the nitrogen concentration range 37.5-55.6 mg/L in the influent. Plant uptake does not fully reflect the important role of the plant species in the constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment as the function of the plant should include further its interaction with microorganisms and wetland fillers by enhancing microbial activities and filler adsorption capacities. The plant denitrifying effect, defined as the difference in nitrogen removal rates between units with and without plants, has been used to represent the contribution in nitrogen removal due to presence of plant in the system. The plant denitrifying effect thus includes both the plant nitrogen uptake and the interaction effect of plant with microorganisms and wetland fillers, the later being found to account for more than 80% of the total nitrogen removal in the established treatment system. PMID:20358823

Chen, Ming-li; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Yong-hua; Jiang, Li-juan; Ji, Zhi-hui; Ma, Qun

2010-03-01

331

Spatial distribution and viability of nitrifying, denitrifying and ANAMMOX bacteria in biofilms of sponge media retrieved from a full-scale biological nutrient removal plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial distribution and activities of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in sponge media were investigated using diverse tools, because understanding of in situ microbial condition of sponge phase is critical for the successful design and operation of sponge media process. The bacterial consortia within the media was composed of diverse groups including a 14.5% Nitrosomonas spp.-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), 12.5% Nitrobacter spp.-like nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), 2.0% anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (ANAMMOX) bacteria and 71.0% other bacteria. The biofilm appeared to be most dense in the relatively outer region of the media and gradually decreased with depth, but bacterial viabilities showed space-independent feature. The fluorescent in situ hybridization results revealed that AOB and NOB co-existed in similar quantities on the side fragments of the media, which was reasonably supported by the microelectrode measurements showing the concomitant oxidation of NH(4) (+) and production of NO(3) (-) in this zone. However, a significantly higher fraction of AOB was observed in the center than side fragment. As with the overall biofilm density profile, the denitrifying bacteria were also more abundant on the side than in the center fragments. ANAMMOX bacteria detected throughout the entire depth offer another advantage for the removal of nitrogen by simultaneously converting NH(4) (+) and NO(2) (-) to nitrogen gas. PMID:22367527

Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Min; Oh, Sang-Eun; Ren, Xianghao; Lee, Jinwook; Kim, In S

2012-09-01

332

Cultural Routes and Intangible Heritage Cultural Routes and Intangible Heritage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The theoretical interpretation of thematic routes helps to predict the effects on the territories visited by cultured tourists who want to enrich their cultural and emotional baggage. After the analysis of some interpretations, this paper will examine how the practical implementation of an itinerary approved by the Council of Europe has evolved over the years. And it will also reflect on the practical results in the areas involved in that project. "The Hannibal Pathway ", the main overland...

Enza Zabbini

2012-01-01

333

Relationship between N2O Fluxes from an Almond Soil and Denitrifying Bacterial Populations Estimated by Quantitative PCR  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultivated soils emit substantial quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas with almost 300 times the radiative forcing potential of CO2. Agriculture-related activities generate from 6 to 35 Tg N2O-N per year, or about 60 to 70% of global production. The microbial processes of nitrification, denitrification and nitrifier denitrification are major biogenic sources of N2O to the atmosphere from soils. Denitrification is considered the major source of N2O especially when soils are wet. The microbial N transformations that produce N2O depend primarily on nitrogen (N) fertilizer, with water content, available carbon and soil temperature being secondary controllers. Despite the fact that microbial processes are responsible for N2O emissions, very little is known about the numbers or types of populations involved. The objective of this study was to relate changes in denitrifying population densities, using quantitative PCR (qPCR) of functional genes, to N2O emissions in a fertilized almond orchard. Quantitative PCR targeted three specific genes involved in denitrification: nirS, nirK and nosZ. Copy numbers of the genes were related back to population densities and the portion of organisms likely to produce nitrous oxide. The study site, a 21.7 acre almond orchard fitted with micro-sprinklers, was fertigated (irrigated and fertilized simultaneously) with 50 lbs/acre sodium nitrate in late March 2008, then irrigated weekly. Immediately after the initial fertigation, fluxes of N2O and CO2, moisture content, inorganic N and denitrification gene copy numbers were measured 6 times over 24 days. Despite the fact that N2O emissions increased following fertigation, there was no consistent increase in any of the targeted genes. The genes nirK and nirS ranged from 0.4-1.4 × 107 and 0.4-1.4 × 108, whereas nosZ ranged from 2-8 × 106 copy numbers per g soil, respectively. Considerable variation, compounded by the small sample sizes used for DNA analysis, made it difficult to discern trends over time. High spatial variability was also observed with one of the field replicates have a substantially higher flux of N2O. This replicate also had the highest water filled pore space (WFPS) and water content, factors that likely favored denitrification. Water saturation of soil air space, optimal at >60% for denitrification to occur, was relatively low in the other field replicates. Thus, the low N2O flux measurements and gene copy numbers agreed in supporting the hypothesis denitrification was relatively low under the environmental conditions of these particular almond soils.

