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1

Economic Impacts of Increased Defense Spending.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is much debate about the relative performance of the economy when resources are diverted from private sector and Federal Government nondefense programs to the defense sector. To shed light on this issue, an analysis of the economic consequences of v...

K. Swaminatha W. Stout N. Kochman

1982-01-01

2

Economic impact  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

Technology Transfer Department

2001-06-01

3

Economic Recovery vs. Defense Spending.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Evaluates President Reagan's proposed military buildup in light of the cuts such expenditures would necessitate in approximately 300 domestic programs. Suggests that the dramatic proposed increase in military spending risks higher inflation and slower economic growth. Concludes with a plea for rethinking of Reagan's dramatic shift in national…

De Grasse, Robert; Murphy, Paul

1981-01-01

4

Fiscal and economic implications of strategic defenses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estimates of the potential costs of alternative strategic defense systems should be an intrinsic element in decisions about whether the U.S. should develop and deploy these systems, especially because of the ''opportunity costs'' involved-what the nation would have to forgo in other military or civilian programs or in private resources because of higher taxes or larger deficits. In this book, the authors describe four notional strategic defense systems, each with a different ambitious objective, and then estimate their costs. Assumptions and calculations necessary to make the cost estimates are described in specific terms, and the main determinants of the cost of each system are identified. The authors conclude that unless far less expensive ways can be found for building strategic defenses, a decision to deploy such weapons would pose very difficult economic choices for the nation.

Blechman, B.M.; Utgoff, V.A.

1986-01-01

5

Impact of defense conversion and US response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conversion from military to civilian products due to defense conversion after the end of the Cold War takes a long as 20 years. In USA there are over 50 government programs funded to assist in defence conversion. This paper concentrates on the three major programs that will have the greatest impact on the economy, in the framework of the issues and needs of American industry. Federal government and US industry are making a considerable effort to transform how to do business today. One of the most important emerging themes in the federal program is international competitiveness. Large federal expenditures are made to support research and development that will increase productivity, thereby helping industry in global economic competition. This, in turn will play a key role in absorbing a large quantity od resources affected by the end of the Cold War

1994-01-01

6

Economic impact of climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume summarizes the first two of a series of six workshops to investigate the economic impact of climate. These two workshops dealt mainly with input-output and econometric models. Potential for introducing weather and climate variables was discussed. A listing of topics and authors follows: Economic Models and the Identification of Climatic Effects on Economic Processes, Stan Johnson; Economic Modeling, Jim Morgan; Econometric Modeling: State of the Arts for the US Agricultural Industry, Abner Womack; Regional Input-Output Models: Understanding Their Application, Charles Lamphear; Measuring Regional Economic Impact Associated With Unfavorable Conditions During Crop Production Periods: A concept Paper, Charles Lamphear; Possible Applications of Input-Output Models in Climatic Impact Analysis, William Cooter; and Aspects of Input-Output Analysis Pertinent to Climate-Economic Modeling: Three Short Notes, William Cooter. (PSB)

Eddy, A.

1980-05-01

7

Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

1993-01-01

8

Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

Hemphill, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bassett, G.W. Jr. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics

1993-03-01

9

Gulf crisis economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the present time, it's impossible to fully appraise how large the effects of the Persian Gulf crisis will be on the world economy and the global energy systems. However, some facts are emerging from the international economic picture, the importance of which is already recognizable. Their qualitative impacts on the global scenario for the early '90s can already be assessed. In Italy, with the appearance of visible signs of slowdown in the economic activity, the pressure generated by the Persian Gulf crisis on the macro-economic structure may turn out to be unsustainable. If no steady economic policy is taken, such pressure could drive the country out of the European integration plan by 1991.

Bollino, C.A. (ENI, Rome (Italy))

1990-12-01

10

Economic impact of nuclear facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews empirical analyses of the economic impacts on areas surrounding operating nuclear facilities. Until recently, much of the work that addressed the subject of risk perception and potential impacts of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada claimed that there is the possibility of significant negative economic impacts. This paper adds to the ongoing debate drawing on empirical research compiled at existing nuclear facilities which have had actual operating impacts. This information demonstrates that the economic impacts have not necessarily been negative, in fact, in some cases the impacts have been considered very positive. The economic effects of operating nuclear facilities serves as an important element of analysis for estimating economic impacts of future nuclear sites, including the potential impacts of a high-level, radioactive waste site.

Knox, E. [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States); Burnison, S. [Weston/Williams Brothers Engineering Co., Washington, DC (US)

1992-11-01

11

Defense waste processing facility canister impact testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has drop tested seven Defense Waste Processing Facility high-level waste canisters for Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The canisters were filled with simulated waste glass to ?85% capacity and sealed by SRL before being shipped to PNL. Each 304L stainless steel canister was approximately 300 cm (9 ft 10 in.) long, and 61 cm (2 ft) in diameter, and weighed approximately 2150 kg (4740 lb). Each canister was dropped 7 m (23 ft) in two orientations. In the first drop, the canister was oriented vertically to hit the impact pad bottom-first with the canister bottom parallel to the pad. In the second drop, the canister was oriented with its center of gravity over the shoulder corner, and was dropped top-first, hitting the impact pad at an angle. Examinations were performed on the canisters before and after each drop to evaluate the results of each drop independently. The results of this testing are presented.

1989-03-02

12

DEFENSE AND SECURITY EFFECTS OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the end of the Cold War and the events at the beginning of the 21st century, the nature of the threats to national security has changed, the single arch-enemy being replaced by a multitude of shifting, sometimes faceless and unpredictable enemies in the form of terrorism, ethnic and religious disputes, trans-national crime etc. Since 2008, a new aspect has been added to the national security and defense, in the form of the negative effects the current economic crisis may have upon these areas.

Maria CONSTANTINESCU

2011-01-01

13

Defense Spending and Economic Growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates the nexus between defense spending and economic growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan. The empirical analysis is based on integration and cointegration properties of data over the period 1988-2007. The long run relationship between defense spending, economic growth and public debt are identified in a cointegration framework. The paper finds bidirectional causality between economic growth and public debt in China and India; unidirectional causality from defense spending to economic growth in China and Nepal, unidirectional causality from public debt to defense spending in India, and unidirectional causality from economic growth to public debt in Pakistan. The panel Granger causality test, however, confirms the presence of bidirectional causality between public debt and economic growth. The cointegration test at the end suggests that defense spending of a particular country can affect the defense spending of other country.

Rudra Prakash Pradhan

2010-01-01

14

Impact of defensive hostility in cardiovascular disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among the psychosocial factors that may influence the development, maintenance, and progression of cardiovascular disease, defensive hostility as a possible risk factor has received substantial empirical support in recent years. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between defensive hostility and cardiovascular response to stress situations, as a better predictor of cardiovascular functioning than hostility alone. The sample was composed of 130 female university students. The Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory (Ho) and the Spanish version (CRP) of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC) were used to measure defensive hostility. We used the registration system MP150 (Biopac) to measure the physiological variables throughout the 3 experimental phases (adaptation, task, and recovery). The stress task was a real exam. We expected cardiovascular responses, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure to be higher in subjects with high hostility and high defensiveness in all 3 phases. The results reflect that individuals with high hostility and high defensiveness present the highest values in the physiological variables, thus supporting the hypothesis that defensive hostility shows the greatest predictive power in relation to cardiovascular functioning in stressful situations.

Guerrero C; Palmero F

2010-07-01

15

Economic impact of world mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

2002-01-01

16

Socio-economic impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

1978-01-01

17

Economic Impact of Tourism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due toover commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ byman. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact thedestination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable to simple tourist activities. On the road to development, tourism products have alsowitnessed some changes. As the world changed and developed, new necessities were identified. As people became more aware, the needs changedand new tourism products were developed to satisfy these new found needs. The last few years have seen the emergence of new areas in tourism like,special interest tourism, green tourism, eco tourism, social tourism and so on.

Gabriela P?DURE; Ion Adrian TURTUREANU

2005-01-01

18

Economic Impacts of Tourism Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is concerned with the economic impacts of tourism industry, especially in developing countries. Itinitially reviews the concept and using a model, it deals with the factors affecting the economic impactsassociated with tourism. The research findings indicated that with short-term and long-term strategic planningand using the specific abilities and tourism products of developing countries, which suffer from some indices asunemployment, limits in earning and currency flows, inflation and other problems, most of their economicproblems can be solved.

Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

2011-01-01

19

Amphibian immune defenses against chytridiomycosis: impacts of changing environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eco-immunology is the field of study that attempts to understand the functions of the immune system in the context of the host's environment. Amphibians are currently suffering devastating declines and extinctions in nearly all parts of the world due to the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Because chytridiomycosis is a skin infection and remains confined to the skin, immune defenses of the skin are critical for survival. Skin defenses include secreted antimicrobial peptides and immunoglobulins as well as antifungal metabolites produced by symbiotic skin bacteria. Low temperatures, toxic chemicals, and stress inhibit the immune system and may impair natural defenses against B. dendrobatidis. Tadpoles' mouth parts can be infected by B. dendrobatidis. Damage to the mouth parts can impair growth, and the affected tadpoles maintain the pathogen in the environment even when adults have dispersed. Newly metamorphosing frogs appear to be especially vulnerable to infection and to the lethal effects of this pathogen because the immune system undergoes a dramatic reorganization at metamorphosis, and postmetamorphic defenses are not yet mature. Here we review our current understanding of amphibian immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis and the ability of the pathogen to resist those defenses. We also briefly review what is known about the impacts of temperature, environmental chemicals, and stress on the host-pathogen interactions and suggest future directions for research. PMID:21816807

Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Ramsey, Jeremy P; Pask, James D; Reinert, Laura K; Woodhams, Douglas C

2011-08-03

20

Amphibian immune defenses against chytridiomycosis: impacts of changing environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eco-immunology is the field of study that attempts to understand the functions of the immune system in the context of the host's environment. Amphibians are currently suffering devastating declines and extinctions in nearly all parts of the world due to the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Because chytridiomycosis is a skin infection and remains confined to the skin, immune defenses of the skin are critical for survival. Skin defenses include secreted antimicrobial peptides and immunoglobulins as well as antifungal metabolites produced by symbiotic skin bacteria. Low temperatures, toxic chemicals, and stress inhibit the immune system and may impair natural defenses against B. dendrobatidis. Tadpoles' mouth parts can be infected by B. dendrobatidis. Damage to the mouth parts can impair growth, and the affected tadpoles maintain the pathogen in the environment even when adults have dispersed. Newly metamorphosing frogs appear to be especially vulnerable to infection and to the lethal effects of this pathogen because the immune system undergoes a dramatic reorganization at metamorphosis, and postmetamorphic defenses are not yet mature. Here we review our current understanding of amphibian immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis and the ability of the pathogen to resist those defenses. We also briefly review what is known about the impacts of temperature, environmental chemicals, and stress on the host-pathogen interactions and suggest future directions for research.

Rollins-Smith LA; Ramsey JP; Pask JD; Reinert LK; Woodhams DC

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

Oak Ridge defense conversion -- Translating technology into economic growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1992 there were over 6,000 employees involved in defense related activities at the Y-12 Plant. By late 1994 the plant had undergone a dramatic change in operations including a reduction of the work force to less than 4,000 employees. That this major downsizing was accomplished without a layoff is a tribute to the combined efforts of the Y-12 employees, union leadership, the DOE, Martin Marietta and local and state governments. The keys to the success are: (1) the end of the Cold War and the potential impact was recognized early and a plan of action was developed and implemented, the plan was based on a total reorientation of the historical role and mode of operation of the plant; (2) everyone who had an interest in the outcome was invited to join in the planning; (3) the plan was developed and implemented as if no barriers to success existed; (4) opening about one-third of the classified portion of the Y-12 Plant as the initial activity was critical to the success of the plan. The historical opening of the gates was a major factor in convincing employees and a skeptical public that change could and would occur. As the debate on the future of the DOE weapons complex evolves it is clear that the Y-12 Plant will be a major contributor to improving productivity and the competitiveness of current and future industry in Tennessee and the country while continuing to provide unique expertise to support the nation`s nuclear weapons program.

Johnson, D.H.

1994-11-14

22

Precalving temperament and maternal defensiveness are independent traits but precalving fear may impact calf growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human safety can be compromised by the response of beef cows to handling or when defending their calf. However, little is known about how precalving temperament, postcalving defensiveness, and maternal care are related. The impacts of cow temperament on calf neonatal vigor and ADG are also unknown. Data were collected on 2 farms (Farm 1, n = 143, 1 parity; Farm 2, n = 237, 2 parities). Temperament was recorded before calving when restrained in a crush (crush score), on exit from the crush (flight speed), and when isolated with a handler. Defensiveness was recorded within 4 d after calving during handling of the calf. Maternal interactions with the calf and calf vigor were recorded for 3 h after calving (Farm 1 only) and ADG was measured over 7 mo. Crush score and flight speed were repeatable within a parity (range in repeatability 0.33 to 0.49; P < 0.001). Crush score (0.50; P < 0.001) and defensiveness (up to 0.71; P < 0.001) were repeatable across parities. Temperament and defensiveness were unrelated on Farm 1; on Farm 2 a fearful crush score was associated with heightened defensiveness as measured by vigorous movement during calf handling (P < 0.001). Temperament and defensiveness were unrelated to calving ease or the amount of maternal behavior shown to the calf. At Farm 1, cows that exited the crush quickly had calves with a lighter birth weight (P = 0.023) and those that were agitated when isolated had calves with a decreased ADG (P = 0.017). Defensiveness was unrelated to ADG and neither temperament nor defensiveness affected calf vigor. Cow precalving temperament and postcalving defensiveness are repeatable but appear to be independent traits, neither of which is related to maternal interactions with the neonatal calf. Reducing precalving fearfulness should not affect postcalving behavior and changing postcalving defensiveness should not affect other maternal care traits. Fearful cows may produce calves with decreased birth weight and ADG, which, if confirmed, suggests that cow fearfulness may have wider economic implications than previously realized.

Turner SP; Jack MC; Lawrence AB

2013-09-01

23

Impact of solar-energy development: the aggregate impact on basic economic objectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative (or complementary) programs are presented. The discussion distinguishes between short-run (one to five years) and long-run (over five years) impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing stock. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficiency, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense. (LEW)

Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

1982-01-01

24

Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the fie...

Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Dapoigny, M.; Dubois, D.; Ganse, E.; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, T.

25

Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings

1981-01-01

26

The Economic Impacts of LULUs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

: This paper examines some of the issues and controversies that arise when facilitieswith perceived noxious environmental, social, and economic effects (LULUs) locate incommunities. It develops a taxonomy of LULU types and describes some potential economic andsocial effects of five specific kinds of LULUs, including: (1) interstate highways, (2) large dams, (3)medium and maximum security prisons, (4) commercial nuclear power plants, and (5) gamblingcasinos. The paper uses quasi-experimental control group methods to assess the economicimpacts of these facilities on U.S. counties during the period 1972-94. The paper shows that fewactual negative effects can be attributed to LULUs. However, only interstate highways measurablystimulate aggregate employment.KEYWORDS: NIMBY, LULU, economic development, control groupsAn earlier version of this paper was presented to the 43rd annual meeting of the North AmericanRegional Science Association in Washington, DC, on November 14-17, 1996....

Terance J. Rephann

27

Defense-Waste-Processing Faclity, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC: Draft environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103 m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS.

1981-01-01

28

The economic impact of renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

1998-01-01

29

The economic impact of renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices.

NONE

1998-02-01

30

78 FR 12316 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...majority of this new vehicle production will be sold in India with the remainder sold in Mexico, the Middle East, Africa, and ASEAN regions. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail...

2013-02-22

31

The Economic Impact of Colleges and Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

|This essay describes methodological approaches and pitfalls common to studies of the economic impact of colleges and universities. Such studies often claim local benefits that imply annualized rates of return on local investment exceeding 100 percent. We address problems in these studies pertaining to the specification of the counterfactual, the…

Siegfried, John J.; Sanderson, Allen R.; McHenry, Peter

2007-01-01

32

The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness  

Science.gov (United States)

|There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

2013-01-01

33

Impact of Defense Industry Mergers on The Cost of Military Weapons Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States defense industry has been in a constant state of consolidation over the last 16 years. This thesis reports the impact of these defense related mergers on the cost of military weapons systems. The Selected Acquisition Reports (SARs) provi...

G. R. Alfonso

2007-01-01

34

Economic Growth and Defense Spending in Greece, Turkey and Cyprus: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and defense spending for three adjacent countries, namely Greece, Turkey and Cyprus. Greece and Cyprus, members-countries of European Union spend much more money than other member countries of EU relatively to their GDP. Turkey is in accession negotiations with EU and is among the top 15 countries with the highest military expenditure. These three countries are particularly interesting case studies because of their high military burdens and the bad relations between them (Greece and Cyprus opposite Turkey). The empirical analysis is based on panel data analysis of data over the period 1960 – 2006.

Stylianou Tasos

2012-01-01

35

Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized.

1976-01-01

36

Broad economic impact of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision to adopt, expand or reject a nuclear programme has implications that go beyond economic considerations limited to the cost of electricity produced. This report attempts to illustrate the treatment of macroeconomic factors in the decision-making process of various countries, and discusses the macroeconomic impacts of nuclear power, such as employment, balance of payments, security of supply, as well as environmental, health and socio-cultural issues. 274 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs., 9 appendices.

1992-01-01

37

Economic impact of uranium mining in Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The principal economic impacts are the result of three flows of money from the industry into the remainder of the state's economy. These are: money paid to individuals (personal income); money paid to other businesses (business income); and money paid to state and local governments (government revenues). Growth has come in a largely rural, seven-county area that lies within the triangle formed by the Laredo, San Antonio, and Corpus Christi metropolitan areas. 4 refs

1980-01-01

38

Economic impacts of deforestation in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessments of the economic impacts of the deterioration of European forests are being made from two points of view - the marketing of wood products and the potential economic benefits which can possibly be derived from a healthy environment. This article considers the principal results of these studies and evaluates their limitations and usefulness. In reviewing some scientific aspects of current debate on the probable causes of deforestation, as well as, in examining government efforts towards air pollution abatement, the article makes reference to tabled data on deforestation in Europe. Overall, the results of economic impacts studies based on the use of simulation models indicate a significant reduction in local supplies to the European wood products industry thus resulting in a dramatic drop in world market share and consequent market instability. Economic losses due to the inability to capitalize on healthy forests are valued in the order of billions of dollars per year in terms of the loss of business in the wood products and commercial-recreational sectors. While pointing out the uncertainties involved in the formulation of these assessments, the article also suggests how their results can constitute useful guidelines in cost benefit analyses of proposed government interventions. A discussion is made of the efficacy of some of these interventions now being considered aimed at reforestation and air pollution abatement.

1992-01-01

39

Impact of force withdrawal on options for conventional defenses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soviet withdrawal from the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) could open new defensive options. This report gives some background on those options from post-war nuclear and conventional strategies and the quantitative Soviet threat tot he role of firepower, close air support, and battlefield attrition. Withdrawal under the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty could provide a buffer between opposing armies that aggressor armies drop the bridges and disrupt the roads and rails that would have to be used. If forces were brought into battle piecemeal, they would be annihilated. That would permit effective use of advanced and prepositioned weapons, which would favor the defense. 9 refs.

Canavan, G.H.

1991-04-01

40

78 FR 42054 - Office of Economic Adjustment; Notice of Cooperative Agreement  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Office of Economic Adjustment; Notice of Cooperative Agreement...cooperative agreement with the Office of Economic Adjustment (OEA) for Research and Technical...invites proposals to continue to provide economic data to Defense-impacted...

2013-07-15

 
 
 
 
41

Economic trends and China's impact on world trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ministry of Economic Development has asked the NZIER to examine the impact of: [1] increased integration of the world economy i.e. the economic trends and how they impact on economic/business activity; and [2] China as a world economic power and how it is affecting globalisation trends. Are thes...

Nixon, Chris

42

Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs.

NONE

2004-05-01

43

Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

2004-01-01

44

Defensive technology and welfare analysis of environmental quality change with uncertain consumer health impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measuring the ex post losses from environmental quality change is an important issue when environmental contamination creates health risks, liability is assigned, and private compensation efforts are required. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring the ex post welfare impact of environmental quality change using market behavior from defensive expenditures. Conditions under which a defensive technology can provide a bound on welfare estimates are identified.

1993-01-01

45

Economic impacts of climate change in Australia: framework and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: There is growing interest in understanding the potential impacts of climate change in Australia, and especially the economic impacts of 'inaction'. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the possible economic impacts of future climate change in Australia is undertaken using ABARE's general equilibrium model of the global economy, GTEM. In order to understand the potential economy-wide economic impacts, the broad climatic trends that Australia is likely to experience over the next several decades are canvassed and the potential economic and non-economic impacts on key risk areas, such as water resources, agriculture and forests, health, industry and human settlements and the ecosystems, are identified. A more detailed analysis of the economic impacts of climate change are undertaken by developing two case studies. In the first case study, the economic impact of climate change and reduced water availability on the agricultural sector is assessed in the Murray-Darling Basin. In the second case study, the sectoral economic impacts on the Australian resources sector of a projected decline in global economic activity due to climate change is analysed. The key areas of required development to more fully understand the economy-wide and sectoral impacts of climate change are also discussed including issues associated with estimating both non-market and market impacts. Finally, an analytical framework for undertaking integrated assessment of climate change impacts domestically and globally is developed

2007-01-01

46

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

47

Development of circumferential honeycomb impact limiters for a defense high level waste shipping cask  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Circumferential honeycomb impact limiters provide lightweight, low-volume impact protection for nuclear waste shipping casks with circular cross sections. GA Technologies (GA) has developed an empirical procedure for designing circumferential honeycomb impact limiters to limit the impact g-level to a predetermined level. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has performed a series of tests demonstrating that the circumferential honeycomb impact limiters are effective and can be adequately designed using this empirical procedure. Circumferential honeycomb impact limiters are currently used on the Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) truck shipping cask and are planned for use on several new casks which are scheduled for development during the next few years. This paper describes the structural design of the circumferential honeycomb impact limiters, presents the empirical design procedure for predicting the impact g-level and required volume of honeycomb, and compares test results with predicted results. 1 ref., 3 figs.

1988-03-03

48

Value of space defenses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

Canavan, G.H.

1992-10-29

49

The economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy) on South Africa's Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Northern Cape prov...

Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville; Van der Merwe, Petrus

50

The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic incapacitating illness that affects between 400,000 and 800,000 Americans. Despite the disabling nature of this illness, scant research has addressed the economic impact of CFS either on those affected or on the national economy. Methods We used microsimulation methods to analyze data from a surveillance study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas, and derive estimates of productivity losses due to CFS. Results We estimated a 37% decline in household productivity and a 54% reduction in labor force productivity among people with CFS. The annual total value of lost productivity in the United States was $9.1 billion, which represents about $20,000 per person with CFS or approximately one-half of the household and labor force productivity of the average person with this syndrome. Conclusion Lost productivity due to CFS was substantial both on an individual basis and relative to national estimates for other major illnesses. CFS resulted in a national productivity loss comparable to such losses from diseases of the digestive, immune and nervous systems, and from skin disorders. The extent of the burden indicates that continued research to determine the cause and potential therapies for CFS could provide substantial benefit both for individual patients and for the nation.

Reynolds Kenneth J; Vernon Suzanne D; Bouchery Ellen; Reeves William C

2004-01-01

51

A look at local economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The benefits of mega-projects such as Hibernia and the Sable Offshore Energy Project on the local economies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were discussed. It was argued that most of the spin-off activities of such mega-projects are realized externally because the projects are driven by external interests and external funding, and are designed for external markets. Few of the short-term activities that can be done locally provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Studies have shown that the impact of mega-projects on smaller economies is mainly on the construction sector and related supplies industries. Another reason why mega-projects have limited real effects on the local economy is that foreign investors have traditional supply sources, often with affiliated companies. Local availability of appropriate skills is yet another potential limiting factor. Moreover, most mega-projects have social, environmental and political consequences that are often under-estimated and ignored. In this author`s view, most mega-projects have limited long-term domestic spin-offs. The challenge is to maximize the net benefits, and to minimize the social and environmental costs.

Bradfield, M. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada)

1998-09-01

52

The economic impact of obstructive sleep apnea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a substantial economic impact on healthcare systems. We reviewed parameters affecting healthcare costs (race, low education, and socioeconomic status) on OSA comorbidity, and costs and the effect of OSA treatment on medical costs. RECENT FINDINGS: OSA is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and substantially increased medical costs. Risk for OSA and resulting CVD are associated with obesity, tobacco smoking, black race, and low socioeconomic status; all these are associated with poor continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence. Healthcare costs are not normally distributed, that is, the costliest and the sickest upper third of patients consume 65-82% of all medical costs. Only a limited number of studies have explored the effect of CPAP on medical costs. SUMMARY: Costs of untreated OSA may double the medical expenses mainly because of CVD. Identifying the costliest, sickest upper third of OSA patients will reduce expenses to healthcare systems. Studies exploring the effect of CPAP on medical costs are essential. In addition, tailoring intervention programs to reduce barriers to adherence have the potential to improve CPAP treatment, specially in at-risk populations that are sicker and consume more healthcare costs.

