WorldWideScience

Sample records for defense economic impact

  1. The Macroeconomic Impact of Defense Expenditure on Economic Growth of Pakistan: An Econometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Haseeb; Nor Aznin Abu Bakar; Muhammad Azam; Sallahuddin Hassan; Nira Hariyatie Hartani

    2014-01-01

    The broad objective of the present study is to examine whether a long run relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth of Pakistan exist. For empirical investigation, an annual time series data over the period from 1980-2013, and ARDL was used. The empirical results support the existence of long run negative relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth. The results for long run negative relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth was suggested ...

  2. The Macroeconomic Impact of Defense Expenditure on Economic Growth of Pakistan: An Econometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haseeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective of the present study is to examine whether a long run relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth of Pakistan exist. For empirical investigation, an annual time series data over the period from 1980-2013, and ARDL was used. The empirical results support the existence of long run negative relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth. The results for long run negative relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth was suggested just in case Pakistan MKH does not hold during the period under study. The findings further suggested that the policy makers need to formulate appropriate policy to encourage and not to discourage the economic growth and development of Pakistan.

  3. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  4. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  5. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bassett, G.W. Jr. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics

    1993-03-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

  6. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk as a dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  7. Ballistic Missile Defense : Impact of technology on global politics

    OpenAIRE

    Musaefendic, Armin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The focus of this paper is to discuss ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems and their impact on international relations. I have a profound interest in the correlation between technological innovation/improvement and changes in international politics. I have therefore chosen the impact of BMD on global politics as the subject of discussion in my paper. I begin the discussion by describing the technological segment of Ballistic Missile Defense systems, after which I indulge in the po...

  8. Defense Spending and Economic Growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra Prakash Pradhan

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the nexus between defense spending and economic growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan. The empirical analysis is based on integration and cointegration properties of data over the period 1988-2007. The long run relationship between defense spending, economic growth and public debt are identified in a cointegration framework. The paper finds bidirectional causality between economic growth and public debt in China and India; unidirectional causality from defense spen...

  9. Economic impact of cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Zrinka Zadel; Sinisa Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...

  10. Economic Impacts of Tourism Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the economic impacts of tourism industry, especially in developing countries. Itinitially reviews the concept and using a model, it deals with the factors affecting the economic impactsassociated with tourism. The research findings indicated that with short-term and long-term strategic planningand using the specific abilities and tourism products of developing countries, which suffer from some indices asunemployment, limits in earning and currency flows, inflati...

  11. Economic impact of world mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

  12. Economic Impact of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela P?DURE; Ion Adrian TURTUREANU

    2005-01-01

    As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due toover commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ byman. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact thedestination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable ...

  13. Socio-economic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

  14. Economic Impacts of Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the economic impacts of tourism industry, especially in developing countries. Itinitially reviews the concept and using a model, it deals with the factors affecting the economic impactsassociated with tourism. The research findings indicated that with short-term and long-term strategic planningand using the specific abilities and tourism products of developing countries, which suffer from some indices asunemployment, limits in earning and currency flows, inflation and other problems, most of their economicproblems can be solved.

  15. Defense Expenditure and Economic Growth under External Predation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao-Xiong; Hu, An-Gang; Zhou, Bi-Hua

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a growth model of a country under a Hobbesian environment with international conflicts where national defense is the only way to prevent external predation. The long run growth path is determined by the equilibrium of a dynamic game with three players, the external predator, the government and the family. The equilibrium growth path has three phases, submissive equilibrium, tolerant equilibrium and full-protected equilibrium. Different defense strategies result in differen...

  16. Economic impact of RVF outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Chevalier, Véronique; Peyre, Marisa; Abdo-Salem, Shaïf; BONNET, PIERRE; Roger, François

    2012-01-01

    Dwarfing the direct losses due to ruminant abortions and flock mortality, the main economic impact of RVF is systemic and ensues from the trade restrictions aimed at its containment. Indeed, past outbreaks of RVF in East Africa and Middle East came as disturbing events in a commercial context of high specialization in trade of small ruminants and interdependence between East-African exporters and the Middle-Eastern importing countries. The two successive bans imposed by Middle-Eastern countri...

  17. The impact of trade on economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of marginal intra-industry trade on economic growth. The manuscript questions the economic growth exogenous models. It introduces new proxies to explain the economic growth as in marginal intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The change of intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevant theoretical hyp...

  18. Economic impact of PCI remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first outlines the data base on which the economic evaluation is performed. It includes: modifications of the design of the fuel; preconditioning of the fuel; ramping limitations; in-core fuel management modifications. The economic assumptions on which the study is performed are also outlined. They are representative of a PWR situation. For what fuel design modifications are concerned, some have a minor cost impact (e.g. pellet density, pellet length to diameter ratio, gap size, etc...), while some others may have a quite large impact on the fissile material cost (e.g. duplex pellet), the fabrication cost (e.g. coating of the cladding ID) or the reprocessing cost (e.g. interlayer between pellet and cladding). The preconditioning of the fuel may require to run the reactor in a mode unrelated to the energy demand. This aspect can be minimized by a proper adjustment of in-core fuel management. The ramping limitation is the most usually adopted approach. Different cases are investigated and the impact on generating cost is discussed. The in-core fuel management can also contribute to a better ramping performance of the fuel. Exemplative cases show that this leads to a minimum cost penalty. (author)

  19. Socio-economic impacts of bioenergy production

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The first international book to address the wide-ranging socio-economic impacts of bioenergy Offers a multi-disciplinary, multi-national analysis of different bioenergy value chains Builds on results of the EU-supported project on "Global Assessment of Biomass of Bio-product Impacts on Socio-Economics and Sustainability"

  20. Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts

  1. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings

  2. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic wastes are evaluated by comparing the costs of reduction of the wastes with the savings possible in transportation and disposal. A general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings is developed, an initial set of cost data is established, conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste are developed. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled, newly generated and retrievably stored DOE transuranic wastes. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal and transportation savings, and volume reduction techniques and costs. Section IV contains the results and conclusions of the study. The major conclusions drawn from the study are: For DOE sites with a small amount of waste requiring disposal (3/year) the cost of volume reduction is greater than the transportation and disposal savings from volume reduction provided the waste requires little additional preparation to meet transportation and disposal criteria. Wastes that do not and disposal criteria. Wastes that do not meet these criteria require site specific economic analysis outside the general evaluations of this study. For Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, incineration and metal shredding are cost-effective, provided a facility is to be constructed as a consequence of repackaging the fraction of stored waste which may require repackaging and immobilizing chemical process waste to meet disposal criteria

  3. Draft envirnmental impact statement: Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear matrials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103 m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

  4. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Envgy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

  5. Defense-Waste-Processing Faclity, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103 m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

  6. Hanford defense waste disposal alternatives: engineering support data for the Hanford Defense Waste-Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the engineering bases for the development of the Hanford Defense Waste-Environmental Impact Statement. In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act process and, more specifically, the detailed scope prepared for the Hanford Defense Waste-Environmental Impact Statement, four waste disposal alternatives are identified: geologic disposal; in-place stabilization and disposal; continued storage (no disposal action); and the reference alternative. For each disposal alternative, the following six waste type classifications are addressed: existing tank waste, transuranic-contaminated soil sites (cribs and reverse wells), pre-1970 transuranic buried solid waste sites, retrievably stored and newly generated solid transuranic waste, strontium and cesium capsules, and future tank waste. The disposal alternatives are presented as options for the disposal of each waste type. Data regarding structures, site locations, and inventories for each waste class are provided, and are followed by a description of various technologies applied for implementing the disposal alternatives. Data associated with the resulting impacts (resources consumed, manpower used, emissions, and costs) are tabulated according to the waste class/alternative matrix. This information was used during the preparation of the Hanford Defense Waste-Environmental Impact Statement to develop socioeconomic analyses, accident scenarios, dose estimates, and waste release or migration evalmates, and waste release or migration evaluations

  7. Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Inês Lobato; Walter José Koff; Tiago Crestana; Camila Chaves; Jaqueline Salvador; Analídia Rodolpho Petry; Esalba Silveira; Alexandre Annes Henriques; Fábio Cervo; Eduardo Siam Böhme; Raffael Massuda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant dif...

  8. Global economic impacts of severe Space Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte In Den Baeumen, Hagen; Cairns, Iver

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) strong enough to create electromagnetic effects at latitudes below the auroral oval are frequent events, and could have substantial impacts on electric power transmission and telecommunication grids. Modern society’s heavy reliance on these domestic and international networks increases our susceptibility to such a severe Space Weather event. Using a new high-resolution model of the global economy we simulate the economic impact of large CMEs for 3 different planetary orientations. We account for the economic impacts within the countries directly affected as well as the post-disaster economic shock in partner economies through international trade. For the CMEs modeled the total global economic impacts would range from US 380 billion to US 1 trillion. Of this total economic shock 50 % would be felt in countries outside the zone of direct impact, leading to a loss in global GDP of 0.1 - 1 %. A severe Space Weather event could lead to global economic damages of the same order as other weather disasters, climate change, and extreme financial crisis.

  9. Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, T. A. A.; Mourits, M. C. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Werf, W.

    2010-01-01

    According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available techniques for quantitative economic impact assessment: partial budgeting, partial equilibrium analysis, input output analysis, and computable general equilibrium analysis. These techniques differ in ...

  10. Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Pedro L.; Budke, Christine M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Vasquez, Julio; Santivan?ez, Saul J.; Villavicencio, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. Despite its high prevalence in endemic communities no studies have attempted to estimate the economic impact of CE in Peruvian society. We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease. We also use...

  11. The economic impact of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

  12. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

  13. Risks, natural coastal defenses and the Economics of Climate Adaptation in the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, B. G.; Beck, M.; Bresch, D.; Calil, J.; Meliane, I.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal Development and Climate Change are rapidly altering the world's coastal zones, dramatically increasing risks of catastrophic damage to coastal communities. Natural defenses are increasingly cited as an element of the solution. However, their use and widespread acceptance are still under debate and there are limited data on their cost effectiveness. Our goal is to provide comparable cost effectiveness estimates of 'green' and 'gray' approaches for risk reduction. We follow the Economics of Climate Adaptation (ECA) methodology and further integrates nature-based solutions in to this approach. We propose an ecosystem based risk mitigation perspective and integrate it into local decision making and risk models. A pilot case has been developed for the US Gulf Coast with special emphasis on (1) nature based measures, (2) an open-knowledge approach and (3) on a spatially explicit analyses. We examine potential damage to residential and commercial properties, infrastructure and assets. Our specific goals were to: Assess risks from hurricanes in the Gulf Coast in an holistic manner from hazards to damages and possible solutions Define how cost- effective ecosystems are for coastal defense in the Gulf Coast Quantify how and where natural solutions may reduce risks accounting for coastal engineering indicators Analyze and compare different scenarios including additional risks from climate change such as sea-level rise, potential coastal policy responses and economic growth

  14. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy. PMID:25480481

  15. Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

  16. Economic impact analysis of load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short term load forecasting is an essential function in electric power system operations and planning. Forecasts are needed for a variety of utility activities such as generation scheduling, scheduling of fuel purchases, maintenance scheduling and security analysis. Depending on power system characteristics, significant forecasting errors can lead to either excessively conservative scheduling or very marginal scheduling. Either can induce heavy economic penalties. This paper examines the economic impact of inaccurate load forecasts. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the effect of different load forecasting accuracy. Investigations into the effect of improving the daily peak load forecasts, effect of different seasons of the year and effect of utilization factors are presented

  17. Broad economic impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to adopt, expand or reject a nuclear programme has implications that go beyond economic considerations limited to the cost of electricity produced. This report attempts to illustrate the treatment of macroeconomic factors in the decision-making process of various countries, and discusses the macroeconomic impacts of nuclear power, such as employment, balance of payments, security of supply, as well as environmental, health and socio-cultural issues. 274 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs., 9 appendices

  18. Economic impact of uranium mining in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal economic impacts are the result of three flows of money from the industry into the remainder of the state's economy. These are: money paid to individuals (personal income); money paid to other businesses (business income); and money paid to state and local governments (government revenues). Growth has come in a largely rural, seven-county area that lies within the triangle formed by the Laredo, San Antonio, and Corpus Christi metropolitan areas. 4 refs

  19. The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchery Ellen; Vernon Suzanne D; Reynolds Kenneth J; Reeves William C

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic incapacitating illness that affects between 400,000 and 800,000 Americans. Despite the disabling nature of this illness, scant research has addressed the economic impact of CFS either on those affected or on the national economy. Methods We used microsimulation methods to analyze data from a surveillance study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas, and derive estimates of productivity losses due to CFS. Results We estimated a 37% decline in ...

  20. How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding changes in efficient firm boundaries as consequence of changes in uncertainty. The analysis suggests that we need to be more precise in describing the nature of the uncertainty that is assumed in the various theories. Moreover, allowing for changes in levels of uncertainty requires that we take the processes of boundary changes into account in the theory of firm boundaries.

  1. Economic impacts of deforestation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessments of the economic impacts of the deterioration of European forests are being made from two points of view - the marketing of wood products and the potential economic benefits which can possibly be derived from a healthy environment. This article considers the principal results of these studies and evaluates their limitations and usefulness. In reviewing some scientific aspects of current debate on the probable causes of deforestation, as well as, in examining government efforts towards air pollution abatement, the article makes reference to tabled data on deforestation in Europe. Overall, the results of economic impacts studies based on the use of simulation models indicate a significant reduction in local supplies to the European wood products industry thus resulting in a dramatic drop in world market share and consequent market instability. Economic losses due to the inability to capitalize on healthy forests are valued in the order of billions of dollars per year in terms of the loss of business in the wood products and commercial-recreational sectors. While pointing out the uncertainties involved in the formulation of these assessments, the article also suggests how their results can constitute useful guidelines in cost benefit analyses of proposed government interventions. A discussion is made of the efficacy of some of these interventions now being considered aimed at reforestation and air pollution abatement

  2. Socio-economic expenditure impacts report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Economic Impact of FMD in Chazhoor Panchayath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litty Mathew and Deepa G Menon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease is probably the most important livestock disease in the world in terms of economic impact. Of all the vesicular diseases prevalent in India, FMD remains the greatest and most feared scourge. In Chazhoor Panchayat, 62 animals were affected with FMD, out of which 28 were vaccinated. The economic loss was calculated taking into consideration milk loss, losses due to abortion and treatment charges. The total economic loss was calculated as Rs 313900/- out of which loss in milk production accounted for 80.68%. Cost of milk was calculated at the rate of Rs. 12/ litre, to assess the economic loss. Treatment cost includes vehicle charges and cost of medicine. An average loss of 8 hrs/day/ animal was calculated. Vaccination cost of Rs. 5/ animal was also considered. Towards the nursing of animal and disinfection of shed, loss of manpower of 2-hrs/ animals for 5 days was calculated. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 5-6

  4. The Economic Impact of Venture Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Pottelsberghe La Potterie, Bruno; Romain, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the macroeconomic impact of venture capital (VC). We test the assumption that VC is similar in several respects to business R&D performed by large firms and therefore contributes to economic growth through two main channels: innovation and absorptive capacity. The quantitative results, based on a panel of 16 OECD countries from 1990 to 2001, show that the social return of VC is significantly higher than the social return of business or public R&D. An increased ...

  5. SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

    2013-12-01

    Business interruption (BI) losses for the SAFRR tsunami scenario are derived from the forecasted physical damages of about 100 million at the Ports of Los Angeles (LA) and Long Beach (LB), and 700 million in marina damages, and 2 billion in inundated property damages along the California coast. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction in California's gross domestic product (GDP). The analysis involves several steps. First, estimates are made of immediate business interruption losses due to physical damage to facilities or to disruption of production. Second, total economic impacts (consisting of both direct and indirect effects) are measured by a general equilibrium (quantity and price multiplier effects) of lost production in other sectors through ripple effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. Third, many types of resilience are applied to demonstrate their potential reductions of the impacts. At the Ports of LA and LB, a two-day port shutdown, cargo losses, and additional terminal downtimes would expose 1.2 billion of trade (import and export) value associated with over 4 billion of BI losses. The sectors potentially most affected by trade disruptions are leather, metal, and motor vehicle manufacturing. Excess capacity, inventories, export conversion, and conservation could reduce the direct trade impacts by 85%. Production recapture alone (including clearing the backlog of waiting ships) could reduce BI losses by 85%. The Port of LA commercial fishing would be subject to damages to the fleet, perished fish that cannot be landed, and lost fishing days. Although BI losses are relatively small, the southern Californian fishing sector could incur a 4% drop in output. The impacts would depend on the speed at which boats are repaired and whether lost fishing days can be made up. Ship-building and repair could also be negatively affected, but these impacts would be offset somewhat by reconstruction. Effects on commercial fishing in other locations were not closely examined to assess the impacts. Extensive damages to marinas along the California coast could result in 30 million BI losses in terms of GDP. Interestingly, the service sectors including and relating to marinas (recreation, food services, and retail) indicate possible gains (of .02-1%) from price increases greater than the losses from quantity decreases. Sectors associated with development (residential construction, water and sewage, and health care) could suffer the most with losses of .03% or less. However, these sectors will likely also be bolstered by reconstruction. Economic hardships would be localized and the resilience of the marina sector would depend on alternative moorings and excess capacity elsewhere. Inundated coastal property damages could generate 1.7 billion of BI losses. Application of sector recapture factors (e.g., using overtime) alone could reduce these losses by 80%. For the overall set of loss categories, BI losses amount to 6 billion, and resilience strategies indicate the potential to reduce these economic impacts by 80-90%.

  6. Economic impacts of climate change in Australia: framework and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is growing interest in understanding the potential impacts of climate change in Australia, and especially the economic impacts of 'inaction'. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the possible economic impacts of future climate change in Australia is undertaken using ABARE's general equilibrium model of the global economy, GTEM. In order to understand the potential economy-wide economic impacts, the broad climatic trends that Australia is likely to experience over the next several decades are canvassed and the potential economic and non-economic impacts on key risk areas, such as water resources, agriculture and forests, health, industry and human settlements and the ecosystems, are identified. A more detailed analysis of the economic impacts of climate change are undertaken by developing two case studies. In the first case study, the economic impact of climate change and reduced water availability on the agricultural sector is assessed in the Murray-Darling Basin. In the second case study, the sectoral economic impacts on the Australian resources sector of a projected decline in global economic activity due to climate change is analysed. The key areas of required development to more fully understand the economy-wide and sectoral impacts of climate change are also discussed including issues associated with estimating both non-market and market impacts. Finally, an analytical framework for undertaking integrated assessment of climate change impacts ated assessment of climate change impacts domestically and globally is developed

  7. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  8. Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Lobato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi capaz de modificar o padrão dos mecanismos de defesa medidos pelo Defensive Style Questionnaire.

  9. Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients / Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Inês, Lobato; Walter José, Koff; Tiago, Crestana; Camila, Chaves; Jaqueline, Salvador; Analídia Rodolpho, Petry; Esalba, Silveira; Alexandre Annes, Henriques; Fábio, Cervo; Eduardo Siam, Böhme; Raffael, Massuda.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Id [...] entidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes). Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi capaz de modificar o padrão dos mecanismos de defesa medidos pelo Defensive Style Questionnaire. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity [...] Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.

  10. Economic impacts of criticality safety decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear criticality safety has been recognized as the dominant economic influence on many large-scale fissile material processing operations. Recognizing that the cost of converting plutonium scrap to high-purity metal can be as great as $15/g, it becomes obvious that overly conservative safety decisions can add appreciably to process costs. On the other hand, a process accident that results in a facility suspending operations for an extended interval can also have very large fiscal impact, in addition to the obvious concern with operator safety. Clearly, the need is for appropriate control of risk without undue penalty to process efficiencies. A few examples demonstrate that good criticality safety practices can enhance process efficiencies and help control costs while providing effective control of criticality risks

  11. Local economic impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local economic impact of nuclear installations is examined and the conclusion reached that much of the subsequent area growth may be coincidental to the facility. Nuclear siting criteria favor proximity to a regional power grid, abundant water for cooling, and extensive vacant land with a major access road. These criteria coincide with the characteristics of commuter suburbs, centers for retirement, and recreation areas. Clustering of nuclear units introduces an extraordinary level of new construction, office requirements, and capital. Economic changes will occur at the start and completion of the construction stage and at the time of decommissioning the facility. Past experiences are detailed in terms of employment, payroll, housing, public services, and procurement. When construction is completed, employment falls to a relatively low level. Proximity to the plant offers no advantage in terms of local power rates. While nuclear facilities do not preclude other development in the area, there are restrictions on access, regulatory agencies may reject absorbing the cost of public use as a business expense in the rate structure, and security measures may constrain public use. There is pressure for tax equalization laws to compensate communities for the loss of potential property tax revenues. Some agencies (e.g., the Tennessee Valley Authority) make in-lieu-of-tax payments, while some plants have produced tax benefits large enough to effect significant public improvenough to effect significant public improvements. 8 references

  12. Government Information Public Impact of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Qun Zhan

    2009-01-01

    The era of information economy, benign information resources is scarce resources, information socio-economic activities is the most active factor. Information from the economics point of view, the transition economies in government information on the economic characteristics, economic function, pointed out that market imperfections and market information asymmetry, and the importance of open information market, namely the role of economic growth, And the unlimited demand for scarce resources ...

  13. Global Economic Slowdown: It's impact on employment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. S. S. Shimpale; A.S. Kadam

    2012-01-01

    The present global economic crisis has its roots in housing loans issued to many people, by the American financial companies,who have not the repaying capacity. First of all economic recession heated to American economy and after that the major economies of the world were destructed by it. The recession in the US market and the economic slowdown termed as Global recession have engulfed complete world economy with a varying degree of recessional impact.World over the impact has diversified an...

  14. A look at local economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits of mega-projects such as Hibernia and the Sable Offshore Energy Project on the local economies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were discussed. It was argued that most of the spin-off activities of such mega-projects are realized externally because the projects are driven by external interests and external funding, and are designed for external markets. Few of the short-term activities that can be done locally provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Studies have shown that the impact of mega-projects on smaller economies is mainly on the construction sector and related supplies industries. Another reason why mega-projects have limited real effects on the local economy is that foreign investors have traditional supply sources, often with affiliated companies. Local availability of appropriate skills is yet another potential limiting factor. Moreover, most mega-projects have social, environmental and political consequences that are often under-estimated and ignored. In this author's view, most mega-projects have limited long-term domestic spin-offs. The challenge is to maximize the net benefits, and to minimize the social and environmental costs

  15. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  16. Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the social and economic dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation in Italy. The ultimate aim of the paper is to provide policy makers and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with climate change impacts and adaptation from an economic perspective. In order to do so, first a conceptual and theoretical framework of the economic assessment of climate change impacts is presented and the state of the art about impact assessment studies is briefly analysed. Then, the Italian case is taken into account, by underlying the main impacts and adaptation challenges that are likely to be implied by climate change in the next decades. The analysis of the Italian case is particularly addressed through the description of the methodology and results of two case studies. The first one, dealing mainly with impact assessment, is carried out at the national level and is part of a EC funded project on Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). The second one is carried out at the local level and focuses on sea level rise impacts and adaptation in a plane south of Rome. The two case studies allow to propose simple and flexible methodologies for the economic impact assessment and the economic valuation of adaptation strategies

  17. Economic trends and China's impact on world trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The Ministry of Economic Development has asked the NZIER to examine the impact of: [1] increased integration of the world economy i.e. the economic trends and how they impact on economic/business activity; and [2] China as a world economic power and how it is affecting globalisation trends. Are these trends accelerating and/or changing under China’s influence? How important is China’s influence compared with other influences? This paper is organised in a way that briefly canvasses each of...

  18. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  19. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  20. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  1. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  2. DWPF [Defense Waste Processing Facility] canister impact testing and analyses for the Transportation Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A legal weight truck cask design has been developed for the US Department of Energy by GA Technologies, Inc. The cask will be used to transport defense high-level waste canisters produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The development of the cask required the collection of impact data for the DWPF canisters. The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) performed this work under the guidance of the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. Two full-scale DWPF canisters filled with nonradioactive borosilicate glass were impacted under ''normal'' and ''hypothetical'' accident conditions. Two canisters, supplied by the DWPF, were tested. Each canister was vertically dropped on the bottom end from a height of either 0.3 m or 9.1 m (for normal or hypothetical accident conditions, respectively). The structural integrity of each canister was then examined using helium leak and dye penetrant testing. The canisters' diameters and heights, which had been previously measured, were then remeasured to determine how the canister dimensions had changed. Following structural integrity testing, the canisters were flaw leak tested. For transportation flaw leak testing, four holes were fabricated into the shell of canister A-27 (0.3 m drop height). The canister was then transported a total distance of 2069 miles. During transport, the waste form material that fell from each flaw was collected to determine the amouh flaw was collected to determine the amount of size distribution of each flaw release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovenmuehle, Timo R.H. von der [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

  4. Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

  5. Impact of Higher Education on Economic Growth of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Babar; Khan, Tasneem; Aziz, Shumaila

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the returns of higher education on economic growth of Pakistan from 1972 to 2008 through the application of Cobb-Douglas production function. The prime objective of the study is to identify and establish a link between the higher education and economic growth of Pakistan. For this purpose the impact of higher education enrollment on economic growth is analyzed. An attempt is made, in this study, to analyze the educational trends, the strategies and challenges for highe...

  6. Modeling the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Kris?toufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of the social, environmental, and economical issues related to biofuels and a review of economic modeling of biofuels. The increasing importance of biofuels is driven primarily by government policies since currently available biofuels are generally not economically viable in the absence of fiscal incentives or high oil prices. Also the environmental impacts of biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels are quite ambiguous. The literature review of the mo...

  7. The economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape province

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville; Merwe, Petrus

    2011-01-01

    We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy) on South Africa's Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Northern Cape province. Data on biltong hunting were derived from a national survey conducted in 2007 and data on trophy hunting were derived from the Professional Hunting Association of South Africa (PHASA). The re...

  8. Book review: The economic impacts of natural disasters

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Tom

    2013-01-01

    "The Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters." Edited by Debarati Guha-Sapir and Indhira Santos. Oxford Univesity Press. May 2013. --- Since the turn of the millennium, more than one million people have been killed and 2.3 billion others have been directly affected by natural disasters around the world. Economic Impacts presents six national case studies (Bangladesh, Vietnam, India, Nicaragua, Japan and the Netherlands) and seeks to show how household surveys and country-level macroeconomic dat...

  9. Common tongue: The impact of language on economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of language on economic performance. I use the 1956 reorganization of Indian states on linguistic lines as a natural experiment to estimate the impact of speaking the majority language on educational and occupational outcomes. I find that districts that spoke the majority language of the state during colonial times enjoy persistent economic benefits, as evidenced by higher educational achievement and employment in communication intensive sectors. After reorg...

  10. The Impact of economic crisis on HRM practices in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vösa, Helene

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Department of Marketing and Management 13.10.2010 Master’s Thesis Helene Vösa THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON HRM PRACTICES IN ESTONIA Research Objectives The main objective of this study is to gain the overall picture of how the current economic crisis has impacted four areas of Human Resource Management: 1) recruiting and selection, 2) reward systems, 3) training and development, and 4) performance appraisal in Estonia. The case of Est...

  11. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  12. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  13. Economic and Welfare Impacts of the EU-Africa Economic Partnership Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Sadni Jallab, Mustapha; Karingi, Stephen; Oulmane, Nassim; Perez, Romain; Lang, Rémi; Ben Hammouda, Hakim

    2005-01-01

    Th is study examines the economic and social impacts of the trade liberalization aspects of the proposed Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the European Union (EU) and African countries. It provides a quantitative assessment of the likely implications of EPAs establishing Free Trade Areas (FTAs) between the EU and the various African Regional Economic Communities (RECs). Th e focus of the empirical analysis is on the trade liberalization component of the EPAs. In parti...