Matiasek, M.; Suddick, E. C.; Smart, D. R.; Scow, K. M.

2008-12-01

334

Enrichment and characterization of sulfate reducing, naphthalene degrading microorganisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PAH are widely distributed in the environment by accidental discharges during the transport, use and disposal of petroleum products, and during forest and grass fires. Caused by their hydrophobic nature, PAH basically accumulate in sediments from where they are slowly released into the groundwater. Although generally limited by the low water solubility of PAH, microbial degradation is one of the major mechanisms leading to the complete clean-up of PAH-contaminated sites. Whereas organisms and biochemical pathways responsible for the aerobic breakdown of PAH are well known, anaerobic PAH biodegradation is less understood; only a few anaerobic PAH degrading cultures have been described. We studied the anaerobic PAH degradation in a microcosm approach to enrich anaerobic PAH degraders. Anoxic groundwater and sediment samples were used as inoculum. Groundwater samples were purchased from the erstwhile gas works facility and a former wood impregnation site. In contrast, sources of sediment samples were a former coal refining area and an old fuel depot. Samples were incubated in anoxic mineral salt medium with naphthalene as sole carbon source and sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Grown cultures were characterized by feeding with 13C-labeled naphthalene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing using an Illumina® approach, and functional proteome analyses. Finally, six enrichment cultures able to degrade naphthalene under anoxic conditions were established. First results point to a dominance of identified sequences affiliated to the freshwater sulfate-reducing strain N47, which is a known anaerobic naphthalene degrader, in four out of the six enrichments. In those enrichments, peptides related to the pathway of anoxic naphthalene degradation in N47 were abundant. Overall the data underlines the importance of Desulfobacteria for natural attenuation of environmental contaminants. Understanding of diversity and physiology of anaerobic PAH degradation will contribute to remediation efforts of low-oxygen environments such as aquifers or river sediments.

Steffen, Kümmel; Florian-Alexander, Herbst; Márcia, Duarte; Dietmar, Pieper; Jana, Seifert; Bergen Martin, von; Hans-Hermann, Richnow; Carsten, Vogt

2014-05-01

335

Enrichment in the 1990s  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drawbacks in realising the planned nuclear programmes have led to a significant overcapacity on the worldwide enrichment market. There will be no shortfall in the supply of enrichment services during the rest of this century. Utilities can buy low cost separative work units (SWU) on a competitive market. However, looking beyond the next decade, there will certainly be a need to replace some of the existing energy intensive gaseous diffusion plants which are the main contributors to the present overcapacity. It is well understood in the industry that the gaseous diffusion technology can no longer be considered a viable route for this replacement. There are two alternatives: the centrifuge and the laser. The centrifuge technology has been brought to technical and commercial maturity, whereas the demonstration of the commercial feasibility of the laser method has not yet been achieved. The paper examines the status of these two advanced processes and the commercial incentive for their futher development. (author). 4 figs, 2 tabs

336

Simulations of Cosmic Chemical Enrichment  

CERN Document Server

Using a new numerical model for cosmic chemical evolution, we study the influence of hypernova feedback on the star formation and metal enrichment history of the universe. For assumptions which produce plausible results in idealized collapse models of individual galaxies, our cosmological simulations of the standard Lambda-CDM cosmology show a peak of the cosmic star formation rate at z~4, with ~10% of the baryons turning into stars. We find that the majority of stars in present-day massive galaxies formed in much smaller galaxies at high redshifts, giving them a mean stellar age as old as 10 Gyr, despite their late assembly times. The hypernova feedback drives galactic outflows efficiently in low mass galaxies, and these winds eject heavy elements into the intergalactic medium. The ejected baryon fraction is larger for less massive galaxies, correlates well with stellar metallicity, and amounts to ~20% of all baryons in total. The resulting enrichment history is broadly consistent with the observed abundance...