Tarasiuk A; Reuveni H

2013-11-01

53

Economic impact study of consumer product efficiencies. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic impact study of household appliance efficiencies is briefly reported. Task I, Direct Impact on Industry, contains 4 subtasks: materials, labor inputs, energy inputs, and investment. Task II, Direct Impact on Consumers, contains 3 subtasks: life-cycle cost to the consumer, usage patterns, and long-term demand forecast and analysis. The 2 subtasks in Task III, Energy Savings and Impact on Utilities, are residential energy savings and cost and impact on utility generating capacity.

1980-05-30

54

Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy recommendations are given for increasing the regional retention of rafting expenditures and for understanding both the beneficial and adverse impacts that accompany outdoor recreation in rural areas.

Hjerpe EE; Kim YS

2007-10-01

55

Functional dyspepsia: the economic impact to patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although highly prevalent, little is known about the economic impact of functional dyspepsia (FD). AIMS: To quantify FD patients' health care utilisation patterns and to estimate direct and indirect costs of FD to patients. METHODS: ICD-9 codes identified adult patients with dyspepsia. A validated questionnaire was mailed to patients who met Rome III criteria for FD. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty-five patients met all inclusion criteria. The response rate was 63%. The respondents' mean age was 50 (14) years; 75% were women; 52% of respondents rated their FD as moderate. Patients reported 3 visits (mean) to their PCP over 12 months; 75% reported having blood work, 92% an EGD, 59% an ultrasound and 40% a CT scan. The direct cost of testing using Medicare reimbursement rates per patient was $582. To treat FD symptoms, 89% tried dietary changes, 89% over-the-counter medications, 87% prescription medications and 25% alternative therapies. Mean patient expenditure over the last year was $246 for OTC medications (range $0-12,000), $290 for co-payments (range $0-9,000) and $110 for alternative treatments (range $0-3,741). Total mean direct cost yearly to patients was $699. In the 7 days prior to completing the questionnaire, respondents reported a mean of 1.4 h absence from work. Extrapolating the results to the US population, we conservatively calculate the costs of FD were $18.4 billion in 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Functional dyspepsia patients incur significant direct and indirect costs and work productivity is impaired by dyspeptic symptoms.

Lacy BE; Weiser KT; Kennedy AT; Crowell MD; Talley NJ

2013-07-01

56

Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (Postcard)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the Jobs and Economic Development Benefits model section on the Wind Powering America website.

2011-08-01

57

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

1991-01-01

58

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

1991-01-01

59

Economic impact of acid rain. [New York; Wisconsin; Canada; Scandinavia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental and economic impact of acid rain is documented for the eastern United States (New York, Wisconsin) and Canada and Scandinavia. Damage to lakes and other water resources, fisheries, forests and agriculture is emphasized.

1980-01-01

60

Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this envir...

J. L. Williams

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

1993-01-01

62

The economic impacts of emission reduction policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

Hanson, D.A.

1992-01-01

63

The economic impacts of emission reduction policies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

Hanson, D.A.

1992-07-01

64

The Impact of Economic Growth on Employment in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria has enjoyed a long period of sustained economic growth since 2001 and yet, there is rampant unemployment in the country. There are various studies that have supported that growth is a pathway to employment. Thus, this paper investigated the impact the economic growth in Nigeria had on employment generation. The Johansen vector- Error correction model was used in the investigation. The findings revealed that, although economic growth had positive relationship with employment, the relationship is not significant. Foreign private investment has negative impact while Public expenditure has positive and significant impact on employment. It is concluded that the growth in Nigeria does not support employment. The paper recommended that, growth in the economy can support employment if the government gear expenditure towards areas like labour intensive Industry that can create more employment. Key words: Public expenditure; Economic growth; Decent work

OLONI Elizabeth Funlayo

2013-01-01

65

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.How to cite this article: Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Ferreira, M., 2009, ‘The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park’, Koedoe 51(1), Art. #158, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.158

Melville Saayman; Andrea Saayman; Madelien Ferreira

2009-01-01

66

Turning climate change information into economic and health impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The PRUDENCE project has generated a set of spatially and temporally high-resolution climate data, which provides new opportunities for assessing the impacts of climate variability and. change on economic and human systems in Europe. In this context, we initiated the development of new approaches for linking climate change information and economic studies. We have considered a number of case studies that illustrate how linkages can be established between geographically detailed climate data and economic information. The case studies included wheat production in agriculture, where regional climate data has been linked to farm enterprise data in an integrated model of physical conditions, production inputs and outputs, and farm management practices. Similarly, temperature data were used to assess consequences of extreme heat and excess mortality in urban areas. We give an introduction of an analytical approach for assessing economic impacts of climate change and discuss how economic concepts and valuation paradigms can be applied to climate change impact evaluation. A number of methodological difficulties encountered in economic assessments of climate change impacts are described and a number of issues related to social and private aspects of costs are highlighted. It is argued that, in particular, detailed climate information matters in relation to understanding how private agents react to observed climate data.

Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kühl, J.

2007-01-01

67

Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs.

1996-01-01

68

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

1992-01-01

69

Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

Lesser, Jonathan A.

1992-07-01

70

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

1992-01-01

71

IMPACT OF REMITTANCES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on the importance of remittances inflow and its implication for economic growth and poverty reduction in Pakistan. By using ARDL approach we analyze the impact of remittances inflow on economic growth and poverty in Pakistan for the period 1973-2010. The district wise analysis of poverty suggest that overseas migration contributes to poverty alleviation in the districts of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan however NWFP is not portraying a clear picture. The empirical evidence shows that remittances effect economic growth positively and significantly. Furthermore the study also finds that remittances have a strong and statistically significant impact on poverty reduction thus suggesting that there are substantial potential benefits associated with international migration for poor people in developing countries like Pakistan. So the importance of remittanceinflows cannot be denied in terms of growth enhancement and poverty reduction that consequently improves the social and economic conditions of the recipient country.

Muhammad Javid; Umaima Arif; Abdul Qayyum

2012-01-01

72

Assessing the economic impacts of soil degradation: a literature survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have conducted a survey of economic studies that have assessed the cost of soil degradation in Europe. The aim of this was twofold: first, to assess the availability of economic data on soil degradation, and secondly, to develop a methodology for a comprehensive assessment of soil degradation trends and their economic impacts. The study has been conducted with a view to ongoing policy developments on the EU level. One main results is that, while the methodology appears sufficiently developed, there is still a considerable shortage of empirical data. This is because past research has focused mainly on particular types of soil degradation (mainly erosion), and on particular impacts (mainly those on agriculture). As a consequence, comprehensive assessments of the cost of soil degradation are few and far between, and many aspects of soil degradation still escape an economic valuation.

Goerlach, B.; Interwies, E. [Ecologic - Inst. for International and European Environmental Policy, Berlin (Germany)

2004-07-01

73

DWPF [Defense Waste Processing Facility] canister impact testing and analyses for the Transportation Technology Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A legal weight truck cask design has been developed for the US Department of Energy by GA Technologies, Inc. The cask will be used to transport defense high-level waste canisters produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The development of the cask required the collection of impact data for the DWPF canisters. The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) performed this work under the guidance of the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. Two full-scale DWPF canisters filled with nonradioactive borosilicate glass were impacted under ''normal'' and ''hypothetical'' accident conditions. Two canisters, supplied by the DWPF, were tested. Each canister was vertically dropped on the bottom end from a height of either 0.3 m or 9.1 m (for normal or hypothetical accident conditions, respectively). The structural integrity of each canister was then examined using helium leak and dye penetrant testing. The canisters' diameters and heights, which had been previously measured, were then remeasured to determine how the canister dimensions had changed. Following structural integrity testing, the canisters were flaw leak tested. For transportation flaw leak testing, four holes were fabricated into the shell of canister A-27 (0.3 m drop height). The canister was then transported a total distance of 2069 miles. During transport, the waste form material that fell from each flaw was collected to determine the amount of size distribution of each flaw release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

1988-01-01

74

Economic impact of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in North Dakota.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leafy spurge is a serious problem because of the speed with which it spreads and the difficulty of controlling it with available means. A rangeland economics model was developed to estimate the economic impacts of leafy spurge infestation on both ranchers and regional economies. A leafy spurge-induced carrying capacity reduction of about 580 000 animal unit months (AUMs), or enough for 77 000 cows, reduced ranchers' annual net income nearly $9 million. Ranchers did not spend another $14 million on input costs, which reduced regional business activity. The regional impacts are about $75 million in reduced business activity for all sectors. These impacts on rancher incomes and regional economies suggest the potential economic returns of leafy spurge control could be substantial.

Leistritz FL; Thompson F; Leitch JA

1992-06-01

75

Economics of Biofuels: An Overview of Policies, Impacts and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the economics of biofuels. It starts by describing the remarkable growth of the biofuel industry over the last decade, with emphasis on developments in the United States, Brazil and the European Union, and it identifies the driving role played by some critical policies. After a brief discussion of the motivations that are commonly argued in favor of biofuels and biofuel policies, the paper presents an assessment of the impacts of biofuels from the economics perspective. In particular, the paper explains the basic analytics of biofuel mandates, reviews several existing studies that have estimated the economic impacts of biofuels, presents some insights from a specific model, and outlines an appraisal of biofuel policies and the environmental impacts of biofuels. The paper concludes with an examination of several open issues and the future prospects of biofuels.

GianCarlo Moschini; Jingbo Cui; Harvey Lapan

2013-01-01

76

Socio-economic impact in CKD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Socio-economic status (SES) may be conceptualized as an individual's position in society, as determined by their income, occupation, education, wealth, and housing situation. This review summarizes the current literature regarding associations of these markers of SES with both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated poor outcomes. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in the US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, PubMed database using the search terms "chronic kidney disease" and "chronic renal insufficiency," combined with "socio-economic status," "income," "occupation," "employment," "education," "social class," "wealth," and "housing." Articles not in the English language, using non-human subjects, or primarily concerning subjects with ESRD or acute kidney injury were excluded. RESULTS: Income is the most-studied aspect of SES in relation to CKD, but there is increasing literature involving occupation and education as well. Additionally, the associations of CKD and its outcomes with area-level and life course SES are both burgeoning areas of research. There are several research areas that remain mostly unexplored, including the roles of wealth and housing in defining SES-related risk in CKD. Additionally, none have explored the relative utility of composite versus individual indicators of SES in predicting risk of CKD and outcomes. CONCLUSION: Given the overwhelming evidence that SES plays an important role in the development and progression of disease, the development and testing of more targeted interventions should be a top priority in CKD research. Continuing examination of these factors, with increased rigor and focus on potentially modifiable intermediate pathways, is needed.

Plantinga LC

2013-01-01

77

Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks) in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies.

Yazdizadeh Bahareh; Majdzadeh Reza; Salmasian Hojat

2010-01-01

78

Site C lands : economic opportunities assessment : impact assessment : final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Site C is the proposed site for the third part of the BC Hydro's Peace River hydroelectric development. Land acquisition began in the 1970s and BC Hydro has since acquired nearly 7,000 acres of property for the project. Local residents are concerned that this reserve of land will impact on economic opportunities in the region due to land use constraints and depopulation. For that reason, this study was conducted to determine the regional economic implications of the BC Hydro and the crown holding Site C lands for potential future hydroelectric development. The study included a literature review of the entire project planning process and how it has impacted on economic and community change from the 1970s to the present. Landowners and lessees in Hudson's Hope area were interviewed to obtain their input regarding land management issues and impacts on agriculture, forestry, tourism, and residential use. The land which could be affected by the project includes land to be flooded, watercourse to be flooded, low bank land unavailable for residential use around the reservoir, and other altered lands. The economic development and community accounts refer to: population, age distribution, labour force, unemployment, municipal assessed values, farm values, municipal revenues and major tax contributors. It was determined that the development would have no identifiable impact on the population of Hudson's Hope and no impact on family income in rural and urban areas. There would be no regional impact on agriculture, but some negative farm level impacts. It was recommended that the leasing policy be reviewed, communications enhanced, and that some joint planning take place between BC Hydro and the District of Hudson's Hope and the Peace River Regional District for future economic development. 3 appendices.

NONE

2002-01-01

79

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business d (more) evelopment in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

Saayman, Melville; Saayman, Andrea; Ferreira, Madelien

2009-01-01

80

Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

1995-11-01

82

The Impact of Defense Spending on Nondefense Engineering Labor Markets. A Report to the National Academy of Engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Engineers and technologists are generally thought to be critical to various aspects of our society, including national security, economic competitiveness, and the general welfare. This report asks questions and provides some answers about how employment of engineers in defense industries and laboratories affects employment in civilian industries…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

83

Total economic impact assessment of biofuels plants in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study presented a total economic impact assessment of renewable fuels investments in Canada. An econometric model was used to develop total impact assessment for 28 renewable fuel plants in Canada that are currently in commercial operation or are under construction. The model considered both the construction and operating phases for each plant, and results were then aggregated into the total economic impact of renewable fuels across Canada. Operating phase total impact results were presented in both gross and net terms. Net results considered the opportunity costs of potential feedstock sales. The study showed that the plants provided a 2.25 billion litres of renewable fuels annually, and generated gross annual economic benefits of $2.139 billion to the Canadian economy. The grand total of the annual gross economic impact of renewable fuels was estimated at $2.679 billion. Renewable fuels represent a valuable off-set to Canadian imports of refined oil products. Investment in renewable fuels represents an important strategic development option for Canada. 2 tabs.

NONE

2010-05-15

84

Pesticide use and economic impacts on health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the externalities associated with acute poisoning from pesticides. METHODS: The probabilities of acute poisoning were estimated according to characteristics of rural properties and cities in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Information about acute poisoning obtained from the 1998-1999 Harvest Forecast Survey was used. The expected costs with poisoning in these properties were calculated from the sum of medical-hospital expenses and days spent on sick leaves, required for the recovery of intoxicated individuals. A multilevel model was constructed for the analysis. RESULTS: The costs associated with acute poisoning can total up to US$ 149 million for the state of Paraná, i.e. for each dollar spent to purchase pesticides in this state, approximately US$ 1.28 may be spent with the external costs of poisoning. This situation could be changed with the implementation of public policies, such as the adoption of an organic agriculture promotion program in the cities where the social cost with acute poisoning could be reduced by approximately US$ 25 million. CONCLUSIONS: Society, especially the populations mainly affected by pesticides, could be benefited by the identification and elimination of the risks of acute intoxication associated with the current model. It is necessary to implement public policies and integrated actions that involve the fields of economics, public health, agronomy, environmental issues, education, and science and technology, among others.

Soares WL; Porto MF

2012-04-01

85

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency`s far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE`s impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy.

Lansford, R.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Office of Energy, Science and Technology; Ben-David, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Economics

1996-08-01

86

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy.

1995-01-00

87

Local economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fiscal-impact model based on the introduction of a nuclear power plant demonstrates the need to integrate local public-sector impacts with local private-sector impacts when estimating the economic changes a community undergoes in response to a significant exogenous shock. A nuclear plant differs from other electrical generating facilities because siting regulations require locating in a low-population density area where the influence on the community will be substantial. These characteristics approximate the pure fiscal capacity change or pure tax revenue importation concept. Four sections of the paper describe local decision making on taxes, identify the parameters that may shape local impact, analyze indifference curves as they integrate with the local macroeconomic model, and compare data for two communities in which both private and public local economic sectors show stimulation. 12 references, 1 figure.

Bjornstad, D.J.

1982-02-01

88

Local economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fiscal-impact model based on the introduction of a nuclear power plant demonstrates the need to integrate local public-sector impacts with local private-sector impacts when estimating the economic changes a community undergoes in response to a significant exogenous shock. A nuclear plant differs from other electrical generating facilities because siting regulations require locating in a low-population density area where the influence on the community will be substantial. These characteristics approximate the pure fiscal capacity change or pure tax revenue importation concept. Four sections of the paper describe local decision making on taxes, identify the parameters that may shape local impact, analyze indifference curves as they integrate with the local macroeconomic model, and compare data for two communities in which both private and public local economic sectors show stimulation. 12 references, 1 figure.

1982-01-01

89

The economic impact of coal in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Input-output analysis is used to assess the importance of the coal industry to the Canadian economy and to estimate the magnitude of multiplier effects due to a change in final demand for coal production. The values of direct purchases of labour, energy, and materials by the Canadian coal industry are given for Canada as a whole and for each coal-producing province. Inter-industry linkages for coal mining are calculated by sector, in particular for the rail and water transportation and the electricity generating sectors. The total impact of coal production on the Canadian economy is discussed. For 1992, it represented one per cent of the gross domestic product. 14 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs., 1 app.

Hatch, S.; Florizone, A.; Heggelund, M.

1995-12-01

90

Malaria and Climate Change: Discussion on Economic Impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Climate change is a global environmental change that is adversely affecting human health by causing various health impacts in countries throughout the world. Climate is the most influential driving force of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Changes in climate factors substantially affect reproduction, development, distribution and seasonal transmissions of malaria. Climate change increases the outbreak of malaria which causes adverse economic impacts in endemic regions. This study reviews literature related to economic impacts of malaria at different levels such as household and national level. The study also focuses on the impacts of malaria on the economic growth of various nations. Approach: Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Several electronic databases were searched for published literature in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to economic impacts of malaria illness. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Results: The literature review indicates that malaria causes great economic losses at household level through human morbidity and mortality and consequently lower labor productivity, disability and poverty. At the national level, malaria affects negatively the trade, investments, savings and tourism sector. Macroeconomic studies estimated that the annual growth rate of per capita GDP of malaria endemic countries was 0.25-1.3% points lower per year than that of non-malarious countries. Conclusion: Reducing the burden of malaria could help to break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty that contributes to economic growth of the endemic countries. Therefore, further research is urgently needed to ensure interventions for controlling the malaria disease more effectively in the advent of climate change.

Md. S. Mia; Rawshan A. Begum; Ah-Choy Er; Raja D.Z.R. Zainal Abidin; Joy J. Pereira

2011-01-01

91

IXTOC I Oil Spill Economic Impact Study. Volume I.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this study was to determine the economic impact of the Ixtoc I and Burmah Agate oil spill on recreation, tourism, and commercial fishing in the Texas coastal region. In addition, a summary of oil resource and equipment losses, com...

C. E. Restrepo F. C. Lamphear C. A. Gunn R. B. Ditton J. P. Nichols

1982-01-01

92

Economic impact of public sector spending on health care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public sector spending on health care clearly has a positive economic impact on local communities. Not only does such spending provide residents with better health care, but it is widely recognized as an investment that returns continual dividends in the form of better jobs, higher incomes, and additional state and local tax revenues. The results of a static input/output model shows that public sector spending on health care of approximately $46 billion (in 2009 dollars) in the state of Texas yields over 588,000 jobs, $74.2 billion in total output, $26.3 billion in personal income, $22 billion in employee compensation, and $1.8 billion in state and local taxes; it clearly has a considerable positive economic impact on local economies and their quest for economic development. PMID:22106548

Hy, Ronald John

2011-01-01

93

Economic impact of public sector spending on health care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Public sector spending on health care clearly has a positive economic impact on local communities. Not only does such spending provide residents with better health care, but it is widely recognized as an investment that returns continual dividends in the form of better jobs, higher incomes, and additional state and local tax revenues. The results of a static input/output model shows that public sector spending on health care of approximately $46 billion (in 2009 dollars) in the state of Texas yields over 588,000 jobs, $74.2 billion in total output, $26.3 billion in personal income, $22 billion in employee compensation, and $1.8 billion in state and local taxes; it clearly has a considerable positive economic impact on local economies and their quest for economic development.

Hy RJ

2011-01-01

94

Impacts of acid deposition on regional economic activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acid deposition reduction and mitigation policies will change the welfare of individuals who consume and/or produce the goods and services affected by the policy. Such changes may take the form of benefits, which are associated with the values society places on policy-induced reductions in acid deposition damages. Conversely, they may take the form of costs, which are associated with the values society places on inputs used to effect the change. In addition, acid deposition policies may result in changes in regional employment, income, and other measures of economic activity. Policy-induced changes in crop and timber yields, recreational activity, production of emission control equipment and other machinery, coal production, and electricity prices may cause direct employment and earnings changes in the associated industries, as well as indirect employment and earnings changes in closely related industries. A methodology to assess the direct, indirect, induced, and total impacts of acid deposition reduction and mitigation policies on regional economic activity will be developed. The methodology will utilize the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Metropolitan and State Economic Regions (MASTER) model, which forecasts economic activity and policy impacts on economic activity in all 312 Metropolitan Statistical Areas and 48 non-MSA Rest-of-State Areas in the continental United States. Two extensions will be developed. First, 6 of the industries considered in MASTER will be disaggregated, resulting in a 36-industry model. This will increase the accuracy of estimates of impacts. Second, employment/production relationships in each of the industries affected by deposition policies will be estimated. Finally, the impacts on regional economic activity of four proposed policies will be estimated.

Adams, R.C.; Moe, R.J.

1984-01-01

95

The socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park, name (more) ly Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor's survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

Oberholzer, Susan; Saayman, Melville; Saayman, Andrea; Slabbert, Elmarie

2010-01-01

96

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts.

Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

1984-11-01

97

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts.

1984-01-01

98

The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

2004-01-01

99

DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) canister impact testing and analyses for the Transportation Technology Center  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A legal weight truck cask design has been developed for the US Department of Energy by GA Technologies, Inc. The cask will be used to transport defense high-level waste canisters produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The development of the cask required the collection of impact data for the DWPF canisters. The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) performed this work under the guidance of the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. Two full-scale DWPF canisters filled with nonradioactive borosilicate glass were impacted under ''normal'' and ''hypothetical'' accident conditions. Two canisters, supplied by the DWPF, were tested. Each canister was vertically dropped on the bottom end from a height of either 0.3 m or 9.1 m (for normal or hypothetical accident conditions, respectively). The structural integrity of each canister was then examined using helium leak and dye penetrant testing. The canisters' diameters and heights, which had been previously measured, were then remeasured to determine how the canister dimensions had changed. Following structural integrity testing, the canisters were flaw leak tested. For transportation flaw leak testing, four holes were fabricated into the shell of canister A-27 (0.3 m drop height). The canister was then transported a total distance of 2069 miles. During transport, the waste form material that fell from each flaw was collected to determine the amount of size distribution of each flaw release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

Farnsworth, R.K.; Mishima, J.

1988-12-01

100

Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Impact of Fiscal Deficits on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth in Nigeria in 1970 – 2009. Budget deficit arises from fiscal operations of the government. Technically, a deficit would arise whenever expenditure surpasses revenues. In Nigeria, huge fiscal deficits had been recorded over the some years. To what extent have these impacted economic growth in Nigeria? In considering this question, this paper posits that the inter play of other variables such as broad money supply along with fiscal deficits may give a better understanding of the budget deficit situation in Nigeria. The ordinary least square was carried out on the data to test the type of relationship between the variables whether positive or negative and to find out if the variables are significant or not. The finding, show that fiscal deficits positively affects economic growth in Nigeria and money supply is significant in explaining economic growth (GDP) variation in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that government spending should be more in productive sectors of the economy and adequate monetary policy should be geared towards balancing the role money supply plays to both budget deficits and inflation.Key words: Fiscal deficits; Economic growth; Government spending and budget deficits

Abu Maji; Joseph Oboba Achegbulu

2012-01-01

102

Economic Impact of Nuclear Power Plant in The Operational  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study on economic impact of nuclear power plant in the operational stage, in Madura has been conducted. The object of the study is SMART technology which is coupled with desalination installation. The power capacity is 2 x 100 M We and the water production capacity is 4 x 10,000 m3/day. This technology has been developed by Korea, but until recently there is no units in construction or operation. Input-Output analysis model is applied as the methodology of this study. Economic sector is aggregated from 56 x 56 to 10 x 10. This aggregation is meant to reduce the uncertainty in long term projection. This study conclude that : (1) In the operational stage SMART Nuclear Power Desalination will give an output to local economic about Rp 908.12 billion per year. (2) Electricity and water production will provide output direct impact to Madura about Rp. 1,234 trillion and will give direct impact to Regional Product Domestic Bruto (PDRB) about Rp. 138.7 billion. (3) Output impact to the electricity sector and fresh water sector is about 5.37% and 1.57% compared to PDRB 2018. (author)

2004-01-01

103

Economic impacts of expenditures on solar heating. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines a range of macroeconomic impacts of expenditures on residential active (domestic hot water) and passive solar heating systems in Canada. The impacts considered are employment, gross domestic product, gross production and federal tax revenues. For purposes of comparison, the impacts of expenditures on electric power generated at existing facilities, and the construction of new nuclear and coal-fired generating stations are also estimated. Representative designs of a new and retrofitted passive solar house, and a typical solar water heating system, were developed and costs were estimated and incorporated into an interprovincial input-output model from Statistics Canada. The model provides estimates, at provincial level, of economic impacts associated with any specified set of expenditures. One of the two sets of estimates made for employment and gross domestic product takes into account the impacts from consumer purchases out of household incomes earned from solar heating or alternate expenditures. Variations among the provinces are considerable, but the overall pattern that emerges from the results is as follows. Expenditures on solar heating generate more employment, gross domestic product and federal revenues than equal expenditures on electric power and additional generating capacity. The province in which the expenditures are made and the systems are installed receives most of the immediate impacts. Subsequent impacts are generally channeled to Ontario and Quebec. Impacts from expenditures on electric power are more localized than for any other option. 8 refs., 2 figs., 33 tabs.