  14. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  15. The Impact of Economic Growth on Employment in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLONI Elizabeth Funlayo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has enjoyed a long period of sustained economic growth since 2001 and yet, there is rampant unemployment in the country. There are various studies that have supported that growth is a pathway to employment. Thus, this paper investigated the impact the economic growth in Nigeria had on employment generation. The Johansen vector- Error correction model was used in the investigation. The findings revealed that, although economic growth had positive relationship with employment, the relationship is not significant. Foreign private investment has negative impact while Public expenditure has positive and significant impact on employment. It is concluded that the growth in Nigeria does not support employment. The paper recommended that, growth in the economy can support employment if the government gear expenditure towards areas like labour intensive Industry that can create more employment. Key words: Public expenditure; Economic growth; Decent work

  16. The economic impact of ICT measurement, evidence and implications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Information and communications technology (ICT) has become a key driver of economic growth over the past decade. The rapid diffusion of the Internet, of mobile telephony and of broadband networks all demonstrate how pervasive this technology has become. But how precisely does ICT affect economic growth and the efficiency of firms? And how well can these effects be measured?. This report provides an overview of the economic impact of ICT on economic performance, and the ways through which it can be measured. Using available OECD data, the first part of the book examines the available measures o

  17. Economic impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianessi, Leonard P

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant crops have been widely planted since their introduction in 1996. Growers have numerous choices for herbicide treatments and have chosen to plant glyphosate-resistant crops on the basis of economic factors. The economic effects of the widespread planting of glyphosate-resistant crops have included reductions in herbicide expenses, increases in seed costs, increased yield and changes in the relative profitability of crops that has resulted in changes in which crops are planted. In addition, non-pecuniary benefits have accrued as a result of the simplicity of weed management in the glyphosate-resistant crop systems. PMID:18181242

  18. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  19. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  20. Turning climate change information into economic and health impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kühl, J.

    2007-01-01

    The PRUDENCE project has generated a set of spatially and temporally high-resolution climate data, which provides new opportunities for assessing the impacts of climate variability and. change on economic and human systems in Europe. In this context, we initiated the development of new approaches for linking climate change information and economic studies. We have considered a number of case studies that illustrate how linkages can be established between geographically detailed climate data and economic information. The case studies included wheat production in agriculture, where regional climate data has been linked to farm enterprise data in an integrated model of physical conditions, production inputs and outputs, and farm management practices. Similarly, temperature data were used to assess consequences of extreme heat and excess mortality in urban areas. We give an introduction of an analytical approach for assessing economic impacts of climate change and discuss how economic concepts and valuation paradigms can be applied to climate change impact evaluation. A number of methodological difficulties encountered in economic assessments of climate change impacts are described and a number of issues related to social and private aspects of costs are highlighted. It is argued that, in particular, detailed climate information matters in relation to understanding how private agents react to observed climate data.

  1. Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ?2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789?919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015?12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of national economy, by having economic profit over all scenarios of construction costs. (2) Export A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation amounts to 899? 1,140 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 7,324?9,287 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Value added inducing effect amounts to 339?464 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 766?778 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Employment inducing effect amounts to 3,616?4,339 men for the 1st reactor export and to 29,471 ?35, 364 men for the 10th reactor export. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost-benefit of exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically non-profitable for the natural gas price less than or equal to 10.23 $/MMBtu over all scenarios on exporting number of the reactors and turns out to be economically profitable for the other price level from the exporting number of 4 or 6. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost-benefit and value added inducing effect, exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically profitable from the point of view of national economy for more than equal to 2nd reactor depending on the scenarios of the natural gas price. (3) Intangible Social Gains The intangible social gains of SMART Project by contributing to Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improving Korea's global standing in the science area amounts to 245?458 billion won

  2. The Economic Impact of Central Bank Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Cruijsen, C. A. B.

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades a lot of central banks have become more transparent about their monetary policy. The research question that is addressed in this book is whether central bank transparency is desirable from an economic viewpoint. It is shown that transparency increases have been beneficial. They have resulted in better anchored inflation expectations, lower inflation persistence, better aligned inflation perceptions, more trust in the central bank, and lower nominal interest rates. Howe...

  3. The Impact of ICT on Economic Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Sasvari, Peter

    2011-01-01

    As the author could not find a reassuring mathematical and statistical method in the literature for studying the effect of information communication technology on enterprises, the author suggested a new research and analysis method that he also used to study the Hungarian economic sectors. The question of what factors have an effect on their net income is vital for enterprises. The highest increment of specific Gross Value Added was produced by the fields of ‘Manufacturing’, ‘Electricity, gas...

  4. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy

  5. Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather everadation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

  6. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  7. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  8. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  9. THE CONCEPT OF "SMART DEFENSE" IN THE CONTEXT OF AN EFFICIENT DEFENSE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor FRUNZETI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international security environment is currently undergoing a series of fundamental changes becoming increasingly complex. Consequently, international actors need to find innovative ways to manage security and defense. The global financial and economic crisis has had a strong impact on military budgets, making it necessary for states and regional and international organizations concerned with such issues to streamline their defense planning and the more so because, in addition to the already consecrated risks and security threats, there are also new challenges. The concepts of “pooling and sharing” and “smart defense” have become, in this context, increasingly popular generating new initiatives in defense planning. However, despite some successes in this regard and their presentation as ideal solutions for managing defense in the current context, these concepts involve a number of difficulties to overcome that sometimes may translate into strategic political military and even economic disadvantages.

  10. Economics of Biofuels: An Overview of Policies, Impacts and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GianCarlo Moschini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the economics of biofuels. It starts by describing the remarkable growth of the biofuel industry over the last decade, with emphasis on developments in the United States, Brazil and the European Union, and it identifies the driving role played by some critical policies. After a brief discussion of the motivations that are commonly argued in favor of biofuels and biofuel policies, the paper presents an assessment of the impacts of biofuels from the economics perspective. In particular, the paper explains the basic analytics of biofuel mandates, reviews several existing studies that have estimated the economic impacts of biofuels, presents some insights from a specific model, and outlines an appraisal of biofuel policies and the environmental impacts of biofuels. The paper concludes with an examination of several open issues and the future prospects of biofuels.

  11. Economics of Biofuels: An Overview of Policies, Impacts and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    GianCarlo Moschini; Jingbo Cui; Harvey Lapan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the economics of biofuels. It starts by describing the remarkable growth of the biofuel industry over the last decade, with emphasis on developments in the United States, Brazil and the European Union, and it identifies the driving role played by some critical policies. After a brief discussion of the motivations that are commonly argued in favor of biofuels and biofuel policies, the paper presents an assessment of the impacts of biofuels from the economics ...

  12. The Impact of Home Production on Economic Inequality in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, Joachim R.; Grabka, Markus M.; Groh-samberg, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Using representative income and time-use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we estimate non-monetary income advantages arising from home production and analyze their impact on economic inequality. As an alternative to existing measures, we propose a predicted wage approach that relaxes some of the strong assumptions underlying both the standard opportunity cost approach and the housekeeper wage approach. We also propose a method of adjusting the number of hours spent on home productio...

  13. Economic Impact of Dengue Illness in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Donald S.; Coudeville, Laurent; Halasa, Yara A.; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

    2011-01-01

    The growing burden of dengue in endemic countries and outbreaks in previously unaffected countries stress the need to assess the economic impact of this disease. This paper synthesizes existing studies to calculate the economic burden of dengue illness in the Americas from a societal perspective. Major data sources include national case reporting data from 2000 to 2007, prospective cost of illness studies, and analyses quantifying underreporting in national routine surveillance systems. Dengu...

  14. Impact of Globalisation and Economic Reforms on Employment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhas, Albert Christopher; Helen, Mary Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the basics of globalization, the economic reforms initiated in India and the trends in employment and the impact of globalisation are discussed. It is argued that the unorganised workers would expand further due to globalisation. Under the present deprived conditions of unorganised sector, this would lead to imbalance in the labour market leading to more supply of labours, low wages and low level of income. This situation would affect the social and economic conditions of th...

  15. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Selin, Noelle Eckley; Wu, S.; Nam, Kyung-min; Reilly, J. M.; Paltsev, Sergey; Prinn, Ronald G.; Webster, Mort David

    2009-01-01

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000–2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impac...

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  17. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  18. A cognitive and economic decision theory for examining cyber defense strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Cyber attacks pose a major threat to modern organizations. Little is known about the social aspects of decision making among organizations that face cyber threats, nor do we have empirically-grounded models of the dynamics of cooperative behavior among vulnerable organizations. The effectiveness of cyber defense can likely be enhanced if information and resources are shared among organizations that face similar threats. Three models were created to begin to understand the cognitive and social aspects of cyber cooperation. The first simulated a cooperative cyber security program between two organizations. The second focused on a cyber security training program in which participants interact (and potentially cooperate) to solve problems. The third built upon the first two models and simulates cooperation between organizations in an information-sharing program.

  19. Evaluating the economic impact of casino liberalization in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Victor; Hung, Eva P W

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the economic impact after Macao decided to liberalize its gaming industry. By analysing both objective data of official statistics and subjective data of the perceptions of quality of life, we painted a picture of mixed blessings. Although objective indicators showed strong economic growth in terms of a rise in per capita GDP and public revenue as well as a decline in unemployment rate, subjective indicators revealed that local residents were less than optimistic about their own employment outlook and did not perceive any improvement in their overall economic situation. While casino liberalization brought forth tremendous economic gain, the general population did not subjectively feel the benefits. An integrative analysis of both objective and subjective indicators would therefore allow us to look closer how residents' lives in the micro-level could have been adversely affected by the prosperous economic outlook at the macro-level. PMID:21567164

  20. Economic impact profiling of CBRN events: focusing on biological incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Simona; Bisogni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused by weaponized and non-weaponized materials. The suggested approach investigates the economic consequences of biological incidents according to two main dimensions: type of large-scale effect and persistence of effect. Biological incident economic impacts are analyzed taking into account the persistence of effect during time as short-term impact (i.e. immediately after the incident), medium-term impact (i.e. by a month) and long-term impact (i.e. by years). The costs due to preventive countermeasure against biological threats (e.g. prevention, protection and preparedness expenses) are not taken into account. To this purpose, information on the key features of past biological incidents can be used as case studies to try to build impact profiles taking into account the proposed two main dimensions. Consequence management and effect mitigation of CBRN emergencies and disasters may benefit from an ex ante definition of the impact profiling related to this kind of incidents. The final goal of this paper is to define an approach to organize information on possible biological events according to their impact profile for supporting more effective and efficient first responders' prompt actions and policy makers' strategic decisions after the event occurrence. PMID:25048832

  1. Economic impacts of ageing: an interindustry approach

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Paula; Lopes, Joa?o Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of the evolution of consumption patterns associated with ageing on the relative importance of industries in Portugal. Design/Methodology/Approach - This paper uses data from the Family Spending Survey to disaggregate the Household column of the Portuguese Input-Output Table in different age groups, projecting their consumption, using the latest demographic projections made by Statistics Portugal (INE). Findings - The study ident...

  2. The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Madelien, Ferreira.

    Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the so [...] cio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

  3. Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Public health and insomnia: economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, D

    2000-05-01

    There seems to be a lack of understanding between practitioners and patients on the topic of insomnia. One adult out of four complains of insomnia; however only one insomniac out of four has ever complained about it to their practitioner during a visit made for another problem and only one out of twenty has come to discuss specifically the problem of his or her insomnia. Only a few patients with insomnia take a treatment for it. This gap between the patient's feeling and the practitioner's answer has to be better understood if we want to know why insomnia seems to be so prevalent and what impact it has on society. One aspect may be a question of definition. Insomnia may be considered an ordinary complaint (after one poor night) or as a chronic disease. Practitioners have poor knowledge about sleep disorders and may be embarrassed about coping with an impairment they never specifically learned to manage. The second aspect concerns the impact of insomnia on daytime alertness and performance. While patients usually complain of an impaired daytime functioning with a feeling of fatigue, sleepiness, and risk of mistakes, many studies of insomniacs do not reveal any increased sleepiness or decrease of performance (measured by objective tests) the day following a poor night. Practitioners may therefore find it difficult to understand the real impact of insomnia on daytime functioning. The third aspect is related to the large co-morbidity between insomnia and psychiatric diseases, especially depression and anxiety. It does make it harder for practitioners to define whether the sleep impairment suffered by their patient is the cause for other symptoms or the consequence of an underlying disease. Thus, it makes it all the more difficult for the practitioner to determine which treatment is the most appropriate. These aspects have to be clarified if one wants to estimate the real impact of insomnia on society. It could be useful to both practitioners and patients to have a better understanding on the relationship between poor sleep and daily lives. PMID:10809189

  5. Assessment of Economic and Social Impact of Ecological Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Trifon Belacurencu

    2007-01-01

    Impact assessment is a component of ecological policies assessment in Danube Delta andrepresents a preventive measure to make sure the some criteria are met based on which the designedecological policy is accepted or not, such as: economic efficiency, equity, stimulative feature, applicability.We will restrict our evaluation to assessing the impact of the due on fish resource capitalization.This option is also justified by the fact that in the Danube Delta the highest human pressure is exerte...

  6. Malaria and Climate Change: Discussion on Economic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. S. Mia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Climate change is a global environmental change that is adversely affecting human health by causing various health impacts in countries throughout the world. Climate is the most influential driving force of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Changes in climate factors substantially affect reproduction, development, distribution and seasonal transmissions of malaria. Climate change increases the outbreak of malaria which causes adverse economic impacts in endemic regions. This study reviews literature related to economic impacts of malaria at different levels such as household and national level. The study also focuses on the impacts of malaria on the economic growth of various nations. Approach: Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Several electronic databases were searched for published literature in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to economic impacts of malaria illness. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Results: The literature review indicates that malaria causes great economic losses at household level through human morbidity and mortality and consequently lower labor productivity, disability and poverty. At the national level, malaria affects negatively the trade, investments, savings and tourism sector. Macroeconomic studies estimated that the annual growth rate of per capita GDP of malaria endemic countries was 0.25-1.3% points lower per year than that of non-malarious countries. Conclusion: Reducing the burden of malaria could help to break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty that contributes to economic growth of the endemic countries. Therefore, further research is urgently needed to ensure interventions for controlling the malaria disease more effectively in the advent of climate change.

  7. Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program.

  8. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

  9. Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2007-06-01

    This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

  10. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON COUNTY ALBA HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISA Claudia Olimpia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, dominated by the global economic crisis effects is and continues to be a critical time for global tourism industry and for Romanian too. This study tries to play on a particular case, Park Hotel, located in Alba Iulia, the impact of this phenomenon over tourist hotel services.

  11. The economic impact of hunting: A regional approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Petrus, van der Merwe; Melville, Saayman; Riaan, Rossouw.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The core of South Africa tourism industry is based on wildlife tourism. Private game reserves and game farms which forms part of wildlife tourism constitute most of the wildlife products in South Africa. On these private reserves and game farms, hunting is one of the major income generators [...] for product owners. The aim of this study is to analyse the economic impact of hunting on the regional economies of three of South Africa's most important hunting provinces. The study used economic multipliers, input-output analysis, and related modelling processes through input-output (supply-use) tables and social accounting matrices (SAM). The results differed significantly for the three provinces, with Limpopo receiving the biggest impact (R2.6 billion) and the Free State having the highest multiplier (2.08). The geographical location of the game farms, the number of farms per province and the species available all influenced the magnitude of the economic impact of hunters over and above the traditional determinants of economic impact analysis. The implication of the research is that it will help product owners in the development of game farms or hunting products, contribute to policy formulation, especially for government decisions on what products to offer where, and how to create more jobs.

  12. The Uncertainty about the Total Economic Impact of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    TOL, Richard S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a vote-counting procedure to estimate the probability density function of the total economic impact as a parabolic function of global warming. There is a wide range of uncertainty about the impact of climate change up to 3 °C, and the information becomes progressively more diffuse beyond that. Warming greater than 3 °C most likely has net negative impacts, and warming greater than 7 °C may lead to a total welfare loss. The expected value of the social cost of carbon is about $...

  13. The Economic Impact of US Sanctions with Respect to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to a request last spring by the House of Representatives, the US International Trade Commission issued its report late last month on the economic impact of US sanctions towards Cuba. The comprehensive report presents an overview of US sanctions on Cuba; a description of the Cuban economy and its trade and investment trends; an analysis of the "historical impact of US sanctions on both the US and Cuban economies"; and an evaluation of the current impact of US sanctions on US - Cuba bilateral trade, investment, employment, and consumers. The report makes no recommendations concerning US policy towards Cuba and explicitly avoids anticipating any change in the current sanctions regime.

  14. The socio-economic impact of telehealth: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennett, P A; Affleck Hall, L; Hailey, D; Ohinmaa, A; Anderson, C; Thomas, R; Young, B; Lorenzetti, D; Scott, R E

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the socio-economic impact of telehealth, focusing on nine main areas: paediatrics, geriatrics, First Nations (i.e. indigenous peoples), home care, mental health, radiology, renal dialysis, rural/remote health services and rehabilitation. A systematic search led to the identification of 4646 citations or abstracts; from these, 306 sources were analysed. A central finding was that telehealth studies to date have not used socio-economic indicators consistently. However, specific telehealth applications have been shown to offer significant socio-economic benefit, to patients and families, health-care providers and the health-care system. The main benefits identified were: increased access to health services, cost-effectiveness, enhanced educational opportunities, improved health outcomes, better quality of care, better quality of life and enhanced social support. Although the review found a number of areas of socio-economic benefit, there is the continuing problem of limited generalizability. PMID:14680514

  15. The socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susan, Oberholzer; Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Elmarie, Slabbert.

    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact [...] on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor's survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

  16. Economic impacts from energy efficiency programs - Variations in multiplier effects by program type and region. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research indicates that the value of omitted program effects - specifically non-energy benefits (NEBs) - represent a significant share of overall program impacts. One of the largest components of societal benefits is the direct and indirect economic and job creation effects stimulated by the investment in conservation on behalf of the program. The literature has indicated that the valuations assigned to this category of these categories can be large, but much of the literature overstates the impact of economic NEBs. We conducted extensive research to develop reliable and defensible estimates of these benefits categories. This study used input-output analysis to update the economic multipliers for NEBs in several ways. Net: Developed 'net' estimates of the multipliers (rather than 'gross' factors)Variations by Region: Estimated multipliers for multiple states and for the entire US; Variations by Program Type: Developed estimates based on different types or categories of programs (e.g weatherization vs. new construction vs. appliance programs, etc.), Variations in Baseline Assumptions: Different assumptions about where the expenditures are transferred 'from' for the net analysis (e.g. from 'generation', from a mixed market basket, etc.); and Variations over Time: Used data from multiple time periods to examine changes in the size of multipliers over time. We examined the results by state, by program type, and over time and found dramatic differences in the economic impa dramatic differences in the economic impacts by program type and territory under consideration. The results provide estimates of the economic impacts derived from the program; however, for communities or utilities with economic development goals, the results can be used to help select between program alternatives. The results are new, and the revised figures have been used to compute more reliable and tailored estimates of economic non-energy benefits that can be applied in regulatory tests

  17. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social entification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  18. IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

    2011-11-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

  19. Impact Of The Small Column Ion Exchange Process On The Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

  20. The Impact of Fiscal Deficits on Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Oboba Achegbulu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The study investigates the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth in Nigeria in 1970 – 2009. Budget deficit arises from fiscal operations of the government. Technically, a deficit would arise whenever expenditure surpasses revenues. In Nigeria, huge fiscal deficits had been recorded over the some years. To what extent have these impacted economic growth in Nigeria? In considering this question, this paper posits that the inter play of other variables such as broad money supply along with fiscal deficits may give a better understanding of the budget deficit situation in Nigeria. The ordinary least square was carried out on the data to test the type of relationship between the variables whether positive or negative and to find out if the variables are significant or not. The finding, show that fiscal deficits positively affects economic growth in Nigeria and money supply is significant in explaining economic growth (GDP variation in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that government spending should be more in productive sectors of the economy and adequate monetary policy should be geared towards balancing the role money supply plays to both budget deficits and inflation.

    Key words: Fiscal deficits; Economic growth; Government spending and budget deficits

  1. Economic comparison of centralizing or decentralizing processing facilities for defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is part of a set of analyses under direction of the Transuranic Waste Management Program designed to provide comprehensive, systematic methodology and support necessary to better understand options for national long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste. The report summarizes activities to evaluate the economics of possible alternatives in locating facilities to process DOE-managed transuranic waste. The options considered are: (1) Facilities located at all major DOE TRU waste generating sites. (2) Two or three regional facilities. (3) Central processing facility at only one DOE site. The study concludes that processing at only one facility is the lowest cost option, followed, in order of cost, by regional then individual site processing

  2. Economic and Financial Crime and its Impact on the Economic Security of Ukraine ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khavanov Artem V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available National economy criminalization and shadow economic relations reproduction has a significant impact on the whole system of national economy at every stage of the historical development, and in particular on the economic security of the state. Shadow economic relations become an obstacle to effective structural reforms in the state. They prevent the state coping with the economic crisis, making the national economy trade and speculative raw material appendage of the global economy. Prerequisites for the development and growth of the shadow economy exist in the system itself. This means that the development and growth of the shadow economy depend on the way of solving the system’s contradictions, which under certain conditions can become destructive. Shadow economy is enormous in scale. However, it is not easy to accurately measure it. Shadow economy arises from the desire to avoid measurement, and a number of scientists use indirect methods to give it a relative measure.?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ? ? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????. ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????-????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????. ??? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????????. ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ??-?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ?? ????????????? ??????.

  3. The economic impact of wind industry development in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of current and future development of wind power in Quebec was discussed. Key events were outlined, beginning with Hydro-Quebec's request for bids in 2003 for 1000 MW of wind power development. More than 4000 MW of power were filed under this call, where 8 projects were selected totalling 990 MW. Both direct and indirect economic impacts were attributed to start-up factories in the Gaspe region and elsewhere across the province. Energy capacity was increased in 2006 by 2,500 MW and is expected to reach more than 4,000 MW by 2015. It was noted that since the government of Quebec chose a non-traditional call for tender to support its emerging industry, it is difficult to attach an exact price tof wind energy, as the bid price included economic development costs associated with regional and provincial requirements. The second part of this document addressed the economic impact of wind industry development from 1997 to 2005, and the anticipated development from 2006 to 2015. Although the economic impact of wind energy development was small for the period 1997-2006, it was important for energy development in the Gaspe region, and established the groundwork for future development and the involvement of local wind tower manufacturers, engineering consulting firms, and the growth of local wind-related businesses in the region. It is anticipated that wind energy development will be very significant in terms of job creation. In addition, Quebec universities aeation. In addition, Quebec universities are dedicating more resources to training skilled turbine personnel and research in leading-edge fields to improve wind turbine design. It is estimated that $10 million will be paid annually in royalties to municipalities and landowners. In conclusion, from an environmental perspective, it is expected that 4,000 MW of wind capacity will annually produce about 12 TWh of electric energy, and displace an estimated 4 million tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) annually. 17 refs., 16 tabs

  4. Office of Economic Impact and Diversity 2003 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-05-01

    This report covers a one-year period in which the Office successfully completed several major activities. The Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (ED) is responsible for the development and implementation of Department-wide polices in the areas of small business, diversity and minority economic development. ED oversees civil rights laws, rules, and regulations, and establishes Department-wide civil rights policy. Additionally, ED promotes excellence in the workplace and adheres to the objectives stated below relative to the President’s Management Agenda (PMA): Strategic management of human capital; Competitive sourcing; Improved financial performance; Expanded electronic government, and Budget and performance integration

  5. Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

  6. Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This transportation study assumes that defense high-level waste is stored in three locations (the Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls plants) and may be disposed of in (1) a commercial repository or (2) a defense-only repository, either of which could be located at one of the five candidate sites; also documented is a preliminary analysis of the costs and risks of transporting defense high-level waste from the three storage sites to the five potential candidate repository sites. 17 references, 4 figures, 27 tables

  7. Assessment of Economic and Social Impact of Ecological Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Belacurencu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact assessment is a component of ecological policies assessment in Danube Delta andrepresents a preventive measure to make sure the some criteria are met based on which the designedecological policy is accepted or not, such as: economic efficiency, equity, stimulative feature, applicability.We will restrict our evaluation to assessing the impact of the due on fish resource capitalization.This option is also justified by the fact that in the Danube Delta the highest human pressure is exerted onfish resource. The due on fish resource is an instrument of ecological policy that influences the model offish resource management. The five forms of impact of due on fish resource are underlined: alimentarydiscomfort, reduction in workers income in collecting activity, lifestyle change, fish resource protection,increase in workers income in specific fields, such as research, investments. Weighting coefficients ofparameters for each of five forms of impact are calculated with Delphi method.

  8. The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clesome economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

  9. ASEAN Economic Cooperation: Trade Liberalization Impacts on the National Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharso Safuan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the impact of trade liberalization by focusing on twelve priority industrial sectors in the ASEAN-5 (Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. The General Equilibrium Model based on Multi-country Input Output Data as provided by the GTAP is used to measure potential economic benefits of reducing tariffs on output, trade balance, welfare gain, and competitiveness. We compare the outcome of the CGE approach with the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results show that the outcomes of the CGE Model does not match those suggested by the AHP. However, they do support the findings of Falianty (2005, Achsani and Siregar (2010, Achsani and Partisiwi (2010, Nugroho and Yanfitri (2011. Our results suggest that taking non-economic but relevant factors from public opinion into account affects the robustness of CGE studies based purely on economic factors.

  10. The social and economic impact of nuclear energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for structural analysis is introduced and discussed. An application is made to the 'Brazilian Nuclear System' defined by a structural matrix lying upon 42 factors (of which 11 are political 7 economic, 9 technological, 6 sociological, 7 ecological and 2 psychdogical, whose interactions are evalueted. The hierarchical ordering of these 42 factors shows the preponderance of the political ones, the technological factors being the least important. The study is completed by calculating the impact of a PWR pant construction in Brazilian territory, using an enlarged input-output method the sectorial impacts are determined for industrial production, value added, inderect imports and capital goods industries

  11. Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated

  12. Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Khan KAKAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

  13. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Shivani M.

    2013-01-01

    Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...

  14. Economic Impact of Ecotourism in Mount Cameroon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Njumba, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Ecotourism activities are growing in popularity around the world and generating considerable financial effects to the local population. The definitions of this phenomenon are still evolving, but generally include references to travel to natural areas and local conservation benefits. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impact of this business to the youths and the local communities in the Mount Cameroon region under a Non Governmental Organization (NGO) called Mount Cameroon...

  15. Impacts of current global economic crisis on Asia's labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Phu; Kapsos, Steven; Kim, Kee Beom; Sziraczki, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the labor market and social impacts of the global financial and economic crisis in Asia and the Pacific as well as national policy responses to the crisis. It draws on recent macroeconomic, trade, production, investment, and remittances data to assess the employment and social consequences of the crisis, including falling demand for labor, rising vulnerable and informal employment, and falling incomes and their related pressures on the working poor. The paper provides s...

  16. Economic Impact of Forest Damage in an Alpine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Paletto, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Roberta; Notaro, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the situation regarding the main types of damage to forests and their respective economic consequences, with reference to a case study in the Italian Alps (Trentino province). Each kind of damage (wind and snow, defoliation, fire and tillage) has been analysed in terms of its impact on four forest functions (production, protection, tourism-recreation and carbon sequestration) and evaluated in monetary terms. Market value was used to estimate the production...

  17. Global Wind Energy Market, Industry and Economic Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Sousa de Oliveira; Antonio Jorge Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the global status of wind energy in order to establish a context for understanding the contemporary wind energy industry. It is discussed wind resources worldwide with the global wind distribution and mains concerns and how wind resources worldwide are spread globally. The world wind energy market outlook is shown; especially emphasis is given on global wind energy market by production side, wind energy converters manufacturers and economic impacts from wind energy industr...