Kobayashi, C; White, S D M; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Springel, Volker; White, Simon D. M.

2006-01-01

337

Nitrous oxide nitrification and denitrification 15N enrichment factors from Amazon forest soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isotopic signatures of 15N and 18O in N2O emitted from tropical soils vary both spatially and temporally, leading to large uncertainty in the overall tropical source signature and thereby limiting the utility of isotopes in constraining the global N2O budget. Determining the reasons for spatial and temporal variations in isotope signatures requires that we know the isotope enrichment factors for nitrification and denitrification, the two processes that produce N2O in soils. We have devised a method for measuring these enrichment factors using soil incubation experiments and report results from this method for three rain forest soils collected in the Brazilian Amazon: soil with differing sand and clay content from the Tapajos National Forest (TNF) near Santarém, Pará, and Nova Vida Farm, Rondônia. The 15N enrichment factors for nitrification and denitrification differ with soil texture and site: -111 per thousand +/- 12 per thousand and -31 per thousand +/- 11 per thousand for a clay-rich Oxisol (TNF), -102 per thousand +/- 5 per thousand and -45 per thousand +/- 5 per thousand for a sandier Ultisol (TNF), and -10.4 per thousand +/- 3.5 per thousand (enrichment factor for denitrification) for another Ultisol (Nova Vida) soil, respectively. We also show that the isotopomer site preference (delta15Nalpha - delta15Nbeta, where alpha indicates the central nitrogen atom and beta the terminal nitrogen atom in N2O) may allow differentiation between processes of production and consumption of N2O and can potentially be used to determine the contributions of nitrification and denitrification. The site preferences for nitrification and denitrification from the TNF-Ultisol incubated soils are: 4.2 per thousand +/- 8.4 per thousand and 31.6 per thousand +/- 8.1 per thousand, respectively. Thus, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria populations under the conditions of our study exhibit significantly different 15N site preference fingerprints. Our data set strongly suggests that N2O isotopomers can be used in concert with traditional N2O stable isotope measurements as constraints to differentiate microbial N2O processes in soil and will contribute to interpretations of the isotopic site preference N2O values found in the free troposphere. PMID:17205894

Pérez, Tibisay; Garcia-Montiel, Diana; Trumbore, Susan; Tyler, Stanley; de Camargo, Plínio; Moreira, Marcelo; Piccolo, Marisa; Cerri, Carlos

2006-12-01

338

Austenite stabilization through manganese enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model is proposed to predict austenite stabilization through manganese partitioning between ferrite and austenite. The model predicts retained austenite fractions as a function of intercritical annealing temperature based on equilibrium phase fractions and solute contents. Thermodynamic data are used to calculate the Ms temperature of the enriched austenite in order to predict fresh martensite formation upon cooling to room temperature. An intercritical annealing temperature resulting in the greatest retained austenite fraction is predicted which correlates to some experimental observations.

339

Enrichment of solid fuels. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papers deal with the methods for solid fuels enrichment, spatially coals, biomass and solid wastes, in order to improve their quality, as well as the price and interest of their use. The priority is given to the Macedonian lignite due to its low calorific value, moisture, ash content and bad mechanical characteristics. The holding of this Meeting was initiated by ZEMAK - Association of power engineers of Macedonia. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

340

Measurement of lithium hydride enrichment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deuterons produced by a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator are used to measure the isotopic ratios of /sup 6/Li to /sup 7/Li and H to D in lithium hydride. The nuclear reactions which are used are: /sup 2/H(d,p)/sup 3/H, /sup 6/Li(d,/alpha/)/sup 4/He. /sup 7/Li(d,/alpha/)/sup 5/He, /sup 7/Li(d,n/alpha/)/sup 4/He, /sup 12/C(d,p)/sup 13/C, and /sup 16/O(d,/alpha/)/sup 17/O. The reactions involving oxygen and carbon are used to determine the amounts of these elements on the surface which can effect the accuracy of the enrichment measurements. The ions from the different reactions are separated by E, dE/dx particle identification in order to separate protons from /sup 4/He and /sup 5/He ions. Using corrections for oxygen on the surface, /sup 6/Li enrichment accurate to 0.36 atom percent and D enrichments accurate to 2.1 atom percent were obtained. 7 refs