1982-09-01

104

Economic comparison of centralizing or decentralizing processing facilities for defense transuranic waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is part of a set of analyses under direction of the Transuranic Waste Management Program designed to provide comprehensive, systematic methodology and support necessary to better understand options for national long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste. The report summarizes activities to evaluate the economics of possible alternatives in locating facilities to process DOE-managed transuranic waste. The options considered are: (1) Facilities located at all major DOE TRU waste generating sites. (2) Two or three regional facilities. (3) Central processing facility at only one DOE site. The study concludes that processing at only one facility is the lowest cost option, followed, in order of cost, by regional then individual site processing.

1980-01-01

105

The social and economic impact of nuclear energy in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for structural analysis is introduced and discussed. An application is made to the 'Brazilian Nuclear System' defined by a structural matrix lying upon 42 factors (of which 11 are political 7 economic, 9 technological, 6 sociological, 7 ecological and 2 psychdogical, whose interactions are evalueted. The hierarchical ordering of these 42 factors shows the preponderance of the political ones, the technological factors being the least important. The study is completed by calculating the impact of a PWR pant construction in Brazilian territory, using an enlarged input-output method the sectorial impacts are determined for industrial production, value added, inderect imports and capital goods industries

1976-01-01

106

ASEAN Economic Cooperation: Trade Liberalization Impacts on the National Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the impact of trade liberalization by focusing on twelve priority industrial sectors in the ASEAN-5 (Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines). The General Equilibrium Model based on Multi-country Input Output Data as provided by the GTAP is used to measure potential economic benefits of reducing tariffs on output, trade balance, welfare gain, and competitiveness. We compare the outcome of the CGE approach with the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results show that the outcomes of the CGE Model does not match those suggested by the AHP. However, they do support the findings of Falianty (2005), Achsani and Siregar (2010), Achsani and Partisiwi (2010), Nugroho and Yanfitri (2011). Our results suggest that taking non-economic but relevant factors from public opinion into account affects the robustness of CGE studies based purely on economic factors.

Sugiharso Safuan

2012-01-01

107

Interregional economic impacts of the Alberta Alsands Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results from Statistics Canada's 1974 Interprovincial Input-Output model of the impact of the Alsands Energy Ltd. proposed tar sands plant show both direct and indirect economic benefits to a three-province area. The analysis covers three phases of the projects: the six-year construction stage, 30-year operating phase, and six years of urban residential development. Three appendices explain the method of analysis and the input data and present detailed tables. 9 figures, 41 tables.

Douglas, G.W.; MacMillan, J.A.

1982-01-01

108

Economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing regular physical activity is a key public health goal. One strategy is to change the physical environment to encourage walking and cycling, requiring partnerships with the transport and urban planning sectors. Economic evaluation is an important factor in the decision to fund any new transport scheme, but techniques for assessing the economic value of the health benefits of cycling and walking have tended to be less sophisticated than the approaches used for assessing other benefits. This study aimed to produce a practical tool for estimating the economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling. The tool was intended to be transparent, easy to use, reliable, and based on conservative assumptions and default values, which can be used in the absence of local data. It addressed the question: For a given volume of cycling within a defined population, what is the economic value of the health benefits? The authors used published estimates of relative risk of all-cause mortality among regular cyclists and applied these to levels of cycling defined by the user to produce an estimate of the number of deaths potentially averted because of regular cycling. The tool then calculates the economic value of the deaths averted using the "value of a statistical life." The outputs of the tool support decision making on cycle infrastructure or policies, or can be used as part of an integrated economic appraisal. The tool's unique contribution is that it takes a public health approach to a transport problem, addresses it in epidemiologic terms, and places the results back into the transport context. Examples of its use include its adoption by the English and Swedish departments of transport as the recommended methodologic approach for estimating the health impact of walking and cycling.

Rutter H; Cavill N; Racioppi F; Dinsdale H; Oja P; Kahlmeier S

2013-01-01

109

The economic impacts of Annex I actions on all countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A workshop hosted by the Norwegian Ministry of the Environment was held in which more than 60 countries participated. Its purpose was to review the results of model comparison work undertaken in recent years on the economic impact of Annex 1 countries actions on all countries and to recommend further work, if any, for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The basic assumption was that because of the linkages among nations through the economic system as well as the environment, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions in some countries, but not others, will have economic impacts on the countries where emissions are not limited as well as in the countries initiating the mitigation action. One of the observations at the workshop was the recognition of the limitations of some of the models in helping to understand the potential economic implications of specific policy actions, in focusing only on energy related carbon dioxide emissions, and their inability to accurately reflect the prospects for technological advancement. It was suggested that carbon dioxide abatement can also potentially be achieved through other indirect policy measures, such as the removal of subsidies to fossil fuel production in industrial economies and subsidies to fossil fuel consumption in developing countries.

Barclay, J.C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Haites, E.; McKibbin, W. [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva (Switzerland). Working Group II

1997-12-31

110

Economic Impact of Advanced Pediatric Cancer on Families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Despite emerging evidence of substantial financial distress in families of children with complex illness, little is known about economic hardship in families of children with advanced cancer. OBJECTIVES: To describe perceived financial hardship, work disruptions, income losses, and associated economic impact in families of children with advanced cancer stratified by federal poverty level (FPL). METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 86 parents of children with progressive, recurrent, or nonresponsive cancer at three children's hospitals. Seventy-one families with complete income data (82%) are included in this analysis. RESULTS: Parental work disruptions were prevalent across all income levels, with 67 (94%) families reporting some disruption. At least one parent quit a job because of the child's illness in 29 (42%) families. Nineteen (27%) families described their child's illness as a great economic hardship. Income losses because of work disruptions were substantial for all families; families at or below 200% FPL, however, were disproportionately affected. Six (50%) of the poorest families lost more than 40% of their annual income as compared with two (5%) of the wealthiest families (P = 0.006). As a result of income losses, nine (15%) previously nonpoor families fell from above to below 200% FPL. CONCLUSION: The economic impact of pediatric advanced cancer on families is significant at all income levels, although poorer families suffer disproportionate losses. Development of ameliorative intervention strategies is warranted.

Bona K; Dussel V; Orellana L; Kang T; Geyer R; Feudtner C; Wolfe J

2013-07-01

111

Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment.

Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik

2010-01-01

112

Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs.

2005-01-01

113

Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

Kao, C.S.

1985-01-01

114

Impact of recent technical developments on upgrading economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

1991-01-01

115

Economic impacts from energy efficiency programs - Variations in multiplier effects by program type and region. Volume 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research indicates that the value of omitted program effects - specifically non-energy benefits (NEBs) - represent a significant share of overall program impacts. One of the largest components of societal benefits is the direct and indirect economic and job creation effects stimulated by the investment in conservation on behalf of the program. The literature has indicated that the valuations assigned to this category of these categories can be large, but much of the literature overstates the impact of economic NEBs. We conducted extensive research to develop reliable and defensible estimates of these benefits categories. This study used input-output analysis to update the economic multipliers for NEBs in several ways. Net: Developed 'net' estimates of the multipliers (rather than 'gross' factors)Variations by Region: Estimated multipliers for multiple states and for the entire US; Variations by Program Type: Developed estimates based on different types or categories of programs (e.g weatherization vs. new construction vs. appliance programs, etc.), Variations in Baseline Assumptions: Different assumptions about where the expenditures are transferred 'from' for the net analysis (e.g. from 'generation', from a mixed market basket, etc.); and Variations over Time: Used data from multiple time periods to examine changes in the size of multipliers over time. We examined the results by state, by program type, and over time and found dramatic differences in the economic impacts by program type and territory under consideration. The results provide estimates of the economic impacts derived from the program; however, for communities or utilities with economic development goals, the results can be used to help select between program alternatives. The results are new, and the revised figures have been used to compute more reliable and tailored estimates of economic non-energy benefits that can be applied in regulatory tests.

2007-01-01

116

Economic impacts from shifting cropland use from food to fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Without the availability of idle cropland, biomass energy crops will have to compete with other crops and pasture land use. In this paper, we investigate: (a) the economic feasibility of using cropland, traditionally used for pasture, hay and other commodity crops, for production of biomass crops to be used as an energy source for electric utilities; (b) the impact of biomass crop production on crop and livestock prices, farm income, and the cost of food to consumers. We find a $1-4 billion demand for biomass crops may result in a 2-12% impact on farm sector prices. This impact warrants further exploration into estimating the opportunity cost for biomass crop production when idle cropland is not available. (Author)

Raneses, Anton; Hanson, Kenneth; Shapouri, Hosein [USDA, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-07-01

117

IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

2011-11-07

118

Impacts of Antifoam Additions and Argon Bubbling on Defense Waste Processing Facility Reduction/Oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe+2/?Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

2012-01-01

119

Global extreme events and their regional economic impact: 1996 update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. The regional economic impacts of global extreme events are what mankind needs to focus on in government and private sector policy and planning. The economic impact of global warming has been tracked by the Extreme Event Index (EEI) established by the Global Warming International Center (GWIC). This review will update the overall trend and the components of the EEI from 1960 to 1996. The regional components of the global EEI have provided an excellent gauge for measuring the statistical vulnerability of any geographical locality in climate related economic disasters. The author further explains why we no longer fully understand the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these extreme events, precipitation and temperature oscillations, atmospheric thermal unrest, as well as the further stratification of clouds, and changes in the absorptive properties of clouds. Hurricane strength winds are increasingly common even in continental areas. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts a high public health risk as a result of the earth`s transition to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

120

Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) error correction framework to model oil demand in each economic sector separately. The results show that the dynamic panel data approach appears to give estimates consistent with the economic theory. The signs on the coefficients are correct and the magnitude of long-run responses is larger than that of the short-run responses. The single sector model approach yields similar but richer results. Since constant slopes are not imposed across sectors the characteristics and dynamics and responses can differ across sectors. The third part of my dissertation develops a simple Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model to investigate the economic consequences of the SPR for a "small oil-importing economy." This economy is subject to the risk of oil shocks. Government policy-makers attempt to mitigate the macroeconomic impacts of the shocks by establishing a SPR. The assigned values of the parameters in the model aim to reflect the basic characteristics of the Thai economy. The simulation results show that the impulse responses of key economic variables for different degrees of oil shocks follow the same pattern. When the degree of the shock increases, the magnitude of the stock drawdown increases, which helps lower the negative impact on economic welfare. I examine the welfare effects from alternative sizes of the SPR and the opportunity cost for the economy that result when it has to sacrifice additional resources to maintain and operate the SPR. This lowers the level of resources available for production and consumption in the long run. There exists a trade-off relationship between the sacrificed welfare in the long run and the less volatile welfare in the short run.

Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

122

Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental 'externalizations' and the effects of eco-taxes on the production costs of electricity and heat. In conclusion the presented method can be only used if there are specific laws that facilitate environmental protection. Economically speaking the indirect effect - energy tax is easier to establish. That means that it is much more easier and precise to determine the fuel consumption than emissions quantity in order to use it for carbon tax. The combined tax is a more accurate one. Establishment of the pollutant quantities for extraction, processing and transportation phases are more difficult because of the lack of information regarding the efficiencies and energy consumptions. (authors)

2004-01-01

123

Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

2000-05-01

124

Assessing the economic impact of information systems technology on organizations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The investment in information systems technology (IT) through-out the economy is enormous and increasing. The use of IT continues to shift from stand-alone, transaction-processing-type systems to data-managed systems, supporting diverse managerial and professional functions. Despite these facts, little progress has been realized in management's facility to measure the contribution of IT to the economic performance of their organizations. Traditional methods of evaluation, such as various forms of cost-benefit analysis, have proven effective in only limited situations. This thesis investigates frameworks and procedures for assessing the economic impact of IT on organizations. The organization is modeled as an economic artifact engaged in production processes: a firm utilizes input resources, on being IT, to produce commodities which yield economic outputs, such as profits, revenues, ROI, market shares, etc. With this production view, the approach employs the microeconomic concept of production frontiers to generate a performance measure for the firms. This measure indicates the relative efficiency of the firms with respect to their utilization of resources. With IT expenditures isolated as separate input factors, procedures for determining the contribution of IT to performance are developed.

Chismar, W.G.

1986-01-01

125

Impact of deployment rates on the effectiveness of strategic defenses. Master's thesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effectiveness of a Ballistic Missile Defense layer of Space-Based Kinetic Kill Vehicles is examined relative to a threat with increasing numbers of Fast-Burn Boosters over the years 1994-2004. A methodology for evaluating Ballistic Missile Defense layer effectiveness and required deployment rates over time is developed.

Weber, F.W.

1987-09-01

126

Blufensin1 Negatively Impacts Basal Defense in Response to Barley Powdery Mildew  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to control the defense response against microbial attack. Both temporal and spatial gene expression are tightly regulated in response to pathogen ingress, modulating both positive and negative control of defense. BLUFENSIN1 (BLN1), a small peptide ...

127

The impact of health care economics on surgical education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Just like the world economy in 2012, health care is in a state of flux. The current economic environment will impact not only current colorectal surgery residents, but also future generations of surgical trainees. To understand the economic impact of the current health care environment on colorectal surgery residencies, we need to know the basics of graduate medical education (GME) funding for all residents. Since the 1960s with the initiation of Medicare, the federal government through the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has been the largest source of GME funding. There are two types of costs associated with GME. Direct GME (DME) funding covers costs directly attributed to the training of residents. These costs include residents' stipends, salaries, and benefits; cost of supervising faculty; direct program administration costs; overhead; and malpractice coverage. Indirect GME (IME) costs are payments to hospitals as an additional or add-on payment for the increased cost of care that is generally found in teaching hospitals. In 2010, President Barak Obama signed into law H.R. 3200, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). In 2011, the Supreme Court held that the majority of the PPACA is constitutional. Although the true impact of this bill is unknown, it will change the formula for Medicare GME reimbursement as well as shift unused residency positions to primary care.

Margolin DA

2012-09-01

128

Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

1986-01-01

129

The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism  

Science.gov (United States)

As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism.

O'Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

2013-01-01

130

The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.  

Science.gov (United States)

As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

O'Malley, Mary P; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B

2013-05-31

131

[Economic impact of eyedrop cost in glaucoma treatment].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the daily cost of antiglaucoma eyedrops and the economic impact related to the minimal wage; to compare the cost of drug association in the single presentation in relation to separate presentations; to analyze the additional percent antiglaucoma drug cost related to standard therapy (generic timolol maleate). METHODS: Fifteen eyedrop bottles of each one of the twenty antiglaucoma products were used. The number and mean eyedrop size per bottle of drug were measured and the duration and treatment costs calculated. RESULTS: A large variation in the mean daily cost, respectively: R$ 0.077 for generic timolol maleate (cheapest) and R$ 1.910 for Xalacom (most expensive), was observed. It should be noted that the product of minimal economic impact, as related to the minimal wage, was the standard eyedrop therapy with 1.2% to 1.6%, while the association of Xalatan with Timoptol XE showed a variation of 21.7% to 30.0%. The cost of Cosopt and Xalacom was greater than the associations of, respectively: Trusopt + standard eyedrop and Xalatan + standard eyedrop (p<0.001). Xalacom represented an additional cost to standard therapy of 1.698.2% to 1.765.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The variation of antiglaucoma eyedrop cost was almost 30 times between the cheapest and the most expensive, which represented an economic monthly impact of 29.1% on the value of the minimal wage. The combined therapy in the separate presentations presented a lower cost than drug association in a single presentation. The use of antiglaucoma drugs represents a high percent additional cost related to standard therapy.

Stillitano IG; Lima MG; Ribeiro MP; Cabral J; Brandt CT

2005-01-01

132

Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

1985-01-01

133

Measuring the Impact of Fdi on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of FDI on Nigeria’s economic growth process. In an attempt to do this, the paper tests the validity of the modernization or depending hypothesis by employing various econometric tools such as Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) tests, Johansen Cointegration test, the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) and Granger Causality test on time series data from 1970-2008. The results reveal that a long run relationship exists between the variables and a unidirectional causality from FDI to growth was also established. Thus, empirical findings support the modernization hypothesis that FDI is growth promoting in Nigeria.

M.S. Ogunmuyiwa; O.J. Ogunleye

2012-01-01

134

Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

Williams, J.L.

1994-05-01

135

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model.

Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

1999-08-05

136

HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

OANA SIMONA HUDEA (CARAMAN)

2012-01-01

137

IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

2012-06-05

138

Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs.

2003-01-01

139

The economic impact of gout: a systematic literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article performs a systematic literature review of the last decade studies assessing the economic impact of gout. The literature review confirms the fact that gout reduces productivity and increases annual total healthcare costs, since care of gout absorbs relevant amounts of healthcare resources. One important aspect to be considered is represented by prevention and monitoring of the disease after the diagnosis, as gout is sometimes underestimated by patients and this leads to a reduced adherence to follow up and to treatment with consequences on the disease course and outcome. In fact, the lack of prevention and the scarce adherence to monitoring increase the number and costs of hospitalisation. Prevention, monitoring the level of sUA and using a urate-lowering therapy appear to have a central role for controlling gout and reducing hospitalisation, with positive advantages in terms of healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation. One limitation on the analysis of gout related costs, however, resides in the fact that the majority of the retrieved studies are retrospective and the definition of the economic impact of the disease is made difficult by differences in inclusion criteria, costs assessment, use of gout-related healthcare resources.

Trieste L; Palla I; Fusco F; Tani C; Baldini C; Mosca M; Turchetti G

2012-07-01

140

Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs.

2005-01-01

142

Preferred drug lists: Potential impact on healthcare economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kimberly Ovsag, Sabrina Hydery, Shaker A MousaPharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, New York, USAObjectives: To analyze the implementation of Medicaid preferred drug lists (PDLs) in a number of states and determine its impact on quality of care and cost relative to other segments of healthcare.Methods: We reviewed research and case studies found by searching library databases, primarily MEDLINE and EBSCOHost, and searching pertinent journals. Keywords initially included “drug lists,” “prior authorization,” “prior approval,” and “Medicaid.” We added terms such as “influence use of other healthcare services,” “quality of care,” and “overall economic impact.” We mainly used primary sources.Results: Based on our literature review, we determined that there are a number of issues regarding Medicaid PDLs that need to be addressed. Some issues include: (a) the potential for PDLs to influence the utilization of other healthcare services, (b) criteria used by Medicaid for determining acceptance of drugs onto a PDL, (c) the effect of PDL implementation on compliance to new regimens, (d) the potential effects of restricting medication availability on quality of care, (e) administrative costs associated with PDLs, and (f) satisfaction rates among patients and medical providers. This review highlighted expected short-term cost savings with limited degree of compromised quality of PDL implementation, but raised the concern about the potential long-term decline in quality of care and overall economic impact.Conclusions: The number of concerns raised indicates that further studies are warranted regarding both short-term cost benefits as well as potential long-term effects of Medicaid PDL implementation. Objective analysis of these effects is necessary to ensure cost-effectiveness and quality of care.Keywords: preferred drug lists, medicaid, healthcare costs, managed care

Kimberly Ovsag; Sabrina Hydery; Shaker A Mousa

2008-01-01

143

Hibernia: An interim audit of socio-economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hibernia offshore oil field, on the Grand Banks of New- foundland in eastern Canada, was discovered in 1979. Following public review in 1985, the project was approved and work on the construction of the concrete gravity base offshore production platform began in 1990. This paper uses the analysis of issues and concerns presented in the 1985 Hibernia Development Project Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) as a baseline against which to review the actual socioeconomic effects of the development phase of the project. The construction of platform has been one of, if not the, largest construction projects in North America in the 1990s and it seems likely to be remembered as one of the few that have successfully avoided the negative social and economic impacts normally associated with the superimposition of very large projects on rural environments. In comparison with most other large construction projects, Hibernia stands out as a case in which potential impacts were adequately identified, optimization measures determined and implemented, and the negative consequences avoided or mitigated.

Storey, K.; Shrimpton, M.; Grattan, L.

1996-11-01

144

Modelling the economic impacts of addressing climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Power Point report presents highlights of the latest economic modelling of Canada's Kyoto commitment to address climate change. It presents framework assumptions and a snapshot under 4 scenarios. The objective of this report is to evaluate the national, sectoral, provincial and territorial impacts of the federal reference case policy package in which the emissions reduction target is 170 Mt from a business-as-usual scenario. The reference case policy package also includes 30 Mt of sinks from current packages of which 20 Mt are derived from the forestry sector and the remainder from agricultural sector. The report examined 4 scenarios based on 2 international carbon prices ($10 and $50) per tonne of carbon dioxide in 2010. The scenarios were also based on the fiscal assumptions that climate change initiatives and revenue losses would directly affect the governments' balances, or that the government balances are maintained by increasing personal income tax. A comparison of impacts under each of the 4 scenarios to 2010 was presented. The model presents impacts on GDP, employment, disposable income per household, and energy prices. 4 tabs., 4 figs.

2002-01-01

145

Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Secondary Activities: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fast growing literature on economic impacts of climate change is inclined to assessing the impacts on agricultural production and productivity and on human health. The economic impacts of climate change however, go beyond these sectors. In this paper, we attempted to review the scarcely availabl...

Surender Kumar; Amsalu W. Yalew

146

Economic Impact of Dockside Gaming on the Commercial Seafood Industry in Coastal Mississippi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The economic impact of dockside gaming on the commercial seafood industry was evaluated by comparing selected economic indicators of the commercial fishing and processing sectors before and during the legalization of dockside gaming in Mississippi. It is ...

B. C. Posadas

1996-01-01

147

76 FR 29008 - Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and on Beneficiary...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Investigation No. 332-227] Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries...comments in connection with the 20th report on the economic impact of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA). AGENCY: United...

2011-05-19

148

Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Secondary Activities: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast growing literature on economic impacts of climate change is inclined to assessing the impacts on agricultural production and productivity and on human health. The economic impacts of climate change however, go beyond these sectors. In this paper, we attempted to review the scarcely available literature on the economic impacts of the change in the climate of the earth on some selected non-agricultural secondary and tertiary level of economic activities. It is attempted to summarize the ways through which the climate change can affect non-agriculture economic activities. The discussion on the literature can be synthesized as showing the impacts on secondary and tertiary level of economic activities are wide and complex and eventually may be larger than on the impacts on agriculture for those middle and high-income countries where the share of agriculture in national GDP is low.

Surender Kumar; Amsalu W. Yalew

2012-01-01

149

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

SHIVANI M. RAI

2013-01-01

150

Structural ceramics in transportation: fuel implications and economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential application of structural ceramics in motor vehicle engines is described. The high temperature strength characteristic plus the properties of resistance to wear and corrosion make these high-tech ceramics excellent candidates for the harsh environment of the advanced engine systems being considered for automobiles and trucks. The critical role of ceramics in the adiabatic diesel, gas turbine and Stirling engine is discussed, along with an indication of the fuel efficiency potential and multi-fuel capability of each engine. A market penetration analysis of the advanced engines is reviewed and forms the basis of developing two alternative commercialization scenarios for ceramic component engines - one with the United States dominating the market and the other with Japan dominating. Changes in major national economic indicators are noted after simulating the economy with a macroeconomic model. Strategic materials impacts are also noted.

Teotia, A.P.S.; Johnson, L.R.

1985-01-01

151

Economic impact of biofouling on a naval surface ship.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, the overall economic impact of hull fouling on a mid-sized naval surface ship (Arleigh Burke-class destroyer DDG-51) has been analyzed. A range of costs associated with hull fouling was examined, including expenditures for fuel, hull coatings, hull coating application and removal, and hull cleaning. The results indicate that the primary cost associated with fouling is due to increased fuel consumption attributable to increased frictional drag. The costs related to hull cleaning and painting are much lower than the fuel costs. The overall cost associated with hull fouling for the Navy's present coating, cleaning, and fouling level is estimated to be $56M per year for the entire DDG-51 class or $1B over 15 years. The results of this study provide guidance as to the amount of money that can be reasonably spent for research, development, acquisition, and implementation of new technologies or management strategies to combat hull fouling.