  18. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  19. IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

    2012-06-05

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  20. Impacts of Antifoam Additions and Argon Bubbling on Defense Waste Processing Facility Reduction/Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe+2/?Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflthan the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  1. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment.

  2. Economic Impact of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chulmin; Park, Kui Young; Ahn, Seohee; Kim, Dong Ha; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon-Beom; Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a global public health concern owing to its increasing prevalence and socioeconomic burden. However, few studies have assessed the economic impact of atopic dermatitis in Korea. Objective We conducted a cost analysis of atopic dermatitis and evaluated its economic impacts on individual annual disease burden, quality of life, and changes in medical expenses with respect to changes in health related-quality of life. Methods The cost analysis of atopic dermatitis was performed by reviewing the home accounting records of 32 patients. The economic impact of the disease was evaluated by analyzing questionnaires. To handle uncertainties, we compared the results with the data released by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Board on medical costs claimed by healthcare facilities. Results The direct cost of atopic dermatitis per patient during the 3-month study period was 541,280 Korean won (KRW), and expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products were 120,313 KRW. The extrapolated annual direct cost (including expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products) per patient was 2,646,372 KRW. The estimated annual indirect cost was 1,507,068 KRW. Thus, the annual cost of illness of atopic dermatitis (i.e., direct+indirect costs) was estimated to be 4,153,440 KRW. Conclusion The annual total social cost of atopic dermatitis on a national level is estimated to be 5.8 trillion KRW. PMID:26082587

  3. Carotenoid-Related Alteration of Cell Membrane Fluidity Impacts Staphylococcus aureus Susceptibility to Host Defense Peptides?

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Nagendra N.; Liu, George Y.; Yeaman, Michael R; Cynthia C. Nast; Proctor, Richard A.; McKinnell, James; Bayer, Arnold S.

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments of Staphylococcus aureus provide integrity to its cell membrane (CM) and limit oxidative host defense mechanisms. However, the role of carotenoids in staphylococcal resistance to nonoxidative host defenses has not been characterized. The current study examined the relationship among CM carotenoid content, membrane order, and in vitro susceptibility to daptomycin or to prototypic neutrophil-derived, platelet-derived, or bacterium-derived cationic antimicrobial peptides (hum...

  4. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-09

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico--FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The impact of SNL activities on Central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the Central New Mexico Region includes: Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance Counties (Figure 1). Total impact represents both direct and indirect resending by business, including induced effects (resending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico.

  5. HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    OANA SIMONA (CARAMAN) HUDEA

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries s...

  6. The impact of physics assumptions on fusion economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of fusion promises a long term supply of energy with widespread resources and good safety and environmental properties. However the introduction of fusion into the future energy market will rely on the development of an economically viable fusion power plant. Although predictions of the likely cost of electricity produced by a future fusion power plant are uncertain, it is important that an assessment is made to ensure that the likely economics are not unreasonable. In this paper the impact of different physics (and other) constraints on the economics of fusion is considered. Comparison with the expected future cost of electricity from other sources must take account of the trends in the energy market, particularly at present towards sources with low external costs related to impact on human health and the natural environment. Although these costs depend on the country concerned, a range of expected future costs can be derived. Comparison with the expected range of fusion costs shows that fusion can contribute to the future energy market. (author)

  7. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  8. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) error correction framework to model oil demand in each economic sector separately. The results show that the dynamic panel data approach appears to give estimates consistent with the economic theory. The signs on the coefficients are correct and the magnitude of long-run responses is larger than that of the short-run responses. The single sector model approach yields similar but richer results. Since constant slopes are not imposed across sectors the characteristics and dynamics and responses can differ across sectors. The third part of my dissertation develops a simple Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model to investigate the economic consequences of the SPR for a "small oil-importing economy." This economy is subject to the risk of oil shocks. Government policy-makers attempt to mitigate the macroeconomic impacts of the shocks by establishing a SPR. The assigned values of the parameters in the model aim to reflect the basic characteristics of the Thai economy. The simulation results show that the impulse responses of key economic variables for different degrees of oil shocks follow the same pattern. When the degree of the shock increases, the magnitude of the stock drawdown increases, which helps lower the negative impact on economic welfare. I examine the welfare effects from alternative sizes of the SPR and the opportunity cost for the economy that result when it has to sacrifice additional resources to maintain and operate the SPR. This lowers the level of resources available for production and consumption in the long run. There exists a trade-off relationship between the sacrificed welfare in the long run and the less volatile welfare in the short run.

  9. The Impact of Economic Crises on the Perception and Knowledge Level of Students Regarding Economic and Financial Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Iraklis Pliakis; Christos Digkas; Despoina Bousiou-Makridou; Stavros Tsopoglou

    2013-01-01

    Economic crisis, during the past two years, has an impact on Greek students of 17 years old. Elements of the crisis have intruded on their everyday life. Economic and financial concepts constitute part of their attempt to understand the world they live in and as a result affect their educational level. This paper is an exploratory attempt to study the effects of economic crisis in the economics knowledge of Greek students using a sample of 62 Senior High School (lyceum) students. Data analyze...

  10. Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialison the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental 'externalizations' and the effects of eco-taxes on the production costs of electricity and heat. In conclusion the presented method can be only used if there are specific laws that facilitate environmental protection. Economically speaking the indirect effect - energy tax is easier to establish. That means that it is much more easier and precise to determine the fuel consumption than emissions quantity in order to use it for carbon tax. The combined tax is a more accurate one. Establishment of the pollutant quantities for extraction, processing and transportation phases are more difficult because of the lack of information regarding the efficiencies and energy consumptions. (authors)

  11. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model.

  12. Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel and requires the Secretary of Energy to evaluate five potential repository sites. One factor that is to be examined is transportation of radioactive materials to such a repository and whether transportation might be affected by shipments to a defense-only repository, or to one that accepts both defense and commercial waste. In response to this requirement, The Department of Energy has undertaken an evaluation of the cost and risk associated with the potential shipments. Two waste-flow scenarios are considered which are related to the total quantity of defense high-level waste which will be placed in a repository. The low-flow case is based on a total of 6700 canisters being transported from one site, while the high-flow case assumes that a total of 20,000 canisters will be transported from three sites. For the scenarios considered, the estimated shipping costs range from $105 million to $257 million depending upon the mode of transport and the repository location. The total risks associated with shipping defense high-level waste to a repository are estimated to be significantly smaller than predicted for other transportation activities. In addition, the cost of shipping defense high-level waste to a repository does not depend on whether the site is a defense-only or a commercial repository. Therefore, the transportation considerations are not a basis for the selection of one of the two disposal options

  13. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation the potential economic impacts of Taiwanese biomass energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Taiwanese rice paddy land set-aside program diverts a substantial land area. Given today's high energy prices and interests in energy security, that set-aside area could be converted to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This study evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of such a policy change using a Taiwanese agricultural sector model. The results show that such a strategy provides increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. These outcomes indicate that the agricultural sector could play a positive role by producing renewable energy. -- Highlights: ? This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of converting set-aside area to produce bioenergy feedstocks. ? Taiwanese agricultural sector model is built and applied to evaluate such impacts. ? The empirical results show that producing bioenergy using set-aside area could provide increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. ? Agricultural sector in Taiwan could play a positive role by producing renewable energy.

  15. Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

  16. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can be applied to any product/processes combination.Bioethanol production was the case-study selected to high light the TESED framework. Two production processes using two different feedstocks, hardwood chips and cassava rhizome,have been analysed.

  17. The impact of economic recession on infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, M; Fitzpatrick, F

    2015-04-01

    The economic recession that began in 2007 led to austerity measures and public sector cutbacks in many European countries. Reduced resource allocation to infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes is impeding prevention and control of tuberculosis, HIV and vaccine-preventable infections. In addition, higher rates of infectious disease in the community have a significant impact on hospital services, although the extent of this has not been studied. With a focus on quick deficit reduction, preventive services such IPC may be regarded as non-essential. Where a prevention programme succeeds in reducing disease burden to a low level, its very success can undermine the perceived need for the programme. To mitigate the negative effects of recession, we need to: educate our political leaders about the economic benefits of IPC; better quantify the costs of healthcare-associated infection; and evaluate the effects of budget cuts on healthcare outcomes and IPC activities. PMID:25639208

  18. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  19. Hunting reindeer in East Iceland : the economic impact

    OpenAIRE

    Stefán Sigurðsson

    2012-01-01

    Tourism in Iceland is of great importance and ever-growing. During the period 2000-2008 the share of tourism in GDP was 4.3% to 5.7%. One aspect of the tourist industry is hunting tourism, upon which limited research has been done and only fragmented information exists on the subject. The aim of this thesis is to estimate the economic impact of reindeer hunting on the hunting area. The hunting area is in East Iceland, the only region of the country where those animals can be found. To the au...

  20. Economic impact of the expansion of federal universities in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Ferreira Vinhais, Henrique; Guilhoto, Joaquim Jose? Martins

    2012-01-01

    There has been a strong expansion of the federal universities’ system in Brazil in this century, consisted of increased public spending. This study aims to estimate the regional economic impact of this expansion, using an Interregional Input-Output model estimated for the 558 micro-regions of the Brazilian economy, at the level of 55 sectors, for the year of 2004. Treating the expansion of public spending in federal universities as a shock on the sector of Public Education, for the period 2...

  1. Incidence and economic impact of ophthalmological occupational accidents in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakos Souliotis; Yannis Tountas; Christina Golna; Michalis Angelou

    2009-01-01

    Scope: This article seeks to assess the eco-nomic impact of industrial accidents with ref-erence to the incidence of opthalmological in-dustrial injuries occurring in the Thriacion Plain industrial zone in Greece during the period 1991-2000. Material and Methods: Data provided by 53 industrial units have been collected and classified. During the study period, 2,011 adults and juveniles out of the 15,600 people employed in the area (a 13% aggregate) suffered opthal-mological injuries occurring...

  2. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  3. Understanding and Reducing the Impact of Defensiveness on Management Learning: Some Lessons from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Leanna L.

    2014-01-01

    The neurosciences have expanded our understanding of the role of the "old" brain in generating defensive reactions to threat. Because the learning and practice of management skills pose various forms of threat to would-be practitioners, the question of how individuals respond to threat and how this affects their ability to learn has also…

  4. Comparison of potential health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative assessment has been performed of the potential long- and short-term health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes. Conservative models and assumptions were used. The assessment suggests that considerations of health and safety will not be significant in choosing among disposal options, primarily because of the need to meet stringent standards in all cases. Rather, the ease and cost of assuring compliance of a particular disposal option with health and safety standards may be a more important factor. 11 references

  5. Short run economic impact of State University of Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarocco Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the inter-regional economic impact of short-term, State University of Londrina and their local impacts and in 2006, in respect of employment and income. Through the analysis of input-output multipliers employment and earnings, employment generation and income indexes and link back and forth was calculated. Through the results found that the Public Education employs 6.19% of employed staff and is responsible for 12.27% of earnings generated in the county. The Public Education excelled in creating jobs in Londrina, which along with the sectors of Education Services and Commodities (13, was the fourth biggest indicator, trailing sectors: Public Administration, Commerce and Securities Industry and Miscellaneous. We found that the employment multiplier is 1.25 and their ability to generate earnings through direct effect in the city is the third largest R $ 368,153 million.

  6. Economical impact of orchiectomy for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Adriano A. P. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the economical impact of surgical castration in comparison to the medical castration for patients with advanced prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2001, 32 patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent bilateral sub-capsular orchiectomy at our Hospital. The costs of this procedure were compared to the costs of medical castration with LH-RH analogues. RESULTS: The costs of the surgical procedure were extremely reduced when compared to published data on the medical treatment. Surgical castration did not have any stronger negative impact on the evolution of these patients when compared to medical castration. CONCLUSION: Surgical castration is an efficient and low cost treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

  7. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  8. Economical impact of orchiectomy for advanced prostate cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano A. P. de, Paula; Hilton R. S., Piccelli; Nilson P., Pinto; Antonio G., Teles; Antonio G., Franqueiro; Adriano R. L., Maltez; Jose H., Silva.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the economical impact of surgical castration in comparison to the medical castration for patients with advanced prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2001, 32 patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent bilateral sub-capsular orchiectom [...] y at our Hospital. The costs of this procedure were compared to the costs of medical castration with LH-RH analogues. RESULTS: The costs of the surgical procedure were extremely reduced when compared to published data on the medical treatment. Surgical castration did not have any stronger negative impact on the evolution of these patients when compared to medical castration. CONCLUSION: Surgical castration is an efficient and low cost treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CULTURAL FESTIVALS: THE CASE OF CALABAR CARNIVAL IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bassey Benjamin Esu; Vivian Mbaze-Ebock Arrey; Glory Basil; Emmanuel Essien Eyo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the economic impacts of the Calabar Carnival Festival in Nigeria. A convenience sample of 464 attendees was used for the study. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was employed in collecting relevant social and economic data from respondents. The result supported the claim that event tourism has positive economic impacts on the host community.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CULTURAL FESTIVALS: THE CASE OF CALABAR CARNIVAL IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Benjamin Esu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the economic impacts of the Calabar Carnival Festival in Nigeria. A convenience sample of 464 attendees was used for the study. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was employed in collecting relevant social and economic data from respondents. The result supported the claim that event tourism has positive economic impacts on the host community.

  11. Technical and economic impact of crosswell technology: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conoco's Crosswell Reservoir Characterization (CRC) team is using Decision and Risk Analysis (D and RA) to evaluate the potential economic impact of the authors' projects. D and RA can be a useful tool for refining the direction of a project and communicating the value of information in economic terms. Initial studies show that CRC has high potential economic value. Three steps were used to analyze the value of the CRC project. A high-level, industry-wide model was developed to look at the technical, application, and commercialization success of the technology. The team considered an infill drilling decision in shallow shelf carbonates as a detailed case. For that case, fully integrating crosswell information with supporting data (well logs, cores, production information, etc.) leads to a three-fold increase in expected value. The third step, a portfolio analysis of all crosswell applications, was initiated, but not completed. Given the potential broad application of CRC and the value obtained by the one detailed case, the technology is expected to have a very high value

  12. Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

  13. HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA SIMONA HUDEA (CARAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

  14. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a mitigation level of 3.7 W/m2, as well as consideration of different levels of climate sensitivity (2, 3, 4.5 and 6oC) and different initial conditions for addressing uncertainty. Since the CMIP 3 and CMIP5 protocols did not include this mitigation level or consider alternative levels of climate sensitivity, additional climate projections were required. These two cases will be discussed to illustrate some of the trade-offs made in development of methodologies for climate impact assessments that are intended for a specific user or audience, and oriented towards addressing a specific topic of interest and providing useable results. This involvement of stakeholders from the design phase of climate impacts methodology serves to both define the appropriate method for the question at hand and also to engage and inform the stakeholders of the myriad options and uncertainties associated with different methodology choices. This type of engagement should benefit decision making in the long run through greater stakeholder understanding of the science of future climate model projections, scenarios, the climate impacts sector models and the types of outputs that can be generated by each along with the respective uncertainties at each step of the climate impacts assessment process.

  15. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

    2007-06-01

    The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

  16. The defense of marriage act (DOMA): its impact on those seeking same sex marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson-Freeman, Pamela A

    2004-01-01

    Recognition of same-sex marriage has been a goal of many in the gay rights movement. With the passage of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), same-sex relationships will not be afforded the same opportunities as heterosexual relationships. This paper will discuss the process leading to the passage of the DOMA, and will argue that the passage of this piece of legislation was a misuse of Article IV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, "Full Faith and Credit". The Defense of Marriage Act represents an extraordinary act of Congress, as they have rarely passed legislation under this mandate and have never passed legislation that curtails full faith and credit. Strategies that can be utilized to overcome the constraints of the DOMA will also be included. PMID:15774352

  17. Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Severprofessional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

  18. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant thais being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the European literature as was feasible has been carried out, such a survey is certain to fall short of reviewing the full literature simply because the larger part of it is North American. The latter was being reviewed separately by the US team. However, in making recommendations as to what valuation methods or studies to use, the report draws on the substantial US experience. The whole issue of when a methodology or a particular study can be transferred from one context to another has never been fully addressed. This report makes some suggestions as to when this is may be appropriate although it is recognized that this is by no means a definitive discussion of that issue. Certainly, the fact that the fuel cycle analysis here is location-specific, rather than 'generic', in the sense of providing broad average costs of impacts caused by the use of certain fuels, makes the transferability of estimates more difficult. The report is structured as follows. Part I begins with a discussion of the nature of externalities and a more precise definition of what is being measured. Of particular importance in this context is the extent to which an environmental impact is or is not an 'externality'. Without going into the more complex aspects of the economic theory, the report offers some advice on when the issue is relevant and what criteria might be used to assess whether or not a particular environmental impact really is an externality. The remainder of Part I then deals with a number of general issues that are of practical importance in the context of valuing specific impacts. These are: the question of transferability discussed above; the time period or timescale over which the valuation is to take place; the treatment of uncertainty; the discounting of future costs; and the finally the issue of exactly what is being assumed constant when a particular valuation is being carried out. This is of special significance in the context of the valuation being undertaken here. Part II of the Report deals with nine specific environmental impact

  19. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic growth will follow the creation of stable and sizeable RE markets. Indeed, this is a highly attrac

  20. Modelling the economic impacts of addressing climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point report presents highlights of the latest economic modelling of Canada's Kyoto commitment to address climate change. It presents framework assumptions and a snapshot under 4 scenarios. The objective of this report is to evaluate the national, sectoral, provincial and territorial impacts of the federal reference case policy package in which the emissions reduction target is 170 Mt from a business-as-usual scenario. The reference case policy package also includes 30 Mt of sinks from current packages of which 20 Mt are derived from the forestry sector and the remainder from agricultural sector. The report examined 4 scenarios based on 2 international carbon prices ($10 and $50) per tonne of carbon dioxide in 2010. The scenarios were also based on the fiscal assumptions that climate change initiatives and revenue losses would directly affect the governments' balances, or that the government balances are maintained by increasing personal income tax. A comparison of impacts under each of the 4 scenarios to 2010 was presented. The model presents impacts on GDP, employment, disposable income per household, and energy prices. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, S; Merrill, S

    2011-08-31

    Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President�������¢����������������s commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and greenhouse gas emissions at the global level. In principle, these benefits can be measured as a return on research investments, with appropriate consideration of time lags to research outcomes and attribution to private as well as public expenditure. With appropriate metrics, the same could be true for benefits to public health, environmental quality, and food productivity and security. Federal funding of research leads to the development of human capital that is deployed in a variety of occupations with economic and social impacts. Research also produces information that is used in formal (e.g., regulatory and judicial) and informal (e.g., firm and consumer) decision making processes. In addition to reviewing the range of work (by academics, consultants, and research agencies themselves) that has been done in measuring research outcomes and providing a forum to discuss their methods, this report also considers the different methodologies used across fields of research (e.g., agriculture and energy research) to identifies which are applicable to a range of federal S&T funding.

  2. Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

  3. BASEL III: Long-term impact on economic performance and fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Paolo; Clerc, Laurent; Cúrdia, Vasco; Gambacorta, Leonardo; Gerali, Andrea; Locarno, Alberto; Motto, Roberto; Roeger, Werner; Van den Heuvel, Skander; Vlécek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We assess the long-term economic impact of the new regulatory standards (the Basel III reform), answering the following questions: 1) What is the impact of the reform on longterm economic performance? 2) What is the impact of the reform on economic fluctuations? 3) What is the impact of the adoption of countercyclical capital buffers on economic fluctuations? The main results are the following: 1) Each percentage point increase in the capital ratio causes a median 0.09 percent decline in the ...

  4. China and Brazil: Economic Impacts of a Growing Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Jenkins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the economic impacts of China’s re-emergence on Brazil, looking at both the direct effects of China on Brazil in terms of bilateral trade and investment flows and the indirect effects through increased competition in export markets for manufactured goods and higher world prices for primary commodities. Despite a surge in Chinese FDI in Brazil in 2010, the main driver of bilateral relations is trade. While bilateral trade has grown rapidly, the pattern that has emerged has given rise to concern because Brazil’s exports are concentrated in a small number of primary products while imports from China are almost entirely of manufactured goods that are becoming more technologically sophisticated over time. Brazil has benefitted in the short term from the high prices of primary commodities (partly caused by growing Chinese demand, but has lost export markets to China in manufactures, contributing to the “primarization” of the country’s export basket.

  5. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIVANI M. RAI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

  6. Regional economic impacts of events: A comparison of methods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lukas, van Wyk; Melville, Saayman; Riaan, Rossouw; Andrea, Saayman.

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and comparison of three related methods for modelling the short-run economic impact of events, namely the partial Input-Output (I-O), Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models. An analysis of strengths and limit [...] ations of these different methods suggests that it may be considerations such as the underlying assumptions specific to each model, data collection, expected output, research objectives, and costs involved that determine the choice of modelling framework. Data from surveys conducted at the Aardklop National Arts Festival during 2010 were used in the comparative analyses, which were executed by means of two regional (i.e. provincial-level) models and one small-region (i.e. place-specific) model constructed for the small town.

  7. EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

  8. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  9. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina PLOSCARU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the construction market, while in Eastern European countries the majority is held by the civil and non-residential constructions. In addition, in the West the medium budget per capita spent on construction is 3-4 times higher than that spent in Eastern countries. But, according to previsions in the coming years the countries that will witness a growth, albeit small, will be the Eastern ones. The paper highlights the impact of the economic and financial crisis in the construction industry on a European and national level, as the sustainable constructions that may represent the sector’s future.

  10. Technical and economic impacts of active management on distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the deregulation of energy market and the appeal for environment protection, more and more distributed generation (DG) is embedded in the distribution network. However the approach of connecting DG in most cases is based on a so-called ''fit and forget'' policy and the capacity of DG is limited rigidly by distribution network operator (DNO) to avoid the negative effects of high level penetration. Therefore active management (AM) is put forward as an effective method to network reinforcement for the connection and operation of DG. In this paper, the concept and principle of AM are introduced, and several indices are proposed to evaluate both technical and economic impacts of AM on distribution network with DG. To simplify the simulation fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) algorithm is introduced. The test results on a sample system represent that AM will lead to decrease of power generation of DG, but it can reduce energy losses and improve voltage profile effectively. Furthermore, AM will take great economic incentives to DG developer as well as DNO with reasonable policy. (author)

  11. Economic Impact of Forest Damage in an Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALETTO, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the situation regarding the main types of damage to forests and their respective economic consequences, with reference to a case study in the Italian Alps (Trentino province. Each kind of damage (wind and snow, defoliation, fire and tillage has been analysed in terms of its impact on four forest functions (production, protection, tourism-recreation and carbon sequestration and evaluated in monetary terms. Market value was used to estimate the production and carbon sequestration functions, replacement cost method for protection, and contingent valuation for tourism-recreation. Applying desk research on damage caused by the main biotic and abiotic factors to this particular case study led us to estimate a annual damage of about € 1,624,921 equal to 4.71 € per hectare. This can be considered a lower bound estimate of possibly greater damage. Another interesting result that emerged from the evaluation exercise is that the wealth of information produced through monitoring and scientific research in the last twenty years does not readily lend itself to economic analysis.

  12. Economic impact of control and optimization on industrial utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial energy management includes the fuel procurement, production, conservation and efficient use of utilities such as steam, electricity, compressed air and water. Steam is the underpinning utility product and usually has the greatest economic impact. The efficient production and delivery of quality steam directly affects the cost of the other utilities as well as the manufacturing process. Utilities are rarely looked upon as a source of corporate profit, especially in times of double-digit expansion. They typically represent only 3 to 11% of manufacturing cost and are perceived as an unavoidable cost. However, in an era of heighten global manufacturing competition and world-wide reallocation of natural resources, utilities are recognized as a variable cost that can be a source of major cost savings opportunities and a strategic contributor to corporate profit. This paper will discuss an overview of possible control and optimization applications for the steam system of an industrial utility, the approaches for economic justification of those applications, and some examples of successful energy management projects

  13. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Preda, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the g...

  14. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE CONVERSION: AN EVALUATION METHODOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and application of a methodology for evaluating the environmental and economic impacts of placing marginal, submarginal, and Soil Bank land in crop production is described. Environmental impacts were measured by quantifying the increased environmental loadings of ...

  16. Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina, Stucken; Robin, Koch; Tal, Dagan.

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production o [...] f hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group.

  17. Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucken, Karina; Koch, Robin; Dagan, Tal

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production of hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group. PMID:24510140

  18. The Economic Impact of Computer virus - A case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Osborn Quarshie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In today's information technology world, Viruses are a huge problem for anyone who uses computers. Computer viruses and worms, a program that can spread across computers and networks has gone from being a nuisance to being the cause of the loss of millions of dollars worth of data, and loss of productivity. The writers of these programmes are becoming more adept at it day by day. Corporate viruses are a major problem which costs businesses billions of dollars every year.The aim of this paper is to interrogate the economic impact of computer viruses and worms attack on institutions and industries, particularly in Ghana. In achieving this, the study examined the effects of the computer viruses and worms on the financial standing of organizations by assessing the cost in terms of lost productivity through the inability to use the infected computers, the restoring of adversely affected files and the re-installing of the networks involved.The study confirmed the negative financial impact of such malicious programs on institutions. Cleaning up after a virus attack cost some Ghanaian firms $122,280, over a period of twenty one productive days.

  19. Temperature impacts on economic growth warrant stringent mitigation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Frances C.; Diaz, Delavane B.

    2015-02-01

    Integrated assessment models compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained gross domestic product (GDP) growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth rates in the DICE model through two pathways, total factor productivity growth and capital depreciation. This damage specification, even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, substantially slows GDP growth in poor regions but has more modest effects in rich countries. Optimal climate policy in this model stabilizes global temperature change below 2 °C by eliminating emissions in the near future and implies a social cost of carbon several times larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of climate change impacts on economic growth, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages and GDP are three critical uncertainties requiring further research. In particular, optimal mitigation rates are much lower if countries become less sensitive to climate change impacts as they develop, making this a major source of uncertainty and an important subject for future research.

  20. The impact of local decentralization on economic growth: evidence from U.S. counties

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, George W.; Tosun, Mehmet Serkan

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the impact of fiscal decentralization on U.S. county population, employment, and real income growth. Our findings suggest that government organization matters for local economic growth, but that the impacts vary by government unit and by economic indicator. We find that single-purpose governments per square mile have a positive impact on metropolitan population and employment growth, but no significant impact on nonmetropolitan counties. In contrast, the fragmentation of general-pu...

  1. 77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ...public comments on the potential market impact of the material research...element of the Committee's market impact review process. DLA...Attachment 1 are not acquisition target quantities, but rather a statement...projects will depend on the market for the materials during...

  2. 75 FR 54852 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...public comments on the potential market impact of the sale of these...element of the Committee's market impact review process. The...1 are not disposal or sales target quantities, but rather a statement...for sale will depend on the market for the material at the...

  3. 76 FR 58463 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...public comments on the potential market impact of the sale of these...element of the Committee's market impact review process. The...1 are not disposal or sales target quantities, but rather a statement...for sale will depend on the market for the material at the...

  4. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  5. The Economic Impact of Dickinson College on Carlisle and Cumberland County, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, William; Bybel, Alexandra; de Cabrol, Charles; Frankel, Zachary; Kosta, Elizabeth; Laffey, Thomas; Letko, Lauren; Pehlman, Robert; Peterson, Eric; Roderick, Benjamin; Rose, Leo; Schachter, Andrew; Wang, Jue; Wood, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study of Dickinson College represents an unusually complete, detailed, and balanced study of the local and regional economic impact of an academic institution. Among other features, it includes estimates of the college's positive and negative effects on local government, local as well as county wide economic impact estimates, and a relatively…

  6. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

  7. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Mid-Atlantic region.