 
 
 
 
341

Uranium enrichment and public policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alternative policies to the present government monopoly of the uranium enrichment process are discussed in this monograph. Alternative policies analyzed are continued government monopoly and operation by the Department of Energy, establishment of a government corporation, and complete relinquishing of government control with the private sector taking the risks of constructing additional capacity. The material is divided into 6 chapters. Chapter 1 describes the fuel cycle and the public policy issues involved. The enrichment process, current capacity, and the operation of the plants by the government are described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 estimates future demand for electricity in the U.S. and forecasts the demand for nuclear power and for enrichment services. Chapter 4 describes the historical background, including the Nuclear Fuel Assurance Act, opposition to it, and its demise. The basic policy options the government faces with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each are included in Chapter 5. The final chapter summarizes the findings and presents the conclusion that, from an economic efficiency viewpoint, selling the existing plants and turning the industry over to the private sector would be best. An appendix describes some of the issues involved in plutonium recycling

342

Uranium enrichment (a strategy analysis overview)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of available information on enrichment technology, separative work supply and demand, and SWU cost is presented. Estimates of present and future enrichment costs are provided for use in strategy analyses of alternate nuclear fuel cycles and systems. (auth)

343

31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium...

2010-07-01

344

Fecal culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Stool culture; Culture - stool ... other germs that are present to grow. The culture is watched for growth. If there is growth, ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ...

345

Magnetic Properties of Enriched 195Pt Metals  

Science.gov (United States)

An enriched 195Pt system was investigated by magnetic and NMR measurements. Anomalous large magnetic moments are distinctly observed in enriched 195Pt wire samples produced by ORNL and in enriched thin-film samples. In the enriched powder and natural wire samples, weak anomalous large magnetic moments were also observed in magnetic measurements. These anomalous large magnetic moments were discussed by the induced giant magnetic moments of Fe impurity. The induced magnetic moments are different in wire samples and powder samples.

Kuwata, N.; Ohno, K.; Kobayashi, E.; Sugita, Y.; Suzuki, H.

2009-04-01

346

The prospect of enriched boron products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mass production technique for producing enriched boron was developed jointly by Kobe Steel and Stella Chemifa Co. in the 1990s. Enriched boron commercial production started in 2001 and since then, as a result of boron market research, several new enriched boron materials such as boron aluminum, boron acid, and boron carbide have been added to our production schedule. The demand for enriched boron is expected to increase rapidly if the material can be steadily supplied at a reasonable price. (author)

347

Proliferation implications of uranium enrichment technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary chart is developed comparing the difficulties inherent in the production of highly enriched uranium via various enrichment technologies, on the assumption that the necessary technology is not available and must be acquired. Production of highly enriched uranium by batch recycling in existing facilities is also discussed, and some safeguards measures are suggested

348

Enriching Music and Language Arts Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

The article focuses on enriching music and language arts experiences of students. Music can enrich literature and language arts, poetry, theater arts, transitions, science, and math, as well as help meet special learner needs. A well-understood example of enrichment is the alphabet song. A music or classroom teacher using the alphabet song helps…

Flohr, John W.

2006-01-01

349

A playroom as novel swine enrichment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pigs, intelligent and potentially destructive animals, can present unique challenges to laboratory animal caretakers trying to provide optimal housing and environmental enrichment. The authors developed an enrichment area in their facility for pigs that are neither preparing for nor recovering from surgery. They rotate pigs into the play area for periodic enrichment and socialization. PMID:17311047