Schultz MP; Bendick JA; Holm ER; Hertel WM

2011-01-01

152

[Cost analysis and economic impact of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Health economics studies play an important role in all healthcare systems. The purpose of the latter is to offer effective and low-cost treatments. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the costs and the economic impact of the comprehensive ACL treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An average cost study was done of primary ACL reconstruction. We studied 104 patients during 2005, 79 males and 25 females, with mean age 31.5 years. The assessment of the preoperative, operative and postoperative costs was related to each patient's socioeconomic stratum (SES). RESULTS: The hamstrings were the most frequently used graft (71%) versus the bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (BTB) (29%). Socioeconomic strata 2 and 3 were predominant. The following were the most frequent hamstrings implants used: Rigidfix/Intrafix and Endobutton/Xtralok, while the most frequent BTB grafts used were the metallic interference screws. No difference was found between the types of grafts and the SES in the preoperative and postoperative costs, including imaging studies, hospital say and rehabilitation. However, differences were found among the different groups in the cost of surgery, resulting from the type of implant used. The mean cost for SES 1 and 2 was $6475.20, for SES 3 and 4, $8057.51, and for SES 5 and 6, $16,242.5. The vulnerable population (SES 1) needs 7.34-fold its monthly income to pay for the comprehensive treatment, while the middle stratum (SES 3) needs 3.27-fold its monthly income. CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive cost of treatment is proportionally higher than the patients' income. It is important to point out that the systems using state-of-the-art technology, which in another setting would be inaccessible, have significant advantages when compared with the less expensive systems. Thus the economically vulnerable SES benefit from the subsidy granted by the National Institutes of Health.

Cháidez-Reyes JC; Almazán-Díaz A; Espinosa-Morales R; Cruz-López F; Pérez-Jiménez FX; Encalada-Diaz I; Ibarra-Ponce de León C

2009-11-01

153

Economic impact of control and optimization on industrial utilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Industrial energy management includes the fuel procurement, production, conservation and efficient use of utilities such as steam, electricity, compressed air and water. Steam is the underpinning utility product and usually has the greatest economic impact. The efficient production and delivery of quality steam directly affects the cost of the other utilities as well as the manufacturing process. Utilities are rarely looked upon as a source of corporate profit, especially in times of double-digit expansion. They typically represent only 3 to 11% of manufacturing cost and are perceived as an unavoidable cost. However, in an era of heighten global manufacturing competition and world-wide reallocation of natural resources, utilities are recognized as a variable cost that can be a source of major cost savings opportunities and a strategic contributor to corporate profit. This paper will discuss an overview of possible control and optimization applications for the steam system of an industrial utility, the approaches for economic justification of those applications, and some examples of successful energy management projects.

Lang, R.; Collins, D.

1997-07-01

154

EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

2009-07-01

155

EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

Boehringer, Christoph, E-mail: boehringer@uni-oldenburg.d [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

2009-07-01

156

Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable. (author)

2009-01-01

157

The impact of depression on social economic decision making.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the role of emotion in social economic decision making has been increasingly recognized, the impact of mood disorders, such as depression, on such decisions has been surprisingly neglected. To address this gap, 15 depressed and 23 nondepressed individuals completed a well-known economic task, in which they had to accept or reject monetary offers from other players. Although depressed individuals reported a more negative emotional reaction to unfair offers, they accepted significantly more of these offers than did controls. A positive relationship was observed in the depressed group, but not in controls, between acceptance rates of unfair offers and resting cardiac vagal control, a physiological index of emotion regulation capacity. The discrepancy between depressed individuals' increased emotional reactions to unfair offers and their decisions to accept more of these offers contrasts with recent findings that negative mood in nondepressed individuals can lead to lower acceptance rates. This suggests distinct biasing processes in depression, which may be related to higher reliance on regulating negative emotion.

Harlé KM; Allen JJ; Sanfey AG

2010-05-01

158

IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the construction market, while in Eastern European countries the majority is held by the civil and non-residential constructions. In addition, in the West the medium budget per capita spent on construction is 3-4 times higher than that spent in Eastern countries. But, according to previsions in the coming years the countries that will witness a growth, albeit small, will be the Eastern ones. The paper highlights the impact of the economic and financial crisis in the construction industry on a European and national level, as the sustainable constructions that may represent the sector’s future.

Tudor NISTORESCU; Cristina PLOSCARU

2010-01-01

159

EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

2006-11-01

160

The Economic Impact of Computer virus - A case of Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today's information technology world, Viruses are a huge problem for anyone who uses computers. Computer viruses and worms, a program that can spread across computers and networks has gone from being a nuisance to being the cause of the loss of millions of dollars worth of data, and loss of productivity. The writers of these programmes are becoming more adept at it day by day. Corporate viruses are a major problem which costs businesses billions of dollars every year.The aim of this paper is to interrogate the economic impact of computer viruses and worms attack on institutions and industries, particularly in Ghana. In achieving this, the study examined the effects of the computer viruses and worms on the financial standing of organizations by assessing the cost in terms of lost productivity through the inability to use the infected computers, the restoring of adversely affected files and the re-installing of the networks involved.The study confirmed the negative financial impact of such malicious programs on institutions. Cleaning up after a virus attack cost some Ghanaian firms $122,280, over a period of twenty one productive days.

Henry Osborn Quarshie; Godfred Yaw Koi-Akrofi; Alexander Martin- Odoom

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Impact of Economic Reform on the Nigerian Telecommunications Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the early days of nationalization, it seemed axiomatic that price and quality standards could be better managed by State Owned Enterprises (SOE). Subsequent experience, however demonstrates that public ownership and control are different as the challenges of imposing effective public interests over nationalized enterprise had proved intractable. This study tests the causal and reciprocal relationships between investment in telecommunications and GDP during the transitional period between 1985 an 2003 in addition to the impact of the reforms on the performance of the firms in the telecommunications sector. The research reveals strong and positive relationship between economic reform and firms’ revenue and profit. The regression analysis shows that the telecommunications sector is statistically insignificant in explaining the GDP. Also, the impact of investment in telecommunications was found to be an insignificant predictor of GDP and vice versa even when the investment was lagged by one year. This paper recommends the provision of supporting infrastructure including electricity and the building of public data networks (PDNs) in concert with private telecommunications operators. The derailed privatisation of NITEL should also be concluded. Finally, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) should address the issue of poor quality of service of the telecommunications service providers.

Onakoya Adegbemi Babatunde

2013-01-01

162

The economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases in developing countries: new roles, new demands for economics and epidemiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of "bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior. PMID:20828844

Rich, Karl M; Perry, Brian D

2010-09-15

163

The economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases in developing countries: new roles, new demands for economics and epidemiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of "bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior.

Rich KM; Perry BD

2011-09-01

164

New trends in the commercial IC industry and the impact on defense electronics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unprecedented rate and scope of change in the commercial microelectronics industry presents a significant challenge to, and a significant opportunity for, achieving affordable superiority in defense electronics. A proactive approach to making the industry inherently more leveragable is discussed. Defense microelectronics is inexorably linked to the commercial semiconductor industry. This is obvious in the case of COTS (Commercial Off the Shelf parts) and MOTS (Modified--e.g., upscreened--Off the Shelf parts) as these parts are produced by the commercial industry. However, even captive defense integrated circuit lines building specialized parts are being forced by their dependence on a commercial-industry-driven supplier base to follow commercial product/process/design trends. The just released 1997 version of the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS) describes the unprecedented changes occurring in the commercial industry. The industry is evolving from a more stable pre-1994 technology evolution to a discontinuous post-1997 technology evolution. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these changes present both major challenges and major opportunities, for defense microelectronics, especially for applications involving long lifetimes, harsh environments and/or high consequences of failures.

Dellin, T.A.; Jorgenson, J.L.; Winokur, P.S.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

1998-02-01

165

Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

1978-01-01

166

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE CONVERSION: AN EVALUATION METHODOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and application of a methodology for evaluating the environmental and economic impacts of placing marginal, submarginal, and Soil Bank land in crop production is described. Environmental impacts were measured by quantifying the increased environmental loadings of ...

167

Comparison of potential health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative assessment has been performed of the potential long- and short-term health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes. Conservative models and assumptions were used. The assessment suggests that considerations of health and safety will not be significant in choosing among disposal options, primarily because of the need to meet stringent standards in all cases. Rather, the ease and cost of assuring compliance of a particular disposal option with health and safety standards may be a more important factor. 11 references

1984-01-01

168

Agricultural Insurance In Nigeria And The Economic Impact: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural production faces myriad of risks. Nevertheless, two major risks are of concern to the agricultural sector- price risk caused by potential volatility in prices and production risk resulting from uncertainty about the levels of production that primary producers can achieve from their current activities. It is likely that these major risks will increase in the future – price risk due to liberalization of trade and production risk caused by the effect s of climate change. Agricultural risks not only affect farmers, they also affect the whole agribusiness value chain. Each of the participants along the supply chain, from the Government, Financial Institutions, suppliers of inputs, the distributor, the trader, the processor and the end consumers, are subject to these risks. Agricultural investments unfortunately are among the most risky economic ventures one can embark upon, the absolute dependence on unpredictable weather conditions, like storm, flood, drought and other natural hazards make income from crop products and agricultural products like livestock poultry and dairies to be very unstable. Agricultural Insurance policies serve as securities for banks as indemnification for financial losses suffered by farmers and those in the agricultural value chain resulting from damages to their products, and also provides funds for servicing such loans. This paper is concerned exclusively with the role of agricultural insurance in the agribusiness and in the development of the economy. It gives an introduction and a review of the agricultural sector that led to the agricultural insurance decree in 1993. The paper describes the various products available under the agricultural insurance while a section was devoted to analyzing the economic impact of agriculture Insurance on the economy, then conclusion and recommendations.

Festus M. Epetimehin

2011-01-01

169

The Economic Impact of Dickinson College on Carlisle and Cumberland County, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of Dickinson College represents an unusually complete, detailed, and balanced study of the local and regional economic impact of an academic institution. Among other features, it includes estimates of the college's positive and negative effects on local government, local as well as county wide economic impact estimates, and a relatively…

Bellinger, William; Bybel, Alexandra; de Cabrol, Charles; Frankel, Zachary; Kosta, Elizabeth; Laffey, Thomas; Letko, Lauren; Pehlman, Robert; Peterson, Eric; Roderick, Benjamin; Rose, Leo; Schachter, Andrew; Wang, Jue; Wood, Matthew

2010-01-01

170

The Economic Impact of Dickinson College on Carlisle and Cumberland County, Pennsylvania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic impact is defined as the added income created within a given geographical area by a particular institution or resulting from a specific policy action. This analysis, which used data from many sources, including surveys completed by 174 Dickinson employees, considered the economic impact of Dickinson College on Carlisle and Cumberland…

Bellinger, William; McCann, Danielle

171

The Impact of Economic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution: Evaluation Techniques and Tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book, a collection of articles and papers, reviews techniques and tools that can be used to evaluate the poverty and distributional impact of economic policy choices. Following are its contents: "Evaluating the Poverty and Distributional Impact of Economic Policies: A Compendium of Existing Techniques" (Francois Bourguignon and Luiz A.…

Bourguignon, Francois, Ed.; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A., Ed.

172

Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Small Wind: JEDI Model in the Works (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation covers the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in economic impact analysis for wind power Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, JEDI results, small wind JEDI specifics, and a request for information to complete the model.

Tegen, S.

2012-06-01

173

The Impact of Economic Policies on Poverty and Income Distribution: Evaluation Techniques and Tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This book, a collection of articles and papers, reviews techniques and tools that can be used to evaluate the poverty and distributional impact of economic policy choices. Following are its contents: "Evaluating the Poverty and Distributional Impact of Economic Policies: A Compendium of Existing Techniques" (Francois Bourguignon and Luiz A.…

Bourguignon, Francois, Ed.; Pereira da Silva, Luiz A., Ed.

174

IMPACTS OF MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Emphasis of the study is to empirically analyze the impacts of macroeconomic variables on economic growth in case of some selected Asian countries. For this purpose annual data is taken from 1990 to 2010. It is a panel data analysis and by estimating the model it is found that in case of the sample countries economic growth is positively affected by foreign direct investment and saving rate while exports in the sample period have negative impacts on economic growth and labor force and tax rate have no impacts on economic growth.

Farid Ullah; Abdur Rauf

2013-01-01

175

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT SECTORIAL EXPENDITURE ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Government expenditures remain the bedrock of Nigeria’s economic growth. Hence the need to criticallyevaluate the impact of expenditures’ some priority sectors on the economic growth. A Cochrane-Orcutt and ECM method was adopted to measure the long run effect of selected macroeconomic variables economic growth. The result shows that expenditure on telecommunication, Defence and security, Education and Health Sector have made positive impact on Nigeria’s economic growth. But transportation and agricultural expenditures have impacted negatively in the economic growth in Nigeria. The conclusion therefore is that the level of government expenditures for transportation and agricultural development is still not adequate to build the much need capacity in the sectors to impact positively to economic growth

Ebiringa; Oforegbunam Thaddeus; Charles-Anyaogu Nneka B

2012-01-01

176

User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

2006-06-01

177

The impact of the British model on economic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

Simon György Jr.

2007-01-01

178

Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact  

Science.gov (United States)

Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

Baghiryan, M.

179

Economic impact of prescreening on gastroenterology outpatient clinic practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic activity represents a major workload for clinicians. Unnecessary outpatient visits place a strain on service provision, resulting in unnecessary delays for more urgent cases. GOALS: We sought to determine both the impact and economic benefit of employing phone follow-up and physician assistant (PA) triage systems on attendances at a gastroenterology outpatient department. STUDY: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients attending a gastroenterology outpatient clinic over a 2-week period. Patients were categorized into new or follow-up attendees and the follow-up patients were further subcategorized into 1 of 4 groups: (1) those attending to receive results of investigations requiring no further treatment (group A); (2) those attending to receive results of investigations requiring further treatment (group B); (3) those attending with a chronic gastrointestinal disease requiring no active change in management (group C); (4) those attending with a chronic gastrointestinal disease requiring active change in management (group D). It was assumed that patients in group A could be managed by phone follow-up in place of clinic attendance and patients in group C could be triaged to see a PA. RESULTS: Out of a total of 329 outpatient attendees, 40 (12%) required no active intervention (group A) and would have been suitable for phone follow-up. A further 58 (18%) had stable disease, requiring no change in management and hence, could have been triaged to see a PA. Implementation of phone follow-up and patient review by PA could reduce salary expenses of outpatient practice by 17%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support routine prescreening of outpatient attendees to enhance the efficiency of gastroenterology outpatient practice.

Donnellan F; Harewood GC; Cagney D; Basri F; Patchett SE; Murray FE

2010-04-01

180

Incidence and economic impact of ophthalmological occupational accidents in Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scope: This article seeks to assess the eco-nomic impact of industrial accidents with ref-erence to the incidence of opthalmological in-dustrial injuries occurring in the Thriacion Plain industrial zone in Greece during the period 1991-2000. Material and Methods: Data provided by 53 industrial units have been collected and classified. During the study period, 2,011 adults and juveniles out of the 15,600 people employed in the area (a 13% aggregate) suffered opthal-mological injuries occurring at the workplace. Results: The highest percentage of injuries were due to trauma (61% of adults, 67% of juveniles), followed by chemical burns. In the majority of cases (75% of adults and 50% of juveniles) treatment was provided at the local IKA (Social Security Fund) health care unit, in the town of Elefsis. It was estimated that a total of 10,192 working days were lost, with compensation costs (benefit payments) alone amounting to approximately € 118,000.00, not allowing for in-direct employer costs such as loss of produc-tivity, substitution and replacement costs. Con-clusions: The high incidence of industrial acci-dents in combination with the high percentage of child labor in the area of Thriacion Industrial Plain were striking and contributed significantly to high- er rates of work-related injuries of ocular interest in Greece. The latter were shown to result in a sig- nificant deterioration of the employees’ health status, with the majority of the accidents being due to the lack of safety precautions at the work-place at a considerable financial burden on the social security system in direct benefit payments. The social security system needs to press for tighter work safety regulations and their proper implementation if to minimize the burden these accidents impose on its budget.

Kyriakos Souliotis; Michalis Angelou; Christina Golna; Yannis Tountas

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

1991-05-01

182

The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

1991-05-01

183

Ixtoc I oil spill economic impact study. Volume III. input-output model for economic analysis: instruction manual. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This instructional manual presents input/output (I/O) modelling techniques to the nontechnical user, using a collapsed 66-sector analysis based on the Ixtoc I Oil Spill Economic Impact Study as an example. It describes methodology used for the Texas coastal region, presents updating techniques, and provides I/O tables for the Texas area.

Lamphear, F.C.; Restrepo, C.E.

1982-04-01

184

IXTOC I Oil Spill Economic Impact Study. Volume III. Input-Output Model for Economic Analysis: Instruction Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

This instructional manual presents input/output (I/O) modelling techniques to the nontechnical user, using a collapsed 66-sector analysis based on the Ixtoc I Oil Spill Economic Impact Study as an example. It describes methodology used for the Texas coast...

F. C. Lamphear C. E. Restrepo

1982-01-01

185

DIRECT FOREING INVESMENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a society the attention is preponderantly attracted by the economic growth (an essential fact when we have in view the economic development) and by the resources that lies at the basis of the economy, but the standard of living, the quality of life of the population during that process should not be overviewed.

MIHAELA IONECI

2009-01-01

186

Socio-economic impact assessment and community engagement to reduce conflict over mine operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The broad aim of this project was to assist coal mining companies develop effective processes for engaging with their communities and developing impact assessment and planning processes that can be agreed by their stakeholders. The range of project outcomes have been summarised in a series of reports, as follows. Report 1. Overview of social and economic issues associated with the Bowen Basin coal industry; Report 2. A review of environmental impact assessments (EIA) for coal mine developments and the use of economic and social impact assessment in the Bowen Basin - tools and trends; Report 3. Accounting for social and economic impacts in annual sustainability reporting; Report 4. Regional Economic impact assessment: an overview of the input-output methods; Report 5. The impact of coal industry development projects on the Central Highlands, Fitzroy and Queensland economies: An application of input-output method; Report 6. Regional Economic impact assessment: factors influencing workforce mobility to regional mining towns; Report 7. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the township of Blackwater; Report 8. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the Bauhinia Shire (Springsure and Rolleston); Report 9. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (Blackwater); Report 10. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (the Bauhinia Shire); and Report 11. Summary and Recommendations. This report includes a number of summary findings about the social and economic impacts of coal mining on the communities in the Bowen Basin. The approaches used are outlined and briefly discussed.

John Rolfe; Stewart Lockie [Central Queensland University, Qld. (Australia)

2007-09-15

187

The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

Amir Najafi; Amir Najafi; Amir Najafi; Hossein Askari; Hossein Askari; Hossein Askari

2012-01-01

188

The Impact of Economic Crises on the Perception and Knowledge Level of Students Regarding Economic and Financial Concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic crisis, during the past two years, has an impact on Greek students of 17 years old. Elements of the crisis have intruded on their everyday life. Economic and financial concepts constitute part of their attempt to understand the world they live in and as a result affect their educational level. This paper is an exploratory attempt to study the effects of economic crisis in the economics knowledge of Greek students using a sample of 62 Senior High School (lyceum) students. Data analyzed consists of a 30 question exam based on the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL) developed by the National Council on Economic Education (NCEE) and a questionnaire which was given at the end of the exam. The survey was conducted in two different periods in 2010-2011 & 2011-2012. Results indicate that students level of knowledge of economic and financial concepts, concerning the crisis, is considerably high compared with quantitative results from the U.S. national norming sample of the TEL.

Iraklis Pliakis; Christos Digkas; Despoina Bousiou-Makridou; Stavros Tsopoglou

2013-01-01

189

Clinical and economic impact of aliskiren in uncontrolled hypertensive patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: the majority of hypertensive patients do not achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control and thus remain at risk of cardio-cerebrovascular events. Aliskiren, a novel antihypertensive drug acting as direct renin inhibitor, was authorized in Italy for the treatment of hypertension in patients who remain uncontrolled and at risk despite the use of at least two antihypertensive drugs. It was subject to an AIFA web-based monitoring registry. Results of the registry show a decrease of 20.8/9.2 mmHg in systolic/diastolic BP, within 6 months, when aliskiren is added to current therapy.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the clinical and economic impact of such BP reduction in terms of avoidable cardio-cerebrovascular events.METHODS: an Excel-based Markov model compared aliskiren plus current antihypertensive treatment to current antihypertensive treatment alone over a 5-year horizon. Patients’ baseline characteristics and BP-reduction were taken from the AIFA registry and literature. Using Wilson and Anderson risk equations, the model simulated patient’s transitions from Pre-Event to Post-Event and Death, calculating the number of those who experience an event. Unit costs were assigned to treatments, events and follow-up. Sensitivity analyses considered: efficacy variability and societal costs of events.RESULTS: 2.47% of patients treated with aliskiren added-on to their antihypertensive therapy were expected to avoid an event. As observed in the AIFA registry, 19.8% of patients remained treated only with aliskiren whereas others reduced the number of antihypertensive treatments, leading to a 38.6% reduction of monthly concomitant antihypertensive treatment cost. Considering events and follow-up cost reduction, the per-patient annual incremental cost of aliskiren is calculated at € 187 and generates 0.042 QALYs over 5 years. The ICER was € 22,062 per QALY (€ 16,845 to € 30,771 for an efficacy range of ± 25%). Considering societal costs ICER was € 20,094 per QALY.Conclusions: AIFA registry real-world data confirmed aliskiren’s efficacy in uncontrolled hypertensive patients. Together with reaching their BP goals, patients consumed less medication from other antihypertensive drug classes and are expected to avoid cardio-cerebrovascular events. The ICER remained within acceptable thresholds, confirming that aliskiren represents a good investment in terms of health benefit.

Ezio Degli Esposti; Radovan Tomic

2012-01-01

190

Impact of the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act on the Professionalization and Training of the Marine Corps' Enlisted Acquisition Workforce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public Law 101-510, Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) became effective upon its passage for Fiscal Year 1992. The intent of the legislation is to increase the training and professionalism of the Department of Defense Acquisition Workfo...

R. R. Schleiden

1992-01-01

191

77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...substrates, trichlorobenzene (TCB), and rhenium alloy. The role of the Market Impact...reclamation process project to recycle rhenium alloy which would be re-introduced into...Lbs 45,000 1 Rhenium...

2012-03-20

192

The Impact of Local Tax Policy on Urban Economic Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bulletin explores the effects of local tax policy on urban economic development. The paper is practitioner-oriented and addresses the question of how local officials might best think through the advisability of adjusting local taxes to stimulate commu...

R. Bahl

1980-01-01

193

Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

2011-08-01

194

Measurable Outcomes of Workforce Development and the Economic Impact of Attending a North Carolina Community College.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Examines North Carolina's measurable outcomes of workforce development and the economic impact of attending a community college in the state. Focuses on the performance reporting system and includes a discussion about using the data to inform policy. (VWC)|

Gracie, Larry W.

1998-01-01

195

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF JOINT FOREST PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT (JFPM) ON GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KARNATAKA, INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluates the economic impact of Joint Forest Planning and Management (JFPM) initiated by the Karnataka Forest Department especially on Groundwater Recharge considering productivity, wage income, income generating activities (IGAs) and equity in distribution in Karnataka, with the followi...

Vikram, Patil; Chandrakanth, M.G.; Gangadharappa, N.R.

196

Economic impact analysis, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) interim status standards. Volume II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contents: Specific compliance requirements under RCRA; Unit costs; Off-site waste disposal prices; Projected U.S. inflation rates; Cost of capital; Economic characterization and impact on selected generator industries.

1981-01-01

197

Impacts of nuclear and hydroelectric great projects: economical, technological, environmental and social aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some studies about the Great Impacts of Energy Sources, mainly nuclear power plant and hydroelectric power plant, in Brazil are presented. The technological, economical, social and environmental aspects are described.

1988-01-01

198

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-06-01

199

The Impact of Economics on Health Policy and Management in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Despite the intrinsic value of scientific disciplines, such as Economics, it is appropriate to gauge the impact of its applications on social welfare, or at least -Health Economics' (HE) case- its influence on health policy and management. Methods The three relevant features of knowledge ...

Ortún Rubio, Vicente; Meneu, Ricardo

200

Economic Impact of Implementing Acoustically Treated Nacelle and Duct Configurations Applicable to Low Bypass Turbofan Engines.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis was made of the economic impact on U.S. airlines, of implementing a retro-fit of low bypass turbofan engined aircraft, with acoustically treated nacelles. The purpose of the analysis was to add to the store of technical and economic informatio...

1970-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in the Fort Cobb reservoir watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

Survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level management practices for no-till and conventional tillage. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulation model, was used to determine impacts of alternative tilla...

202

The Impact of Mobile Telephone Use on Economic Development of Households in Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the impact of mobile telephone use on economic development of individual households. Unique cross-sectional data were collected in personal interviews with heads of households (N=196) in Uganda. Economic development is measured at the household level by the Progress out of Poverty Index. ...

Blauw, S.L.; Franses, Ph.H.B.F.

203

Economic Impacts from Spending by Community Dock Owners at Pomme de Terre Lake.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the local economic impacts of users of community-owned docks at Pomme de Terre Lake, located in southcentral Missouri. This economic assessment is based on the results of a 1999 survey of a sample of Pomme de Terre Lake community doc...