  8. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

  9. Agricultural Insurance In Nigeria And The Economic Impact: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus M. Epetimehin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production faces myriad of risks. Nevertheless, two major risks are of concern to the agricultural sector- price risk caused by potential volatility in prices and production risk resulting from uncertainty about the levels of production that primary producers can achieve from their current activities. It is likely that these major risks will increase in the future – price risk due to liberalization of trade and production risk caused by the effect s of climate change. Agricultural risks not only affect farmers, they also affect the whole agribusiness value chain. Each of the participants along the supply chain, from the Government, Financial Institutions, suppliers of inputs, the distributor, the trader, the processor and the end consumers, are subject to these risks. Agricultural investments unfortunately are among the most risky economic ventures one can embark upon, the absolute dependence on unpredictable weather conditions, like storm, flood, drought and other natural hazards make income from crop products and agricultural products like livestock poultry and dairies to be very unstable. Agricultural Insurance policies serve as securities for banks as indemnification for financial losses suffered by farmers and those in the agricultural value chain resulting from damages to their products, and also provides funds for servicing such loans. This paper is concerned exclusively with the role of agricultural insurance in the agribusiness and in the development of the economy. It gives an introduction and a review of the agricultural sector that led to the agricultural insurance decree in 1993. The paper describes the various products available under the agricultural insurance while a section was devoted to analyzing the economic impact of agriculture Insurance on the economy, then conclusion and recommendations.

  10. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose

  11. A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II are widely used for the economic impact assessments. The current paper will review economic impact studies in the c conference - MICE tourism related events and then discusses the issues related to the I-O model and general equilibrium models framework

  12. Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Cropping Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bohanec, M.; Dzeroski, S.; Znidarsic, M.; Messe?an, A.; Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J. H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Modelling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some preliminary attempts made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision suppor...

  13. Actions to alleviate the mental health impact of the economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlbeck, Kristian; McDaid, David

    2012-01-01

    The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of the economic crisis can be offset by various policy measures. This paper aims to outline how countries can safeguard and support mental health in ...

  14. TPICS, TIGER and US experience: A focus on case-based ex post economic impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzroy, Stephen; Weisbrod, Glen; Stein, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research recently conducted by the authors on ex-post analysis focused on the long-term economic impacts of transportation system investments in the United States (US). For a variety of reasons, the US has had a tradition of making transport investments to address economic development goals and applying ex-post analysis to assess achievement of economic development impacts. These past studies are reviewed, as are some of the deficiencies and suggested improv...

  15. Climate change impacts and adaptation strategies in Italy: An economic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Carlo; Sgobbi, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the economic value of the impacts of climate change is assessed for different Italian economic sectors and regions. Sectoral and regional impacts are then aggregated to provide a macroeconomic estimate of variations in GDP induced by climate change in the next decades. Autonomous adaptation induced by changes in relative prices and in stocks of natural and economic resources is fully taken into account. The model also considers international trade effects. Results show that in ...

  16. User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

  17. Application of Economic Impact Analysis to a Local Public Health Agency and its “Academic Health Department”

    OpenAIRE

    Livingood, William C.; Coughlin, Susan; Bowman, Walter; Bryant, Thomas; Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Public health systems are stressed by increasing demands and inadequate resources. This study was designed to demonstrate how economic impact analysis can estimate the economic value of a local public health system's infrastructure as well as the economic assets of an “Academic Health Department” model. This study involved the secondary analysis of publicly available data on health department finances and employment using proprietary software specifically designed to assess economic impac...

  18. The impact of the global economic crisis on non-oil operations of ports in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadzadeh Mashinchi, Sina

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the recent economic crisis of 2007-2010 has caused widespread economic recession in different countries. Since the ports and coastal regions are of great importance to economic infrastructure, this study examined the possible impact resulting from such a global economic crisis on the ports in Iran. First, the annual number of berthing vessels of gross tonnage over a thousand tons as well as loading and unloading of non-oil cargoes and containers were extracted fr...

  19. Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system.

  20. Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)

  1. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sudarsan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  2. Economic feasibility, general economic impact and implications of a free trade agreement between the European Union and Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dyker, David; Emerson, Michael; Gasiorek, Michael; Holmes, Peter; Jakubiak, Malgorzata; Jungmittag, Andre; Korchagin, Vicki; Kudina, Alina; Polyakov, Evgeny; Roudoi, Andrei; Taran, Svetlana; Torosyan, Gevorg; Maliszewska, Maryla

    2008-01-01

    Our mandate was to consider the economic feasibility and possible impact of a free trade agreement between the European Union and Armenia. The study has been conducted by a group of researchers from Poland, Ukraine, UK, US and Armenia. All have worked on this project in an independent capacity. The European Commission has also commissioned a similar study for Georgia. Even though the methodology of the two reports is the same, the two studies are independent and the economic feasibility and i...

  3. [The impact of health economics: a status report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunder, R

    2011-12-01

    "Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given. PMID:22108908

  4. The impact of high-fat diet on metabolism and immune defense in small intestine mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi?niewski, Jacek R; Friedrich, Alexandra; Keller, Thorsten; Mann, Matthias; Koepsell, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Improved procedures for sample preparation and proteomic data analysis allowed us to identify 7700 different proteins in mouse small intestinal mucosa and calculate the concentrations of >5000 proteins. We compared protein concentrations of small intestinal mucosa from mice that were fed for two months with normal diet (ND) containing 34.4% carbohydrates, 19.6% protein, and 3.3% fat or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 25.3% carbohydrates, 24.1% protein, and 34.6% fat. Eleven percent of the quantified proteins were significantly different between ND and HFD. After HFD, we observed an elevation of proteins involved in protein synthesis, protein N-glycosylation, and vesicle trafficking. Proteins engaged in fatty acid absorption, fatty acid ?-oxidation, and steroid metabolism were also increased. Enzymes of glycolysis and pentose phosphate cycle were decreased, whereas proteins of the respiratory chain and of ATP synthase were increased. The protein concentrations of various nutrient transporters located in the enterocyte plasma membrane including the Na(+)-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1, the passive glucose transporter GLUT2, and the H(+)-peptide cotransporter PEPT1 were decreased. The concentration of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which turned out to be the most strongly expressed enterocyte transporter, was also decreased. HFD also induced concentration changes of drug transporters and of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, which suggests effects of HFD on pharmacokinetics and toxicities. Finally, we observed down-regulation of antibody subunits and of components of the major histocompatibility complex II that may reflect impaired immune defense and immune tolerance in HFD. Our work shows dramatic changes in functional proteins of small intestine mucosa upon excessive fat consumption. PMID:25285821

  5. Technical Report on the Impact of MgO on Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect(s) of removing MgO from DWPF frits to assess the impact on liquidus temperature and the durability of the glass product. Removal of MgO from the frit was hypothesized to lead to a decrease in liquidus temperature and thereby allow increased waste loading

  6. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  7. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  8. Incidence and economic impact of ophthalmological occupational accidents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Scope: This article seeks to assess the eco-nomic impact of industrial accidents with ref-erence to the incidence of opthalmological in-dustrial injuries occurring in the Thriacion Plain industrial zone in Greece during the period 1991-2000. Material and Methods: Data provided by 53 industrial units have been collected and classified. During the study period, 2,011 adults and juveniles out of the 15,600 people employed in the area (a 13% aggregate suffered opthal-mological injuries occurring at the workplace. Results: The highest percentage of injuries were due to trauma (61% of adults, 67% of juveniles, followed by chemical burns. In the majority of cases (75% of adults and 50% of juveniles treatment was provided at the local IKA (Social Security Fund health care unit, in the town of Elefsis. It was estimated that a total of 10,192 working days were lost, with compensation costs (benefit payments alone amounting to approximately € 118,000.00, not allowing for in-direct employer costs such as loss of produc-tivity, substitution and replacement costs. Con-clusions: The high incidence of industrial acci-dents in combination with the high percentage of child labor in the area of Thriacion Industrial Plain were striking and contributed significantly to high- er rates of work-related injuries of ocular interest in Greece. The latter were shown to result in a sig- nificant deterioration of the employees’ health status, with the majority of the accidents being due to the lack of safety precautions at the work-place at a considerable financial burden on the social security system in direct benefit payments. The social security system needs to press for tighter work safety regulations and their proper implementation if to minimize the burden these accidents impose on its budget.

  9. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), crop management techniques are applied to stimulate reproductive development in order to obtain high seed yields. These include a low plant density, manipulation of canopy size to avoid lodging and shading of fruiting organs, synchronization of flowering with pollinating insects as well as controlling pests. High seed yield is correlated to inflorescence density and seed yield per inflorescence, traits which should be selected for in breeding populations as moderate to high heritability has been found. However, seed yield is a genetically complex trait and in the perennial, insect-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve the economic impacts of modern plant breeding for a better livelihood and environment.

  10. The impact of economic crisis on energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt to make a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the impact of some macro-economic and energy factors on the final energy consumption and the energy efficiency in different branches of Bulgarian industry, services and householding is presented. The relation between energy consumption and the gross national product (GNP) is discussed. During the last 4-5 years along with the rapid decrease of GDP and corresponding drop in the fuel and energy consumption, the following negative trends toward decreasing the efficiency of the energy sector are observed: decrease of efficiency of the primary energy resources (PER) usage; unsubstantiated increase of electrification coefficient of the fuel/energy balance of the country; decrease of the industrial sector's share in the final energy consumption. The consumption decrease is due, on one hand, to the drop in industrial production, construction and services, and on the other - to the cutting of energy resources import, the imposed restrictions in energy consumption, the rise of fuel and energy prices and the deterioration of consumers' solvency. It is concluded that the economy crisis in the country leads to a sharp drop in the fuel and energy consumption, but the further shrinking of the industrial production without undertaking considerable structural changes and without implementing energy-saving measures and technologies leads to an increase of energy intensity of the industry, which is already high as compared dustry, which is already high as compared to the developed industrial countries. The necessity to rationalize the fuel/energy balance structure and to move from supply-side to demand-side policies as to limit the consumption of energy is stressed out. (R.I.)

  11. Economic perspectives on the impact of climate variability and change: A summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grima, A.P.; Timmerman, P.

    1988-01-01

    Summary of a collection of papers on economic methodologies and applications assessing the impacts of climate variability and change. The papers represent the output of a working group of economists, climate impact researchers, and concerned practitioners in related areas. Three of the papers explore different aspects of current economic theory to determine the appropriateness of economic methodologies in light of the more detailed regional and sectoral approaches now coming into favor in climate impacts work. Other papers examine specific problem sectors (water and agriculture), and overall social science research strategies for the future.

  12. Impact of the Molecular Form of Immunoglobulin A on Functional Activity in Defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae?

    OpenAIRE

    Fasching, Claudine E.; Grossman, Tracy; Corthésy, Blaise; Plaut, Andrew G.; Weiser, Jeffrey N; Janoff, Edward N.

    2007-01-01

    Antibodies of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) class react with capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae and support complement-dependent opsonophagocytosis (OPC) of the organism by phagocytes. We characterized the biologic impact of the molecular forms of human monoclonal capsule-specific IgA (monomeric IgA [mIgA], polymeric IgA [pIgA], and secretory IgA [SIgA]) on OPC and susceptibility to cleavage by IgA1 protease. The efficiency of SIgA in support of OPC of S. pneumoniae was compara...

  13. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorpormerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico-FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The impact of SNL activities on Central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the Central New Mexico Region includes: Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance Counties (Figure 1). Total impact represents both direct and indirect resending by business, including induced effects (resending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico

  14. Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

    2013-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

  15. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  16. The Impact of Economic Crises on the Perception and Knowledge Level of Students Regarding Economic and Financial Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis Pliakis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic crisis, during the past two years, has an impact on Greek students of 17 years old. Elements of the crisis have intruded on their everyday life. Economic and financial concepts constitute part of their attempt to understand the world they live in and as a result affect their educational level. This paper is an exploratory attempt to study the effects of economic crisis in the economics knowledge of Greek students using a sample of 62 Senior High School (lyceum students. Data analyzed consists of a 30 question exam based on the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL developed by the National Council on Economic Education (NCEE and a questionnaire which was given at the end of the exam. The survey was conducted in two different periods in 2010-2011 & 2011-2012. Results indicate that students level of knowledge of economic and financial concepts, concerning the crisis, is considerably high compared with quantitative results from the U.S. national norming sample of the TEL.

  17. State and local economic impacts from wind energy projects: Texas case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to estimate economic impacts from 1398 MW of wind power development in four counties in west Texas. Project-specific impacts are estimated at the local level (i.e., within a 100-mile radius around the wind farms) and at the state level. The primary economic policy question addressed is how investment in wind energy affects the state and local communities where the wind farms are built. During the four-year construction phase approximately 4100 FTE (full time equivalents) jobs were supported with turbine and supply chain impacts accounting for 58% of all jobs generated. Total lifetime economic activity to the state from the projects equated to more than $1.8 billion, or $1.3 million per MW of installed capacity. The total economic activity to the local communities was also substantial, equating to nearly $730 million over the assumed 20-year life cycle of the farms, or $0.52 million per MW of installed capacity. Given the current level of impacts observed, and the potential for increased impacts via greater utilization of instate manufacturing capacity and the development of trained wind industry specific laborers, Texas appears to be well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development. - Highlights: ? We use the JEDI model to assess economic impacts from wind development in west Texas. ? Total lifetime economic impact from 1398 MW wind equated to more than $1.8 billion. equated to more than $1.8 billion. ? Texas is well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development.

  18. Task force to investigate how to ensure research produces ‘maximum economic impact

    OpenAIRE

    Blog Admin, Impact Of Social Sciences

    2011-01-01

    A task force charged with investigating how academic research can deliver “maximum economic impact for the UK” has been launched by policy organisations the Council for Industry and Higher Education and the UK-Innovation Research Centre.

  19. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  20. The impact of the economic environment on financial reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Burc?

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial reporting represents a current issue of economic environment, given globalization and the recent economic crisis. Accounting -as profession - along with the investors and state institutions have started a comprehensive project of accounting convergence designed to improve the comparability of accounting information released by financial statements synthesis. The success of the project can only be provided by taking into account several constraints imposed by the economic environment, and not only. Therefore, attention must be paid to the voice of capital markets and large multinational corporations regarding the future development of financial reporting.

  1. Brackish Shrimp Farming in Northeastern Brazil: The Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeu Dote Sá; Rommel Rocha de Sousa; Ítalo Régis Castelo Branco Rocha; Gutemberg Costa de Lima; Francisco Hiran Farias Costa

    2013-01-01

    Despite the economic importance of farmed shrimp, a number of technical, environmental, economic and social problems have been widely reported in the international literature. This paper focuses on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of semi-intensive and intensive shrimp farming in the coastal region of Northeastern Brazil and the identification of options for sustainable production. In this Region, the total area dedicated to shrimp farming is approximately 18,500 ha, of which...

  2. Economic impact analysis of terrorism events: Recent methodological advances and findings

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Peter; Moore, James E.; Richardson, Harry W.

    2008-01-01

    National security is a basic responsibility of national governments, but it is also intangible. What can economic analysis contribute? Benefit-cost analysis has rarely been applied because of the ambiguous and commons nature of the benefits. Our group at the University of Southern California's Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism (CREATE) has worked to elaborate and apply economic impact analysis to describe the expected losses from various hypothetical terrorist attacks. Our in...

  3. Cloud computing and prospective business and economic impacts in developing country: A case study of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Keesookpuna, Chutipong; Mitomob, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The cloud computing model is a modern concept of computation that provides a number of benefits for its adopters. This online computing model has been widely used in the western world and accepted to have some business and economic impacts. This paper provides some basic knowledge about cloud computing along with its economic benefits. The author proposes that there is an endogenous relationship between the cloud computing and each of the business and economic variables, namely output, employ...

  4. The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi; Suliman Zakaria Suliman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Sudan for the period 1982-2009 by using a simultaneous equation model that links human capital i.e. school attainment; and investment in education and health to economic growth, total productivity, foreign direct investment, and human development index. Based on three-stage least squares technique, the empirical results of the paper show that quality of the education has a determinant role in the economic gr...

  5. The impact of religiosity on economic success in rural South Africa ; Insights from a field study

    OpenAIRE

    O?hlmann, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    In recent economic literature, a number of studies argue that religion can be a factor conducive to economic performance. At the same time, it is a widespread conjecture in religious studies research that especially Pentecostal Churches, a fast-growing Christian movement, foster the economic success of their adherents. The results of empirical studies in both disciplines, however, are ambiguous and there are not yet any unanimous conclusions. This study investigates the impact of religiosity ...

  6. Global maps of climate change impacts on the favourability for human habitation and economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Füssel, Hans-Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the statistical relationship between climatic factors and the global distribution of population and economic activity. Building on this analysis, a new method is developed for assessing geographically explicit impacts of climate change on the suitability of regions for human habitation and economic activity. This method combines information about differences in the conditional distributions of population density and economic activity across climate categories with climate ...

  7. Impact of Development and Efficiency of Financial Sector on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib, Najia

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of development and efficiency of financial sector on economic growth of a group of selected developing countries using a cross-country data averaged over the period 2005-2009. The results show that the impact of financial sector efficiency on economic growth is significantly positive for developing countries. For a sample of 50 developing countries the effect of financial sector development and financial sector efficiency is positive and highly significant. The ...

  8. Estimating the economic value to societies of the impact of health research: a critical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Buxton, Martin; Hanney, Steve; Jones, Teri

    2004-01-01

    Estimating the economic value to societies of health research is a complex but essential step in establishing and justifying appropriate levels of investment in research. The practical difficulties encountered include: identifying and valuing the relevant research inputs (when many pieces of research may contribute to a clinical advance); accurately ascribing the impact of the research; and appropriately valuing the attributed economic impact. In this review, relevant studies identified from ...

  9. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  10. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF JOINT FOREST PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT (JFPM) ON GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KARNATAKA, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vikram, Patil; Chandrakanth, M.G.; Gangadharappa, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic impact of Joint Forest Planning and Management (JFPM) initiated by the Karnataka Forest Department especially on Groundwater Recharge considering productivity, wage income, income generating activities (IGAs) and equity in distribution in Karnataka, with the following specific objectives. 1) Estimation of economic impact of JFPM on groundwater recharge. 2) Assessment of equity in distribution of benefits of JFPM tree endowment at farm and village level and 3)...

  11. Academic blogs are proven to increase dissemination of economic research and improve impact

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, David; Özler,Berk

    2011-01-01

    There is a proliferation of economics blogs, with increasing numbers of famous and not-so-famous economists devoting a significant amount of time to writing blog entries, and in some cases, attracting large numbers of readers. Yet little is known about the impact of this new medium. In the first of a three part series, World Bank Senior Economists, David McKenzie and Berk Özler measure the various impacts of economics blogs.

  12. Progressive decommissioning of French nuclear power plants: economic and geopolitical impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyzes the french energy safety in the next twenty years. The first part is devoted to the electric production park structure in 2020, with a presentation of the electric power economy, the carbon cost introduction and the economic choices in the deregulation system. The second part discusses the economical and geopolitical impacts of a gas-nuclear substitution. (A.L.B.)

  13. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  14. Estimating the Economic Impact of a College or University on a Nonlocal Economy. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy

    This study presents an expanded methodology for economic impact analysis to measure the impact of a community college, South Plains College (SPC), Texas, on a specified nonlocal economy. The research had four parts. First an economic impact study was conducted for SPC and its impact on the local economy of Hockley County, where the college is…

  15. Asteroid Defense: Comparison of Kinetic-Impact and Nuclear Stand-Off Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, G. R.; Ferguson, J.; Plesko, C. S.; Weaver, R.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the deflection of hazardous near-earth objects using either a kinetic impactor or a nuclear stand-off burst. If the object is known to be competent, the kinetic impactor is shown to be highly efficient. The momentum delivered to the object can be much greater than the momentum of the impactor because of the reaction force produced by ablation from the impact crater. We use an adaptive-mesh hydrocode to study the momentum-enhancement factor, or beta, varying the assumptions regarding the equation of state and the strength of the target. Spall from the back side of the asteroid, which partly counters the favorable effect of ablation, is also included in the calculations. For objects not known to be competent, the nuclear stand-off burst option may be preferable. In this case, crucial questions surround the optimum height of burst and the radiation characteristics of the burst. The same hydrocode, with radiation diffusion included, is used to study this case as well. Figures of merit from both these studies include the bulk momentum imparted to the asteroid and the degree to which the asteroid is disrupted. LA-UR-14-26234

  16. TRUST AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian C. POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    The new models of development take into account the influence of social capital in inducing the economic growth. Assuming that trust is one of the main dimensions of the social capital, we demonstrate that it is able to reduce the transaction costs and to lay off large amounts that can be redirected towards investments, thereby inducing economic growth. The policy makers are responsible for taking this into account and promote the budgetary measures able to raise the level of t...

  17. Collateral damage: trade disruption and the economic impact of war

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Alan M.; Glick, Reuven

    2005-01-01

    Conventional wisdom in economic history suggests that conflict between countries can be enormously disruptive of economic activity, especially international trade. Yet nothing is known empirically about these effects in large samples. We study the effects of war on bilateral trade for almost all countries with available data extending back to 1870. Using the gravity model, we estimate the contemporaneous and lagged effects of wars on the trade of belligerent nations and neutrals, controlling ...

  18. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for fa...

  19. Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

    2012-12-01

    To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

  20. The Recession's Ongoing Impact on America's Children: Indicators of Children's Economic Well-Being through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2011-01-01

    Children throughout the United States continue to be negatively impacted by the lingering effects of the Great Recession, with children in some states more hard hit than others. The impact of the recession on children can be hard to see. Some economic statistics ignore children, while others come out with a long time delay. This updated issue…

  1. TRUST AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian C. POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new models of development take into account the influence of social capital in inducing the economic growth. Assuming that trust is one of the main dimensions of the social capital, we demonstrate that it is able to reduce the transaction costs and to lay off large amounts that can be redirected towards investments, thereby inducing economic growth. The policy makers are responsible for taking this into account and promote the budgetary measures able to raise the level of trust in a society. We believe, based on the model designed by Zack and Knack, that in addition to the policies which guarantee the contracts, strengthen the formal institutions that prevent the abuses, reduce the social heterogeneity and economic growth, the growth optimization is possible to be achieved by allocating sufficient resources to education. The inference is based on an empirical research on the Romanian society, whose results are presented in this study.

  2. THE IMPACT OF PROPERTY RIGHTS FREEDOM ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE OECD NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Cebula

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates of the impact on per capita real economic growth of property rights freedom. After controlling for nominal long term interest rates, net exports, a measure of political stability, and other factors, panel least squares as well as panel two stage least squares estimations using a four-year panel data set for the OECD nations as a group reveal that higher levels of property rights freedom lead to an increased rate of per capita real economic growth. Furthermore, it is found that whereas higher nominal long term interest rates lead to diminished economic growth net export growth and greater political stability enhance economic growth

  3. Shift in tax burden and its impact on economic growth in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Szarowska, Irena

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with a tax burden in the European Union in as financial and economic crisis has impacted also on tax systems in the European Union. Governments´ tax measure aims to consolidate public finance and promote an economic growth. The article provides empirical evidence on a shift in a tax burden and its structure and analyzes the effects of shift in tax burden on economic growth in the EU. It is used the Eurostat definition to categorize tax burden by economic functions and impl...

  4. The Impact of Economic Freedom on Per Capita Real GDP: A Study of OECD Nation

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard; Clark, J. R.; Mixon, Franklin

    2012-01-01

    This study of the impact of economic freedom on per capita real GDP among OECD nations over the 2003-2006 period, with each OECD nation during this time frame being treated as a de facto “economic region” within the OECD, finds strong initial support for the hypothesis proffered here that the higher the degree of economic freedom, the higher the level of economic activity and hence the higher the per capita real GDP level. In particular, the per capita real GDP level in each of the 30 nat...

  5. The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Sudan for the period 1982-2009 by using a simultaneous equation model that links human capital i.e. school attainment; and investment in education and health to economic growth, total productivity, foreign direct investment, and human development index. Based on three-stage least squares technique, the empirical results of the paper show that quality of the education has a determinant role in the economic growth; health quality factor has a positive impact on economic growth as expected and total factor productivity which mainly represents the state of technology has adverse effect on economic growth and human development due to the obsolete and old fashion technology.

  6. REVERSIBLE IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS AND THE IMPACT ON ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRON VASILE-CRISTIAN-IOACHIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an essential objective of economic entities activating in the energy sector. The profit and loss account provides relevant information for performance analyzes, but evaluating the factors which determined the modification of the financial result demands detailed analyzes based on specific techniques. This paper develops and implements an econometric model that analyses the relation between gross profit and the reversible impairment of assets. The results of the analysis have shown that, in the energy sector, there is a significant connection between those two variables.

  7. he Impact of Economic Paradoxes on the Pharmaceutical Market Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina MARGARITTI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The population’s health represents the most important economic resource in a society. The social-economic role of heath protection is determined by the proper allocation of public financial resources but also partially, by the allocation of the populations own income. The general law of demand can be applied to the drugdemand. The well-knowneconomic paradoxes R. Giffen, T. Veblen and A. Rugina canbefound on the pharmaceuticalmarket and determine the elasticity of drug demand. The quantity of drugs needed to assure the populations health presents insignificant modifications to the price fluctuations, to the populations’ income, the resources allocated by the state and by each patient.

  8. Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Wilhite, E.L.; Stieve, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    The information contained in this report is intended to supplement the original Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Since the original EIS in 1982, alterations have been made to he conceptual process that reduce the impact to the groundwater. This reduced impact is documented in this report along with an update of the understanding of seismology and geology of the Savannah River Site. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Economic perspectives on the impact of climate variability and change: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of a collection of papers on the economic methodologies applicable to studies of the impact of global climate variability and change. The research was sponsored by the Canadian Climate program and was conducted as part of a project investigating the potential impacts on various sectors of the Canadian economy of climate warming due to the greenhouse effect. Topics of the papers include microeconomic analysis, benefit/cost analysis, input-output analysis, policy options regarding water levels in the Great Lakes, the scenario approach to assessing socio-economic sensitivities to climate change in the agri-food sector, and analysis of weather impacts. Several analytical tools are seen to be readily applicable to economic analyses of the effects of climate change, and issues of future water supply and demand are seen as central to climate impact assessment, and of particular concern to Canada

  10. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE FISCAL REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inceu Adrian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to evaluate the situation of the fiscal revenues in Romania in the context of economic and financial crisis, because the fiscal revenues are the major source of financing the public expenditure. The evolution of the level of fiscal revenu

  11. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  12. The economic impact of telecommunications diffusion on UK productivity growth

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure competition, investment and productivity. Using econometric modelling and input-output economics, the analysis examines and measures the extent to which telecommunications has contributed to national and sectoral productivity performance. The main findings from this paper suggests that most industries have benefited from the incorporation of advances of telecommunications technology, which might have, amongst o...

  13. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BRICIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financial and cost accounting methods to reflect efforts of organizations towards sustainability and to provide management with information needed to make sustainable business decisions have been broadly recognized. Information on environmental performance of organizations might be available to some extent, but, decision-makers of internal company, as well as those in public authorities, are seldom able to link environmental information to economic variables and are crucially lacking environmental cost information. As a consequence, decision makers fail to recognize the economic value of natural resources as assets, and the business and financial value of good environmental performance. Beyond “goodwill” initiatives, a few market-based incentives exist to integrate environmental concerns in decision-making. This paper gives an overview of the approaches of environmental management accounting and we analyze environmental cost in condition by actual economic crisis.

  14. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  15. local people perceptions toward social,economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Kermanshah (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    mostafa mohammadi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines local people perceptions about social, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in the cultural heritage destination of Kermanshah in Iran. The study focused on residents in the vicinity of popular heritage attractions in the region. According to the survey, a high percentage of the answers, emphasizes the positive impacts of tourism toward local people. Besides, social aspects of tourism impacts are found to be the strongest and most favorable perceptions. The Findin...