Casey, Blair; Abney, Dawn; Skoumbourdis, Evelyn; Skoumbordis, Evelyn

2007-03-01

350

Nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) as functional markers to investigate diversity of denitrifying bacteria in Pacific northwest marine sediment communities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Genetic heterogeneity of denitrifying bacteria in sediment samples from Puget Sound and two sites on the Washington continental margin was studied by PCR approaches amplifying nirK and nirS genes. These structurally different but functionally equivalent single-copy genes coding for nitrite reductases, a key enzyme of the denitrification process, were used as a molecular marker for denitrifying bacteria. nirS sequences could be amplified from samples of both sampling sites, whereas nirK sequences were detected only in samples from the Washington margin. To assess the underlying nir gene structure, PCR products of both genes were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Rarefraction analysis revealed a high level of diversity especially for nirS clones from Puget Sound and a slightly lower level of diversity for nirK and nirS clones from the Washington margin. One group dominated within nirK clones, but no dominance and only a few redundant clones were seen between sediment samples for nirS clones in both habitats. Hybridization and sequencing confirmed that all but one of the 228 putative nirS clones were nirS with levels of nucleotide identities as low as 45.3%. Phylogenetic analysis grouped nirS clones into three distinct subclusters within the nirS gene tree which corresponded to the two habitats from which they were obtained. These sequences had little relationship to any strain with known nirS sequences or to isolates (mostly close relatives of Pseudomonas stutzeri) from the Washington margin sediment samples. nirK clones were more closely related to each other than were the nirS clones, with 78.6% and higher nucleotide identities; clones showing only weak hybridization signals were not related to known nirK sequences. All nirK clones were also grouped into a distinct cluster which could not be placed with any strain with known nirK sequences. These findings show a very high diversity of nir sequences within small samples and that these novel nir clusters, some very divergent from known sequences, are not known in cultivated denitrifiers.

Braker, G.; Zhou, J.; Wu, L.; Devol, A.H.; Tiedje, J.M.

2000-05-01

351

The reduced enrichment program for JRR-4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan Research Reactor No. 4(JRR-4) with the rated power of 3.5 MW, swimming pool type research reactor, 93 % enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used, light water moderated and cooled. The first criticality reached on 28th January, 1965. The reactor has operated for about 26 years. However, it was planed to the reduced enrichment of the fuels to low enrichment according to the International Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. This paper describes the program for conversion of the enrichment of fuel from 93 % to less than 20 %. (author)

352

Development of enrichment measurement technologies at the Ningyo-Toge uranium enrichment pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enrichment measurement of UF6 is one of the most important techniques for a gas centrifuge enrichment plant. Developments of enrichment measurements using non-destructive assay technologies have been carried out at the Ningyo-Toge Uranium Enrichment Pilot Plant, PNC. Included in these developments are an enrichment monitor on 30B type cylinders, a neutron monitor, in-line enrichment monitors, and those for pipework and for sample bottles, and the field test of the IAEA gas phase enrichment monitor. The evaluation applications of these monitors, used for both safeguards and process control, are described. (author)

353

EMIS: Enrichment Management Information System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the effort was the development of a calculational tool which would permit DOE to make realistic projections of the separative work demands of its customers as an aid in planning for the future operation of the enrichment facilities. The calculational methods were to recognize the flexibility in scheduling, etc., available to DOE customers under their enrichment contreacts as well as the ability to pool separative work withdrawn under two or more contracts. It was also to be designed to permit the user to add new customers or delete existing contracts as well as to allow variation of the estimated start-up dates for those reactors currently under construction. The output of the model was to display projections of separative work demand as SWU and in triplet form for several categories of reactors. These included, in addition to the total demand on the enrichment complex, separate totals for domestic and foreign customers, for reactors with Requirements and Adjustable Fixed Commitment contracts and for reactors in operation, under construction and projected new reactors designated by the user. The foundations upon which the system is based are described in this report. This includes a discussion of the available alternatives for customer management of separative work and the assumptions and guidelines established for development of the model. The report also contains a description of the computational procedures used in the model, and a description of t used in the model, and a description of the EMIS system itself, which also serves as a users' manual for the code. Finally, samples demonstrating the use of the system and indicating the form of the input and output are included

354

Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

Buchanan-Smith, H. M.