B. L. Amsden D. B. Propst L. Lee R. Kasul W. Chang

2008-01-01

204

University Economic Impact Analysis: Applying microeconomic tools and concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

This service-learning impact analysis project had students look in detail at the current employment and purchasing practices and policies of the University of Vermont. Unlike traditional impact analyses that attempt to calculate the total impact of an institution on the local economy, this project attempted to identify where the University could change policies and practices to increase positive local impacts both from an efficiency and equity perspective. Students worked with a 14-person advisory committee from the University, local and state government and local non-profits.

Brooks, Nancy

205

The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998; ANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico-FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The impact of SNL activities on Central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the Central New Mexico Region includes: Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance Counties (Figure 1). Total impact represents both direct and indirect resending by business, including induced effects (resending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico.

1999-01-01

206

Technical Report on the Impact of MgO on Defense Waste Processing Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect(s) of removing MgO from DWPF frits to assess the impact on liquidus temperature and the durability of the glass product. Removal of MgO from the frit was hypothesized to lead to a decrease in liquidus temperature and thereby allow increased waste loading.

2000-01-01

207

TRUST AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new models of development take into account the influence of social capital in inducing the economic growth. Assuming that trust is one of the main dimensions of the social capital, we demonstrate that it is able to reduce the transaction costs and to lay off large amounts that can be redirected towards investments, thereby inducing economic growth. The policy makers are responsible for taking this into account and promote the budgetary measures able to raise the level of trust in a society. We believe, based on the model designed by Zack and Knack, that in addition to the policies which guarantee the contracts, strengthen the formal institutions that prevent the abuses, reduce the social heterogeneity and economic growth, the growth optimization is possible to be achieved by allocating sufficient resources to education. The inference is based on an empirical research on the Romanian society, whose results are presented in this study.

Cristian C. POPESCU

2011-01-01

208

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives the largest contribution to GRDP in Province of Archipelago of Riau. This can be understood that the contribution is more than 72.0% not only based on GRDP at current prices, but also based on GRDP at constant prices. Economic growth rate in regions in Province of Archipelago of Riau is higher than national economic growth rate. The model fits well because the coefficient of determination R2 is more than 85%. There are only 3 worse models, i.e. based on building construction in Batam (with R2= 59.6%), in Tanjungpinang (with R2=74.0%), and based on transportation and communication in Tanjungpinang (with R2=37.1%).

Susanti Linuwih; Setiawan Setiawan; Dwiatmono A. W Dwiatmono A. W; Wiryadi Wiryadi

2010-01-01

209

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financial and cost accounting methods to reflect efforts of organizations towards sustainability and to provide management with information needed to make sustainable business decisions have been broadly recognized. Information on environmental performance of organizations might be available to some extent, but, decision-makers of internal company, as well as those in public authorities, are seldom able to link environmental information to economic variables and are crucially lacking environmental cost information. As a consequence, decision makers fail to recognize the economic value of natural resources as assets, and the business and financial value of good environmental performance. Beyond “goodwill” initiatives, a few market-based incentives exist to integrate environmental concerns in decision-making. This paper gives an overview of the approaches of environmental management accounting and we analyze environmental cost in condition by actual economic crisis.

Leontina BETIANU; Sorin BRICIU

2010-01-01

210

THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE FISCAL REVENUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to evaluate the situation of the fiscal revenues in Romania in the context of economic and financial crisis, because the fiscal revenues are the major source of financing the public expenditure. The evolution of the level of fiscal revenu

Mara Eugenia Ramona; Inceu Adrian; Cuceu Ionut; Achim Monica Violeta

2009-01-01

211

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing i...

Niculae Sabin Mihai; Paul Marinesc; Sorin Toma

212

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON CREDIT INSURANCE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The insurance domain is one of the most complex and extensive areas of the market. However this field is very risk exposed especially in this period of economic instability. One of the most non-performant insurance products at this time is the credit insurance. Due to inability to pay and increasing...

Ciumas Cristina; Vaidean Viorela-Ligia

213

Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII), European ...

Romuald I. Zalewski; Eulalia Skawinska

214

Health and economic impact of occupational health services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The benefits of occupational health services are obvious and objectively demonstrable. But investments in their expansion are limited since all money spent on worker health and safety is deflected from alternative uses. Economic evaluation (cost–benefit analysis, cost–effectiveness analysis, and c...

Meng Kin Lim

215

Clinical and economical impact of multiplex respiratory virus assays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last decade, a variety of molecular assays targeting respiratory viruses have been developed and commercialized. Therefore, multiplex PCR are increasingly used in everyday clinical practice. This improves our understanding of respiratory virus epidemiology and enhances our concerns about their clinical impact in specific patient populations. However, questions remain regarding cost-effectiveness of performing these diagnostic tests in routine and their real impact on patient care. This article will review available data and highlight unresolved questions about cost-effectiveness, infection control, clinical utility and public health impact of multiplex respiratory virus assays.

Vallières E; Renaud C

2013-07-01

216

IXTOC I Oil Spill Economic Impact Study. Volume II. Executive Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Executive Summary is a nontechnical companion volume reviewing the results of a study of the economic impact of the 1979 Ixtoc I and Burmah Agate oil spills on Texas coastal counties. The report analyzes impacts on tourism, recreation, and commercial...

C. E. Restrepo F. C. Lamphear C. A. Gunn R. B. Ditton J. P. Nichols

1982-01-01

217

Ixtoc I oil spill economic impact study. Volume II. executive summary. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Executive Summary is a nontechnical companion volume reviewing the results of a study of the economic impact of the 1979 Ixtoc I and Burmah Agate oil spills on Texas coastal counties. The report analyzes impacts on tourism, recreation, and commercial fisheries.

Restrepo, C.E.; Lamphear, F.C.; Gunn, C.A.; Ditton, R.B.; Nichols, J.P.

1982-04-01

218

Economic impact analysis, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) interim status standards. Volume I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Economic Impact Analysis of Phase I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C hazardous waste program analyzes the costs and impacts of regulations for generators; transporters; and treaters, storers, and disposers under the Interim Status Standards (ISS).

1981-01-01

219

Economic impacts of the S. S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill.

Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

1990-11-01

220

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Southeast Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Southeast (defined here as Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia).

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

THE IMPACT OF PROPERTY RIGHTS FREEDOM ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE OECD NATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study empirically investigates of the impact on per capita real economic growth of property rights freedom. After controlling for nominal long term interest rates, net exports, a measure of political stability, and other factors, panel least squares as well as panel two stage least squares estimations using a four-year panel data set for the OECD nations as a group reveal that higher levels of property rights freedom lead to an increased rate of per capita real economic growth. Furthermore, it is found that whereas higher nominal long term interest rates lead to diminished economic growth net export growth and greater political stability enhance economic growth

Richard J. Cebula

2011-01-01

222

Impact of economic crisis and other demographic and socio-economic factors on self-rated health in Greece.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Financial crisis and worsened socio-economic conditions are associated with greater morbidity, less utilization of health services and deteriorated population's health status. The aim of the present study was to investigate the determinants of self-rated health in Greece. METHODS: Two national cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2006 and 2011 were combined, and their data were pooled giving information for 10 572 individuals. The sample in both studies was random and stratified by gender, age, degree of urbanization and geographic region. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the impact of several factors on self-rated health. RESULTS: Poor self-rated health was most common in older people, unemployed, pensioners, housewives and those suffering from chronic disease. Men, individuals with higher education and those with higher income have higher probability to report better self-rated health. Furthermore, the probability of reporting poor self-rated health is higher at times of economic crisis. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the association of self-rated health with economic crisis and certain demographic and socio-economic factors. Given that the economic recession in Greece deepens, immediate and effective actions targeting health inequalities and improvements in health status are deemed necessary.

Zavras D; Tsiantou V; Pavi E; Mylona K; Kyriopoulos J

2013-04-01

223

Economic perspectives on the impact of climate variability and change: A summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is presented of a collection of papers on the economic methodologies applicable to studies of the impact of global climate variability and change. The research was sponsored by the Canadian Climate program and was conducted as part of a project investigating the potential impacts on various sectors of the Canadian economy of climate warming due to the greenhouse effect. Topics of the papers include microeconomic analysis, benefit/cost analysis, input-output analysis, policy options regarding water levels in the Great Lakes, the scenario approach to assessing socio-economic sensitivities to climate change in the agri-food sector, and analysis of weather impacts. Several analytical tools are seen to be readily applicable to economic analyses of the effects of climate change, and issues of future water supply and demand are seen as central to climate impact assessment, and of particular concern to Canada

1988-01-01

224

JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL's Wind Powering America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels, concentrating solar power, coal, and natural gas power plants. Based on project-specific and default inputs (derived from industry norms), JEDI estimates the number of jobs and economic impacts to a local area (usually a state) that could reasonably be supported by a power generation project. For example, JEDI estimates the number of in-state construction jobs from a new wind farm. This fact sheet provides an overview of the JEDI model as it pertains to wind energy projects.

2009-12-01

225

Economic impact analysis of effluent limitations and standards for the coal mining industry. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued effluent guidelines and limitations for the Coal Mining Point Source Category in September 1982. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects on profitability, potential mine closures, unemployment, and other secondary effects. A linear program is used to estimate these impacts and the supply of coal in the spot, contract, and metalurgical coal markets. Impacts on new coal preparation facilities are also examined.

1982-10-01

226

ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OPERATING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed the need to reform international financial institutions and new global financial architecture. Changes in their structure and operation should lead to global economic stability. Members of the Euro zone are faced with a new attitude towards the international financial institutions, particularly the International Monetary Fund. Proclaimed missions of International Monetary Fund and World Bank clearly differ in theory, but with the passage of time their activities have become increasingly intertwined.

Slobodan Cerovic; Pero Petrovic; Stanislav Cerovic

2013-01-01

227

The impact of economic issues on Nigerian health sciences libraries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic issues are among the most important factors affecting health sciences libraries in Nigeria. These issues are influenced by the political, cultural, geographic, and demographic characteristics of the country. Significant economic issues are the dependence of the national economy on a single commodity, large foreign debt and spiraling inflation, stringent foreign exchange control measures, and inadequate realization by authorities of the role and importance of health sciences libraries. With shrinking budgets, resources, and staff, health sciences libraries can neither grow nor afford library automation. Health sciences librarians must take initiatives for cooperative activities to increase and make the most of resources, pursue nontraditional methods of fund-raising, educate authorities about the role and importance of libraries, and develop and implement a plan for the development and growth of health sciences libraries in the country. PMID:1884083

Belleh, G S; Akhigbe, O O

1991-07-01

228

The impact of economic issues on Nigerian health sciences libraries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Economic issues are among the most important factors affecting health sciences libraries in Nigeria. These issues are influenced by the political, cultural, geographic, and demographic characteristics of the country. Significant economic issues are the dependence of the national economy on a single commodity, large foreign debt and spiraling inflation, stringent foreign exchange control measures, and inadequate realization by authorities of the role and importance of health sciences libraries. With shrinking budgets, resources, and staff, health sciences libraries can neither grow nor afford library automation. Health sciences librarians must take initiatives for cooperative activities to increase and make the most of resources, pursue nontraditional methods of fund-raising, educate authorities about the role and importance of libraries, and develop and implement a plan for the development and growth of health sciences libraries in the country.

Belleh GS; Akhigbe OO

1991-07-01

229

Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

1983-01-01

230

The environmental and economic impacts of the climate change agreements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The climate change agreements (CCAs) in the UK were negotiated with a number of energy-intensive industrial sectors, and offered a reduction in the rate of the climate change levy (CCL), provided that negotiated energy efficiency targets were met. Through modelling and by analysis of the results of the first target period, this paper analyses the stringency of the targets, and the economic and environmental implications of the CCAs. It concludes that, while the targets in themselves were not stringent, and were in the main met well before the due date, the CCAs appear to have had an 'awareness effect' in stimulating energy savings. This has resulted in overall environmental benefits above those which would have derived from the imposition of a flat-rate tax with no rebate and no CCAs, and economic benefits for the sectors and companies with which CCAs were negotiated. (author)

2006-01-01

231

Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities.

1991-05-03

232

The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

Camelia SURUGIU

2009-01-01

233

The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english South Africa's unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, the question therefore is how to make best use of the country's available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic wat (more) er shortages, a condition exacerbated by climate change and the presence of invasive alien plant species. In this paper we address the question of sectoral water allocation by applying a macro-economic comparative static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model using an integrated database comprising South Africa's Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and sectoral water use balances. We refer to AsgiSA, the South African Government's Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa, and conclude that introducing the proposed programmes in a business-as-usual and water-intensive manner will strengthen the current growth in the demand for water. This will bring forward, or accelerate, the need for introducing water rationing among sectors. The importance of this conclusion cannot be emphasised enough. Water is essential, and recognised in as much in the preamble to the National Water Act of 1998, with regards to livelihoods, health and from a socio-economic development perspective since there are no substitutes for it. While water rationing is imminent, the reality thereof has not yet led to a rethink of macro-economic policies. This delayed effect can create a degree of comfort and ill-founded complacency leading to non-action, whereas there is an urgent need for proactive measures towards water conservation.

Blignaut, James; van Heerden, Jan

2009-07-01

234

Economic impact on the Florida economy of energy price spikes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A substantial disturbance in oil supplies is likely to generate a large price upsurge and a downturn in the level of economic activity. Each of these two effects diminishes demand by a certain amount. The specific price surge required to reduce demand to the lower level of supply can be calculated with an oil demand function and with empirical estimations of the association between price spikes and declines in economic activity. The first section presents an energy demand model for Florida, which provides the price and income elasticities needed. The second section includes theoretical explanations and empirical estimations of the relationship between price spikes and recessions. Based on historical evidence, it seems that Florida's and the nation's economic systems are very sensitive to oil price surges. As price spikes appear damaging to the economy, it could be expected that reductions in the price of oil are beneficial to the system. That is likely to be the case in the long run, but no empirical evidence of favorable short-term effects of oil price decreases was found. Several possible explanations and theoretical reasons are offered to explain this lack of association. The final section presents estimates of the effect of oil disruptions upon specific industries in Florida and the nation.

Mory, J.F.

1992-01-01

235

The Impact of Membrane Lipid Composition on Macrophage Activation in the Immune Defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage membrane lipid composition on gene expression and cytokine synthesis thereby highlighting signal transduction processes, macrophage activation as well as macrophage defense mechanisms. Using RAW264.7 macrophages as a model system, we identified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of both the n-3 and the n-6 family to down-regulate the synthesis of: (i) the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?; (ii) the co-stimulatory molecule CD86; as well as (iii) the antimicrobial polypeptide lysozyme. The action of the fatty acids partially depended on the activation status of the macrophages. It is particularly important to note that the anti-inflammatory action of the PUFA could also be seen in case of infection of RAW264.7 with viable microorganisms of the genera R. equi and P. aeruginosa. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that PUFA from both the n-3 and the n-6 family down-regulate inflammation processes in context of chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens.

Axel Schoeniger; Stephanie Adolph; Herbert Fuhrmann; Julia Schumann

2011-01-01

236

Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs.

237

Economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to broaden the purview of fiscal impact analysis to include impacts on the local private sector that may stem from local public sector changes. More specifically, attention is focused on the limiting case, in which new private sector development yields positive changes in fiscal capacity, but does not increase public service demands or interact with the local private sector. This phenomenon is termed a ''pure'' change in fiscal capacity, or, stated differently, pure tax revenue importation. Interest in this issue stems from an analysis of the local impacts of constructing and operating nuclear power stations. Nuclear power stations, like other electrical generating facilities, are characterized by large capital-labor ratios, implying that the impact of siting would be to increase local taxable capacity, via the property tax base, to a greater extent than local private sector activity, via new hirings. Moreover, a small labor force implies a modest change in the demand for local public services, and facilities of this nature by themselves demand few, if any, public services. A nuclear power station, however, may be distinguished from other electrical generating facilities through siting regulations that require locating in a low population density area, a fact which ensures the influence on the community will be substantial. The question of how and to what degree feedback effects from local public to local private sector may take place is described.

1978-05-13

238

Commentary: Laboring to understand the economic impact of spinal disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

COMMENTARY ON: Schofield DJ, Shrestha RN, Percival R, et al. The personal and national costs of early retirement because of spinal disorders: impacts on income, taxes, and government support payments. Spine J 2012;12:1111-8 (in this issue).

Dagenais S; Haldeman S

2012-12-01

239

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing within the crisis context for the retail sector.

Niculae Sabin Mihai; Paul Marinesc; Sorin Toma

2010-01-01

240

Socio-economic impact of endovenous thermal ablation techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Varicose veins are common and cause extensive morbidity; however, the value of treatment is under-appreciated. Many procedures allow the treatment of varicose veins with minimal cost and extensive literature supporting differing minimally invasive approaches. In this article, we investigate the current literature regarding treatment options, clinical outcome and the cost-benefit economics associated with varicose vein treatment. The practice of defining clinical outcome with quality of life (QOL) assessment is explained to provide valid concepts of treatment success beyond occlusion rates.

Kelleher D; Lane TR; Franklin IJ; Davies AH

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the difficulties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. METHODS: Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had reported costs and economic analysis (n=29/45). The reported data were assessed for their suitability to economic evaluation. Where an economic analysis was reported the analysis was described according to pre-set definitions of various types of economic analysis used in the field of health economics. RESULTS: 25 studies reported cost data on the intervention and/or benefits to the recipients. Of these, 11 studies reported data which was considered amenable to economic evaluation. A further four studies reported conducting an economic evaluation. Three of these studies presented a hybrid 'balance sheet' approach and indicated a net economic benefit associated with the intervention. One cost-effectiveness evaluation was identified but the data were unclearly reported; the cost-effectiveness plane suggested that the intervention was more costly and less effective than the status quo. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies planning an economic evaluation need to (i) make best use of available data and (ii) ensure that all relevant data are collected. To facilitate this, economic evaluations should be planned alongside the intervention with input from health economists from the outset of the study. When undertaken appropriately, economic evaluation provides the potential to make significant contributions to housing policy.

Fenwick E; Macdonald C; Thomson H

2013-10-01

242

The Impact of External Events on the Emergence of Collective States of Economic Sentiment  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the impact of the environment (i.e. the impact of socio-political and socio-economic exogenous events) on the emergence of ordered phases of locally interacting individual economic sentiment variables (consumer confidence, business confidence etc.). The sentiment field is modeled as a (non-critical) Ising field with nearest-neighbor interactions on a (two-dimensional) square lattice. The environment is modeled as an external ``field of events'', randomly fluctuating over time, stochastically impacting the Ising field of individual variables. The external events can be frequent or rare, have a lasting impact or a non-lasting impact. The field is not homogeneous, as individual actors might fail to perceive external events. We find that if events are sufficiently ``strong'' and/or perceived by a sufficiently large proportion of agents, collective states of pessimism/optimism can not occur, even for strong inter-agent interactions.

Hohnisch, M; Pittnauer, S; Hohnisch, Martin; Stauffer, Dietrich; Pittnauer, Sabine

2006-01-01

243

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

Demirbas, Ayhan [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-11-15

244

Health and economic impact of occupational health services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The benefits of occupational health services are obvious and objectively demonstrable. But investments in their expansion are limited since all money spent on worker health and safety is deflected from alternative uses. Economic evaluation (cost–benefit analysis, cost–effectiveness analysis, and cost–utility analysis) of such services is thus important as a guide to rational choices, the dependency on the validity of assumptions made being the main limitation, along with the nonconsideration of social and ethical objectives if decisions are based on costs and benefits alone. Its unidimensional perspective has the strength of providing the clarity needed, however, especially in developing countries resisting moral suasion. Although monetary resources are what decision makers understand and respond to, it has been deeply held societal values that have persuaded more enlightened governments and firms of industrialized countries to invest a priori in comprehensive occupational health services. Ultimately, the formulation of policies on occupational safety and health must be both economically and ethically sound.

Meng Kin Lim

2005-01-01

245

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

2009-01-01

246

Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII), European Summary Innovative Index (SII), Ranking of Competitiveness of Nations (in a form of summary as well as subsidiary data ) and set of macro economy data (GDP, labor productivity, export, export of high-tech, R&D expenditure as [as % of GDP] etc as measures of economic growth. Various regression models: liner, curvilinear, planar or spatial with one or two dependent variables will be calculated and explained. In addition the appropriate 2 D and 3 D-graphs will be used and presented to strengthen verbal arguments and explanation. The main result of this paper is relationship between innovative activity, competitive ability and growth measured as GDP per capita. Such relationship is shown as fairy good linear span of countries. Only two of them: Luxemburg and Norway due to higher than average growth value are outliers. The valuable outcome of this paper is classification of nation into groups: highly innovative- highly competitive, highly competitive-non innovative, highly innovative- non competitive and non innovative – non competitive. The last group of nations fall into trap of low competitiveness.

Romuald I. Zalewski; Eulalia Skawinska

2011-01-01

247

Economic and herbicide use impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

More than 95% of United States maize, cotton, soybean and sugarbeet acres are treated with herbicides for weed control. These products are used to improve the economic profitability of crop production for farmers. Since their introduction in 1996, over 75 million acres of genetically engineered glyphosate-resistant crops have been planted, making up 80% of soybean acres and 70% of cotton acres in the USA. These genetically engineered crops have been adopted by farmers because they are perceived to offer greater economic benefits than conventional crop and herbicide programs. The adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops has saved US farmers 1.2 billion dollars associated with the costs of conventional herbicide purchases, application, tillage and hand weeding. With the adoption of glyphosate-resistant sugarbeets on currently planted sugarbeet acres, US growers could potentially save an additional 93 million dollars. The adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops by US agriculture has reduced herbicide use by 37.5 million lbs, although the adoption of glyphosate-resistant sugarbeets would dampen this reduction by 1 million lbs.

Gianessi LP

2005-03-01

248

Economic and herbicide use impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 95% of United States maize, cotton, soybean and sugarbeet acres are treated with herbicides for weed control. These products are used to improve the economic profitability of crop production for farmers. Since their introduction in 1996, over 75 million acres of genetically engineered glyphosate-resistant crops have been planted, making up 80% of soybean acres and 70% of cotton acres in the USA. These genetically engineered crops have been adopted by farmers because they are perceived to offer greater economic benefits than conventional crop and herbicide programs. The adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops has saved US farmers 1.2 billion dollars associated with the costs of conventional herbicide purchases, application, tillage and hand weeding. With the adoption of glyphosate-resistant sugarbeets on currently planted sugarbeet acres, US growers could potentially save an additional 93 million dollars. The adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops by US agriculture has reduced herbicide use by 37.5 million lbs, although the adoption of glyphosate-resistant sugarbeets would dampen this reduction by 1 million lbs. PMID:15706602

Gianessi, Leonard P

2005-03-01

249

Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia. 46 refs.

Winters, P.; Murgai, R.; Sadoulet, E.; De Janvry, A. [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Frisvold, G. [Council of Economic Advisors, Washington DC (United States)

1998-07-01

250

Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia. 46 refs.

1998-01-01

251

Business globalization process and its impact on Serbia's economic system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes companies are facing at the beginning of this century result from the impact of three factors. The first factor is globalization - a huge increase in exchange and availability of new products and services and a dramatic increase in mobility of foreign investment, movement of people and international competition. Another factor is the impact of modern communications technology. Rapid changes in all forms of technology allow a rapid access to various ways of communication with low cost, what leads to opening of markets to consumers worldwide. These two factors have contributed to the change of power in the market from producers to consumers or end users. Within this context, the availability of information in the company as well as the determination of global brands and services becomes a phenomenon of global markets.

Vesi? Dobrica

2010-01-01

252

Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs.

1990-01-01

253

Canadian Digestive Health Foundation Public Impact Series: Gastroesophageal reflux disease in Canada: Incidence, prevalence, and direct and indirect economic impact  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation initiated a scientific program to assess the incidence, prevalence, mortality and economic impact of digestive disorders across Canada. The current article presents the updated findings from the study concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease – a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications (Montreal definition).

Fedorak, Richard N; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Bridges, Ron

2010-01-01

254

Economic impact of price forecasting inaccuracies on self-scheduling of generation companies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies the economic impact of using inaccurate price forecasts on self-scheduling of generation companies (GenCos) in a competitive electricity market. Four alternative sets of price forecasts are used in this study which have different levels of accuracy. The economic impact of price forecast inaccuracies is calculated by comparing the economic benefits of the GenCos in two self-scheduling scenarios. In the first scenario, electricity market price forecasts are used to optimally schedule the GenCos' next day operation. In the second scenario, perfect price forecasts, i.e., actual market prices, are used for self-scheduling of the GenCos. Two indices are utilized to quantify the differences in the economic benefits of the GenCos under the two scenarios. Simulation results are provided and discussed for two typical and inherently different GenCos, i.e., a hydro-based producer and a thermal-based producer. (author)

2011-01-01

255

Defense management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses how some action has been taken on most of the recommendations made by the President's Blue Ribbon Commission of Defense Management (Packard Commission), although little or no action has been taken on others. Specifically, the National Security Council provided a single budget level, instead of provisional budget levels, in the presidential guidance to the Secretary of Defense; no charges have been made to reduce the redundancy among congressional committees reviewing the defense budget or the number of reports Congress requests from the Department of Defense; and the 5-year defense guidance did not include budgets with an operationally oriented structure.