  16. The Impact of the Economic Downturn in the Travel Catering Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Johan, N.; Jones, P.

    2009-01-01

    This report aims to identify the impacts of the current economic downturn in the travel catering industry. During the ITCA Trade Show and Conference in Barcelona, Spain February 11-13, 2009, TCRC conducted 90 face-to-face interviews with attending practitioners from all over the world. The respondents are also representations of all sectors of the travel catering industry: Operators, Caterers, and Food and Non-food Suppliers. The impacts across sectors and regions, along impacts within sector...

  17. The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Földesi Gyöngyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis is the worst one in decades; it is surely the worst one the world has experienced since the Great Depression in the 1930s. Although it has affected countries with different positions in the global village in different ways and to different degrees, it has had worldwide consequences in most sub-systems of societies, including sport. These are hot issues in management and in everyday practice; still, relatively little attention has been paid to them within the social sciences. The objective of this paper is to close this gap by studying how the recent global economic crisis has affected sport. Two spheres of sport have been selected for analysis: mega sport events and grassroots sports. These two fields were chosen because of their social importance and because there is little scientific evidence about how they face and answer the challenges coming from the economic crisis. The topic is discussed from the theoretical perspective of the nexus of economy, politics, society, and culture. The methodological considerations refer to the lack of reliable sources for economic data related to sport. The results indicate that mega sport events have suffered less from the recession: there might be new actors, but the show goes on. The true loser is grassroots sport. Household impoverishment might lead to a decreased willingness of the individual practitioners to pay for sports goods and services and to a decreased contribution of volunteers working in sport. The funding models vary across countries, but generally both public and private funding has been reduced. In conclusion, it is underlined that no fields of sport have been left untouched by the current global economic crisis, but grassroots sports have suffered the most from it.

  18. Quantifying the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to quantify the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand (in addition to income, price, and fuel efficiency) by estimating the demand relationship for oil transport for 1960-2007 using the structural time series model. From this, the relative impact on UK transport oil demand from income, price, and efficiency are quantified. Moreover, the relative impact of the non-economic factors is also quantified, based on the premise that the estimated stochastic trend represents behavioural responses to changes in socio-economic factors and changes in lifestyles and attitudes. The estimated elasticities for income, price and efficiency are 0.6, -0.1, and -0.3, respectively, and it is shown that for efficiency and price the overall contribution is relatively small, whereas the contribution from income and non-economic factors is relatively large. This has important implications for policy makers keen to reduce transport oil consumption and associated emissions, but not willing to reduce the trend rate of economic growth. Taxes and improved efficiency only have a limited impact; hence, a major thrust of policy should perhaps be on educating and informing consumers to persuade them to change their lifestyle and attitudes and thus reduce their consumption through the non-economic instruments route.

  19. Quantifying the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to quantify the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand (in addition to income, price, and fuel efficiency) by estimating the demand relationship for oil transport for 1960-2007 using the structural time series model. From this, the relative impact on UK transport oil demand from income, price, and efficiency are quantified. Moreover, the relative impact of the non-economic factors is also quantified, based on the premise that the estimated stochastic trend represents behavioural responses to changes in socio-economic factors and changes in lifestyles and attitudes. The estimated elasticities for income, price and efficiency are 0.6, -0.1, and -0.3, respectively, and it is shown that for efficiency and price the overall contribution is relatively small, whereas the contribution from income and non-economic factors is relatively large. This has important implications for policy makers keen to reduce transport oil consumption and associated emissions, but not willing to reduce the trend rate of economic growth. Taxes and improved efficiency only have a limited impact; hence, a major thrust of policy should perhaps be on educating and informing consumers to persuade them to change their lifestyle and attitudes and thus reduce their consumption through the non-economic instruments route. (author)

  20. Assessing future economic impacts of acidic deposition on the recreational fishery of eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to assess the socio-economic impacts and net economic value effects related to potential reduction in acidic deposition on the sports fishery of eastern Canada. Impacts and net economic effects that would have occurred from 1950 to 1985 if emission/deposition controls were in place are measured. Impacts and net economic effects that will occur from 1986 to 2021 if controls are put in place in the future are also measured. The study incorporated the latest data describing the relationship of acidic deposition to lake pH levels and ultimate impact on fish survival, and applies a spatial analysis system to model changes in sport fish availability with respect to pH changes and fish survival responses. It was found that if emission controls were put in place beginning in 1950 the Canadian economy would have accrued $4.3 billion in net economic value from 1950 to 1985 inclusive. The 1986 value of the historical stream of losses that occurred because controls were not put in place is $24 billion assuming a 10% rate of return. If controls were put in place in the future, net economic value to Canada due to increased angler activity would be $4.2 billion for the period 1986-2021. The value in 1986 would be $925 million. 9 figs., 34 tabs

  1. Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenuesto $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  2. The environmental and economic impacts of the climate change agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate change agreements (CCAs) in the UK were negotiated with a number of energy-intensive industrial sectors, and offered a reduction in the rate of the climate change levy (CCL), provided that negotiated energy efficiency targets were met. Through modelling and by analysis of the results of the first target period, this paper analyses the stringency of the targets, and the economic and environmental implications of the CCAs. It concludes that, while the targets in themselves were not stringent, and were in the main met well before the due date, the CCAs appear to have had an 'awareness effect' in stimulating energy savings. This has resulted in overall environmental benefits above those which would have derived from the imposition of a flat-rate tax with no rebate and no CCAs, and economic benefits for the sectors and companies with which CCAs were negotiated. (author)

  3. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OPERATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Cerovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed the need to reform international financial institutions and new global financial architecture. Changes in their structure and operation should lead to global economic stability. Members of the Euro zone are faced with a new attitude towards the international financial institutions, particularly the International Monetary Fund. Proclaimed missions of International Monetary Fund and World Bank clearly differ in theory, but with the passage of time their activities have become increasingly intertwined.

  4. Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

  5. Import protection and export performance: Their impact on economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Heitger, Bernhard

    1986-01-01

    For a long time economists have been presuming a strong and positive relationship between a country's engagement in international trade and its economic performance. Already Adam Smith stressed the importance of trade as a means of widening markets, thereby increasing the division of labour and thus raising the level of productivity; John Stuart Mill on the other side laid greater emphasis on the dynamic effects of international trade (called indirect effects) . Thus it was generally believed...

  6. The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Blignaut, James Nelson; Heerden, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    South Africa’s unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, the question therefore is how to make best use of the country’s available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water sh...

  7. The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James, Blignaut; Jan, van Heerden.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, [...] the question therefore is how to make best use of the country's available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water shortages, a condition exacerbated by climate change and the presence of invasive alien plant species. In this paper we address the question of sectoral water allocation by applying a macro-economic comparative static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model using an integrated database comprising South Africa's Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and sectoral water use balances. We refer to AsgiSA, the South African Government's Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa, and conclude that introducing the proposed programmes in a business-as-usual and water-intensive manner will strengthen the current growth in the demand for water. This will bring forward, or accelerate, the need for introducing water rationing among sectors. The importance of this conclusion cannot be emphasised enough. Water is essential, and recognised in as much in the preamble to the National Water Act of 1998, with regards to livelihoods, health and from a socio-economic development perspective since there are no substitutes for it. While water rationing is imminent, the reality thereof has not yet led to a rethink of macro-economic policies. This delayed effect can create a degree of comfort and ill-founded complacency leading to non-action, whereas there is an urgent need for proactive measures towards water conservation.

  8. The global economic crisis: Impact on India and policy responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rajiv; Vashisht, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    India's financial sector is not deeply integrated with the global financial system, which spared it the first round adverse effects of the global financial crisis and left Indian banks mostly unaffected. However, as the financial crisis morphed in to a full-blown global economic downturn, India could not escape the second round effects. The global crisis has affected India through three distinct channels: financial markets, trade flows, and exchange rates. The reversal in capital inflows, whi...

  9. The Global Economic Crisis: Impact on Indian Outward Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Jaya Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Indian outward FDI flows have declined in 2008 and the first half of 2009. The global financial and economic crisis appears to have seriously dented overseas investment plans of emerging Indian multinationals. This paper looks at the trends and patterns of Indian OFDI flows in the current crisis period, what led to its slowdown, how Indian multinationals have fared, and what is their revival prospect.

  10. Economic crisis impact on changes in international financial institutions operating

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Cerovic; Pero Petrovic; Stanislav Cerovic

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed t...

  11. Trade barriers and economic impact of organic beekeeping in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ma?rio; Casaca, Joa?o; Cabo, Paula; Dias, L. G.; Vilas-boas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    In Portugal, according to the official data provided by the Portuguese Veterinary Authority), available in the Report of the National Beekeeping Program 2010, beekeeping is carried out by 17.291 beekeepers, which own a total of 562.557 colonies. According to the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) this represents only 3,6% of the economic value of the Portuguese organic production, given that only 119 beekeepers were registered as organic operators, with a total of...

  12. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Briciu, Sorin; Betianu, Leontina

    2010-01-01

    Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financ...

  13. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    O’malley, Mary P.; Lee-brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life hist...

  14. Economic growth and income convergence :impact of European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanova, Alla

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyzes and explains international patterns of income growth among European countries and evaluates influence of European integration on income convergence among its member states. In the first part of the thesis relevant theories are presented. Then empirical analysis of economic growth among European countries is performed. Results of analysis reveal evidence of income convergence within EU-25, i.e. data show negative relationship between the initial level of GDP per capita and...

  15. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina PLOSCARU; Tudor NISTORESCU

    2010-01-01

    The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the ...

  16. The economic impact of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Matthew; Zinman, Lorne

    2015-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurological disease for which there is no cure, and the associated economic burden is considerable. In this review, the authors summarize the existing body of literature pertaining to the costs associated with ALS to demonstrate the scale and scope of the economic burden of this paralyzing disease. Twelve studies from eight countries published between January 2001 and January 2015 met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Direct and indirect costs varied significantly across countries. Standardized to the 2015 US$, the annual total cost per patient ranged from US$ 13,667 in Denmark to as high as US$ 69,475 in the USA, with the national economic burden of ALS estimated at US$ 279-472 million in the USA. Costs associated with ALS were greater than that of other neurological diseases, indicating a continued need for medical advances and financial support for patients and families. Regional cost analyses are necessary to determine how best to spend funds that have been raised globally from the ice bucket phenomenon. PMID:25924979

  17. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ROMANIA ALONG TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe GRIGORESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Five years after the onset of the strongest economic crisis that has seen a global economy, the world still seems to be far from solved problems. Neither Romania is no exception, sustainable economic recovery we all want is (for now only hope. We have allowed the material to make some suggestions on how the economy might revive. We talked first about the vital need for revival of investment, supporting them through tax incentives to entrepreneurs. I then point the better absorption of European funds, the source of revival of the Romanian economy. Also advocate for greater accountability in spending public money, so terms like necessity, opportunity and social need not remain only in books, but to be used effectively in the allocation of budgetary resources. We detailed several times how I propose we approached the Romanian economy and revitalize major role essential, you must have it in technical and scientific economic recovery. The regret of not having experience in macroeconomics, in order to put more ideas on the table, still think that the detailed material could give thought to avid readers.

  18. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin

  19. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  20. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  1. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses this question from the position of critical realism. An empirical study focusing on the housing sector is conducted, indicating that housing stock growth and economic growth have been, at best, weakly decoupled from environmental impacts. In the long run, it seems implausible that the degree of decoupling can be increased at a rate sufficient to compensate for continual growth in the volume of housing stock. A further elaboration of the topic at an ontological level leads to the conclusion that continual economic growth and long-term environmental sustainability can hardly be combined.

  2. The Role Of Contested And Uncontested Passes In Evaluating Defensive Basketball Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Bartholomew

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The global economic impact of basketball is measured in tens of billions of dollars and requires the efficient use of resources to maximize success on and off the court. Today, coaches, players, investors, and owners need to take full advantage of modern analytical methods and digital video software capabilities to make the most efficient use of a team’s resources. This research is the first in a series that makes full use of modern analytic methods and begins to define new defensive and offensive criteria to supplement the decades old game box score performance information. Data envelopment analysis and statistical methods are used to evaluate two new defensive performance metrics on defensive efficiency. The two new defensive metrics are contested and uncontested passes that are fully defined in the article’s appendix. Future research will expand the sample size and allow for more comprehensive models of basketball team defensive efficiency.

  3. Economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to broaden the purview of fiscal impact analysis to include impacts on the local private sector that may stem from local public sector changes. More specifically, attention is focused on the limiting case, in which new private sector development yields positive changes in fiscal capacity, but does not increase public service demands or interact with the local private sector. This phenomenon is termed a ''pure'' change in fiscal capacity, or, stated differently, pure tax revenue importation. Interest in this issue stems from an analysis of the local impacts of constructing and operating nuclear power stations. Nuclear power stations, like other electrical generating facilities, are characterized by large capital-labor ratios, implying that the impact of siting would be to increase local taxable capacity, via the property tax base, to a greater extent than local private sector activity, via new hirings. Moreover, a small labor force implies a modest change in the demand for local public services, and facilities of this nature by themselves demand few, if any, public services. A nuclear power station, however, may be distinguished from other electrical generating facilities through siting regulations that require locating in a low population density area, a fact which ensures the influence on the community will be substantial. The question of how and to what degree feedback effects from local public to local private sector may take place is described

  4. Haemophilia B : impact on patients and economic burden of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gater, Adam; Thomson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, haemophilia is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder. The incidence of haemophilia B, however, is considerably less than haemophilia A and consequently appears to have received less attention in the research literature. This article aims to summarise the available evidence documenting the patient and economic burden associated with haemophilia B and current methods of disease management. Both the immediate and long-term clinical consequences of haemophilia B can have significant implications for patients in terms of functional limitations and diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Evidence demonstrates that primary prophylaxis is the optimal strategy for replacing missing clotting factor IX (FIX) and managing haemophilia B. Use of recombinant FIX (rFIX) over plasma-derived FIX (pd-FIX) is also generally preferred for safety reasons. Prophylaxis using currently available rFIX products, however, requires a demanding regimen of intravenous infusions 2–3 times a week which may have significant implications for adherence and ultimately the long-term efficacy of such regimens. Only limited assessments of the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic versus on-demand FIX treatment regimens have been conducted to date. Prophylaxis, however, is generally more costly as greater quantities of FIX are consumed. Any reduction in FIX replacement dosing frequency is expected to improve patient adherence and contribute to improved clinical outcomes, further supporting the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. Although a rare disease, as economic constraints for healthcare increase, generating further information regarding the key clinical, patient and economic outcomes associated with haemophilia B will be essential for supporting improvements in care for people with haemophilia B.

  5. THE IMPACT OF CREDIT AND CAPITAL SUPPORTS ON ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardus Bala de Rosari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

  6. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Toma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing within the crisis context for the retail sector.

  7. GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly on economic growth than their expenditureon transport and communication. Increased expenditure on all sectors was recommended especially on engineering construction. In addition policy modifications are needed to ensure that government expenditure on the transportation and communication sector achieve greater impacts on economic growth.

  8. The economic impact of 10CFR61 commonwealth Edison operational perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of implementing 10 CFR Part 20.311 and the applicable sections of 10 CFR Part 61 has been analyzed. Two major influencing factors have been considered - the interpretation applied to certain information provided by the operators of shallow-land disposal sites and the attitude with which the utility company approaches implementation of the rules. The analysis considers the following five general areas of power plant operations: radiochemical analysis, health physics, radioactive waste processing, packaged radioactive waste transportation, and packaged radioactive waste disposal. The economic impact is provided for two different points of view - depending on the results one wants to produce. A comment is also provided concerning the economic impact associated with the continuing implementation of the rules in future years

  9. Estimation of the economic impacts of Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident had an immediate negative impact on the economy of the seven-country area which surrounds the plant site. In order to estimate the social effect of the nuclear power plant accident economically, immediate and short term economical impacts on some industrial classification have been evaluated. The economical effect to Metropolitan Edison Co., the circumstantial payment of the insurance and the lawsuit for the compensation for damages, etc. have been estimated at dollar 90 million for the manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industry, dollar 5 million for the tourist industry and dollar 50,000 for agriculture. The total loss for the state and country governments is about dollar 90,000. Metropolitan Edison Co. expended also dollar 111 million for the substitute energy and dollar 760 million for the decontamination cost. Since the lawsuit for the compensation for damages is still continuing, the total impacts cost is calculated more than a billion dollar. (author)

  10. Transmission Line Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are freely available, user-friendly tools that estimate the potential economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The Transmission Line JEDI model can be used to field questions about the economic impacts of transmission lines in a given state, region, or local community. This Transmission Line JEDI User Reference Guide was developed to provide basic instruction on operating the model and understanding the results. This guide also provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data contained in the model.

  11. The Economic Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Its Victims: Evidence from Individual Tax Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryugina, T.; Kawano, L.; Levitt, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane Katrina destroyed more than 200,000 homes and led to massive economic and physical dislocation. Using a panel of tax return data, we provide one of the first comprehensive analyses of the hurricane's long-term economic impact on its victims. We find small and mostly transitory impacts of the disaster on wages, employment, and total income, even among the worst affected. Remarkably, within a few years, Katrina victims have higher incomes than controls from similar cities that were unaffected by the storm. Withdrawals from retirement accounts offset some of the temporary fall in wages. Finally, there is a short-run spike in marriage and little impact on either divorce or child bearing. These findings suggest that, at least in developed countries like the United States, dislocation is unlikely to be an important component of the social or economic costs of dramatic negative events, such as natural disasters or climate change.

  12. Assessing the impact of one aspect of globalization on economic growth in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Baliamoune, Mina N.

    2002-01-01

    Using panel data, this paper explores the effects of openness to international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth. Fixed-effect and adjusted fixedeffect (regional-effect) estimations yield results consistent with the hypothesis of conditional convergence. FDI has a significant positive impact on economic growth in all specifications. However, openness to trade does not seem to enhance growth in poor countries. The empirical findings fail to substantiate the propositi...

  13. Socio-Economic Impact of Social Forestry on Farmers in District Faisalabad

    OpenAIRE

    Ume-Laila; Farkhanda Anjum

    2001-01-01

    Present study deals with the survey which was conducted to study the Socio-economic impact of social forestry on farmers in District Faisalabad. Forest community of plants and animals dominated by woody vegetation. In Pakistan there is not appropriate forestry system and farmers are not aware of social forestry. The main purpose of the study were to measure : to examine Socio-economic characteristics of farmers affecting planting : to examine the motivating factors behind the adoption of soci...

  14. The ghost of development past : the impact of economic security policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Hausner, Vera Helene; Fauchald, Per; Tveraa, Torkild; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Jernsletten, Johnny-leo L.; Ulvevadet, Birgitte; Ims, Rolf Anker; Yoccoz, Nigel; Bra?then, Kari Anne

    2011-01-01

    To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big pu...

  15. The Ghost of Development Past: the Impact of Economic Security Policies on Saami Pastoral Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Ims, Rolf A.; Birgitte Ulvevadet; Johnny-Leo Jernsletten; Elisabeth Pedersen; Torkild Tveraa; Per Fauchald; Hausner, Vera H.; Kari Anne. Bråthen

    2011-01-01

    To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was...

  16. Computational modeling for evaluating the economic impact of airports on regional economies

    OpenAIRE

    Sartzetaki, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Airports, as fundamental nodes of the air transport network, reflect the economic status of the region they serve and act as major engines of economic development, as was stated in ACI 2004. The impact of regional tourist airports on their region is more important due to the fact that there is a high interrelation between airports and tourism. A growing literature on this subject highlights the methods used to calculate the total effect of an airport on regional economy, and th...

  17. Framework for Modelling Economic Impacts of Invasive Species, Applied to Pine Wood Nematode in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, T.; Mourits, M. C. M.; Werf, W.; Hengeveld, G. M.; Robinet, C.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. Methodology/Principal Findings Direct economic ...

  18. The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Aji; Shelby Suzanne Yamamoto; Rainer Sauerborn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high t...

  19. Financial and Economical Crisis - the Impact on the EU as a Global Actor

    OpenAIRE

    Arabadzhieva, Ivayla; Komleva, Jekaterina; Hansen, Helle H.

    2012-01-01

    This project analyses the question of ‘can the European Union (EU) continue as a global actor after being struck by the financial and economic crises’. The analysis is made with main focus on the impact on EU’s role on the international scene. The project considers the crisis through an analysis of the decision-making patterns of the EU, using historical, sociological and discourse-integration theories. Through the analysis of the three types of institutionalism and the economical refo...

  20. The Economic Impact of Non-communicable Disease in China and India: Estimates, Projections, and Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E.; Cafiero, Elizabeth T.; McGovern, Mark E.; Prettner, Klaus; Stanciole, Anderson; Weiss, Jonathan; Bakkila, Samuel; Rosenberg, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the economic impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in China and India for the period 2012-2030. Our estimates are derived using WHO's EPIC model of economic growth, which focuses on the negative effects of NCDs on labor supply and capital accumulation. We present results for the five main NCDs (cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes, and mental health). Our undiscounted estimates indicate that the cost of the five main NCDs ...

  1. Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth and Poverty: Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qayyum, Abdul; Javid, Muhammad; Arif, Umaima

    2008-01-01

    The study focused on the importance of remittances inflow and its implication for economic growth and poverty reduction in Pakistan. By using ARDL approach we analyze the impact of remittances inflow on economic growth and poverty in Pakistan for the period 1973-2007. The district wise analysis of poverty suggest that overseas migration contributes to poverty alleviation in the districts of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan however NWFP is not portraying a clear picture. The empirical ev...

  2. Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health : A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez Sanmamed, Maria-jose; Choonara, Imti; Faresjo?, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; L Kozyrskyj, Anita; Lucas, Patricia J.; Raat, Hein; Seguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-robinson, David

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles a...

  3. Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rajmil; María-José Fernandez de Sanmamed; Imti Choonara; Tomas Faresjö; Anders Hjern; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Lucas, Patricia J.; Hein Raat; Louise Séguin; Nick Spencer; David Taylor-Robinson; on Behalf of the International Network for Research in Inequalities in Child Health (INRICH)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles a...

  4. Where the financial and economic crisis does bite : Impact on the Least Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeijk, P. A. G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks beyond the comparatively good performance of the large emerging economies that gave rise to the mainstream narrative of decoupling. I discuss the negative economic and social impacts of the financial and economic crisis on the Least Developed Countries that the mainstream narrative hides below the veil of well performing large countries. The negative macroeconomic consequences are directly observed in a reduction of the foreign contribution to capital formation in LDCs an...

  5. THE IMPACT OF PROPERTY RIGHTS FREEDOM ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE OECD NATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically investigates of the impact on per capita real economic growth of property rights freedom. After controlling for nominal long term interest rates, net exports, a measure of political stability, and other factors, panel least squares as well as panel two stage least squares estimations using a four-year panel data set for the OECD nations as a group reveal that higher levels of property rights freedom lead to an increased rate of per capita real economic growth. Further...

  6. Hazardous waste management in South African mining : a CGE analysis of the economic impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebelt, Manfred

    1999-01-01

    There is no doubt that an improved hazardous waste management in mining and mineral processing will reduce environmental and health risks in South Africa. However, skeptics fear that waste reduction, appropriate treatment and disposal are not affordable within the current economic circumstances, neither from an economic nor from a social point of view. This paper mainly deals with the first aspect and touches upon the second. It investigates the short-run and long-run sectoral impacts of an e...

  7. Economics impacts of money laundering : a comparative analysis between Portuguese and British realities

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Pedro Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Money Laundering is a global phenomenon with social, political and economic consequences which impacts on the capacity of societies and businesses negatively. The existence of illicit flows generates economic distortions such as the erratic use of the resources, disinvestment on licit economy, the weakening of the banking sector, the loss of attractiveness for FDI or the promotion of criminal activities. In the private sphere, there are also several cases of businesses seriousl...

  8. Economic impact analysis of energy facilities with particular reference to the Hartsville, Tennessee, area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study focuses on the economic impacts of construction of the Hartsville, Tennessee, nuclear power plant. Four reactor units are now under construction. Investigated are the consequences likely to be felt in a six-county region, including the site and the city of Nashville. Estimates were made by applying to the construction and operating requirements of the plant an economic multiplier which yields an estimate of the induced and indirect effects of the power plant

  9. A framework to investigate the economic growth impact of sea level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the channels through which sea level rise can affect economic growth, namely the loss of land, the loss of infrastructure and physical capital, the loss of social capital, the additional cost from extreme events and coastal floods, and the increased expenditure for coastal protection. It discusses how existing studies on the direct impact of sea level rise could be used to investigate the resulting consequences on economic growth, emphasizes research needs on this question, and discusses consequences on migration. (letter)

  10. Critical assessment of economic impact analyses at selected national festivals / Lukas Johannes Meyer van Wyk

    OpenAIRE

    Wyk, Lukas Johannes Meyer

    2011-01-01

    Festivals have become a global phenomenon and now serve as a platform to promote the leisure and tourism industry within a nation. These events have an undisputed economic effect – not only on the hosting community – but also on the global community. Despite the encouraging community support and the socio-economic impact and spin-offs that are generated by means of such events, the financing of art festivals remains an intricate issue. The fact remains that not all festival...

  11. The economic impact of climate change on road infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa countries: Evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Twerefou, Daniel Kwabena; Adjei-mantey, Kwame; Strzepek, Niko Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Climate change scenarios for many Sub-Saharan African countries including Ghana indicate that temperatures will increase while rainfall will either increase or decrease. The potential impact of climate change on economic systems is well-known. However, little has been done to assess its economic impact on road infrastructure. This work assesses the economic impact of climate change on road infrastructure using the stressor-response methodology. Our analysis indicates that it will cumulatively...

  12. Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). Part I. Sectoral Analysis of Climate Impacts in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the results of the research work carried out by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) within the WISE project. This project aims at investigating the effects and the impacts of extreme weather events, particularly very warm summers, mild winters and storms, on the socio-economic systems of European countries. The output consists of a series of empirical studies, both of quantitative and qualitative descriptive nature. The work of FEEM in the WISE project covers the quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate extremes on the socio-economic system in Italy and the analysis of individuals' perception of climate extremes based on results from individuals' surveys. In this paper is presented the statistical modelling of the impact of weather, through quantitative analysis of activity time series. In particular, the core sectors analysed include fires, health, energy use, tourism and agriculture

  13. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products.

  14. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

  15. Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald I. Zalewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII, European Summary Innovative Index (SII, Ranking of Competitiveness of Nations (in a form of summary as well as subsidiary data and set of macro economy data (GDP, labor productivity, export, export of high-tech, R&D expenditure as [as % of GDP] etc as measures of economic growth. Various regression models: liner, curvilinear, planar or spatial with one or two dependent variables will be calculated and explained. In addition the appropriate 2 D and 3 D-graphs will be used and presented to strengthen verbal arguments and explanation. The main result of this paper is relationship between innovative activity, competitive ability and growth measured as GDP per capita. Such relationship is shown as fairy good linear span of countries. Only two of them: Luxemburg and Norway due to higher than average growth value are outliers. The valuable outcome of this paper is classification of nation into groups: highly innovative- highly competitive, highly competitive-non innovative, highly innovative- non competitive and non innovative – non competitive. The last group of nations fall into trap of low competitiveness.

  16. Economic and herbicide use impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianessi, Leonard P

    2005-03-01

    More than 95% of United States maize, cotton, soybean and sugarbeet acres are treated with herbicides for weed control. These products are used to improve the economic profitability of crop production for farmers. Since their introduction in 1996, over 75 million acres of genetically engineered glyphosate-resistant crops have been planted, making up 80% of soybean acres and 70% of cotton acres in the USA. These genetically engineered crops have been adopted by farmers because they are perceived to offer greater economic benefits than conventional crop and herbicide programs. The adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops has saved US farmers 1.2 billion dollars associated with the costs of conventional herbicide purchases, application, tillage and hand weeding. With the adoption of glyphosate-resistant sugarbeets on currently planted sugarbeet acres, US growers could potentially save an additional 93 million dollars. The adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops by US agriculture has reduced herbicide use by 37.5 million lbs, although the adoption of glyphosate-resistant sugarbeets would dampen this reduction by 1 million lbs. PMID:15706602

  17. Economic Impacts from Indiana's First 1,000 Megawatts of Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Hauser, R.