2010-06-01

355

DOE enrichment plant hums ahead  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy's $10-billion gas centrifuge uranium enrichment plant, after three years of construction, is rising on schedule near Piketon, Ohio. A detailed conceptual design, smart management, liberal design fees, hungry contractors and cooperative unions are combining to get the job done. One reason for completing the task is that this will be a far more efficient process - 135 MW will be required to operate the centrifuge plant vs more than 2100 MW to produce the same amount of fuel at the mile-square diffusion plant near Portsmouth, Ohio

356

Producing deuterium-enriched products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of producing an enriched deuterium product from a gaseous feed stream of mixed hydrogen and deuterium, comprises: (a) combining the feed stream with gaseous bromine to form a mixture of the feed stream and bromine and exposing the mixture to an electrical discharge effective to form deuterium bromide and hydrogen bromide with a ratio of D/H greater than the ratio of D/H in the feed stream; and (b) separating at least a portion of the hydrogen bromide and deuterium bromide from the mixture. (author)

357

Using Salt-Enriched Diets to Reduce Stress in Trout  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronically stressful conditions in fish culture facilities can lead to outbreaks of disease and reductions in growth and performance. A secondary response to stress in fish is the sudden and significant loss of plasma chloride ions, a condition known as hypochloremia. This loss of plasma chloride has been implicated as a cause of mortality in severely stressed fish. The effect of increased dietary salt on reducing hypochloremia in rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss subjected to a confinement challenge was investigated. Experimental diets included added NaCl or CaCl2. Trout fed salt-enriched diets suffered less hypochloremia in the early hours or confinement. Trout fed a higher level of NaCl had significantly higher recovery plasma chloride levels post-stress. Salt-enriched diets containing moderate levels of NaCl may offer some benefit in recovering trout that have been exposed to stress.

Amanda E. Smith

2005-01-01

358

Effect of N-fertilization on N2 and N2O flux rates in relation to the structure of the denitrifying bacterial community in fen soil  

Science.gov (United States)

Drained fen peatlands of north-east Europe managed by different agricultural regimes constitute an important source for emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. The strength of N2O fluxes showed a high variability in time and space influenced by complex interactions of formation and transfer processes with environmental parameters which makes prediction of emissions uncertain. This applies particularly to the denitrification. This is one of the microbial processes with special interest for N2O production in the context of frequently varying soil-moisture content of fen soils that favouring anaerobic conditions. Moreover, denitrification may result in the production of both N2O and N2 in varying proportions. However, not only the knowledge about the effect of soil chemical and physical properties, climate, vegetation, and management on the actual N2O and N2 fluxes is very incomplete at fen soils. There are also no information about the role of structure and activity of denitrifying microbial communities in this context either. The experiments presented in this study aim at addressing this subject matter. Relatively undisturbed soil columns (250 cm3) from a long-term N-fertilization experiment on a fen grassland (over a period of 45 years) were used for measurement of the current N2 and N2O fluxes followed by processing the soil sample for microbiological analysis immediately to investigate the influence of N-fertilization on these parameters. The direct measurement of N2 and N2O fluxes was performed by a helium atmosphere incubation technique in the lab. Results showed a strong influence of N-fertilization and soil moisture on the emission of N2 and N2O. Shifts in the total microbial community were estimated by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, a fingerprint focused on active organisms. Results showed that seasonal effects interfered the influence of N-fertilization on shifts of the total microbial community composition. To characterise the denitrifying bacterial community, a combination of cultivation (screening and isolation) and cultivation-independent methods targeting different enzymes of the denitrification process were used. In addition to selective cultivation the abundance of denitrifying bacteria was studied by a real-time PCR approach quantifying the nitrite reductase (nirK) and the nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes. Results of both methods demonstrated only a marginal effect on the abundance of this functional group. The analysis of the community structure of denitrifying bacteria was performed by cultivation under selective conditions, physiological tests of the isolates and their phylogenetic assignment. In parallel, the community structure was studied by a nirK clone library. In contrast to the abundance of the nirK and nosZ genes, both the composition of the isolates as well as the cloning approach revealed a long-term effect of N-fertilization. The results show clearly that the combination of different experimental approaches can actually lead to a better understanding of the N turnover and loss processes of fen peatlands.

Augustin, J.; Behrendt, U.; Ulrich, A.