1988-12-01

256

Analysis: Economic Impacts of Wind Applications in Rural Communities; June 18, 2004 -- January 31, 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to compile completed studies on the economic impact of wind farms in rural communities and then to compare these studies. By summarizing the studies in an Excel spreadsheet, the raw data from a study is easily compared with the data from other studies. In this way, graphs can be made and conclusions drawn. Additionally, the creation of a database in which economic impact studies are summarized allows a greater understanding of the type of information gathered in an economic impact study, the type of information that is most helpful in using these studies to promote wind energy development in rural communities, and the limitations on collecting data for these studies.

Pedden, M.

2006-01-01

257

The impact of real exchange rate volatility on economic growth: Kenyan evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of real exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Kenyan. The study employed the Generalized Autoregressive Condition of Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) and computation of the unconditional standard deviation of the changes to measure volatility and Generalized Method Moments (GMM) to assess the impact of the real exchange rate volatility on economic growth for the period January 1993 to December 2009. Data for the study was collected from Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Kenya and International Monetary Fund Data Base by taking monthly frequency. The study found that RER was very volatility for the entire study period. Kenya’s RER generally exhibited a appreciating and volatility trend, implying that in general, the country’s international competitiveness deteriorated over the study period. The RER Volatility reflected a negative impact on economic growth of Kenya.

Danson Musyoki; Ganesh P. Pokhariyal; Moses Pundo

2012-01-01

258

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly on economic growth than their expenditureon transport and communication. Increased expenditure on all sectors was recommended especially on engineering construction. In addition policy modifications are needed to ensure that government expenditure on the transportation and communication sector achieve greater impacts on economic growth.

DR. MRS. I. S. MADUEME; ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY

2012-01-01

259

Impacts of Mexican oil policy on economic and political development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Mexican perspective conditions this analysis of the role of oil policy in Mexico's economic and political development. The author examines the linkages between external pressures of trade and the oil market and the internal pressures of the Mexican economy and institutions. He emphasizes the need for a strategy to confront the whole if Mexico is to seek a better future through self-reliance and an independent policy. The author examines the major political and institutional threads of demography, administrative policies, oil production and Mexico's status among world producers, and the changing US-Mexican relationship. He concludes that mutual respect and cooperation can enhance the futures of both the US and Mexico. 154 references, 7 figures, 37 tables.

Velasco-S., J.A.

1983-01-01

260

Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

1981-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

The economic impact of modern dense medium systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the development of modern dynamic dense medium circuits which offer many opportunities for simplifying processes, for savings of costs and energy, and extending the reserves of ores which can be mined economically. Explanations are offered of the various features contributing to the high and consistent efficiency of two and three stage dense medium separators and the medium controls which have been developed for two and three product circuits. Logical designs and good materials of construction of the separators, effective circuits and the elimination of high wear items have made modern plants simple to operate and convenient for integration with continuously operating beneficiation circuits with minimal supervision. Examples are then given of an increasing range of operating plants and of new applications. 20 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Burton, M.W.A.; Ferrara, G.; Machiavelli, G.; Porter, M.M.; Ruff, H.J. (Inpromin Ltd., Rochester (UK))

1991-01-01

262

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON CREDIT INSURANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The insurance domain is one of the most complex and extensive areas of the market. However this field is very risk exposed especially in this period of economic instability. One of the most non-performant insurance products at this time is the credit insurance. Due to inability to pay and increasing bad loans, insurance companies have decided to remove these products from their portfolio. We believe that the signs that led to this situation have been very visible for a long time, but the insurance market players refused to give too much importance to them because they based their operations on the artificial strength of the whole system. In this paper we want to show how things have evolved on the credit insurance market as compared to the general insurance market, and if the present situation could have been anticipated and avoided.

Ciumas Cristina; Vaidean Viorela-Ligia

2010-01-01

263

Social, economic, and ecological impact of social forestry in Kolar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information on socioeconomic status, land ownership and use, domestic energy consumption and village organization in relation to forestry was collected orally and by questionnaire from individual households from 4 taluks in Kolar district, Karnataka. Data were also recorded from field studies carried out in Dec 1980- Feb 1981. After an introduction, and descriptions of the social forestry programme and of the present study (3 chapters), the results are reported in 3 further chapters which describe the historical evolution of land use pattern and community participation, economic effects and ecological effects. It is concluded that social forestry as practised so far lacks the organizational and economic capabilities to provide the basic needs of rural people, although it has been successful in motivating the participation of individual farmers. New forest cover has emerged at the cost of food crops, and this change in land use has worsened the condition of both landless agricultural labourers and marginal farmers in terms of employment and availability of food, fodder, fuel and other forest products. The incomes of larger farmers have gone up, mainly because of large-scale planting of eucalyptus which sells for high prices to the rayon and pulp industries but is said to be of little use as domestic fuel. Planting of species traditionally used as farm trees and providing basic material needs is low. The final chapter analyses the proposed World Bank project on social forestry in Karnataka, which is an extension of present practices, and it is concluded that the project will accentuate the effects already seen in the area.

Shiva, V.; Sharatchandra, H.C.; Bandyopadhyay, J.

1981-01-01

264

Understanding the limited impact of economic evaluation in health care resource allocation: a conceptual framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern has increasingly been expressed at the low level of impact that economic evaluations have on the priority setting decisions they are designed to inform. The concern to maximise the impact of economic evaluation in health care is reminiscent of research utilisation debates rehearsed in the various policy studies disciplines. This paper draws on selected themes and frameworks from this literature in order to explore issues and map out an agenda relating to the uptake and use of cost effectiveness analysis in health policy decisions. The authors consider the implications for health economics, and other policy-related research and evaluation, of adopting either a rational or interactive model of research utilisation. Economic evaluations can be normative or descriptive decision tools. The choice of approach will reflect the assumed model of research utilisation and has implications for overcoming barriers to impact on policy. There is an underlying conceptual link between the rational model of research utilisation, the normative approach to economic evaluation and a focus on barriers to the accessibility of published analyses. In contrast, acknowledgement of an interactive and incremental policy process predisposes the analyst to a more descriptive approach and suggests the importance of broader systems, process and ethical barriers to the use of economic evaluation. We address the crucial issue of the importance of establishing objectives and discuss how this issue effects how those seeking to influence policy should proceed. Finally, we discuss indirect or 'enlightenment' models of research utilisation and the implications of these for the community of health economists. PMID:16621124

Williams, Iestyn; Bryan, Stirling

2006-04-18

265

Understanding the limited impact of economic evaluation in health care resource allocation: a conceptual framework.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Concern has increasingly been expressed at the low level of impact that economic evaluations have on the priority setting decisions they are designed to inform. The concern to maximise the impact of economic evaluation in health care is reminiscent of research utilisation debates rehearsed in the various policy studies disciplines. This paper draws on selected themes and frameworks from this literature in order to explore issues and map out an agenda relating to the uptake and use of cost effectiveness analysis in health policy decisions. The authors consider the implications for health economics, and other policy-related research and evaluation, of adopting either a rational or interactive model of research utilisation. Economic evaluations can be normative or descriptive decision tools. The choice of approach will reflect the assumed model of research utilisation and has implications for overcoming barriers to impact on policy. There is an underlying conceptual link between the rational model of research utilisation, the normative approach to economic evaluation and a focus on barriers to the accessibility of published analyses. In contrast, acknowledgement of an interactive and incremental policy process predisposes the analyst to a more descriptive approach and suggests the importance of broader systems, process and ethical barriers to the use of economic evaluation. We address the crucial issue of the importance of establishing objectives and discuss how this issue effects how those seeking to influence policy should proceed. Finally, we discuss indirect or 'enlightenment' models of research utilisation and the implications of these for the community of health economists.

Williams I; Bryan S

2007-01-01

266

A guide to socio-economic impact monitoring in the Northwest Territories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A monitoring program was conducted to investigate the economic and social effects of an oilfield expansion and pipeline project on northern peoples in Canada. The goals of this report are to document the essential elements of the program and to make recommendations for future monitoring efforts in the Northwest Territories. The basic principle underlying this report is that socio-economic monitoring of large-scale industrial projects is an important government function and that monitoring, by providing socio-economic impact information, helps to formulate policy aimed at reducing regional economic and social inequalities. The purpose of monitoring is twofold: to record the economic and social characteristics of a population over time and to identify changes in that population caused by the construction of a large-scale industrial project; and to improve the management of development impacts. The first step in the monitoring program involved community surveys to gather necessary socio-economic information from households and businesses. Particular attention was paid to the impacts on native peoples. Data were gathered for three key periods: pre-construction, construction, and post-construction of the pipeline and related facilities. Responses were recorded in a form facilitating computerized data processing. The design of the monitoring program is discussed, considering the data needed, the selection of questions, questionnaire design, and data collection procedures. Field survey methods, creation and maintenance of a data base, and creation of reports are also described. Recommendations are provided for future monitoring programs.

Bone, R.M.; Stewart, D.A.

1987-01-01

267

The economic efficiency impacts of alternatives for revenue reconciliation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] About a dozen electric utilities in the US offer rates that possess real-time characteristics. In these implementations the real-time prices are updated at half-hourly intervals and in no case are the prices spatially differentiated. The implemented rates are based upon marginal generating costs with markups to account for system transmission and distribution costs or other revenue reconciliation needs. This paper analyzes how great is the impact of alternative price markup methods on measures of social welfare and the time pattern of real-time prices. A case study and sensitivity results are also presented

1997-01-01

268

Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

1996-01-01

269

Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

1996-08-01

270

The economic impact of wood energy in the Northeastern United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides an assessment of the economic impacts, in terms of direct and indirect employment, income and tax payments, generated by the industrial and residential use of wood for energy in the eleven Northeastern States. The assessment is based on state level data collection and analysis of wood energy use, combined with state level economic data. Indirect and induced economic impacts, the economic impacts of cost savings and the displacements of conventional fuels, are assessed using the IMPLAN input/output model of the state and regional economies. The total use of wood fuel in the northeastern states in 1992 was estimated to be approximately 28,000,000 tons (U.S. tons at 50% moisture), made up of 16,000,000 tons used in the residential sector and 12,000,000 tons in the industrial sector. The net economic impact of wood energy was 34,000 jobs and $1.8 billion in income for the region in 1992. The residential sector generated $1.17 billion and the industrial sector $667,000,000 in net regional income. The residential sector produced 23,000 jobs, while the industrial sector produced 11,000 jobs. Wood energy use eliminates the need for approximately 4 million megawatt hours of electricity are also saved. Wood energy generated activities pay approximately $46,000,000 in state and local taxes and $355,000,000 in federal taxes in the region.

High, C.J. [Resource Systems Group, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States)

1995-11-01

271

Economic impacts of noxious facilities: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer`s ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities.

Nieves, L.A.

1993-09-01

272

Oil market situation: the impact on the economic development of the oil-exporting countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact of instability of oil-export earnings on the economic development of six selected oil-exporting countries. It deals with this issue in three parts: the first part tests degree of instability of the values of oil exports for the selected countries; the second tests the causal relationship between changes in GNP and changes in oil exports; and the third examines the impact of instability on economic growth of these countries. 32 references, 9 tables.

Hammoudeh, S.; Michaux, J.; Hamad, A.; Saiki, K. (eds.)

1987-01-01

273

Socio-Economic and Cultural Impacts of Resettlement on Bakassi People of Cross River State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic and cultural impact of resettlement on Bakassi people of Cross River State, Nigeria was examined. The study elicited data from 516 respondents who were purposively selected from the Bakassi resettlement site at Ekpiri Ikang in Cross River State. Data were generated with the aid of structured questionnaire and statistically analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was observed that, the resettlement of Bakassi people significantly influenced their occupations, culture and accommodation pattern. It was recommended among others, that the Affected Persons (APs) should be properly compensated and adequate accommodation provided.Key words: Socio-economic; Resettlement and Cultural Impacts

Ogaboh A. M. Ogaboh; J. J. Akpanudoedehe; E. M. Ushie

2010-01-01

274

The formation and economic impact of perceptions of risk surrounding nuclear facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes the results of an investigation of factors determining the nature of risk perceptions associated with eleven nuclear facilities and their impact on local economic development. The paper indicates that the nature of risk perceptions depends primarily on the level of communication by plant officials within the local community, the track record of the facility operator, the process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, and the level of economic links each facility has with the local community. The research indicates that adverse risk perceptions have not affected economic development.

Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Calzonetti, F. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography; Hunter, S. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Political Science

1993-03-01

275

The Impact Of Institutional Quality On Economic Growth And Development: An Empirical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last twenty years economics literature and debates have increasingly referred to institutions as the answers to the longstanding questions concerning how economic growth arises, whatpolicies can be used to promote best results in terms of economicperformances and what accounts for differences in GDP levels among countries so that the analysis of the institutional framework under which any economy operates has now become an indispensable objectof research. This paper will investigate the impact of institutionalquality on economic growth over sixty years among countries atdifferent stages of development recurring to three institutional indicators tested through a pooled regression model and a fixed effects model.

Elisa Valeriani; Sara Peluso

2011-01-01

276

The formation and economic impact of perceptions of risk surrounding nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the results of an investigation of factors determining the nature of risk perceptions associated with eleven nuclear facilities and their impact on local economic development. The paper indicates that the nature of risk perceptions depends primarily on the level of communication by plant officials within the local community, the track record of the facility operator, the process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, and the level of economic links each facility has with the local community. The research indicates that adverse risk perceptions have not affected economic development

1993-01-01

277

THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the socio economic lives of people. It was found out that the activities of microfinance institutions resulted in increased social interaction and socio economic sustainability.

MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA; FUNGAI B. GOMBARUME; KOSMAS NJANIKE; ANXIOUS CHARIKINYA

2011-01-01

278

Green jobs? Economic impacts of renewable energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) are analyzed in this text. Although a growing RE industry can be observed in Germany the overall effect of large increases of RE based electricity and heat generating technologies on the German economy require a careful model based analysis. The applied model PANTA RHEI has been used among others to evaluate the German energy concept in 2010. It takes positive and negative impacts of RE into account. The paper shows the overall effects under different assumptions for fossil fuel prices, domestic installations and international trade. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the development of RE world markets and German exports to these markets. Almost all of these scenarios exhibit positive net employment effects. Under medium assumptions net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. Only with assumptions for German RE exports below today's level, net impacts are slightly negative. Gross employment will increase from 340 thousand in 2009 to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030. - Highlights: ? This paper analyzes labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) in Germany. ? It shows the overall effects under different assumptions. ? The development of world markets and German RE exports are very important. ? Net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. ? Gross employment will increase to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030.

2012-01-01

279

Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

1991-01-01

280

Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

1991-12-31

 
 
 
 
281

The economic impacts to commercial farms from invasive monkeys in Puerto Rico  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Beginning in the 1930s and continuing through the 1970s, rhesus macaques and patas monkeys were introduced to presumed secure locations, primarily coastal islets, in Puerto Rico. Escapes into the wild began almost immediately after introduction. Today the combined range of the two species covers approximately 600 km2 of southwestern Puerto Rico, where serious conflicts with agricultural interests have resulted. The Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture surveyed about 90% of commercial farmers in the range of the monkeys to begin quantifying damage by monkeys and the associated economic losses during the years 2002-2006. During that time, total economic losses by commercial farmers to monkeys increased from $1.13 million USD to over $1.46 million per year. Of these amounts, the economic losses due to farmers avoiding monkey damage by switching from fruit and vegetable crops to less rewarding land use (primarily hay or pastureland) increased from $490,000 to $1.33 million per year. The losses reported from the survey represent only a portion of economic losses to the invasive monkeys. Subsistence and other smaller farms and agriculture were not included in the survey. We also discuss many other economic issues surrounding the impacts of the invasive monkeys, but for which sufficient data are not available for economic analyses. These include concerns such as destruction of native (especially endangered) wildlife, threat of disease spread, and property damage, all of which would also have to be considered to fully evaluate invasive monkey economic impacts in Puerto Rico.

Engeman RichardM; Laborde JoseE; Constantin BerniceU; Shwiff StephanieA; Hall Parker; Duffiney Anthony; Luciano Freddie

2010-04-01

282

Community Perceptions toward Economic and Environmental Impacts of Tourism on Local Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the community perceptions toward economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Shiraz, Iran. Special focus is on the differences in perceptions between the Old and New Districts of Shiraz. The study demonstrates that there are broadly similar views among the community leaders and community residents from both districts of Shiraz. In fact, a high percentage of the answers obtained highlighted positive aspects environmental and economic impacts of tourism toward local communities. According to the survey, the strongest and favourable perceptions toward tourism impacts are found to be linked with environmental aspects and while economic matters are found to be the least favourable in terms of the perceived impacts on tourism. T-test analysis of the study indicates that there is no significant difference between community leaders' perceptions in both districts of Shiraz City. Results drew from discussion with the target group show that the community residents have positive perceptions toward economic and environmental impacts of tourism with only minor differences with each other.

Fariborz Aref; Ma’rof Redzuan; Sarjit S. Gill

2009-01-01

283

Processing and economic impacts of biomass delignification for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for chemical pretreatment of biomass for the enzyme-catalyzed production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks has been established. Past research in the Alternative Fuels Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has focused on dilute acid prehydrolysis processes as a means of hydrolyzing the hemicellulose component of biomass. Such processes provide a solid residue that is more easily hydrolyzable by cellulose enzymes, as well as a hemicellulose-sugar component that can be converted by pentose-fermenting microorganisms. This work investigates the technical and economic feasibility of including a separate biomass delignification/fractionation step, either in conjunction with dilute acid prehydrolysis or as an independent pretreatment process. These alternatives would not only solubilize the hemicellulose component of a biomass feedstock, but the lignin fraction as well. The resulting residual solids would be primarily composed of cellulose. The benefits found in converting such material to ethanol may include lower cellulose requirements, shorter bioconversion times, higher effective cellulose concentrations resulting in higher ethanol concentrations, smaller reactor volumes, and more efficient enzyme recycle options. A technoeconomic assessment indicates that improvements in these process parameters can lead to significant savings that can cover the costs of such process additions.

Elander, R.T.; Hsu, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

284

Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change.

Ierland, E.C. van; Derksen, L. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of General Economics

1994-12-31

285

Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

1994-01-01

286

Impact of economic changes on the diet of Chukotka Natives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes and analyses changes in food composition and nutritional preferences among the Chukchi and Yupik of coastal Chukotka in the last 15 years. The economic collapse of the infrastructure of Chukotka region has resulted in many indigenous northerners reverting to the traditional subsistence economy. Relatively expensive market foods are being replaced by cheaper ones, and by more readily available local foods. Percent contribution of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates to total caloric intake has not changed substantially, but sources of the major nutrients have become different. In 1985, local marine mammals accounted for about half of the consumed meat (55%), while in 2000 the share of it increased to 89 %. Market fats and oils are also being substituted by the fat of marine mammals. However, the contemporary diet of the natives of coastal Chukotka differs significantly from the traditional one. The meat of seals and gray whales (small sized and less dangerous to harvest) remains seasonally accessible, but can not be stored for long times. There is an insufficient amount of walrus and bowhead whale meat, which can be prepared in traditional style by fermentation, and stored for a long time. This probably also provides a specific protection against Helicobacter pylori. The young people today are more oriented towards local food-stuff: 76 % Coastal Chukchee and Yupik under the age of 30 indicated a preference for native foods over European ("Russian") ones, while this share is lower (66 %) among people older than 30 years. Overall, 86 % of natives consider that whale hunting, as the main source of food, should be increased (in 1985, only 45% suggested so).

Kozlov A

2004-09-01

287

Obesity prevalence in Mexico: impact on health and economic burden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Along with other countries having high and low-to-middle income, Mexico has experienced a substantial change in obesity rates. This rapid growth in obesity prevalence has led to high rates of obesity-related diseases and associated health-care costs. DESIGN: Micro-simulation is used to project future BMI trends. Additionally thirteen BMI-related diseases and health-care costs are estimated. The results are simulated for three hypothetical scenarios: no BMI reduction and BMI reductions of 1 % and 5 % across the population. SETTING: Mexican Health and Nutrition Surveys 1999 and 2000, and Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. SUBJECTS: Mexican adults. RESULTS: In 2010, 32 % of men and 26 % of women were normal weight. By 2050, the proportion of normal weight will decrease to 12 % and 9 % for males and females respectively, and more people will be obese than overweight. It is projected that by 2050 there will be 12 million cumulative incidence cases of diabetes and 8 million cumulative incidence cases of heart disease alone. For the thirteen diseases considered, costs of $US 806 million are estimated for 2010, projected to increase to $US 1·2 billion and $US 1·7 billion in 2030 and 2050 respectively. A 1 % reduction in BMI prevalence could save $US 43 million in health-care costs in 2030 and $US 85 million in 2050. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity rates are leading to a large health and economic burden. The projected numbers are high and Mexico should implement strong action to tackle obesity. Results presented here will be very helpful in planning and implementing policy interventions.

Rtveladze K; Marsh T; Barquera S; Sanchez Romero LM; Levy D; Melendez G; Webber L; Kilpi F; McPherson K; Brown M

2013-02-01

288

Economic impact of an improved methanol catalyst. [Forecasting to 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic future of methanol is reviewed in light of its potential uses as a substitute for traditional hydrocarbon fuels and feedstocks as well as some evolving new uses. Methanol's future market position will depend strongly on its production cost in comparison with competitive products. One promising way to reduce the production cost is by use of an improved catalyst in the process by which methanol is obtained from the feedstock - which can be either natural gas or a similar product such as synthesis gas from coal gasification. To estimate the potential cost savings with an improved catalyst, we have based our analysis on a recent study which assumed use of synthesis gas from underground coal gasification as a feedstock for making methanol. The improved catalyst we studied was an actinide oxide whose features include high tolerance to sulfur and heat, and a yield of about 4 mol% methanol per pass with a 2/1 mixture of H/sub 2//CO. We calculated the effect of this catalyst on methanol production costs in a 12,000-bbl/day plant. The result was a saving of from 1 cent to 2.5 cent per gallon on the total methanol synthesis cost of 23 cents per gallon (i.e., a saving in the conversion process of 4.4% to 10.9%), excluding the cost of the raw feed gas. We conclude from this study that the improved catalyst could bring important savings in methanol production. The estimated savings range from 4.4% to 10.9% in the cost of methanol synthesis from the feedstock material. Another possibility for lowering methanol production costs in the future may lie in switching from a natural-gas-based feedstock to a coal-based feedstock - for example, using synthesis gas from underground coal gasification as the raw material. Our projections suggest that coal will eventually become a less expensive feedstock than natural gas.

Grens, J.; Borg, I.; Stephens, D.; Colmenares, C.

1983-06-23

289

Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP.

Machol B; Rizk S

2013-02-01

290

Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. PMID:23246069

Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

2012-12-13

291

The evolutionary strategies of plant defenses have a dynamic impact on the adaptations and interactions of vectors and pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants have evolved and diversified to reduce the damages imposed by infectious pathogens and herbivorous insects. Living in a sedentary lifestyle, plants are constantly adapting to their environment. They employ various strategies to increase performance and fitness. Thus, plants developed cost-effective strategies to defend against specific insects and pathogens. Plant defense, however, imposes selective pressure on insects and pathogens. This selective pressure provides incentives for pathogens and insects to diversify and develop strategies to counter plant defense. This results in an evolutionary arms race among plants, pathogens and insects. The ever-changing adaptations and physiological alterations among these organisms make studying plant-vector-pathogen interactions a challenging and fascinating field. Studying plant defense and plant protection requires knowledge of the relationship among organisms and the adaptive strategies each organism utilize. Therefore, this review focuses on the integral parts of plant-vector-pathogen interactions in order to understand the factors that affect plant defense and disease development. The review addresses plant-vector-pathogen co-evolution, plant defense strategies, specificity of plant defenses and plant-vector-pathogen interactions. Improving the comprehension of these factors will provide a multi-dimensional perspective for the future research in pest and disease management.

Huot OB; Nachappa P; Tamborindeguy C

2013-06-01

292

Economic Impacts of Global Warming :The Case of the Barents Sea Fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regional analyses of possible physical and biological effects of global warming in the Barents Sea area have been carried out recently. Based on such studies possible economic impacts of global warming on the Barents Sea fisheries have been quantified, assuming different types of management regimes....

Eide, Arne

293

Ixtoc I oil spill economic impact study. Volume I. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study was to determine the economic impact of the Ixtoc I and Burmah Agate oil spill on recreation, tourism, and commercial fishing in the Texas coastal region. In addition, a summary of oil resource and equipment losses, compensation for damages, clean-up and containment costs, and news media coverage was required.