    2014-08-01

    The magnitude of Indiana's available wind resource indicates that the development of wind power infrastructure has the potential to support millions of dollars of economic activity in the state. The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are tools used to estimate some of the economic impacts of energy projects at the state level. JEDI calculates results in the form of jobs, earnings, and economic output in three categories: project development and onsite labor, local revenue and supply chain, and induced impacts. According to this analysis, the first 1,000 MW of wind power development in Indiana (projects built between 2008 and 2011): supported employment totaling more than 4,400 full-time-equivalent jobs in Indiana during the construction periods; supports approximately 260 ongoing Indiana jobs; supported nearly $570 million in economic activity for Indiana during the construction periods; supported and continues to support nearly $40 million in annual Indiana economic activity during the operating periods; generates more than $8 million in annual property taxes; generates nearly $4 million annually in income for Indiana landowners who lease their land for wind energy projects.

  18. The impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth in the MENA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using panel data of 24 countries in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region from 2001 to 2009, the purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth within the neoclassical growth framework. To address the objective of this study, we utilise both the static panel data approach as well as the dynamic generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator to examine the impact of candidate variables. Our results show that energy consumption and tourism significantly contribute to the economic growth of countries in the MENA region. Hence, our study lends some support to the existence of the tourism-led growth and energy-led growth hypotheses in the region. In line with our expectation, our estimation results also reveal that political instability impedes the process of economic growth and development in the MENA region. Therefore, macroeconomic policies to promote expansion in tourism and energy consumption will directly stimulate economic growth. Additionally, efforts to help the region overcome its history of political instability would attract more international tourist arrivals and further invigorate economic growth. - Highlights: • Tourism and energy consumption have positive impacts on GDP growth. • GDP reacts negatively to political instability. • Energy-led growth and tourism-led growth hypotheses are validated in MENA countries. • Supporting tourism, energy use and political stability will enhance economic growth

  19. Economic Impacts on the United States of Siting Decisions for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerenboom, J. P.; Hanson, M. E.; Huddleston, J. R.; Wolsko, T. D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  20. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  1. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  2. The formation and economic impact of perceptions of risk surrounding nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results of an investigation of factors determining the nature of risk perceptions associated with eleven nuclear facilities and their impact on local economic development. The paper indicates that the nature of risk perceptions depends primarily on the level of communication by plant officials within the local community, the track record of the facility operator, the process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, and the level of economic links each facility has with the local community. The research indicates that adverse risk perceptions have not affected economic development

  3. The Impact of Debt on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Swastika, Purti; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Masih, Mansur

    2013-01-01

    The paper is the first attempt to analyse the impact of debt on economic growth in the context of Indonesia by combining the application of wavelet and non-linear techniques. Our results tend to indicate that there are complex lead-lag dynamic interactions between external debt-to-GDP ratio and GDP growth. Debt is shown to be inversely related with economic growth in a shorter scale, while it is not in the longer scale. Nonetheless, positive contribution of debt on economic growth is very res...

  4. Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia. 46 refs

  5. Economic impacts of reducing NOx emissions in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a multisector computable general equilibrium model for the Norwegian economy, the impacts on main macroeconomic indicators of reducing NOx emissions are analyzed. Seven specific technical measures regarding passenger cars, trucks, ships and industrial processes are studied. The measures have somewhat different impacts on the macroeconomy. Especially the measure pertaining to light and heavy duty trucks leads to an increase in GDP, because of higher income from indirect taxes. However, the sum of value added in the production sectors is reduced. The other measures cause a decrease in GDP. All in all, it is found that the costs, in terms of reductions in GDP and private consumption, incurred from the introduction of additional NOx emissions control measures are quite small. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  6. Socioeconomic impact assessment in a complex economic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation was to have been given in coordination with several others which shared, as a common focus, the analysis of potential socioeconomic impacts of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at the Hanford Site, Washington. In December of 1987, Congress removed the Hanford Site from consideration as a repository location and, effectively and immediately, terminated the socioeconomic study. The immediate drawback to all of this is that this paper cannot be presented in the context created by the other papers as intended. This paper presents one important aspect of the difficulties associated with long-term socioeconomic impact projections at the Hanford Site, and has a narrower focus than otherwise would have been the case

  7. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Miles, J.; Zammit, D.; Loomis, D.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses the offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model and provides four case studies of potential offshore deployment scenarios in different regions of the United States: the Southeast, the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Researchers worked with developers and industry representatives in each region to create potential offshore wind deployment and supply chain growth scenarios, specific to their locations. These scenarios were used as inputs into the offshore JEDI model to estimate jobs and other gross economic impacts in each region.

  8. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarsan, N.; Jayaraj, S.; Sreekanth, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER) not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern par...

  9. Impact of International Economic Policies on National Level Business

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Lubna; Qazi, Burhan; Hashmi, Shahabuddin

    2014-01-01

    This research defines how economists apply Gross Domestic Product to observe the national income in a country. This research will also identify the problems related with GDP to observe the national wealth and how can these issues be controlled. This research will also describe how a country can implement monetary and fiscal policy to impact the level of national income in the financial system in the short run. National income is the complete value of national output of all services and goods ...

  10. Preferred drug lists: Potential impact on healthcare economics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Ovsag; Sabrina Hydery; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2008-01-01

    Kimberly Ovsag, Sabrina Hydery, Shaker A MousaPharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, New York, USAObjectives: To analyze the implementation of Medicaid preferred drug lists (PDLs) in a number of states and determine its impact on quality of care and cost relative to other segments of healthcare.Methods: We reviewed research and case studies found by searching library databases, primarily MEDLINE and EBSCOHost, and searching pertinent journals. Keywords initia...

  11. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Regional scale socio-economic and ecological impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Acreman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The SCENES project has sought to develop likely future state of Europe’s waters. Because the future is uncertain we have developed a range of possible scenarios that are dependent on two aspects. First aspect is changes to the climate particularly alterations to precipitation and temperature that affect evaporation. These changes will have direct impacts on the overall water resource in Europe and its availability for domestic supply, agriculture and industry and supporting the important se...

  13. Economic impact of reduced high-voltage equipment life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 1989, the Western Area Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation published a report entitled Replacements: Units, Service Lives, Factors. This report showed that equipment lives have significantly shortened for substation and switchyard equipment and for the associated supervisory control and communication networks since the last study was published in August, 1981. This paper reports that a shortened service life has a simple resulting impact - increased revenues are required to replace retiring hydropower plant equipment

  14. Auxins in defense strategies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?arná, Mária; Repka, V.; Sk?pa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 69, ?. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

  15. Green lights : quantifying the economic impacts of drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt is made to estimate the global cost of drought.

  16. The Economic Crisis and its Humanitarian Impact on Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic crisis that continues to affect countries across the world has taken a hard toll on humanitarian organizations in Europe. In October 2009, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) released this 20-page report on just that subject. The report looks at 52 countries across the region (including several in Central Asia), and it is primarily focused on presenting findings from long-form interviews, rather than large statistical data sets. The report has some troubling findings, including the observation that "there seems to be an increasing trend of insecurity, leading to increases in mental health problems, alcohol and substance abuse, social isolation and generalized stress." Visitors will appreciate the fact that the report draws on a number of case studies and the first-hand observations of social service providers and administrators.

  17. Insect Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    0000-00-00

    A page from Dr. John Meyer's General Entomology course at NC State University detailing how insects defend themselves. Topics covered include speed, playing-dead, urticating hairs, chemical defenses, protective coloration and more.

  18. Health care: economic impact of caring for geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Preston B; Adams, Sasha D

    2015-02-01

    National health care expenditures constitute a continuously expanding component of the US economy. Health care resources are distributed unequally among the population, and geriatric patients are disproportionately represented. Characterizing this group of individuals that accounts for the largest percentage of US health spending may facilitate the introduction of targeted interventions in key high-impact areas. Changing demographics, an increasing incidence of chronic disease and progressive disability, rapid technological advances, and systemic market failures in the health care sector combine to drive cost. A multidisciplinary approach will become increasingly necessary to balance the delicate relationship between our constrained supply and increasing demand. PMID:25459539

  19. Estimating economic and social welfare impacts of pension reform

    OpenAIRE

    van de Coevering, Clement; Foster, Daniel; Haunit, Paula; Kennedy, Cathal; Meagher, Sarah; Van den Berg, Jennie

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of two effects of the pension reform package that the UK Government put forward in the May White Paper Security in retirement: the likely increase in the number of older people working due to a higher State Pension age and the likely rise in saving due to more people putting away money for retirement. The overall effect of changes to State Pension age and the introduction of personal accounts on UK incomes is likely to be in the range of 0.9 – 3.1 per cent. Al...

  20. The economic efficiency impacts of alternatives for revenue reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About a dozen electric utilities in the US offer rates that possess real-time characteristics. In these implementations the real-time prices are updated at half-hourly intervals and in no case are the prices spatially differentiated. The implemented rates are based upon marginal generating costs with markups to account for system transmission and distribution costs or other revenue reconciliation needs. This paper analyzes how great is the impact of alternative price markup methods on measures of social welfare and the time pattern of real-time prices. A case study and sensitivity results are also presented

  1. GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY; Madueme, Dr I. S.

    2012-01-01

    This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly...

  2. Potential economic impacts of technological and organisational innovations in intermodal access to major passenger terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Tapiador, Francisco J.; Marti?-henneberg, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with the potential economic impacts of innovations such as smart ticketing and instantaneous access to rail and modal connection information schedules. First, the qualitative role of TOIs (technological and organizational innovations) is explored within the framework of intermodality. Secondly, a simple, quantitative, parametric model is described. The model is then used to analyze the impact of TOIs on rail demand, accessibility and passenger welfare under the assumption of...

  3. Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

  4. Predicting the economic impact of the 2010 FIFA World Cup on South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlmann, H.R.; Van Heerden, J.H. (Jan Horn), 1957-

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the sporting industry on economic decision making has increased dramatically since the global media explosion in the 1980s. Tourism and advertising revenues generated by mega-events such as World Cups or Olympic Games have become a major boost to the economies of hosting nations. In addition, globalisation has placed great emphasis on the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), especially to developing countries. This paper seeks to examine the impact of the 2010 FIFA Wor...

  5. Impact of the economic crisis on the Italian public healthcare expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Castellana, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The global financial crisis, beginning in 2008, took an historic toll on national economies around the world. Following equity market crashes, unemployment rates rose significantly in many countries: Italy was among those. What will be the impact of such large shocks on Italian healthcare finances? An empirical model for estimating the impact of the crisis on Italian public healthcare expenditure is presented. Based on data from epidemiological studies related to past econom...

  6. Sustainability and Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism Development in Jakobstad - Kalajoki

    OpenAIRE

    Salmela, Joel; Rahman, Mohammad Mohibur

    2014-01-01

    Tourism is not always about business. It can also affect the society in various other ways. There are socio-economic impacts of tourism for both host community and travelers’ community. These impacts can be positive as well as negative. By upholding tourism, a certain area can become financially solvent and the host community can endorse a better lifestyle. The aim of this research was to examine the tourism situation and future prospects of the chosen touristic destinations in forms of...

  7. Economic and Social Impact of Tourism on a Small Town: Peterborough New Hampshire

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Mendlinger; Tomoko Tsundoda

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the perceived impacts of tourism on the lives of people from a small New England town. Twenty seven in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. The study found that most people perceive both positive and negative impacts of tourism and do not want to change their town for increased tourism development even if it results in increased revenue. People recognized tourism’s benefit to the town’s economy but less so to their economic situation. Working locals expressed ...

  8. The Economic Consequences of IFRS: The Impact of IAS 32 on Preference Shares in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, A.; Rosello?n, M. A.; Verwijmeren, P.

    2006-01-01

    The consequences of international accounting standards are likely to reach beyond the impact on financial statements. This paper demonstrates one of the economic implications of international standards. We focus on the impact of the IFRS regulation on preference shares (IAS 32) in the Netherlands. IAS 32 causes most preference shares to lose their classification as equity and these shares will hence be classified as liabilities. We document that for Dutch firms with preferred stock outstandin...

  9. Bank Savings and Bank Credits in Nigeria: Determinants and Impact on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Orji Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of bank savings in Nigeria as well as examined the impact of bank savings and bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth from 1970-2006. We adopted two impact models; Distributed Lag-Error Correction Model (DL-ECM) and Distributed Model. The empirical results showed a positive influence of values of GDP per capita (PCY), Financial Deepening (FSD), Interest Rate Spread (IRS) and negative influence of Real Interest Rate (RIR) and Inflation Rate (INFR) ...

  10. The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth: Case Study of OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macek Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of individual types of taxes on the economic growth by utilizing regression analysis on the OECD countries for the period of 2000–2011. The impact of taxation is integrated into growth models by its impact on the individual growth variables, which are capital accumulation and investment, human capital and technology. The analysis in this paper is based on extended neoclassical growth model of Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992, and for the verification of relation between taxation and economic growth the panel regression method is used. The taxation rate itself is not approximated only by traditional tax quota, which is characteristic by many insufficiencies, but also by the alternative World Tax Index which combines hard and soft data. It is evident from the results of both analyses that corporate taxation followed by personal income taxes and social security contribution are the most harmful for economic growth. Concurrently, in case of the value added tax approximated by tax quota, the negative impact on economic growth was not confirmed, from which it can be concluded that tax quota, in this case as the indicator of taxation, fails. When utilizing World Tax Index, a negative relation between these two variables was confirmed, however, it was the least quantifiable. The impact of property taxes was statistically insignificant. Based on the analysis results it is evident that in effort to stimulate economic growth in OECD countries, economic-politic authorities should lower the corporate taxation and personal income taxes, and the loss of income tax revenues should be compensated by the growth of indirect tax revenues.

  11. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying economic conditions.

  12. Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.iod.

  13. Green jobs? Economic impacts of renewable energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) are analyzed in this text. Although a growing RE industry can be observed in Germany the overall effect of large increases of RE based electricity and heat generating technologies on the German economy require a careful model based analysis. The applied model PANTA RHEI has been used among others to evaluate the German energy concept in 2010. It takes positive and negative impacts of RE into account. The paper shows the overall effects under different assumptions for fossil fuel prices, domestic installations and international trade. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the development of RE world markets and German exports to these markets. Almost all of these scenarios exhibit positive net employment effects. Under medium assumptions net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. Only with assumptions for German RE exports below today's level, net impacts are slightly negative. Gross employment will increase from 340 thousand in 2009 to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030. - Highlights: ? This paper analyzes labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) in Germany. ? It shows the overall effects under different assumptions. ? The development of world markets and German RE exports are very important. ? Net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. ? Gross employment will increase to between 500 and ill increase to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030.

  14. Estimating the economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kort, J.R.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a framework through which these regional economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization can be analyzed. Two models comprise the basis of this framework - a national input/output model and an interregional econometric model, the National-Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES). These models are used to convert projected sales of solar energy systems to gross output concepts, and to evaluate the impacts associated with these sales. Analysis is provided for the nine census regions and 50 states and the District of Columbia for the years 1980 through 1990. Impacts on major economic aggregates such as output, employment, income, and population are described. The methodology used in this study is described. The economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions and states are presented. The major conclusions of the study are summarized, and direction is provided for further research. Detailed tables of regional and state solar energy expenditures and their impacts appear in the Appendix.

  15. Guidelines for studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 64-page document from UNAIDS is part of the Best Practice Collection of guideline manuals. The purpose of this set of guidelines is to "place socioeconomic impact studies in the planning process in a systematic way" especially in a number of sectors including agriculture and education. The guide is divided into three main chapters. The first chapter is a wonderful introduction to the socioeconomic impact of the HIV/AIDS virus. Part two offers a clear set of guidelines for assessing the socioeconomic impact of this virus, including types of data to be gathered and how to analyze data in economic and social impact studies. The third part contains information on the conceptual framework of the guidelines including the study of the impact of AIDS/HIV in specific sectors. The conclusion explains the limitations of these impact studies, especially the lack of simple technical solutions. Guidelines for studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS gives a clear framework for conducting impact studies on this disease.

  16. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: Inpatient health impacts and economic valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). - Highlights: • Transboundary smoke haze is an annual phenomenon in Malaysia. • No evidence of seasonal factors in smoke haze related inpatient cases. • Inpatient rates during a haze event increased by 31% relative to normal days. • Annual economic loss due to inpatient health impact of haze valued at $91,000. • Present value of economic loss estimated at $1.1 million to $1.7 million. - Inpatient rates soared by 31% while economic loss valued at USD91,000 annually

  17. Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Agricultural Innovations on Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scatasta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some models made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision support system is based on a rule-based model incorporating both economic and ecological criteria. In this paper we present an extension to previous results specifying further two sub-models assessing economic impacts of cropping systems at farm and regional level. Following a real option approach we show how both social and private costs and benefits, both at farm and regional level, can be classified in reversible and irreversible, and what irreversibility means for the size of the uncertainty associated to the adoption of agricultural innovations. All the qualitative models are developed using a qualitative multi-attribute modeling methodology, supported by the software tool DEXi.

  18. Social and economic impact of Chernobyl in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in terms of doses to individuals in the various countries covered a wide range. The specific features of the release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl accident, particularly its relatively large duration and altitude reached by the radioactive plume, caused a widespread distribution of activity across Europe. Meteorological conditions and wind regimes during the period of release were the contributing factors. The varying distances from the source of release and long duration of the release in different directions resulted in uneven ground and foodchain contamination. Also, variable meteorological situation, characterized by frequent and localized heavy precipitation contributed to uneven deposition differs sometimes by one or two orders of magnitude between localities situated few tens of kilometers apart. In these circumstances, the doses to the individuals of critical groups appeared to be higher than the average individual dose over whole population

  19. Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensuP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

  20. Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  1. Show Me the Money! Why Higher Ed Should Help K-12 Do Economic Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    In education, economic impact studies have been largely the product of higher education institutions. Colleges and universities have recognized that they can cultivate public, political and financial support by effectively demonstrating their high return-on-investment value. For more than a decade, all types of higher education institutions have…

  2. 78 FR 47317 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ...Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public...wide-body passenger aircraft to an airline in China, which will provide passenger...seat capacity within the U.S. airline industry. The aircraft in this...

  3. 78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public...aircraft that will be operated by an airline in Russia, which will provide...seat capacity within the U.S. airline industry. The aircraft in this...

  4. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) User Reference Guide: Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Goldberg, M.

    2015-02-01

    This guide -- the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model User Reference Guide -- was developed to assist users in operating and understanding the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model. The guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and data sources used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model estimates local (e.g., county- or state-level) job creation, earnings, and output from total economic activity for a given fast pyrolysis biorefinery. These estimates include the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the construction and operation phases of biorefinery projects.Local revenue and supply chain impacts as well as induced impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from the IMPLAN software program. By determining the local economic impacts and job creation for a proposed biorefinery, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model can be used to field questions about the added value biorefineries might bring to a local community.

  5. Money Talks: Documenting the Economic Impact of Extension Personal Finance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Money 2000, an extension program to teach saving money, included a longitudinal behavioral monitoring component over an extended period of time, computerized financial analysis, and individual financial counseling. The personal finance programs and evaluation procedures enabled staff to document almost $2 million of economic impact on the lives of…

  6. Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

  7. Economic impact analysis of the proposed oil and natural gas NESHAPS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a technical analysis of the economic impacts associated with the proposed NESHAP for Oil and Natural Gas Production. The analysis evaluates adjustments in the markets for crude oil and natural gas (through price and production changes), social cost, and the resulting affects on employment, internatonal trade, and small businesses

  8. Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

  9. Economic and fiscal impacts of large-scale development projects: implications for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the local economic and fiscal implications of siting high-level nuclear waste repositories in rural areas. The economic and fiscal effects of repository development fall into two categories: (1) standard impacts similar to those that would be associated with developing any large-scale industrial facility in an isolated area; (2) special impacts that result from the hazardous nature of the nuclear materials stored and from federal ownership of the facility. Standard economic and fiscal impacts include employment effects (direct and secondary), local income changes, alterations in community price structures, effects on community services, and changes in revenues and costs for local jurisdictions. Special impacts include the possibility of diminished activity in other basic economic sectors, negative effects on the area's long-term growth prospects and a consequent dampening of investment in the local trade an service sectors, additional costs for local jurisdictions (e.g., for preparing evacuation plans), and limited local tax revenues resulting from the tax-exempt status of the facility. These special effects are difficult to quantify and require additional analysis. 47 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  10. The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

  11. A Framework for Categorization of the Economic Impacts of Outbreaks of Highly Contagious Livestock Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatkamp, H W; Mourits, M C M; Howe, K S

    2014-11-01

    A framework for categorization of economic impacts of outbreaks of highly contagious livestock diseases (HCLD) is presented. This framework interprets veterinary measures to control HCLD outbreaks with reference to economic definitions of costs and benefits, and the implications for value losses both for different stakeholders affected and society as a whole. Four cost categories are identified, that is virus control-related direct costs (DC), spread prevention and zoning-related direct consequential costs (DCC), market and price disruption-related costs during (indirect consequential costs, ICC) and after the outbreak (aftermath costs, AC). The framework is used to review existing literature on cost estimation for different stakeholders. This review shows considerable differences between studies, making comparison of results difficult and susceptible to misunderstanding. It is concluded that the framework provides a logical basis for all future analyses of the economic impacts of HCLD. PMID:25382248

  12. Counting Jobs and Economic Impacts from Distributed Wind in the United States (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2014-05-01

    This conference poster describes the distributed wind Jobs and Economic Development Imapcts (JEDI) model. The goal of this work is to provide a model that estimates jobs and other economic effects associated with the domestic distributed wind industry. The distributed wind JEDI model is a free input-output model that estimates employment and other impacts resulting from an investment in distributed wind installations. Default inputs are from installers and industry experts and are based on existing projects. User input can be minimal (use defaults) or very detailed for more precise results. JEDI can help evaluate potential scenarios, current or future; inform stakeholders and decision-makers; assist businesses in evaluating economic development impacts and estimating jobs; assist government organizations with planning and evaluating and developing communities.

  13. The economical impact of a nuclear renunciation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite De France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value for its shareholders. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (authors)

  14. The economic impact of giving up nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite de France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value and would penalize its shareholders, the State. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas-price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially-amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclearore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (author)

  15. The Economic Impact of Malignant Catarrhal Fever on Pastoralist Livelihoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankester, Felix; Lugelo, Ahmed; Kazwala, Rudovick; Keyyu, Julius; Cleaveland, Sarah; Yoder, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to partially quantify the potential economic benefits that a vaccine, effective at protecting cattle against malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), could accrue to pastoralists living in East Africa. The benefits would result from the removal of household resource and management costs that are traditionally incurred avoiding the disease. MCF, a fatal disease of cattle caused by a virus transmitted from wildebeest calves, has plagued Maasai communities in East Africa for generations. The threat of the disease forces the Maasai to move cattle to less productive grazing areas to avoid wildebeest during calving season when forage quality is critical. To assess the management and resource costs associated with moving, we used household survey data. To estimate the costs associated with changes in livestock body condition that result from being herded away from wildebeest calving grounds, we exploited an ongoing MCF vaccine field trial and we used a hedonic price regression, a statistical model that allows estimation of the marginal contribution of a good’s attributes to its market price. We found that 90 percent of households move, on average, 82 percent of all cattle away from home to avoid MCF. In doing so, a herd’s productive contributions to the household was reduced, with 64 percent of milk being unavailable for sale or consumption by the family members remaining at the boma (the children, women, and the elderly). In contrast cattle that remained on the wildebeest calving grounds during the calving season (and survived MCF) remained fully productive to the family and gained body condition compared to cattle that moved away. This gain was, however, short-lived. We estimated the market value of these condition gains and losses using hedonic regression. The value of a vaccine for MCF is the removal of the costs incurred in avoiding the disease. PMID:25629896

  16. local people perceptions toward social,economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Kermanshah (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mostafa mohammadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines local people perceptions about social, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in the cultural heritage destination of Kermanshah in Iran. The study focused on residents in the vicinity of popular heritage attractions in the region. According to the survey, a high percentage of the answers, emphasizes the positive impacts of tourism toward local people. Besides, social aspects of tourism impacts are found to be the strongest and most favorable perceptions. The Findings in Semi structured interviews with residents supported the survey results.

  17. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  18. Economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This economic study examines the economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of the Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant, measured in terms of the global income that generated the ending of the Nuclear Power Plant activity, on the territory. To this end, we will take into account the total investment that has been necessary to complete the process of decommissioning. The economic impact is calculated using the Input- Output methodology. Briefly, the Input-Output model defines a group of accounting relationships that reflect the links taking place within the production system. The Input-Output model is based on the assumption that given an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector, this sector should produce more (less) to satisfy this new demand. At the same time, this will lead to demand more (less) intermediate consumption goods from the remainder sectors of the economy. Then, these sectors should produce more (less) and use more (less) intermediate inputs, and so on. Therefore, an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector multiplies the effect throughout the economy, following the interdependency relationships that exist among the productive activities. We will start by collecting an exhaustive economic information. This information covers the whole decommissioning process and the whole economic and productive activity of the province of Tarragona. Next, this information is used with the objective of building an Input-Output tablebjective of building an Input-Output table of the province that will serve as a base to establish the global economic impact of Vandellos I. The incomes and employment generation has been evaluated in the province of Tarragona that, following the main assumptions, correspond to the global effects of the decommissioning. In addition, we have evaluated the income and employment generation within the region where the nuclear power plant is located. The total income impacts show a high multiplier effect due to the investment carried out during the decommissioning

  19. Wind industry's economic impact doubled in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-05-15

    In 2006, Canada's rapidly expanding wind energy industry doubled its contribution to the national economy, with a total allocation of $1.48 billion. The number of businesses involved in wind energy rose from about 210 to 294, resulting in higher expenditures from the sector. The industry experienced significant growth in 2006, with the addition of 775 MW of new wind power, nearly doubling Canada's installed capacity. Sustained levels of investment are predicted beyond 2007. A survey that tracked the impact of wind energy on the Canadian economy was conducted by Saskatoon-based Insightrix Research. All 294 companies received questionnaires and replies were received from 219, for a response rate of 72 per cent. A total of 155 companies provided information on their total expenditure and information on staffing, revealing that the sector can offer serious employment opportunity. The industry has a combined full-time equivalent workforce of nearly 8,000 with about 5,900 of those in core functions that include managers, engineers, scientists and trades people. The remaining 2,000 include support staff and labourers. The sector was responsible for the creation of 29,091 full-time equivalent jobs when taking into account indirect job creation at companies providing goods and services to the wind industry. However, it was noted that the Insightrix 2006 survey had been simplified and that employment impact numbers from previous years were likely underestimated. The results of the questionnaire help governments understand the return they get from investments in the wind energy support policies such as the ecoEnergy for Renewable Power (ERP) incentive. Of the survey respondents, 30 per cent identified their primary activity as wind power development, 22 per cent identified themselves as consultants, 8 per cent were component manufacturers, 6 per cent were turbine manufacturers, and the remaining 32 per cent participated in other wind energy activities. Approximately 74 per cent were privately held companies with head offices in Canada. 1 fig.