2009-04-01

359

Diversity and distribution of amoA-type nitrifying and nirS-type denitrifying microbial communities in the Yangtze River estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

Coupled nitrification-denitrification plays a critical role in the removal of excess nitrogen, which is chiefly caused by humans, to mitigate estuary and coastal eutrophication. Despite its obvious importance, limited information about the relationships between nitrifying and denitrifying microbial communities in estuaries, and their controlling factors have been documented. We investigated the nitrifying and denitrifying microbial communities in the estuary of turbid subtropical Yangtze River (YRE), the largest river in Asia, by analyzing the ammonia monooxygenase gene amoA, including archaeal and bacterial amoA, and the dissimilatory nitrite reductase gene nirS using clone libraries and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The diversity indices and rarefaction analysis revealed a quite low diversity for both ?-proteobacterial and archaeal amoA genes, but qPCR data showed significantly higher amoA gene copy numbers for archaea than ?-proteobacteria. Compared with the amoA gene, a significantly higher level of diversity but lower gene copy numbers were found for the nirS gene. Nitrification and denitrification rates based on 15N incubation experiments supported gene abundance data as denitrification rates were below detection limit, suggesting lower denitrification than nitrification potential. In general, the abundances of the amoA and nirS genes were significantly higher in the bottom samples than the surface ones, and in the high-turbidity river mouth, were significantly higher in the particle-associated (> 3 ?m) than the free-living (0.2 ~ 3 ?m) communities. Notably, positive correlations between the amoA and nirS gene abundances suggested potential gene-based coupling between nitrification and denitrification, especially for the particle-associated assemblages. Statistical analysis of correlations between the community structure, gene abundances and environmental variables further revealed that dissolved oxygen and total suspended material might be the key factors controlling community spatial structure and regulating nitrification and denitrification potentials in the YRE ecosystem.

Zhang, Y.; Xie, X.; Jiao, N.; Hsiao, S. S.-Y.; Kao, S.-J.

2014-04-01

360

Marketing keeps enrichment market alive  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A resurgence of interest by utilities in the uranium market has occured, as a result of marketing efforts by primary suppliers -especially the US DoE and Russia's Techsnabexport (TENEX). Price, contract flexibility and reliability of supply have been the dominant factors governing utility purchase considerations. Many US utilities have sought to diversify their enrichment supply sources for economic reasons. Low spot market prices have encouraged major suppliers to be more competitive and to offer attractive prices in the long-term market. Although Eurodif and Urenco are at a disadvantage because of exchange rates, all of the primary suppliers have focused on the post-1995 period -especially in the USA where large unfulfilled requirements remain. The DoEs success in capturing part of this unfilled demand proves it can be competitive. The emergence and success of TENEX as a supplier indicates buyer willingness to explore new supply sources. However, the future success of all enrichment suppliers depends on their ability to adapt to a changing market by reducing excess capacity, controlling costs and appealing to utilities with competitive contracts. (Author)

 
 
 
 
361

Chemical Enrichment at High Redshifts  

CERN Document Server

We have tried to understand the recent observations related to metallicity in Ly $\\alpha$ forest clouds in the framework of the two component model suggested by Chiba & Nath (1997). We find that even if the mini-halos were chemically enriched by an earlier generation of stars, to have [C/H] $\\simeq$ -2.5, the number of C IV lines with column density $>10^{12} cm^{-2}$, contributed by the mini-halos, at the redshift of 3, would be only about 10% of the total number of lines, for a chemical enrichment rate of $(1+z)^{-3}$ in the galaxies. Recently reported absence of heavy element lines associated with most of the Ly $\\alpha$ lines with H I column density between $10^{13.5} cm^{-2}$ and $10^{14} cm^{-2}$ by Lu et al (1998), if correct, gives an upper limit on [C/H]=-3.7, not only in the mini-halos, but also in the outer parts of galactic halos. This is consistent with the results of numerical simulations, according to which, the chemical elements associated with the Ly $\\alpha$ clouds are formed in situ in ...

Das, S; Das, Snigdha; Khare, Pushpa

1999-01-01

362

31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306 Section 540.306 Money...THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS... § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched uranium...

2010-07-01

363

31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540.306 Section 540...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS...Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term highly enriched...

2010-07-01

364

31 CFR 540.308 - Low Enriched Uranium (LEU).  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). 540.308 Section 540...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS...Definitions § 540.308 Low Enriched Uranium (LEU). The term low enriched...

2010-07-01

365

Rectal culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Culture - rectal ... A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of bacteria and other organisms. The laboratory technician watches the culture for growth. When growth is observed, the organisms ...