Restrepo, C.E.; Lamphear, F.C.; Gunn, C.A.; Ditton, R.B.; Nichols, J.P.

1982-04-01

294

Do Social Policy Reforms Have Different Impacts on Employment and Welfare Use as Economic Conditions Change?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper uses March Current Population Survey data from 1985 to 2004 to explore whether social policy reforms implemented throughout the 1990s have different impacts on employment and welfare use depending on economic conditions, a topic with important policy implications but which has received little attention from researchers. I find evidence…

Herbst, Chris M.

2008-01-01

295

Economic impact of an enhanced recovery pathway for oesophagectomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Data are lacking to support the cost-effectiveness of enhanced recovery pathways (ERP) for oesophagectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of an ERP on medical costs for oesophagectomy. METHODS: This study investigated all patients undergoing elective oesophagectomy between June 2009 and December 2011 at a single high-volume university hospital. From June 2010, all patients were enrolled in an ERP. Clinical outcomes were recorded for up to 30 days. Deviation-based cost modelling was used to compare costs between the traditional care and ERP groups. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients were included (47 traditional care, 59 ERP). There were no differences in patient, pathological and operative characteristics between the groups. Median length of hospital stay (LOS) was lower in the ERP group (8 (interquartile range 7-18) days versus 10 (9-18) days with traditional care; P = 0·019). There was no difference in 30-day complication rates (59 per cent with ERP versus 62 per cent with traditional care; P = 0·803), and the 30-day or in-hospital mortality rate was low (3·8 per cent, 4 of 106). Costs in the on-course and minor-deviation groups were significantly lower after implementation of the ERP. The pathway-dependent cost saving per patient was €1055 and the overall cost saving per patient was €2013. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the ERP was cost-neutral or more costly only at extreme values of ward, operating and intensive care costs. CONCLUSION: A multidisciplinary ERP for oesophagectomy was associated with cost savings, with no increase in morbidity or mortality.

Lee L; Li C; Robert N; Latimer E; Carli F; Mulder DS; Fried GM; Ferri LE; Feldman LS

2013-09-01

296

CAPITAL ACCOUNT CONVERTIBILITY IN INDIA: THE IMPACT OF CAPITAL INFLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH, EXPORTS AND IMPORTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capital Account Convertibility increases inflows of foreign capital in the country and these inflows have got far reaching impact on the economy. In this article an attempt is made to study the impact of foreign capital inflows on macro economic variables of the Indian economy such as IIP, Exports, and Imports. Using co-integration and Error Correction Models we find that the inflow of foreign capital (INFK) and FPI cause positively the change in the Index of Industrial production (IIP) i.e. economic growth in India. The study also reveals that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between inflows of capital and imports; there is an evidence for economic growth influencing the inflows of FDI but not vice versa and Inflows of foreign capital causing an increase in exports. In view of these findings some policy measures relating capital inflows are suggested.

G. Ramakrishna; Laila Memdani

2012-01-01

297

Economic Development Impacts of Colorado's First 1,000 Megawatts of Wind Energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This fact sheet summarizes the findings of a report authored by Sandra Reategui and Suzanne Tegen of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). A confluence of events ignited soaring growth in the number of Colorado?s wind power installations in recent years, from 291 megawatts (MW) of nameplate capacity in 2006 to 1,067 MW (nameplate capacity) in 2007. Analyzing the economic impact of Colorado?s first 1,000 MW of wind energy development not only provides a summary of benefits now enjoyed by the state?s population, but it also provides a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other new wind project scenarios, including the U.S. Department of Energy?s 20% Wind Energy by 2030 scenario. The analysis can be used by interested parties in other states as an example of the potential economic impacts if they were to adopt 1,000 MW of wind power development.

2009-01-01

298

The Economic Impact of Global Warming on Livestock Husbandry in Kenya: A Ricardian Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The results further suggest possible gains from rising temperatures; losses from increased precipitation, but gains in net revenues resulting from a combined effect of rising temperatures and increased precipitation

Kabubo-Mariara, Jane (School of Economics, Univ. of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya))

2008-07-01

299

Economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This economic study examines the economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of the Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant, measured in terms of the global income that generated the ending of the Nuclear Power Plant activity, on the territory. To this end, we will take into account the total investment that has been necessary to complete the process of decommissioning. The economic impact is calculated using the Input- Output methodology. Briefly, the Input-Output model defines a group of accounting relationships that reflect the links taking place within the production system. The Input-Output model is based on the assumption that given an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector, this sector should produce more (less) to satisfy this new demand. At the same time, this will lead to demand more (less) intermediate consumption goods from the remainder sectors of the economy. Then, these sectors should produce more (less) and use more (less) intermediate inputs, and so on. Therefore, an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector multiplies the effect throughout the economy, following the interdependency relationships that exist among the productive activities. We will start by collecting an exhaustive economic information. This information covers the whole decommissioning process and the whole economic and productive activity of the province of Tarragona. Next, this information is used with the objective of building an Input-Output table of the province that will serve as a base to establish the global economic impact of Vandellos I. The incomes and employment generation has been evaluated in the province of Tarragona that, following the main assumptions, correspond to the global effects of the decommissioning. In addition, we have evaluated the income and employment generation within the region where the nuclear power plant is located. The total income impacts show a high multiplier effect due to the investment carried out during the decommissioning.

2005-01-01

300

Societal and Economic Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common knee injury, particularly among young and active individuals. Little is known, however, about the societal impacts of ACL tears, which could be large given the typical patient age and increased lifetime risk of knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only. METHODS: A cost-utility analysis of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only was conducted with use of a Markov decision model over two time horizons: the short to intermediate term (six years), on the basis of Level-I evidence derived from the KANON Study and the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database; and the lifetime, on the basis of a comprehensive literature review. Utilities were assessed with use of the SF-6D. Costs (in 2012 U.S. dollars) were estimated from the societal perspective and included the effects of the ACL tear on work status, earnings, and disability. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. RESULTS: In the short to intermediate term, ACL reconstruction was both less costly (a cost reduction of $4503) and more effective (a QALY gain of 0.18) compared with rehabilitation. In the long term, the mean lifetime cost to society for a typical patient undergoing ACL reconstruction was $38,121 compared with $88,538 for rehabilitation. ACL reconstruction resulted in a mean incremental cost savings of $50,417 while providing an incremental QALY gain of 0.72 compared with rehabilitation. Effectiveness gains were driven by the higher probability of an unstable knee and associated lower utility in the rehabilitation group. Results were most sensitive to the rate of knee instability after initial rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: ACL reconstruction is the preferred cost-effective treatment strategy for ACL tears and yields reduced societal costs relative to rehabilitation once indirect cost factors, such as work status and earnings, are considered. The cost of an ACL tear over the lifetime of a patient is substantial, and resources should be directed to developing innovations for injury prevention and for altering the natural history of an ACL injury.

Mather RC 3rd; Koenig L; Kocher MS; Dall TM; Gallo P; Scott DJ; Bach BR Jr; Spindler KP

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
301

Impact of Financial Liberalization on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have tried to explore the link between financial liberalization index (FLI) and economic growth in Pakistan by using annual data for 1971- 2007. The Phillips Perron unit root test is utilized to verify the level of integration and Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) technique for obtaining long run and short run coefficients. The empirical finding indicates that FLI and economic growth are positively linked in the short run. On the other hand, FLI is statistically insignificant in the long run, while the impact of real interest rate (RIR) on economic growth is negative and significant. This means that one unit increase in the RIR causes GDP to decline by Rs. 1.03 million. Our investigation recommends that SBP and the GOP should pursue financial liberalization policies that are consistent with economic growth.

Qazi Muhammad Adnan Hye; Shahida Wizarat

2013-01-01

302

The estimation of economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of a release parameters and metrorological data. According to the cost estimation for the basic scenarios, the population dependent cost is dominant. The cost for the protective actions such as evacuation and relocation have a small portion in the total cost and show little variation from scenario to scenario. The economic cost estimation for the seasonal scenarios show very similar trend as that for the basic scenarios. There are little or small variation in the economic cost for the different scenarios for each season except for the season-5 scenario. The health effect value shows maximum in Summer and minimum in Fall. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum in Fall and minimum in Summer. The result will be used as basic data in the establishment of effective emergency response and in the cost/benefit analysis in developing optimum risk reduction strategies

2001-01-01

303

Impact Of Insurance On Economic Growth: The Case Of Republic Of Macedonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of insurance and economic growth, with empirical analysis for the Republic of Macedonia. We apply multiple regression and control for other relevant determinants of economic growth. The analysis used data for the period 1995 - 2010. In order to solve the model in the analysis will use the technique of least squares, followed by analysis of variability in order to identify the effects of each variable. Insurance development is measured by insurance penetration (insurance premiums in percentage of GDP). We used three different insurance variables - life insurance, non-life insurance and total insurance penetration. According to our findings, insurance sector development positively and significantly affects economic growth. The results are confirmed in terms of non-life insurance, and, total insurance, while the results show that life insurance negatively affect economic growth.

Jordan Kjosevski

2013-01-01

304

The estimation of economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of a release parameters and metrorological data. According to the cost estimation for the basic scenarios, the population dependent cost is dominant. The cost for the protective actions such as evacuation and relocation have a small portion in the total cost and show little variation from scenario to scenario. The economic cost estimation for the seasonal scenarios show very similar trend as that for the basic scenarios. There are little or small variation in the economic cost for the different scenarios for each season except for the season-5 scenario. The health effect value shows maximum in Summer and minimum in Fall. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum in Fall and minimum in Summer. The result will be used as basic data in the establishment of effective emergency response and in the cost/benefit analysis in developing optimum risk reduction strategies.

Jeong, Jong Tae; Jung, Won dea

2001-03-01

305

The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the countries of South East Europe. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced during the transition period have enabled countries to cope with external shocks such as those associated with the recent global economic crisis. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variable impact across countries is assessed. Several types of institutions are examined, including the degree to which countries have adopted the acquis communautaire, determined by the extent of their EU integration, progress with transition, and the broad institutional environment measured through the quality of governance. The paper asks whether countries with a more flexible economy due to faster progress with transition reforms were better able to adjust to the impact of external shocks. It concludes that the variable impact of the global crisis in the region can be explained mainly by their degree of integration into the global economy, and that the institutional reforms that were introduced during the boom times have made countries more integrated into the global economy, and therefore more vulnerable to the impact of the global economic crisis.

Bartlett Will; Prica Ivana

2011-01-01

306

Guidebook for analysis of state-level economic impacts of an energy shortfall  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guidebook is designed to assist state policymakers in estimating the economic impacts of an energy supply shortfall. The guidebook does not contain state specific information, but outlines general procedures that can be tailored to specific state needs. Chapter 1 provides a user's guide to the book as well as cautions concerning its use and potential accuracy. The second chapter describes one general procedure for analyzing the possible economic impacts of an energy supply shortfall. The third chapter provides specific guidelines for constructing a simple model or first-order approximation of some of the immediate economic impacts of an energy supply shortfall. Chapter 4 examines several different petroleum supply shortfall scenarios comparing a base case with a 7% shortfall and a 14% shortfall. Then the analysis compares a shortfall affecting all sectors of the economy with one affecting private transportation alone. Thirdly, the chapter studies a shortfall affecting one state more severely than the rest of the nation. Each of those scenarios considers first-year and longer-term impacts. Finally, Chapter 4 analyzes the impact of restricting natural gas hook-ups for residential customers. The appendices provide further information on data sources, a survey of state-level models, and a detailed description of the state-level econometric model.

Gunnison, F.

1981-06-01

307

Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

2010-07-15

308

GM Crops: The global economic and environmental impact--the first nine years 1996-2004  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

2005 represents the tenth planting season since genetically modified (GM) crops were first grown in 1996. This milestone provides the opportunity to critically assess the impact this technology is having on global agriculture. This study examines specific global economic impacts on farm income and environmental impacts of the technology with respect to pesticide usage and greenhouse gas emissions for each of the countries where GM crops have been grown since 1996. The analysis shows that there have been substantial net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to a cumulative total of $27 billion. The technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 172 million kg and has reduced the environmental footprint associated with pesticide use by 14%. The technology has also significantly reduced the release of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, which is equivalent to removing five million cars from the roads.

Brookes G; Barfoot P

2005-01-01

309

Impact of economic crimes on the financing of development: Case of developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, many studies have showed that weak institutions and the extent of economic crimes in developing countries are one of the deep causes of their poor economic performances. Debt crises which are among other consequences of a low of public levies are accentuated in developing countries, in particular with the development of what is generally known as shadow economy. This research aims to study the potential link existing between economic crimes and the financing of development in developing countries. The economic crimes sector, which is an essential component of the underground economy has a negative effect on the tax mobilization, by cons, the quality of governance is a positive factor in favor of state budgets. This sector is an important fiscal centre which unfortunately for both social and political reasons, sometimes bears fiscal charges beyond its real contributory capacities. This study aims in particularly to investigate the impact of economic crimes on Financing for Development in approximately one hundred developing countries through the channel of public resource mobilization. The main results of empirical analyses using data covering the period 1996-2012 confirm that, it is better for developing countries to fight against economic crimes playing on improving the quality of institutional governance to ensure economic growth sustainability.

Tarik TALII

2013-01-01

310

Economism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism) by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

P. Simons

2010-01-01

311

Economic impact analysis of effluent limitations and standards for plastics molding and forming industry. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued effluent limitations and standards in December, 1984, for the Plastics Molding and Forming Industry. The report estimates the economic impacts associated with pollution control costs. Plant-specific treatment costs for 20 percent of the impacted plants are compared to estimated pre-tax plant income to assess the impact of treatment costs on plant liquidity. Then a closure analysis is performed, comparing the current salvage value of the plant's assets with the present value of the plant's cash flow plus the terminal value of its assets. The results are extrapolated to the 558 plants which, as direct dischargers, would be impacted. The results of this plant-level analysis are used to assess the indirect impacts of the regulation, e.g., price changes, unemployment and shifts, in the balance of foreign trade.

1984-12-01

312

The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor’s survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved.Conservation implications: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.How to cite this article:How to cite this article: Oberholzer, S., Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Slabbert, E., 2010, ‘The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park’, Koedoe 52(1), Art. #879, 9 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v52i1.879

Susan Oberholzer; Melville Saayman; Andrea Saayman; Elmarie Slabbert

2010-01-01

313

Evaluation on the impacts of the implementation of civil building energy efficiency standards on Chinese economic system and environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, in contrast to the usual rough estimation, we present a model to simulate and evaluate the direct, indirect economic and environmental impacts of the implementation of building energy efficiency standards on Chinese economic system and environment by 12 indicators in two scenarios. Four indicators are used to evaluate the direct economic impact degree, five indicators are used to evaluate the direct environmental impact degree, three indicators are used to evaluate the indirect economic impact degree of 34 sectors and the whole Chinese economic system. This research makes it possible to link developments in the implementation of building energy efficiency standards with environmental and economic structure change. The most important finding is that the implementation of building energy efficiency standards can reduce a large amount of pollutants emissions and increase the GDP at the same time. (author)

Liu, Xiuli; Wang, Shouyang [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun East Road No. 55, Beijing 100190 (China); Hewings, Geoffrey J.D. [Regional Economics Applications Laboratory, University of Illinois, 607 South Mathews, 318, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2009-10-15

314

Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

1981-01-01

315

An Investigation of the Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper posits to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria. A study of this nature is necessary because foreign direct investment is an important component of private investment which is widely believed to be the engine of economic growth in any modern economy. In order to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria and the causal relationship between them, liner regression and granger causality test were used. The data used were from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin (2006) and national account of Nigeria (2007). The study has shown that foreign direct investment has a positive impact on gross domestic product in Nigeria and we therefore accept the alternative hypothesis. It is recommended that there is the need to put in place concrete policies to engender a positive and competitive enabling environment that would attract more foreign investors. There must also be relentless wars against corruption and insecurity in order to give confidence to investors.Key words: Domestic investment; Foreign direct investment; Capital formation and economic growth

Abu Maji; Achegbulu Joseph Odoba

2011-01-01

316

Economic impacts of environmentally attributable childhood health outcomes in the European Union.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of the role that exposure to industrial chemicals plays in the development of childhood disease. The USA and the European Union (EU) have taken divergent policy approaches to managing this issue, and economic estimates of disease costs attributable to environmental exposures in children are available in the USA but not the EU. We undertook the first economic evaluation of the impacts of childhood environmental chemical exposures in the EU. METHODS: We used a cost-of-illness approach to estimate health care system costs, and used environmentally attributable fraction modelling to estimate the proportion of childhood disease due to environmental exposures. We analysed data on exposures, disease prevalence and costs at a country level, and then aggregated costs across EU member states to estimate overall economic impacts within the EU. RESULTS: We found the combined environmentally attributable costs of lead exposure, methylmercury exposure, developmental disabilities, asthma and cancer to be $70.9 billion in 2008 (range: $58.9-$90.6 billion). These costs amounted to ?0.480% of the gross domestic product of the EU in 2008. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood chemical exposures present a significant economic burden to the EU. Our study offers an important baseline of disease costs before the implementation of Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals, which is important for studying the impacts of this policy regime.

Bartlett ES; Trasande L

2013-06-01

317

The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

2006-01-01

318

The Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Laws on Restaurants and Bars in 9 States  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Smoke-free air laws in restaurants and bars protect patrons and workers from involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, but owners often express concern that such laws will harm their businesses. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between local smoke-free air laws and economic outcomes in restaurants and bars in 8 states without statewide smoke-free air laws: Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia. A secondary objective was to examine the economic impact of a 2010 statewide smoke-free restaurant and bar law in North Carolina. Methods Using quarterly data from 2000 through 2010, we estimated dynamic panel data models for employment and sales in restaurants and bars. The models controlled for smoke-free laws, general economic activity, cigarette sales, and seasonality. We included data from 216 smoke-free cities and counties in the analysis. During the study period, only North Carolina had a statewide law banning smoking in restaurants or bars. Separate models were estimated for each state. Results In West Virginia, smoke-free laws were associated with a significant increase of approximately 1% in restaurant employment. In the remaining 8 states, we found no significant association between smoke-free laws and employment or sales in restaurants and bars. Conclusion Results suggest that smoke-free laws did not have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in any of the states studied; they provided a small economic benefit in 1 state. On the basis of these findings, we would not expect a statewide smoke-free law in Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, or West Virginia to have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in those states.

Shafer, Paul R.; van Hasselt, Martijn

2013-01-01

319

The Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Laws on Restaurants and Bars in 9 States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Smoke-free air laws in restaurants and bars protect patrons and workers from involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, but owners often express concern that such laws will harm their businesses. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between local smoke-free air laws and economic outcomes in restaurants and bars in 8 states without statewide smoke-free air laws: Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia. A secondary objective was to examine the economic impact of a 2010 statewide smoke-free restaurant and bar law in North Carolina. Methods Using quarterly data from 2000 through 2010, we estimated dynamic panel data models for employment and sales in restaurants and bars. The models controlled for smoke-free laws, general economic activity, cigarette sales, and seasonality. We included data from 216 smoke-free cities and counties in the analysis. During the study period, only North Carolina had a statewide law banning smoking in restaurants or bars. Separate models were estimated for each state. Results In West Virginia, smoke-free laws were associated with a significant increase of approximately 1% in restaurant employment. In the remaining 8 states, we found no significant association between smoke-free laws and employment or sales in restaurants and bars. Conclusion Results suggest that smoke-free laws did not have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in any of the states studied; they provided a small economic benefit in 1 state. On the basis of these findings, we would not expect a statewide smoke-free law in Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, or West Virginia to have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in those states.

Brett R. Loomis, MS; Paul R. Shafer, MA; Martijn van Hasselt, PhD

2013-01-01

320

The economic impact of smoke-free laws on restaurants and bars in 9 States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Smoke-free air laws in restaurants and bars protect patrons and workers from involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, but owners often express concern that such laws will harm their businesses. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between local smoke-free air laws and economic outcomes in restaurants and bars in 8 states without statewide smoke-free air laws: Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia. A secondary objective was to examine the economic impact of a 2010 statewide smoke-free restaurant and bar law in North Carolina. METHODS: Using quarterly data from 2000 through 2010, we estimated dynamic panel data models for employment and sales in restaurants and bars. The models controlled for smoke-free laws, general economic activity, cigarette sales, and seasonality. We included data from 216 smoke-free cities and counties in the analysis. During the study period, only North Carolina had a statewide law banning smoking in restaurants or bars. Separate models were estimated for each state. RESULTS: In West Virginia, smoke-free laws were associated with a significant increase of approximately 1% in restaurant employment. In the remaining 8 states, we found no significant association between smoke-free laws and employment or sales in restaurants and bars. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that smoke-free laws did not have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in any of the states studied; they provided a small economic benefit in 1 state. On the basis of these findings, we would not expect a statewide smoke-free law in Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, or West Virginia to have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in those states.

Loomis BR; Shafer PR; van Hasselt M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Impact of the economic recession on the European power sector's CO2 emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the impact of the economic recession on CO2 emissions in the European power sector, during the years 2008 and 2009. Three main determinants of the power sector's emissions are identified: the demand for electricity, the CO2 price, and fuel prices. A counterfactual scenario has been set up for each of these, i.e., what these parameters would have been if not affected by the recession. A simulation model of the European power sector is then employed, comparing a historical reference simulation (taking the parameters as actually occurred) with the counterfactual scenarios. The lower electricity demand (due to the recession) is shown to have by far the largest impact, accounting for an emission reduction of about 175 Mton. The lower CO2 price (due to the recession) resulted in an increase in emissions by about 30 Mton. The impact of fuel prices is more difficult to retrieve; an indicative reduction of about 17 Mton is obtained, mainly as a consequence of the low gas prices in 2009. The simulated combined impact of the parameters results in an emission reduction of about 150 Mton in the European power sector over the years 2008 and 2009 as a consequence of the recession. - Research highlights: ? CO2 emissions are simulated for the European power sector. ? Emissions reduced drastically because of the economic recession in 2008 and 2009. ? Lower electricity demand had highest impact and accounts for reduction of about 175 Mton. ? Impact of different CO2 and fuel prices on emissions is more limited.

2011-01-01

322

Economic impacts of illness in older workers: quantifying the impact of illness on income, tax revenue and government spending  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Long term illness has far reaching impacts on individuals, and also places a large burden upon government. This paper quantifies the indirect economic impacts of illness related early retirement on individuals and government in Australia in 2009. Methods The output data from a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, was analysed. Health&WealthMOD is representative of the 45 to 64 year old Australian population in 2009. The average weekly total income, total government support payments, and total taxation revenue paid, for individuals who are employment full-time, employed part-time and not in the labour force due to ill health was quantified. Results It was found that persons out of the labour force due to illness had significantly lower incomes ($218 per week as opposed to $1167 per week for those employed full-time), received significantly higher transfer payments, and paid significantly less tax than those employed full-time or part-time. This results in an annual national loss of income of over $17 billion, an annual national increase of $1.5 billion in spending on government support payments, and an annual loss of $2.1 billion in taxation revenue. Conclusions Illness related early retirement has significant economic impacts on both the individual and on governments as a result of lost income, lost taxation revenue and increased government support payments. This paper has quantified the extent of these impacts for Australia.

Schofield Deborah J; Shrestha Rupendra N; Percival Richard; Passey Megan E; Kelly Simon J; Callander Emily J

2011-01-01

323

EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Niger from 1961 to 2010 by using, Unit root test and Co-integration test and the Vector Error correction Model. The results obtained below show that FDI has small, and not a statistically significant effect, on the economic growth. The results seem to sustain the statement that FDI in the extractive area might not be growth enhancing as much as manufacturing FDI.

Amadou Maiga Ousseini; Professor Xiaojuan Hu; Badamassi Aboubacar

2011-01-01

324

IMPACT OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR ON THE CURRENT ZIMBABWEAN ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper sought to investigate the economic impact of the informal sector in the Zimbabwean economy. It was discovered that the informal sector is very significant in its contribution to the development of the Zimbabwean economy. However the small entrepreneurs find difficulties in their operations because of the lack of capital and collateral. Given their significance in the economy, the paper suggests that these businesses should be assisted by the relevant stakeholders to graduate from informal to formal sector. This will enhance rapid economic growth.