  20. The estimation of economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of a release parameters and metrorological data. According to the cost estimation for the basic scenarios, the population dependent cost is dominant. The cost for the protective actions such as evacuation and relocation have a small portion in the total cost and show little variation from scenario to scenario. The economic cost estimation for the seasonal scenarios show very similar trend as that for the basic scenarios. There are little or small variation in the economic cost for the different scenarios for each season except for the season-5 scenario. The health effect value shows maximum in Summer and minimum in Fall. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum in Fall and minimum in Summer. The result will be used as basic data in the establishment of effective emergency response and in the cost/benefit analysis in developing optimum risk reduction strategies

  1. The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Will

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the countries of South East Europe. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced during the transition period have enabled countries to cope with external shocks such as those associated with the recent global economic crisis. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variable impact across countries is assessed. Several types of institutions are examined, including the degree to which countries have adopted the acquis communautaire, determined by the extent of their EU integration, progress with transition, and the broad institutional environment measured through the quality of governance. The paper asks whether countries with a more flexible economy due to faster progress with transition reforms were better able to adjust to the impact of external shocks. It concludes that the variable impact of the global crisis in the region can be explained mainly by their degree of integration into the global economy, and that the institutional reforms that were introduced during the boom times have made countries more integrated into the global economy, and therefore more vulnerable to the impact of the global economic crisis.

  2. Economic impacts of climate change: Methods of estimating impacts at an aggregate level using Hordaland as an illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses methods for calculating economic impacts of climate change, and uses Hordaland county in Norway as an illustrative example. The calculations are based on estimated climate changes from the RegClim project. This study draws from knowledge of the relationship between economic activity and climate at a disaggregate level and calculates changes in production of and demand for goods and services within aggregate sectors, which are specified in the county budget for Hordaland. Total impacts for the county thus are expressed through known values from the national budget, such as the county's ''national product'', total consumption, and investments. The estimates of impacts of climate changes at a disaggregate level in Hordaland are quantified only to small degree. The calculations made in this report can thus only be considered appropriate for illustrating methods and interpretations. In terms of relative economic significance for the county, however, it is likely that the hydropower sector will be the most affected. Increased precipitation will result in greater production potential, but profitability will largely depend on projected energy prices and investment costs associated with expansion. Agriculture and forestry will increase their production potential, but they are relatively small sectors in the county. Compared with the uncertainty about how climate change will affect production, however, the uncertainty about changes in demand is far greaternty about changes in demand is far greater. The demand for personal transportation and construction in particular can have significant consequences for the county's economy. (author)

  3. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  4. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  5. Environmental, economic and social impact of aviation biofuel production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonez, Paulo André; Feroldi, Michael; de Jesus de Oliveira, Carlos; Teleken, Joel Gustavo; Alves, Helton José; Sampaio, Silvio Cézar

    2015-03-25

    The Brazilian aviation industry is currently developing biofuel technologies that can maintain the operational and energy demands of the sector, while reducing the dependence on fossil fuels (mainly kerosene) and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the current research was to identify the major environmental, economic and social impacts arising from the production of aviation biofuels in Brazil. Despite the great potential of these fuels, there is a significant need for improved routes of production and specifically for lower production costs of these materials. In addition, the productive chains of raw materials for obtaining these bioenergetics can be linked to environmental impacts by NOx emissions, extensive use of agricultural land, loss of wildlife and intensive water use, as well as economic, social and political impacts. PMID:25582405

  6. Impact of Economic Crisis on Changes in Motivation of Employees in Woodworking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Hitka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the motivation of employees of a woodworking enterprise and analyses the level of individual motivation before (2004 and after the economic crisis and its effects in Slovakia (2012. The aim of the paper is to identify the most important motivation factors for employees and to consider the impact of financial crisis on the change in perception of individual motivation factors and their economic and social impact on employees. A questionnaire, as a method of inquiry, was used to acquire relevant data. Descriptive and testing statistics were used for data processing. Significance level p was computed for individual motivation factors for the year 2004 and 2012 by means of T-test. The objective of this paper is to define significant change of average rate of individual motivation factors and to compare the order of importance of motivation factors before and after the economic crisis. Based on our research it can be stated that the world economic crisis has no impact on the level of employee motivation in the selected enterprise.

  7. An Investigation of the Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Maji

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper posits to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria. A study of this nature is necessary because foreign direct investment is an important component of private investment which is widely believed to be the engine of economic growth in any modern economy. In order to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria and the causal relationship between them, liner regression and granger causality test were used. The data used were from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin (2006 and national account of Nigeria (2007. The study has shown that foreign direct investment has a positive impact on gross domestic product in Nigeria and we therefore accept the alternative hypothesis. It is recommended that there is the need to put in place concrete policies to engender a positive and competitive enabling environment that would attract more foreign investors. There must also be relentless wars against corruption and insecurity in order to give confidence to investors.

    Key words: Domestic investment; Foreign direct investment; Capital formation and economic growth

  8. The Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism and Entrepreneurs in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongfa Phoummasak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism and Entrepreneurs in LPB province, Lao PDR by conducting the field survey of 100 entrepreneurs who related to tourism. A questionnaire was designed in form of closed-end in order to collect data. Descriptive method of research was used in this study. The results of the study found the most informants addressed that the development of tourism in LPB force them to improve their entrepreneurs’ skills. Most entrepreneurs posited that tourism influence them to improve their skills in managing businesses, in which were increased their income and personal improvement. Therefore, tourism has impact on their businesses and society changes. However, entrepreneurs’ perception extents to which tourism and entrepreneurship have addressed their socio-economic goal have been achieved to high extent. Furthermore, the study also illustrated that the most entrepreneurs are facing with both of positive and negative impacts of tourism. However, some of them do not want to change their own life-styles and society. They have agreed to promote and develop tourism in order to support local economic growth and local resident’s income. On the contrary, they need to maintain their traditional society. In short, entrepreneurs’ perception extents on tourism and entrepreneurship have enhanced their socio-economic condition.

  9. The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. Impact of public funding of education on economic growth in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Bexheti, Abdylmenaf; Mustafi, Besime

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between public spending on education after the process of decentralization and economic growth in Macedonia as low income state. This paper do not have intention to make a picture of education system in Macedonia, how it functions or if education is open to all, but has the aim to measure the public spending on education as a determinant that has impact on economic growth even positive or negative. This paper raise the following im...

  11. Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Irfan Sabir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and their impact on socio economic dimension of farmer’s lives. For data analysis quantitative techniques of multiple regression & regression for moderation were applied by using SPSS 16.

  12. IMPACT OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR ON THE CURRENT ZIMBABWEAN ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clainos Chidoko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper sought to investigate the economic impact of the informal sector in the Zimbabwean economy. It was discovered that the informal sector is very significant in its contribution to the development of the Zimbabwean economy. However the small entrepreneurs find difficulties in their operations because of the lack of capital and collateral. Given their significance in the economy, the paper suggests that these businesses should be assisted by the relevant stakeholders to graduate from informal to formal sector. This will enhance rapid economic growth.

  13. Evaluation of economic impact of climatic change on agro-forestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Gallerani

    Full Text Available Climate change has a strong influence on agro-forestry systems. Present estimations evisage that changes in climate patterns and extreme events connected to climate change will have greater impacts in the future. This paper seeks to illustrate the articulation of the problems concerning the economic evaluation of climate change, with particularly attention to open problems and future lines of research. Research on this topic, though using methods and approaches consolidated in the disciplines of resource economics and evaluation, still have several open problems, particularly in the field of multidisciplinary studies of the man-environmental relations, policy evaluation and development of decision support systems for decision makers.

  14. Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

  15. Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging station located in a workplace parking garage. • Emissions from the power grid. • Economic analysis. • Parametric analysis for parking rates, installed capacities to show benefits to vehicle and garage owner. - Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) have high potential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and for providing a way to utilize renewable energy sources for the transportation sector. On the other hand, charging millions of PEVs could overload the power grid, increase emissions and significantly alter economic characteristics. A day-time photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle charging station located in a workplace parking garage is considered in this research. The results show the impact of PV based workplace charging on the economics and emissions from the power grid. An optimal charge scheduling strategy is compared with an uncontrolled charging case to perform the economics and emissions analysis. Two locations (Columbus, OH and Los Angeles, CA) are selected such that the analysis includes different scenarios of yearly variation of solar radiation and finance structure. A high fidelity hourly simulation model for energy economic analysis is developed considering different types of vehicles, statistical data for driving distances, parking time, installation cost, tax rebates and incentives. An incremental parking rate for accessing the charging facility is considered for economic analysis for the garage owner and the vehicle owner. The analysis is extended to consider the impact of carbon tax implementation on the driver economics and shows the feasibility of such PV based charging stations. Parametric analysis for different parking rates and installed capacities show (i) the feasibility of a PV based workplace charging facility, (ii) benefits to the vehicle owner and the garage owner, and (iii) the need for an optimal charging controller

  16. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  17. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  18. Trade sustainability impact assessment (SIA) on the comprehensive economic and trade agreement (CETA) between the EU and Canada: Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Colin; Raihan, Selim; Bleser, Adam; Prud Homme, Dan; Mayrand, Karel; Morin, Jean Frederic; Pollitt, Hector; Hinojosa, Leonith; Williams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Commissioned by the European Commission, the Final Report for the EU-Canada Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) on the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) provides a comprehensive assessment of the potential impacts of trade liberalisation under CETA. The analysis assesses the economic, social and environmental impacts in Canada and the European Union in three main sectors, sixteen sub-sectors and across seven cross-cutting issues. It predicts a number of macro-...

  19. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least coy implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility

  20. Economic Impact Analyses of Interdisciplinary Multi-hazard Scenarios: ShakeOut and ARkStorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

    2011-12-01

    U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are using an interdisciplinary strategy to develop and analyze multi-hazard scenarios to help communities enhance resilience to natural hazard disasters. Two such scenarios are the southern California ShakeOut earthquake and the California ARkStorm winter storm. Both scenarios are multi-hazard: Shakeout ground motions trigger landslides and liquefaction and ARkStorm involves wind, flood, landslide, and coastal hazards. A collaborative scenario-process engages partners and stakeholders throughout the development and use of the scenarios, In doing so, community resilience is enhanced by educating communities about hazards and hazard interdependencies, building networks from scientists to decision makers, exercising emergency management strategies, identifying emergency management issues, and motivating solutions prior to an event. In addition, interdisciplinary scenarios stimulate research on the various steps of analysis (e.g., natural hazard processes, physical damages, societal consequences, and policy connections). In particular, USGS scientists have collaborated with economists to advance methods to estimate the economic impacts (business interruption losses) of disasters. Our economic impact analyses evolved from the economic module in the Federal Emergency Management Agency's loss-estimation tool, HAZUS-MH, to a more encompassing input-output analysis for ShakeOut, to a more sophisticated Computable General Equilibrium model for ARkStorm. The analyses depend on physical damage and restoration time estimates from engineers and geographic analyses of economic assets in hazard zones. Economic resilience strategies are incorporated to represent resourcefulness and ingenuity that avoids potential losses during and after an event. Such strategies operate at three levels of the economy: micro (e.g., ability to catch up on lost production time), meso (e.g., coordination within a sector to share resources), and macro (e.g., price adjustments to redistribute scarce resources). A sensitivity analysis of the ARkStorm economic impact model explores the effects of 1) the magnitude of the shocks (e.g., flood damages to buildings and infrastructure, agricultural productivity, and lifeline service disruptions), 2) the sustainability of the economic resilience strategies, and 3) the amount, timing, and source of reconstruction funds. The inclusion of an economic analysis in ShakeOut and ARkStorm broadens the range of interest in the scenario results. For example, the relative contribution of ShakeOut economic shocks to business interruption losses emphasized the need to reduce the impacts of fire following earthquake and water service disruption. Based on the magnitude and duration of the economic impacts for the ARkStorm scenario, policy experts surmised that business interruption policy time elements would be exceeded and business interruptions would be largely unfunded calling attention to the need for innovative funding solutions. Finally, economic impact analyses inform the question of paying now to mitigate or paying more later to recover.

  1. Impact of Nuclear Power and Desalination Plant Construction Toward National and East Java Economic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to determine the economic impacts of the construction of the nuclear power plant 2 x 100 MW(e) SMART type with desalination 4 x 10,000 m3 which would conduct in years 2008 to 2017 in Madura Island, East Java. The predicted IO tables of 2008-2017 have been created by the application of dynamic IO projection. The economic impact was estimated through multiplier effect which covers direct impact and indirect impact as well as the induced effect. The expenditures of SMART nuclear power and desalination plant to the domestic contractors is estimated to amount to 88.2 million US dollar or 25.6 % of the whole expenditures. The total impact of the project to the national economy would be Rp. 6,329,347 million, Rp. 8,439,130 million, and Rp. 12,658,695 million for each scenario of the exchange rate as high as Rp. 7,500/US dollar, Rp. 10,000/US dollar, Rp. 15,000/US dollar, respectively for the scenario of dynamic growth. The total impact of the project to the provincial economy of East Java would be as much as Rp. 3,253,498 million, Rp. 4,337,997 million, and Rp. 6,506,995 million for each scenario of the exchange rate as high as Rp. 7,500/US dollar, Rp. 10,000/US dollar, Rp. 15,000/US dollar, respectively under the former scenario. Cumulative direct impact since pre-construction to construction period had been calculated as much as US dollar 101.8 million for sectors number 48.52 and 62. This have brought much impact on other sectors have brought much impact on other sectors in national or provincial levels of economy. (author)

  2. Impact of different economic factors on biological invasions on the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2011-01-01

    Social-economic factors are considered as the key to understand processes contributing to biological invasions. However, there has been few quantified, statistical evidence on the relationship between economic development and biological invasion on a worldwide scale. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with biodiversity for 91 economies throughout the world. Our result indicates that the prevalence of invasive species in the economies can be well predicted by economic factors (R(2)?=?0.733). The impact of economic factors on the occurrence of invasive species for low, lower-middle, upper-middle and high income economies are 0%, 34.3%, 46.3% and 80.8% respectively. Greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2), Nitrous oxide, Methane and Other greenhouse gases) and also biodiversity have positive relationships with the global occurrence of invasive species in the economies on the global scale. The major social-economic factors that are correlated to biological invasions are different for various economies, and therefore the strategies for biological invasion prevention and control should be different. PMID:21533203

  3. Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth of Nigeria: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Ogbonna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the impact of tax reforms on the economic growth of Nigeria from 1994 to 2009. To achieve the objective of the study, relevant secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin, Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS, Office of the Accountant General of the Federation, and other relevant government agencies. The data collected were analysed using relevant descriptive statistics and econometric models such as White test, Ramsey RESET test, Breusch Godfrey test, Jacque Berra test, Augmented Dickey Fuller test, Johansen test, and Granger Causality test. The results from the various test shows that tax reforms is positively and significantly related to economic growth and that tax reforms granger cause economic growth. On the basis of the findings, the study concluded that tax reforms improves the revenue generating machinery of government to undertake socially desirable expenditure that will translate to economic growth in real output and per capita basis. However, it was recommended that sustainable economic growth cannot be attained with tax reform processes except obsolete tax laws and rates are reviewed in line with macro economic objectives, corrupt-free and efficient tax administrative machinery with personnel’s and accountability and transparency of government officials in the management of tax revenue.

  4. A simulation of the economic impact of renewable energy development in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we identify the renewable energy source (RES) demand scenarios for Morocco, the needs of RES installed capacity according to those scenarios and the detailed investment plans needed to achieve such installed capacity supply. Then, using a dynamic variant input–output model, we simulate the macroeconomic impact of the foreign investment inflows needed to make available these Moroccan RES generation capacity plans in the medium and long term. The use of concentrated solar plants, photovoltaic generation and wind power farms are considered and compared in the simulation. - Highlights: ? An evaluation of RES economic impact in Morocco from 2010 to 2040 is simulated. ? Different scenarios about import dependency and energy exports have been considered. ? The impact on GDP range from 1.21% to 1.99%. ? The impact on employment range from 269 to 499 thousand jobs. ? The alternative that produces most benefits would be the installation of windmills.

  5. The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

  6. Impact of the Influential Factors of Economic Competitiveness upon Romania’s West Region Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana T?nase

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s context, marked by globalization and increasingly wide recognition of interdependencies, competitiveness has become an essential condition for market success. Starting from these considerations, the authors of the present paper intend to forward a research survey related to the impact of the influential factors of economic competitiveness on the firms operating in Romania’s West Region, research using a direct study method to grasp the firm managers’ perceptions regarding competitiveness factors of influence. The paper ends by presenting several proposals regarding the identification of measures for the economic competitiveness growth, both micro- and macro- economic. Consequently the paper approaches a subject of current interest, which stirs the preoccupation of specialists, governments, mass media and, last but not least, the interest of entrepreneurs, irrespective of their domain of activity.

  7. Economic and Financial Integration of CEECs: The Impact of Financial Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu T. Albulescu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis had a powerful impact upon the European countries' economies, in particular on those from Central and Eastern Europe, with some small exceptions. Thus, applying a panel data approach for a large sample of CEECs, we demonstrate that financial instability negatively influences these countries economic and financial integration. If instability is measured by means of a financial instability index, we have used two classical indicators for the economic integration, namely trade openness and trade intensity index. Indicators such as the interest rates co-movement and the asset share of foreign-owned banks were chosen to calculate financial integration. We highlight the fact that the crisis events hinder the process of CEECs' integration into the EU, deepening the economic gaps between more and less developed EU members.

  8. Community leaders' perspectives on socio-economic impacts of power-plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary focus of this research effort was to identify and measure the socioeconomic impacts of power plant development on non-metropolitan host communities. A mail survey, distributed to community leaders in 100 power plant communities east of the Mississippi River, was utilized to gather information from 713 respondents. Community leaders were questioned as to the plant's impact on (a) community groups, (b) aspects of community life, (c) overall community acceptance and (d) attitudes toward power plant development. Overall, the trends and patterns of plant impact on the host communities were found to be largely positive. Specifically, local employment opportunities were generally enhanced with the advent of the power plant. Directly related to power plant development was the overall improvement of the local economic situation. Off-shoots from such in the economic area included related general improvements in the community quality of life. While the vast majority of community leaders responded with positive comments on power plant presence, adverse impacts were also mentioned. Negative comments focused on environmental problems, deterioration of roads and traffic conditions, and the possibility of nuclear accidents. Despite these negative impacts, almost two-thirds of the community leaders would definitely support the reconstruction of the same energy facility. Power plant development, therefore, is generally perceived as both a positive and beneficial asset for tboth a positive and beneficial asset for the host area. (author)

  9. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  10. ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL HEALTH AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OFLARGE AVIAN INFLUENZA EPIDEMICS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soewarta Kosen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of potential health and economic impacts from large epidemics on avian flu in Indonesia had been conducted using several sources including data from health, agriculture, tourism and transportation sectors. This analysis aimed to socialize the understanding on negative impacts and the size of burden if a large epidemic happened in lndonesia. It was estimated 43.2 million people will suffer from avian flu with a total deaths in the first two weeks at about 525.000 persons and 605.000 cases need hospitalized in the first 2 (two months of epidemics. The cost needed for case managements reach 539.9 million US Dollars. In agriculture sector, the direct lost because of disease or stumping out of poultry reached 97.2 million US Dollars and the preventing cost using vaccines for poultry is 74.7 million US Dollars. In tourism sector. the losses reached 8.6 million Dollars and in transportation sector reached 1.7 milliard US Dollars just in the first two months. The negative impact will increase if the epidemic was in a long duration or the virus type is more virulent. So the government and community efforts to do promotion and preventive activities including preventing the virus transmission in poultry, to protect if the epidemic starts and to decrease the negative impacts for community health is important to manage the situation. Key words: economic, health, impacts, avian flu, large epidemics

  11. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 39 papers contained in Vol. 3, 3 were inputted to INIS. They deal with the use of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers in the determination of building material contamination by toxic elements, with underground waste repositories and ground water contamination, and the impact of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the hydrosphere and other environmental components. (Z.S.)

  12. The impact of the economic crisis on migrations flows between Italy and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosetti, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the impact of the current economic crisis on migration flows is not a trivial issue due to the interplay of several determinants. So far, there is little statistical evidence on the nature and magnitude of this impact and only hypotheses and scenarios can be advanced. This paper aims to fill this gap by trying to assess the effects of the crisis on migration flows between North African countries and Italy. By using up-to-date empirical data and statistics, we find evidence of a ...

  13. Using the EU-SILC to model the impact of the economic crisis on inequality

    OpenAIRE

    O Donoghue, Cathal; Loughrey, Jason; Morrissey, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we attempted to chart the impact of the early part of Ireland's economic crisis from 2008-2010 on the distribution of income. In order to decompose the impact of components of income, we utilised a microsimulation methodology the EU-SILC User Database. In order to do this we had to develop a simulation based methodology to disaggregate the main 6 benefit variables in the EU-SILC into 17 used in our tax-benefit model. Validating, our results were positive, giving us confidence in...

  14. An Examination of the Impacts of Fiscal Decentralization on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Amagoh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal decentralization is said to offer a number of benefits for public sector governance, including growth, accountability and responsiveness of government officials to local demands and needs. However, there has been debate about the effects of fiscal decentralization on macroeconomic performance and growth. In this paper, we examine both sides of the arguments and posit that while there are many benefits to be gained from fiscal decentralization, its impacts on economic growth is constrained by a number of factors that are based on the contexts of the societies/economies involved. Hence the positive impact of fiscal decentralization on growth depends on the context and the society/economy.

  15. A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest villages in Iran named Maymand. The results indicate that there is a strong positive relationship, 0.873, between developing economy and tourism. In other word, developing tourism industry will help create more jobs, increase land prices, increase people's income and flourish environment. There is also a positive correlation, 0.854, between social development and tourism industry. This means we could expect a better health care system as well as medical treatment facilities, which helps prevent immigration to big cities.

  16. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Ahmad, Md Khadzir Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). PMID:24682070

  17. Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The core objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI on the economic development of Bangladesh. To attain the objective, this paper has conducted statistical analyses of the relationships between FDI and its impact on selected macroeconomic indicators such as Gross Domestic Product, Inflation Rate, and Balance of Trade. The study has examined time series data over a period of fifteen years, from 1999 to 2013. Multiple Regression Analyses were utilized to measure the relationship between independent (FDI and dependent variables (macroeconomic indicators. The results obtained in this research signify a negative correlation between FDI and economic growth and may be a concern for the government of Bangladesh. The government might focus on required reforms and policy implications to make foreign investment more beneficial.

  18. The Economic and Social Impacts of Electronic Commerce: Preliminary Findings and Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic Commerce has been in existence for little more than three years, but due to its enormous capacity to affect "economic activities and social environments," it has already had a huge impact on retail, finance, and communications, representing 30 percent of GDP. This 156-page report from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development examines the past and potential impact that e-commerce promises to have on business and the economy. The report is broken into five chapters, which need to be downloaded separately, including "Growth of electronic commerce: present and potential," "Electronic commerce, jobs and skills," and "Societal implications of electronic commerce," each with its own set of charts and graphs. A report summary is also included.

  19. Community-based ecotourism: Its socio-economic impacts at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshun Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lacuna in literature from Western Africa on how issue of participation influence socio-economic impacts at ecotourism destinations. This paper investigates the socio-economic impacts of ecotourism based on Boabeng- Fiema Monkey Sanctuary in Ghana. The paper is based on primary data generated from Boabeng and Fiema communities. Seventy mainly opened-ended questionnaires were administered face-to-face to purposively selected residents from the two communities, alongside, in-depth interviews with the management of the Sanctuary and focus group with purposively selected individuals from Boabeng and Fiema. The study reveals that the residents of the communities face burgeoning challenges such as shrinking livelihood options, inadequate involvement of community in the ecotourism, poor state of the visitor centre, inadequate government support and poor roads.

  20. HEALTH AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION:NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The WHO report of ambient air pollution, 2014, ranks Delhi as the most polluted city in the world. There is now an increasing global concern over the public health impacts attributed to environ- mental pollution. Many epidemio- logical studies have confirmed a link between air pollution and disease such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases, immature births, Parkinson’s diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, lung cancer and even depression. There is also an economic cost of high levels of air pollution in Delhi in terms of medical expenses lost wages and averting expenditure to prevent exposure. This paper makes a modest attempt to analyse the health and economic impact of a pollution in National Capital Territory.

  1. Bank Savings and Bank Credits in Nigeria: Determinants and Impact on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orji Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the determinants of bank savings in Nigeria as well as examined the impact of bank savings and bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth from 1970-2006. We adopted two impact models; Distributed Lag-Error Correction Model (DL-ECM and Distributed Model. The empirical results showed a positive influence of values of GDP per capita (PCY, Financial Deepening (FSD, Interest Rate Spread (IRS and negative influence of Real Interest Rate (RIR and Inflation Rate (INFR on the size of private domestic savings. Also a positive relationship exists between the lagged values of total private savings, private sector credit, public sector credit, interest rate spread, exchange rates and economic growth. We therefore recommend, among others, that government’s effort should be geared towards improving per capita income by reducing the unemployment rate in the country in a bid to accelerate growth through enhanced savings.

  2. Modeling the economic impact of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Cobden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available David S Cobden1, Louis W Niessen2, Frans FH Rutten1, W Ken Redekop11Department of Health Policy and Management, Section of Health Economics – Medical Technology Assessment (HE-MTA, Erasmus MC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USAAims: While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis.Methods: We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM and oral (OAD medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1 and one which incorporated it (analysis 2. Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Results: In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY. This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM.Conclusions: Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be ­considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health ­economic outcomes, and validation of different approaches to modeling adherence, is warranted.Keywords: economics, modeling, adherence, diabetes, cost-effectiveness

  3. Social and economic impacts of the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant: a confirmatory technology assessment. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trojan nuclear plant located 32 miles northwest of Portland, Oregon was chosen for a case study. A background of the physical, demographic, economic, and political context of the communities is provided. This is followed by an evaluation of the impacts of plant construction and operation including local taxation, employment, business activity and income, demography, public utilities and transportation, land use, housing, recreation, culture and lifestyle, public safety, education, health care, and politics and institutions

  4. The impact of international trade flows on economic growth in Brazilian states

    OpenAIRE

    Selin Özyurt; Marie Daumal

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of trade openness on the economic growth of Brazilian states according to their initial income level. This empiri- cal study covers 26 Brazilian states over the period 1989-2002. Growth rates of Brazilian states are modeled as dependent on international trade flows and a set of control variables such as initial income level, human capital, private and public physical capital, growth rate of labor force and a number of inter- action terms with trade openness. Thi...

  5. Foreign direct investment in China: It's sectoral and aggregate impact on Economic growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Agya Adi, Atabani; Friday Ogbole, Ogbole

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on the economic growth of China via selected sector of the economy. The time frame used is from 1995 to 2010. Times series data drawn from the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy are used for the analyses. Ordinary least Square multiple linear regression Econometrics models are specified and estimated using E-views statistical software (version7). The Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin (SPSS) unit root tests ...

  6. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of technical and non-technical literature has addressed in the last two decades. However, contradictory results between individual studies abound. Extensive and transparent reviews concerning this contentious...

  7. The Impact of Tribal Colleges in the Economic Development of Tribal Communities: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The essay examines a fairly new phenomenon in American Education: Tribal Colleges. As unique institutions of higher learning, established to specifically address educational and cultural needs of American Indians, they play a pivotal role in individual student and tribal community empowerment. It will be illustrated in-depth how one particular Tribal College – Salish Kootenai College – positively impacts and greatly contributes to the economic development of its tribal community.

  8. Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffar, A

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality), nutrition (balanced feed) r...

  9. Economic Impact of Tissue Testing and Treatments of Metastatic NSCLC in the Era of Personalized Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Donna M.; Leighl, Natasha B.

    2014-01-01

    A paradigm-shift in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has resulted in many new therapies becoming available for patients with advanced disease. Stratification of treatment by histologic and molecular subtype is recommended to obtain the greatest clinical benefit for patients while minimizing adverse effects of treatment. However, these advances in diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC have come at a financial cost. This review highlights the economic impact of screening for mole...

  10. Economic Impacts of Global Warming : The Case of the Barents Sea Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Regional analyses of possible physical and biological effects of global warming in the Barents Sea area have been carried out recently. Based on such studies possible economic impacts of global warming on the Barents Sea fisheries have been quantified, assuming different types of management regimes. The EconSimp2000 model, consisting of the ecosystem model AggMult and the fleet model EconMult have been parameterized based on fleet and catch records from the Norwegian Barents Sea fisheries. Th...

  11. THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA; Gombarume, Fungai B.; KOSMAS NJANIKE; ANXIOUS CHARIKINYA

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the soc...

  12. The impact of the economic and financial crisis on the foreign trade in metallurgical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C?runtu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The manifestation of the global financial crisis severely affected the foreign trade worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the financial and economic crisis on foreign trade at the level of countries and groups ofcountries that have global leadership in the area, with an emphasis on the metallurgical products. The analysis results show that this branch was affected to a higher percentage compared to the amount of the value of the trade in goods.

  13. The impact of the economic and financial crisis on the foreign trade in metallurgical products

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?runtu, C.; Dobrota?, G.

    2013-01-01

    The manifestation of the global financial crisis severely affected the foreign trade worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the financial and economic crisis on foreign trade at the level of countries and groups ofcountries that have global leadership in the area, with an emphasis on the metallurgical products. The analysis results show that this branch was affected to a higher percentage compared to the amount of the value of the trade in goods.

  14. The impact of the financial and economic crisis on world trade and trade policy

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Louise; Escaith, Hubert; Hallaert, Jean-jacques; Barfield, Claude; Evenett, Simon J.; Koopmann, Georg

    2009-01-01

    This Forum is dedicated to a discussion of the effects of the global financial and economic crisis on both international trade and trade policy. What changes could be observed in the volume and structure of trade and what transmission channels were involved? Has the international competitiveness of the European Union and its member countries been affected? What has been the impact of the crisis on trade policy? Are the widespread fears of a revival of protectionism justified? How can trade po...

  15. European forests and carbon sequestration services: an economic assessment of climate change impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Helen; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Teelucksingh, Sonja S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an original economic valuation of the impact of climate change on the provision of forest regulating services in Europe. To the authors' knowledge the current paper represents the first systematic attempt to estimate human well-being losses with respect to changes in biodiversity and forest regulating services that are directly driven by climate change. First, selected 34 European countries are grouped by their latitude intervals to capture the differentiated regional effec...

  16. Modelling of an impact of investment maintenance on the condition of economic protectability of industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Alekseyev, I.; Khoma, I.; Shpak, N.

    2013-01-01

    There was substantiated the necessity of im¬plementation of a modelling of an impact of investment mainte¬nance on the condition of economic protectability of industrial enterprises with the participation of estimation of cost of investments and investment projects, the mechanism of purchase and sale of securities and conclusion of option contracts that allows to rationally manage the profitability of investment programs, fully ensuring the protectability of entrepreneurship of each subject...

  17. “Socio-economic impact of graduate unemployment on Nigeria and the vision 20:2020

    OpenAIRE

    Eneji, M. A.; Mai-lafia, D.; Weiping, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main research question for this study is; what is the relationship between social policy, economic development, education, and the level of unemployment in the Nigerian economy? This study contributes information to employers, investors, policy makers, labor planners, academicians, employees and the job seekers. We attempt to evaluate the impact of the high level of unemployment in the country on Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020. The methods of analysis include graphs, tables, pie charts, p...

  18. Empirical Study on the Impact of Domestic Economic Cycle on Sichuan’s Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Junrong Liu; Qin Yan

    2012-01-01

    This article empirically enquires, from the perspective of demand, the impact of economic cyclical fluctuation on Sichuan tourism. The findings show that Sichuan tourism demand proves elastic to CPI, Sichuan’s GNI capita and interest rate, and that CPI and interest rate fluctuations are negatively correlated with Sichuan domestic tourism demand, while, with which Sichuan’s GNI capita is positively associated. The study also finds that per capita national income and the local consumer pric...

  19. Attracting investors: Case of impact of FDI on the achievements of economic growth in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Kbiltsetskhlashvili, Tea

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the role and importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Georgia after transition period and its' impact on economic growth of the country and analysing ways for attracting FDI. It focuses on effectiveness of investment climate in Georgia after transition period and on analysis of results of global crisis on Georgia's investment. Despite the improvement of the investment climate in Georgia, there still remain a number of persistent problems on which FDI cannot maximize...

  20. The Impacts of Sino-US Trade on China’s Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Xie

    2014-01-01

    China has witnessed many exciting changes after the Chinese government adopted reform and opening-up policy in 1978. In this process, the United States has a positive influence on China’s economic growth. Traditional view thinks that the influence of exports on China's GDP growth is greater than imports, but the result of regression analysis shows that imports have a greater impact on China’s GDP growth rather than the exports. Based on the statistics from 1998-2007...

  1. Impact of HIV/ AIDS on Economic Growth and Development in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Danjuma Maijama’a; Bashir Kachalla Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and development in Nigeria using primary and time series data. It also looked at the effect of the epidemic on savings and standard of living. To obtain the primary data, a total of 360 respondents comprising 180 persons infected with HIV/AIDS and 180 uninfected persons were selected using stratified sampling technique. The primary data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages and chi-square test. In analyzing the time serie...

  2. The economic growth impact of hurricanes: evidence from US coastal counties

    OpenAIRE

    Strobl, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We estimate for the first time the impact of hurricane strikes on local economic growth rates and how this is reflected in more aggregate growth patterns. To this end we assemble a panel data set of US coastal counties' growth rates and construct a novel hurricane destruction index that is based on a monetary loss equation, local wind speed estimates derived from a physical wind field model, and local exposure characteristics. Our econometric results suggest that in response to a hurricane st...

  3. The Impact of Tax Incentives on the Economic Activity of Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Harju, Jarkko; Kosonen, Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of Finnish tax reforms in the mid 1990s on the economic activity and tax avoidance decisions of the owners of small businesses. The reforms reduced income tax rates and increased tax planning incentives for small business owners. They applied only to unincorporated firms. We utilize both a theoretical model and empirical data. The empirical strategy is to use the reforms as a natural experiment to estimate the causal impact of the reforms. The results imply that ...

  4. Globalisation’s ugly stepsister : estimating some economic impacts of localisation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Breitenbach, Marthinus C.; Slabbert, Tielman J. C.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern that globalisation is unable to address unemployment and alleviate poverty sufficiently to achieve the targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Increasing numbers of development economists and practitioners advocate some or other policy favouring the localisation of economic activity in local communities. The authors’ research and policy impact analysis are rooted in the sincere belief that localisation, as defined in this paper, is required alongside ...

  5. Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth of Nigeria: A Time Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    G.N. Ogbonna; Appah Ebimobowei

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of tax reforms on the economic growth of Nigeria from 1994 to 2009. To achieve the objective of the study, relevant secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin, Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Office of the Accountant General of the Federation, and other relevant government agencies. The data collected were analysed using relevant descriptive statistics and econometric models such as White test, Ramsey RESET te...

  6. The Impact of Corruption on Sustainable Economic Growth and Development in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajie, H. A.; Wokekoro, O. E.

    2012-01-01

    The continuous outcry of the citizens on the evils of corruption and its consequences on national development motivated this study. The major objective of this study was to examine the impact of corruption on sustainable economic growth and development of Nigeria. Data were drawn chiefly from secondary sources and subjected to econometrics tool of ordinary least square techniques. The major finding among others are weak institution of government; dysfunctional legal system; lack of transparen...

  7. The economic impact of electricity conservation policies: A case study of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor

    2011-01-01

    As electricity is an essential input in almost every production process, it is essential to quantify the impact of economic policies aimed at electricity conservation on the output. This research investigates the e®ect of unanticipated shocks in electricity consumption, technical e±ciency, and electricity price on the value added in the heterogenous service and industrial sectors, under a demand side model. Ireland is utilized as a case study as it is pursuing ambitious electrici...

  8. Support for agriculture during economic transformation: Impacts on poverty and undernutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health ri...

  9. Economic analysis of the environmental impact on marine cage lobster aquaculture in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Nguyen Thi Y.

    2009-01-01

    In Vietnam, marine cage lobster aquaculture has been expanding significantly over the last years. Besides the economic contribution for locals living in the coastal areas in Central of Vietnam, this industry has created some problems that are relating to the marine environmental protection where trash fish feed is predominant. This paper investigates the environmental impact on cage marine lobster aquaculture in Vietnam by using the Change of Productivity method in which nitrogen releasing fr...

  10. Economic and Environmental Impacts Analyses of Regional Widespread Use of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Liangsen Deng; Yuanbiao Zhang; Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    We focused on the economic and environmental impacts of regional widespread use of Electric Vehicles (EV). Massive introduction of battery and plug-in hybrid EV will affect the regional energy consumption significantly and therefore, influence environment situations. In this study, we adopted performance price ratio to evaluate cost effectiveness of conventional vehicles and electric vehicles and introduced Grey Relational Analysis method to evaluate environmental changes. Sensitivity analyse...

  11. The economic impact of health care provision: a CGE assessment for the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, Martine

    2004-01-01

    This thesis seeks to determine the macro-economic impacts of changes in health care provision, whilst recognising the simultaneous effects of consequent changes in health on effective labour supplies and the resource claims made by the health care sector. The resource allocation issues have been explored in theory, by developing an extension of the standard Rybczynski theorem from a low-dimension Heckscher-Ohlin framework, and empirically, by developing a Computable General Equilibrium model,...

  12. Economic and environmental impacts of several retrofit options for residential buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Gendebien, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, important efforts are deployed to reduce our actual residential building consumption which represents about 40% (25% for the residential sector and 15% for the non-residential sector) of the total energy consumption in Europe. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental and economical impact of several retrofit options for residential buildings. Our study focuses on the Walloon Region of Belgium. A “bottom-up” methodology is applied: this methodology fo...

  13. The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Industrialization of Least Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaeddin, Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    The author examines the impact of the external shock resulting from recent global economic crisis on industrialization of least developed countries. LDCs are marginalized in international trade and output, yet they are highly integrated into the world economy, suffer from structural weaknesses, balance of payments and fiscal constraints; and they are dependent on production and exports of primary commodities and external sources of finance. The commodity boom of 2003-08 which allowed them to ...

  14. Health Impacts and Economic Evaluations of Maternal and Child Health Programs in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is motivated by two of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): MDG 4, focused on reducing child mortality, and MDG 5, which aims to improve maternal health. My three papers evaluate the health and economic impact, and cost-effectiveness, of interventions to improve maternal and child health in three areas of the developing world using methods from decision sciences and statistics. In paper 1, I use a decision-analytic model that simulates the natural history ...

  15. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

  16. The Impact of Economic Capital, Social Capital and Cultural Capital: Chinese Families’ Access to Educational Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jingbo Fan

    2014-01-01

    Family background can influence an individual’s access to educational resources. Specifically, an advantaged family background can promote an individual’s access to educational resources. This study constructs a model to analyze the impact of the economic, social and cultural capital of Chinese families on their children’s education. The results show that all three types of capital have significant effects on individual education but a family’s cultural capital has the strongest effec...

  17. A reevaluation of the impact of financial development on economic growth and its sources by regions

    OpenAIRE

    Dabos, Marcelo; Williams, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    This work estimates the impact of Private Credit to the private sector and Liquid Liabilities (as measures of financial development) on economic growth, capital growth and productivity growth for different regions. Estimations are conducted with a panel database of 78 countries and 35 years using GMM system estimator method for dynamic panel data, correcting by Windme¼er (2005) robust errors and using fewer and relevant instruments compared to the established procedure in the lit...

  18. Reflections on the Impact of the New Economic, Sociological and Historical Institutionalism in Institutional Social Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-hernandez, Jose? G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper intends to make a reflection and analysis of the impact of theoretical and methodological frameworks of reference on different neo-institutional approaches in social policy. The paper questions the functionality and continuity of the institutions that are responsible for the functions of designing and implementing programs of social policy, given the profound changes on the environment of economic globalization processes. The method used primarily focuses on critical analysis and r...

  19. IMPACT OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR ON THE CURRENT ZIMBABWEAN ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Clainos Chidoko; Garikai Makuyana; Paul Matungamire; Joseph Bemani

    2011-01-01

    The paper sought to investigate the economic impact of the informal sector in the Zimbabwean economy. It was discovered that the informal sector is very significant in its contribution to the development of the Zimbabwean economy. However the small entrepreneurs find difficulties in their operations because of the lack of capital and collateral. Given their significance in the economy, the paper suggests that these businesses should be assisted by the relevant stakeholders to graduate from ...

  20. Charcoal production technologies: Environmental and socio-economic impacts with Brazilian examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indirect use of solar energy through photosynthesis, wood and charcoal requires reforestation with fast-growing species to supply continuously charcoal for industrial and domestic needs. This concept, sometimes referred to as an energy farms, is the conversion of sunshine into food, fibre, furniture, paper and pulp products. It the charcoal production uses primitive, low-yield technologies, it endangers the economic viability of the wood energy source and causes negative environmental impacts. 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.)

  2. ????????????????? The Impact of the Economic Restructuring on the Demand of the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“?????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The economic restructuring and barriers to labor mobility are the most important market constrains when it comes to analyzing employment for they dynamically change the demand and supply of the labor market. Due to various internal and external factors the economic growth, featuring high energy consumption and high investment, is becoming unsustainable, so the economic restructuring is pressing. This article summarized the non-equilibrium structural changes in China and discussed the impact on the labor demand of the changes in industrial structures, foreign trade, urbanization, income growth and demography. To be specific, as the structure of three industries is moving forward to “three, two, one”, a large number of surplus labor in agriculture needs to be transferred. The low-end manufacturing is struggling because of shrinking foreign trade and soaring production cost, but the service industry has a large demand for labor force. Urbanization promotes city building, public services, infrastructure construction, financial services, high-end manufacturing, software design and other industries. The income growth inevitably leads to corresponding changes in consumption structure. For example, the consumption of household appliances and communication devices upgrade. The demand for the elderly services will also develop with the aging of the population. All these changes will exert impacts on the demands for the related labor markets. As the economic restructuring accelerates, laborers also need to improve their quality and skills so as to meet the requirements of the labor markets.

  3. Economic impact from unrestricted spread of potato cyst nematodes in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodda, M; Cook, D C

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACT Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) (Globodera spp.) are quarantine pests with serious potential economic consequences. Recent new detections in Australia, Canada, and the United States have focussed attention on the consequences of spread and economic justifications for alternative responses. Here, a full assessment of the economic impact of PCN spread from a small initial incursion is presented. Models linking spread, population growth, and economic impact are combined to estimate costs of spread without restriction in Australia. Because the characteristics of the Australian PCN populations are currently unknown, the known ranges of parameters were used to obtain cost scenarios, an approach which makes the model predictions applicable generally. Our analysis indicates that mean annual costs associated with spread of PCN would increase rapidly initially, associated with increased testing. Costs would then increase more slowly to peak at over AUD$20 million per year approximately 10 years into the future. Afterward, this annual cost would decrease slightly due to discounting factors. Mean annual costs over 20 years were $18.7 million, with a 90% confidence interval between AUD$11.9 million and AUD$27.0 million. Thus, cumulative losses to Australian agriculture over 20 years may exceed $370 million without action to prevent spread of PCN and entry to new areas. PMID:19900005

  4. Impact of mining projects on the socio-economics of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining of mineral deposits, if exploited economically, would generate prospects of significant employment of non-inflationary nature, in developing countries. Exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits contributes in developing inaccessible regions thereby improving socio-economics of the region benefiting the local inhabitants and supplementing the efforts towards national integration. However, an indifferent attitude of the project management towards environment and welfare of local population will result in clash of interests and perpetual litigations which not only impede progress of the project but also lead to law and order problems. A precondition for successful implementation of any project is to understand the possible impact it has, on the socio-economics of the region and educate the local inhabitants to derive optimum advantage from the project. In this paper, two cases of mining projects, one located remotely and the other close to a well developed city are studied and their impact on the socio-economics of the respective regions is presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS: CAUSES, IMPACT ON INDIAN ECONOMY, AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apu Das, Kumar N.R., Biswajit Debnath and Mandal S.C.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis started in United States of America mainly due to ‘sub-prime mortgages’ where interest rate was slower down and there was a great demand for housing loans. Later, American banks repackaged this debt to worldwide financial instruments called ‘Collateralized debt obligations’ and sold them worldwide, which resulted in unaffordable mortgage payments and many people defaulted or undertook foreclosure. Then this mortgages crisis affected worldwide. Different views on the reasons of the crisis include sub-prime mortgage, securitization and repackaging of loans, excessive leverage, mismatch between financial innovation and regulation, fair value accounting rules, typical characteristics of US financial system, failure of global corporate governance & complex interplay of multiple factors. Developed countries have so far been the most affected, with a decline in FDI inflows in 2008, mainly due to sluggish market prospects. Flows into developing economies continued to grow in 2008, but at a much lower rate than the year before. Indian economy and agriculture cannot be completely insulated from the global and domestic economic recessions. The impact of economic crisis on Indian agriculture and fisheries were transmitted through three distinct channels, viz., financial sector, exports and exchange rates, and the impact manifests itself in several direct and indirect ways. Some of the impacts were decreased GDP growth rate, high inflation, FDI inflows and international trade.

  6. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authoritystent with policy making authority

  7. Economism

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, P.

    2010-01-01

    Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of peopl...

  8. Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G. Sivasankaran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH content in testis was observed. This combination was found to be decreased Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD activity in testis. Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substrate (TBARS and Catalase (CAT Activity were observed to be increased in testis. In contrast, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx activity was decreased in testis. The results are discussed in detail.

  9. An analysis of China's coal supply and its impact on China's future economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many people believe that China's economic growth can continue almost indefinitely. For a manufacturing-based economy such as China's to continue to grow, it needs an adequate supply of inexpensive energy. To date, this energy growth has primarily come from coal, but China's indigenous coal supplies are now falling short of the amount needed to support this growth. In this situation, the status of China's future coal supply will be very important for China's future economic development. Our analysis shows that China's ultimate recoverable coal reserves equal 223.6×109 MT, and its production will peak between 2025 and 2030, with peak production of approximately 3.9×109 MT. The extent to which China can import coal in the future is uncertain. With rising coal demand, this combination is likely to create a significant challenge to China's future economic development. - Highlights: ? We analyze an issue of prime importance for the future of China's economy. ? The decline in coal supply will present a challenge to China's economic growth. ? Rising coal price will also have an adverse impact on economic growth

  10. The Ghost of Development Past: the Impact of Economic Security Policies on Saami Pastoral Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel G. Yoccoz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was accompanied by reindeer herd accumulation and a corresponding degradation of resilience, increasing the susceptibility to herd losses to predators and adverse winters. For the last 20 years the Norwegian government has worked to halt degradation of pasture ecosystems and reduce susceptibility to environmental risks. These intended win-win policies have mainly been based on economic incentives, which have been developed together with Saami pastoralists through negotiated agreements. We argue that the continued degradation of the Saami pastoral ecosystems is a "ghost of the development past", as the big push policies have resulted in an economic security trap (EST. The gradual reduction of resilience has persisted as the ex post payments of disaster relief and predator compensation have impeded the long-term actions to reduce susceptibility to environmental risks, i.e., ex ante policies, thereby increasing dependency on elevated economic inputs to manage the risks. The transfer of liability for managing risks to the benefactor, both through ex ante and ex post policies, has further discouraged and constrained opportunities for adaptation by the pastoralists.

  11. The Economic Impacts of Pollinator Declines: An Approach to Assessing the Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truman P. Phillips

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Since agricultural activities were first recorded, there have been shortages of pollinators. Today it seems that pollination systems in many areas of agriculture are threatened by the inadequacy or lack of sustainable managed, indigenous, or imported pollinators. Pollinator shortages can adversely affect crop production and commodity markets. This paper presents an economic model than can be used to measure some of the economic impacts of pollinator deficits on traded commodities. This economic analysis indicates that consumers of a commodity affected by a pollinator deficit may suffer because the commodity costs more and becomes less available. At the same time, although the producers of the affected commodity may experience crop declines, they may also experience economic gains in the form of higher prices. The amount the producer gains or loses depends on the shape of the supply and demand functions, and the magnitude of these losses or gains is an empirical question. Although there are few data available to evaluate this model, those we do have indicate that serious problems for world food supply, security, and trade could be in the offing if current declines in pollinator abundance, diversity, and availability are not reversed. Various crops and cropping systems are suggested as practical starting places for economic studies of the effects of pollinator declines, with emphasis on the type of data required.

  12. Impact of Workers' Remittances on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study of Pakistan’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Bin Dilshad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan like other developing countries in the world is known for its high migration and workers’ remittance. Ingeneral it is considered that workers’ remittances are the important source for external finance and economicgrowth but many studies conducted on the same topic revealed some positive, negative and neutral responses ofworkers’ remittances toward economic growth. It is also argued that the high migration rate in any countryrepresents the poor economic conditions of that country. This study identifies the impact of workers’ remittanceson economic growth of Pakistan by analyzing time series data of twenty two years from 1991 to 2012.Regression model has been used to identify the relationship between the variables. The results conclude thatthere exist a significant positive relationship between workers’ remittances and economic growth in Pakistanand it has been recommended for policy implication that Pakistan should encourage and motivate the flow ofworkers’ remittances and adopt such policies that insist remitter to send money through proper channels so thatthese flows can be utilized in a better way for economic growth and development.

  13. Impact of the economic recession on the European power sector's CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the impact of the economic recession on CO2 emissions in the European power sector, during the years 2008 and 2009. Three main determinants of the power sector's emissions are identified: the demand for electricity, the CO2 price, and fuel prices. A counterfactual scenario has been set up for each of these, i.e., what these parameters would have been if not affected by the recession. A simulation model of the European power sector is then employed, comparing a historical reference simulation (taking the parameters as actually occurred) with the counterfactual scenarios. The lower electricity demand (due to the recession) is shown to have by far the largest impact, accounting for an emission reduction of about 175 Mton. The lower CO2 price (due to the recession) resulted in an increase in emissions by about 30 Mton. The impact of fuel prices is more difficult to retrieve; an indicative reduction of about 17 Mton is obtained, mainly as a consequence of the low gas prices in 2009. The simulated combined impact of the parameters results in an emission reduction of about 150 Mton in the European power sector over the years 2008 and 2009 as a consequence of the recession. - Research highlights: ? CO2 emissions are simulated for the European power sector. ? Emissions reduced drastically because of the economic recession in 2008 and 2009. ? Lower electricity demand had highest impact and accounts for red highest impact and accounts for reduction of about 175 Mton. ? Impact of different CO2 and fuel prices on emissions is more limited.

  14. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2014-12-18

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the economy. This report quantifies these effects, providing detailed information on PNNL’s revenues and expenditures, as well as the impacts of its activities on the rest of the Washington State economy. This report also describes the impacts of the four closely related activities: health care spending, spinoff companies with roots in PNNL, visitors to the Laboratory, and PNNL retirees.

  15. Socio-economic and other non-radiological impacts of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to introduce, in a generic sense, the elements that could comprise a socio-economic and non-radiological environmental impact assessment. The various social, economic and environmental impacts that could be associated with surface and near surface disposal are discussed through factors that could apply at the local, regional or national level. Impact management is also discussed. The report also introduces concepts to help Member States develop their own approaches to undertaking impact assessment and management. The report is intended to complement IAEA documents on the technology and safety aspects of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The scope of this report includes a discussion of a range of social, economic and nonradiological environmental impacts relevant to surface and near surface disposal and illustrations of some impact management measures

  16. Exchange rate volatility and oil prices shocks and its impact on economic sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of exchange rate volatility has received a great attention from the last century, its importance is certain in all sectors of the economy and it affects welfare as well as social life of the economy. Exchange rate between two currencies tells the value of one currency in terms of others one. Depreciation/Appreciation of exchange rate affects economic growth in terms of trade and shifts income to/from exporting countries from/to importing countries. The factors affecting exchange rate are inflation, interest rate, foreign direct investment, government consumption expenditure and balance of trade. This research study examines the impact of oil prices and exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Germany based on 40-year annual data. Cointegration technique is applied to check the impact of macroeconomic variables on exchange rate in the long run and short run. It is estimated that imports, exports, inflation, interest rate, government consumption expenditure and foreign direct investment had significant impacts on real effective exchange rate in the long run and short run. Sin addition, Engle Granger results indicate that relationship was significant for the long run and its error correction adjustment mechanism (ECM in short a run is significant and correctly signed for Germany.

  17. Socio-economic implications of climate change: Canadian climate impacts program study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of results of the Canadian Climate Impacts Program series of studies examining the socio-economic impacts of climate change. In the Great Lakes basin, climate change may impact on numerous economic sectors. Lower lake levels could result in increased dredging of ports and channels or reduced cargo loads. Lower lake levels added to increased use of water could result in a loss of 4,165 GWh of power generation for the Canadian hydro-electric generating stations on the Great Lakes. A warmer climate may lead to crop failures in the agricultural heartlands of Ontario, as the advantages of higher temperature may be offset by moisture stress. The downhill ski industry may be decimated in southern Ontario. Rising sea levels may cause increased risk of storm surges and river flooding in the coastal areas of Canada. A warmer climate would probably be beneficial to aquaculture and allow longer inshore fishing seasons. Costs to oil and gas exploration due to sea ice and icebergs would be practically eliminated. Results for the Praire provinces were mixed: one study concluded that impacts would be minimal while another predicted a moderate reduction in spring wheat potential. 24 refs., 1 fig

  18. Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ? We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ? Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ? Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ? Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

  19. Economic impacts of climate change on agriculture: the AgMIP approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincé, Jacques; Ciaian, Pavel; Witzke, Heinz-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The current paper investigates the long-term global impacts on crop productivity under different climate scenarios using the AgMIP approach (Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project). The paper provides horizontal model intercomparison from 11 economic models as well as a more detailed analysis of the simulated effects from the Common Agricultural Policy Regionalized Impact (CAPRI) model to systematically compare its performance with other AgMIP models and specifically for the Chinese agriculture. CAPRI is a comparative static partial equilibrium model extensively used for medium and long-term economic and environmental policy impact applications. The results indicate that, at the global level, the climate change will cause an agricultural productivity decrease (between -2% and -15% by 2050), a food price increase (between 1.3% and 56%) and an expansion of cultivated area (between 1% and 4%) by 2050. The results for China indicate that the climate change effects tend to be smaller than the global impacts. The CAPRI-simulated effects are, in general, close to the median across all AgMIP models. Model intercomparison analyses reveal consistency in terms of direction of change to climate change but relatively strong heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effects between models.

  20. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever: Research Gaps and Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, M; Chevalier, V; Abdo-Salem, S; Velthuis, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Thiry, E; Roger, F

    2014-09-24

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to evaluate them. Of the 52 papers selected for this review, 13 types of socio-economic impact were identified according to the sector impacted, the level and temporal scale of the impact. RVF has a dramatic impact on producers and livestock industries, affecting public and animal health, food security and the livelihood of the pastoralist communities. RVF also has an impact on international trade and other agro-industries. The risk of introducing RVF into disease-free countries via the importation of an infected animal or mosquito is real, and the consequent restriction of access to export markets may induce dramatic economic consequences for national and local economies. Despite the important threat of RVF, few studies have been conducted to assess the socio-economic impact of the disease. The 17 studies identified for quantitative analysis in this review relied only on partial cost analysis, with limited reference to mid- and long-term impact, public health or risk mitigation measures. However, the estimated impacts were high (ranging from $5 to $470 million USD losses). To reduce the impact of RVF, early detection and rapid response should be implemented. Comprehensive disease impact studies are required to provide decision-makers with science-based information on the best intervention measure to implement ensuring efficient resource allocation. Through the analysis of RVF socio-economic impact, this scoping study proposes insights into the mechanisms underpinning its often-underestimated importance. This study highlights the need for comparative socio-economic studies to help decision-makers with their choices related to RVF disease management. PMID:25256804