Clainos Chidoko; Garikai Makuyana; Paul Matungamire; Joseph Bemani

2011-01-01

325

Impact of major design parameters on the economics of Tokamak power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A parametric systems studies program is now in an active stage at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of results from this systems analysis effort. The impact of major design parameters on the economics of tokamak power plants is examined. The major parameters considered are: (1) the plant power rating; (2) toroidal-field strength; (3) plasma ?/sub t/; (4) aspect ratio; (5) plasma elongation; (6) inner blanket/shield thickness; and (7) neutron wall load. The performance characteristics and economics of tokamak power plants are also compared for two structural materials

1977-10-12

326

Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

1996-01-01

327

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

328

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

329

Economic and Environmental Impacts of Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in Southeast Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Harmful non-indigenous species (NIS) impose great economic and environmental impacts globally, but little is known about their impacts in Southeast Asia. Lack of knowledge of the magnitude of the problem hinders the allocation of appropriate resources for NIS prevention and management. We used benefit-cost analysis embedded in a Monte-Carlo simulation model and analysed economic and environmental impacts of NIS in the region to estimate the total burden of NIS in Southeast Asia. The total annual loss caused by NIS to agriculture, human health and the environment in Southeast Asia is estimated to be US$33.5 billion (5th and 95th percentile US$25.8–39.8 billion). Losses and costs to the agricultural sector are estimated to be nearly 90% of the total (US$23.4–33.9 billion), while the annual costs associated with human health and the environment are US$1.85 billion (US$1.4–2.5 billion) and US$2.1 billion (US$0.9–3.3 billion), respectively, although these estimates are based on conservative assumptions. We demonstrate that the economic and environmental impacts of NIS in low and middle-income regions can be considerable and that further measures, such as the adoption of regional risk assessment protocols to inform decisions on prevention and control of NIS in Southeast Asia, could be beneficial.

Nghiem, Le T. P.; Soliman, Tarek; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Tan, Hugh T. W.; Evans, Theodore A.; Mumford, John D.; Keller, Reuben P.; Baker, Richard H. A.; Corlett, Richard T.; Carrasco, Luis R.

2013-01-01

330

Economic and environmental impacts of harmful non-indigenous species in southeast Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Harmful non-indigenous species (NIS) impose great economic and environmental impacts globally, but little is known about their impacts in Southeast Asia. Lack of knowledge of the magnitude of the problem hinders the allocation of appropriate resources for NIS prevention and management. We used benefit-cost analysis embedded in a Monte-Carlo simulation model and analysed economic and environmental impacts of NIS in the region to estimate the total burden of NIS in Southeast Asia. The total annual loss caused by NIS to agriculture, human health and the environment in Southeast Asia is estimated to be US$33.5 billion (5(th) and 95(th) percentile US$25.8-39.8 billion). Losses and costs to the agricultural sector are estimated to be nearly 90% of the total (US$23.4-33.9 billion), while the annual costs associated with human health and the environment are US$1.85 billion (US$1.4-2.5 billion) and US$2.1 billion (US$0.9-3.3 billion), respectively, although these estimates are based on conservative assumptions. We demonstrate that the economic and environmental impacts of NIS in low and middle-income regions can be considerable and that further measures, such as the adoption of regional risk assessment protocols to inform decisions on prevention and control of NIS in Southeast Asia, could be beneficial.

Nghiem le TP; Soliman T; Yeo DC; Tan HT; Evans TA; Mumford JD; Keller RP; Baker RH; Corlett RT; Carrasco LR

2013-01-01

331

Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility. (author)

Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies, Department of Electrical Engineering; Jayalath, M.S. [NEXANT SARI/Energy, A Bectel Affiliated Company, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

2004-01-01

332

DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

Constantin PREDA

2012-01-01

333

Economic-impact analysis of proposed effluent-limitations guidelines, new source performance standards and pretreatment standards for the pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. Point source category. Volume 1. Economic impact analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report analyzes the economic impacts of water pollution controls on the pulp, paper and paperboard industry. The study was prepared under the supervision of the Office of Analysis and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. As required by the Clean Water Act, the study presents for consideration the economic impacts of regulation proposed under that Act which would control the industry's discharge of its effluents. The impacts analyzed are: the resulting increase in production costs, changes in prices and the quantity produced, and changes in the level of profitability. These economic impacts in turn lead to impacts on the amount of capacity expansion or contraction, number of mills closed, impacts on the number of persons employed, community impacts and the regulations' effects on the U.S. balance of trade.

1980-12-01

334

Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth of Nigeria: A Time Series Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the impact of tax reforms on the economic growth of Nigeria from 1994 to 2009. To achieve the objective of the study, relevant secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin, Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Office of the Accountant General of the Federation, and other relevant government agencies. The data collected were analysed using relevant descriptive statistics and econometric models such as White test, Ramsey RESET test, Breusch Godfrey test, Jacque Berra test, Augmented Dickey Fuller test, Johansen test, and Granger Causality test. The results from the various test shows that tax reforms is positively and significantly related to economic growth and that tax reforms granger cause economic growth. On the basis of the findings, the study concluded that tax reforms improves the revenue generating machinery of government to undertake socially desirable expenditure that will translate to economic growth in real output and per capita basis. However, it was recommended that sustainable economic growth cannot be attained with tax reform processes except obsolete tax laws and rates are reviewed in line with macro economic objectives, corrupt-free and efficient tax administrative machinery with personnel’s and accountability and transparency of government officials in the management of tax revenue.

G.N. Ogbonna; Appah Ebimobowei

2012-01-01

335

Economic Impacts of Wind Turbine Development in U.S. Counties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective is to address the research question using post-project construction, county-level data, and econometric evaluation methods. Wind energy is expanding rapidly in the United States: Over the last 4 years, wind power has contributed approximately 35 percent of all new electric power capacity. Wind power plants are often developed in rural areas where local economic development impacts from the installation are projected, including land lease and property tax payments and employment growth during plant construction and operation. Wind energy represented 2.3 percent of the U.S. electricity supply in 2010, but studies show that penetrations of at least 20 percent are feasible. Several studies have used input-output models to predict direct, indirect, and induced economic development impacts. These analyses have often been completed prior to project construction. Available studies have not yet investigated the economic development impacts of wind development at the county level using post-construction econometric evaluation methods. Analysis of county-level impacts is limited. However, previous county-level analyses have estimated operation-period employment at 0.2 to 0.6 jobs per megawatt (MW) of power installed and earnings at $9,000/MW to $50,000/MW. We find statistically significant evidence of positive impacts of wind development on county-level per capita income from the OLS and spatial lag models when they are applied to the full set of wind and non-wind counties. The total impact on annual per capita income of wind turbine development (measured in MW per capita) in the spatial lag model was $21,604 per MW. This estimate is within the range of values estimated in the literature using input-output models. OLS results for the wind-only counties and matched samples are similar in magnitude, but are not statistically significant at the 10-percent level. We find a statistically significant impact of wind development on employment in the OLS analysis for wind counties only, but not in the other models. Our estimates of employment impacts are not precise enough to assess the validity of employment impacts from input-output models applied in advance of wind energy project construction. The analysis provides empirical evidence of positive income effects at the county level from cumulative wind turbine development, consistent with the range of impacts estimated using input-output models. Employment impacts are less clear.

J., Brown; B., Hoen; E., Lantz; J., Pender; R., Wiser

2011-07-25

336

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline o...

T.G. Sivasankaran; R. Udayakumar; K. Panjamurthy; V. Albert Singh

337

Hanford defense waste studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

1981-01-01

338

Evaluation of environmental impact produced by different economic activities with the global pollution index.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The paper analyses the environment pollution state in different case studies of economic activities (i.e. co-generation electric and thermal power production, iron profile manufacturing, cement processing, waste landfilling, and wood furniture manufacturing), evaluating mainly the environmental cumulative impacts (e.g. cumulative impact against the health of the environment and different life forms). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The status of the environment (air, water resources, soil, and noise) is analysed with respect to discharges such as gaseous discharges in the air, final effluents discharged in natural receiving basins or sewerage system, and discharges onto the soil together with the principal pollutants expressed by different environmental indicators corresponding to each specific productive activity. The alternative methodology of global pollution index (I (GP)*) for quantification of environmental impacts is applied. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Environmental data analysis permits the identification of potential impact, prediction of significant impact, and evaluation of cumulative impact on a commensurate scale by evaluation scores (ES(i)) for discharge quality, and global effect to the environment pollution state by calculation of the global pollution index (I (GP)*). CONCLUSIONS: The I (GP)* values for each productive unit (i.e. 1.664-2.414) correspond to an 'environment modified by industrial/economic activity within admissible limits, having potential of generating discomfort effects'. The evaluation results are significant in view of future development of each productive unit and sustain the economic production in terms of environment protection with respect to a preventive environment protection scheme and continuous measures of pollution control.

Zaharia C

2012-07-01

339

Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

2010-06-01

340

URBANIZATION AND THE IMPACT OF ECO ECONOMIC MEASURES IN URBAN AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urbanization and the impact of eco-economic measures in urban areas. Urban development has a powerfull global dimension. Cities interact and have a major impact on environment, overcoming their spatial barriers. They are acting just like real centers of progress, offering new and various opportunities reasons strong enough to generate an exponential increase on the population number in these areas.Global consumption of resources, consumption of energy and water have the biggest values in these areas resons to adopt and improve measures of control and sustainable development for these areas.

M?D?LINA DOCIU; ANCA DUN?RIN?U

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Economic impact of industrial wood energy use in thirteen western states  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP) initiated an effort to evaluate economic impacts associated with biomass energy use within the thirteen-state WRBEP region. The purpose of this study is to quantify the employment, income, and state and federal tax impacts associated with the industrial wood energy use for the base year 1992. The direct employment associated with wood energy use in WRBEP region is 1,538 with net total FTE job creation at nearly 3,250. Total annual operations expenditures, both direct and indirect is over $950 million. Net federal tax revenues from wood energy facilities is estimated at $28 million.

Quinn, M.W.; Whittier, J.; Haase, S. [and others

1994-12-31

342

Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 39 papers contained in Vol. 3, 3 were inputted to INIS. They deal with the use of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers in the determination of building material contamination by toxic elements, with underground waste repositories and ground water contamination, and the impact of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the hydrosphere and other environmental components. (Z.S.)

1993-01-01

343

Bank Savings and Bank Credits in Nigeria: Determinants and Impact on Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the determinants of bank savings in Nigeria as well as examined the impact of bank savings and bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth from 1970-2006. We adopted two impact models; Distributed Lag-Error Correction Model (DL-ECM) and Distributed Model. The empirical results showed a positive influence of values of GDP per capita (PCY), Financial Deepening (FSD), Interest Rate Spread (IRS) and negative influence of Real Interest Rate (RIR) and Inflation Rate (INFR) on the size of private domestic savings. Also a positive relationship exists between the lagged values of total private savings, private sector credit, public sector credit, interest rate spread, exchange rates and economic growth. We therefore recommend, among others, that government’s effort should be geared towards improving per capita income by reducing the unemployment rate in the country in a bid to accelerate growth through enhanced savings.

Orji Anthony

2012-01-01

344

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model Geothermal User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Geothermal Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an Excel-based user-friendly tools that estimates the economic impacts of constructing and operating hydrothermal and Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) power generation projects at the local level for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Model Geothermal User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in using and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted.

Johnson, C.; Augustine, C.; Goldberg, M.

2012-09-01

345

The Economic and Social Impacts of Electronic Commerce: Preliminary Findings and Research Agenda  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic Commerce has been in existence for little more than three years, but due to its enormous capacity to affect "economic activities and social environments," it has already had a huge impact on retail, finance, and communications, representing 30 percent of GDP. This 156-page report from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development examines the past and potential impact that e-commerce promises to have on business and the economy. The report is broken into five chapters, which need to be downloaded separately, including "Growth of electronic commerce: present and potential," "Electronic commerce, jobs and skills," and "Societal implications of electronic commerce," each with its own set of charts and graphs. A report summary is also included.

346

A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest villages in Iran named Maymand. The results indicate that there is a strong positive relationship, 0.873, between developing economy and tourism. In other word, developing tourism industry will help create more jobs, increase land prices, increase people's income and flourish environment. There is also a positive correlation, 0.854, between social development and tourism industry. This means we could expect a better health care system as well as medical treatment facilities, which helps prevent immigration to big cities.

Mohsen Pourkhosravani; Mohammad Reza Iravani

2012-01-01

347

The impact of health economics on healthcare delivery. A primary care perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the increasing emphasis on providing efficient and equitable services from primary care and against a background of increasing demands on limited resources, economic theory seeks to facilitate both the direction of primary care and the decisions that are made within it. This paper argues that the impact of health economics, particularly at the microeconomic level, has been limited. This is because health economists have failed to recognise the importance of context, and also reflects their attempts to force reality into a disciplinary matrix which is not always accessible and acceptable to end users. Argument is made for a closer relationship between health economists and those who commission and deliver primary care. It is also desirable to develop pragmatic decision-making frameworks which draw upon economic concepts and principles but reflect the realities of the environment in which they are applied.

Kernick DP

2000-10-01

348

Economic and Financial Integration of CEECs: The Impact of Financial Instability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent financial crisis had a powerful impact upon the European countries' economies, in particular on those from Central and Eastern Europe, with some small exceptions. Thus, applying a panel data approach for a large sample of CEECs, we demonstrate that financial instability negatively influences these countries economic and financial integration. If instability is measured by means of a financial instability index, we have used two classical indicators for the economic integration, namely trade openness and trade intensity index. Indicators such as the interest rates co-movement and the asset share of foreign-owned banks were chosen to calculate financial integration. We highlight the fact that the crisis events hinder the process of CEECs' integration into the EU, deepening the economic gaps between more and less developed EU members.

Claudiu T. Albulescu

2011-01-01

349

The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture.

1991-01-01

350

The economic impact of project MARS (motivating adolescents to reduce sexual risk).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to economically evaluate Project MARS (Motivating Adolescents to Reduce Sexual Risk; T. J. Callahan, E. A. Montanaro, R. E. Magnan, & A. D. Bryan, 2013, "Project MARS: Design of a multi-behavior intervention trial for justice-involved youth," Translational Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 3, pp. 122-130), an ongoing, randomized, sexual-risk-reduction intervention for justice-involved youth. We consider the effect of including viral STIs in the economic analysis, and explore the impact of the MARS intervention on the perceived cost of acquiring STIs to justice-involved youth. METHOD: 206 participants, ages 14 to 18, participated in a sexual-risk-reduction intervention that included screening and treatment for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A Bernoulli probability model was used to estimate averted STIs attributable to the MARS intervention. The economic benefit of averted STIs was monetized using the direct medical cost of treatment. In addition, we used a contingent valuation (willingness-to-pay) model to investigate the impact of the Project MARS on participants' perceived cost of acquiring an STI. RESULTS: Using the standard outcome domains typically used to evaluate STI interventions, Project MARS resulted in a reduction of $2.08 in direct medical costs for every $1 spent. When viral STIs were added to the economic model, a considerable increase in averted direct medical costs ($2.68 for every $1 spent) was found. Preliminary contingent valuation estimates suggest that participants' willingness-to-pay for averted STIs significantly increased after receiving the MARS intervention. CONCLUSION: From an economic perspective, Project MARS is a worthwhile program to adopt. Future attention should be given to the impact of behavioral interventions on viral infections.

Dealy BC; Horn BP; Callahan TJ; Bryan AD

2013-09-01

351

The economic impact of Project MARS (Motivating Adolescents to Reduce Sexual Risk).  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to economically evaluate Project MARS (Motivating Adolescents to Reduce Sexual Risk; T. J. Callahan, E. A. Montanaro, R. E. Magnan, & A. D. Bryan, 2013, "Project MARS: Design of a multi-behavior intervention trial for justice-involved youth," Translational Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 3, pp. 122-130), an ongoing, randomized, sexual-risk-reduction intervention for justice-involved youth. We consider the effect of including viral STIs in the economic analysis, and explore the impact of the MARS intervention on the perceived cost of acquiring STIs to justice-involved youth. Method: 206 participants, ages 14 to 18, participated in a sexual-risk-reduction intervention that included screening and treatment for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A Bernoulli probability model was used to estimate averted STIs attributable to the MARS intervention. The economic benefit of averted STIs was monetized using the direct medical cost of treatment. In addition, we used a contingent valuation (willingness-to-pay) model to investigate the impact of the Project MARS on participants' perceived cost of acquiring an STI. Results: Using the standard outcome domains typically used to evaluate STI interventions, Project MARS resulted in a reduction of $2.08 in direct medical costs for every $1 spent. When viral STIs were added to the economic model, a considerable increase in averted direct medical costs ($2.68 for every $1 spent) was found. Preliminary contingent valuation estimates suggest that participants' willingness-to-pay for averted STIs significantly increased after receiving the MARS intervention. Conclusion: From an economic perspective, Project MARS is a worthwhile program to adopt. Future attention should be given to the impact of behavioral interventions on viral infections. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24001251

Dealy, Bern C; Horn, Brady P; Callahan, Tiffany J; Bryan, Angela D

2013-09-01

352

Economic impact analysis of effluent guidelines and standards for the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document analyzes the economic impact which could result from the application of effluent standards and limitations issued under Sections 3-1, 304, 306 and 307 of the Clean Water Act to the pulp, paper, and paperboard industry. It supplements the technical study (EPA Development Document) supporting the issuance of these regulations. The document is a contractor's study prepared for the Office of Water Regulations and Standards by Meta Systems, Inc.

1982-10-01

353

The impact of the economic and financial crisis on the foreign trade in metallurgical products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The manifestation of the global financial crisis severely affected the foreign trade worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the financial and economic crisis on foreign trade at the level of countries and groups ofcountries that have global leadership in the area, with an emphasis on the metallurgical products. The analysis results show that this branch was affected to a higher percentage compared to the amount of the value of the trade in goods.

C. C?runtu; G. Dobrot?

2013-01-01

354

Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

1993-01-01

355

Modelling of an industrial NGL-Recovery unit considering environmental and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an integrated model is presented that identifies key areas in the operation of a cryogenic NGL-recovery unit. This methodology sets out to provide deep understanding of various interrelationship across multiple plant operating factors including reliability, which could be essential for substantial improvement of process performance. The integrated model has been developed to predict the economic and environmental impacts of a real cryogenic unit (600 MMCUF/D) during normal operation, and has been built in Aspen TM. (Author)

2008-09-00

356

Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.).

1993-01-01

357

Social and economic impacts of the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant: a confirmatory technology assessment. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Trojan nuclear plant located 32 miles northwest of Portland, Oregon was chosen for a case study. A background of the physical, demographic, economic, and political context of the communities is provided. This is followed by an evaluation of the impacts of plant construction and operation including local taxation, employment, business activity and income, demography, public utilities and transportation, land use, housing, recreation, culture and lifestyle, public safety, education, health care, and politics and institutions

1979-01-01

358

The Impact of Tribal Colleges in the Economic Development of Tribal Communities: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The essay examines a fairly new phenomenon in American Education: Tribal Colleges. As unique institutions of higher learning, established to specifically address educational and cultural needs of American Indians, they play a pivotal role in individual student and tribal community empowerment. It will be illustrated in-depth how one particular Tribal College – Salish Kootenai College – positively impacts and greatly contributes to the economic development of its tribal community.

Grob, Anne

2009-01-01

359

Modeling the economic impact of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a theoretical approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David S Cobden1, Louis W Niessen2, Frans FH Rutten1, W Ken Redekop11Department of Health Policy and Management, Section of Health Economics – Medical Technology Assessment (HE-MTA), Erasmus MC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USAAims: While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis.Methods: We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM) and oral (OAD) medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1) and one which incorporated it (analysis 2). Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Results: In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY). This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM.Conclusions: Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be ­considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health ­economic outcomes, and validation of different approaches to modeling adherence, is warranted.Keywords: economics, modeling, adherence, diabetes, cost-effectiveness

David S Cobden; Louis W Niessen; Frans FH Rutten; et al

2010-01-01

360

The social and economic impacts of epilepsy on women in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa experience stigma and social marginalization. There is paucity of data on the social and economic impacts of epilepsy in these patients and in particular, groups like women. We sought to determine the social and economic impacts of epilepsy on Nigerian women and especially how it affects their treatment and outcomes. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional survey of 63 women with epilepsy (WWE) and 69 controls matched for age, social status and site of care. A structured questionnaire was used to document information on demographic characteristics, education, employment status, economic status, health care use, personal safety and perceived stigma. The data were collated and analyzed with SPSS version 15. RESULTS: Unemployment, fewer years of formal education, lower marriage rates and higher stigma scores were more frequent among WWE than controls. Physical and sexual abuse with transactional sex was also reported among WWE. We also noted poorer environmental and housing conditions and lower mean personal and household incomes among WWE compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: WWE in this sample from Nigeria have worse social and economic status when compared with women with other non-stigmatized chronic medical conditions.

Komolafe MA; Sunmonu TA; Afolabi OT; Komolafe EO; Fabusiwa FO; Groce N; Kett M; Disu JO; Ajiboye JK; Olaniyan SO

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

????????????????? The Impact of the Economic Restructuring on the Demand of the Labor Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“?????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The economic restructuring and barriers to labor mobility are the most important market constrains when it comes to analyzing employment for they dynamically change the demand and supply of the labor market. Due to various internal and external factors the economic growth, featuring high energy consumption and high investment, is becoming unsustainable, so the economic restructuring is pressing. This article summarized the non-equilibrium structural changes in China and discussed the impact on the labor demand of the changes in industrial structures, foreign trade, urbanization, income growth and demography. To be specific, as the structure of three industries is moving forward to “three, two, one”, a large number of surplus labor in agriculture needs to be transferred. The low-end manufacturing is struggling because of shrinking foreign trade and soaring production cost, but the service industry has a large demand for labor force. Urbanization promotes city building, public services, infrastructure construction, financial services, high-end manufacturing, software design and other industries. The income growth inevitably leads to corresponding changes in consumption structure. For example, the consumption of household appliances and communication devices upgrade. The demand for the elderly services will also develop with the aging of the population. All these changes will exert impacts on the demands for the related labor markets. As the economic restructuring accelerates, laborers also need to improve their quality and skills so as to meet the requirements of the labor markets.

???; ??

2011-01-01

362

The economic impact of pig-associated parasitic zoonosis in Northern Lao PDR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The parasitic zoonoses human cysticercosis (Taenia solium), taeniasis (other Taenia species) and trichinellosis (Trichinella species) are endemic in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This study was designed to quantify the economic burden pig-associated zoonotic disease pose in Lao PDR. In particular, the analysis included estimation of the losses in the pork industry as well as losses due to human illness and lost productivity. A Markov-probability based decision-tree model was chosen to form the basis of the calculations to estimate the economic and public health impacts of taeniasis, trichinellosis and cysticercosis. Two different decision trees were run simultaneously on the model's human cohort. A third decision tree simulated the potential impacts on pig production. The human capital method was used to estimate productivity loss. The results found varied significantly depending on the rate of hospitalisation due to neurocysticerosis. This study is the first systematic estimate of the economic impact of pig-associated zoonotic diseases in Lao PDR that demonstrates the significance of the diseases in that country.

Choudhury AA; Conlan JV; Racloz VN; Reid SA; Blacksell SD; Fenwick SG; Thompson AR; Khamlome B; Vongxay K; Whittaker M

2013-03-01

363

Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority.

Rubin, B.M. Gailmard, S.; Marsh, D.; Septoff, A.

1996-12-31

364

[Simplification to lamivudine, zidovudine, and abacavir therapy: impact on adherence, clinical outcome, and economic issues].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence on adherence and clinical outcome of the replacement of a previous antiretroviral therapy to a simplified approach using zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir (Trizivir) and to assess its economic impact. METHODS: A retrospective study of 75 pretreated, HIV-infected adult patients who received Trizivir from May 2001 to December 2002. Adherence was assessed by dispensation records or medication counting, CD4 lymphocyte counts, and viral load before and six months after medication change was analyzed; finally, the cost of each therapy was assessed in order to calculate the economic impact of medication change. RESULTS: Mean adherence significantly increased a 2.5% after medication change; 16 more patients reached optimal adherence, with an NNT (number of patients requiring therapy change in order to obtain one more adherent) of 4.7. The number of patients with undetectable viral load remained almost similar, and mean CD4 cell counts stayed above 500 cells/mm3 in both periods of time. A great variability in incremental costs was seen, due to the varying costs of the previous treatments, and the influence of five intensification therapies using Trizivir. However, when only simplification regimens were analyzed such variability was reduced, and even became favorable in selected cases. CONCLUSIONS: Changing to a simplification therapy using Trizivir resulted in improved adherence, similar clinical outcomes, and a varying economic impact depending on previous antiretroviral therapy costs.

Ibarra Barrueta O; Martínez Bengoechea MJ; Illaro Uranga A; Lertxundi Etxebarría U; Iglesias Lambarri A; Santos Ibáñez A

2004-01-01

365

GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS: CAUSES, IMPACT ON INDIAN ECONOMY, AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global economic crisis started in United States of America mainly due to ‘sub-prime mortgages’ where interest rate was slower down and there was a great demand for housing loans. Later, American banks repackaged this debt to worldwide financial instruments called ‘Collateralized debt obligations’ and sold them worldwide, which resulted in unaffordable mortgage payments and many people defaulted or undertook foreclosure. Then this mortgages crisis affected worldwide. Different views on the reasons of the crisis include sub-prime mortgage, securitization and repackaging of loans, excessive leverage, mismatch between financial innovation and regulation, fair value accounting rules, typical characteristics of US financial system, failure of global corporate governance & complex interplay of multiple factors. Developed countries have so far been the most affected, with a decline in FDI inflows in 2008, mainly due to sluggish market prospects. Flows into developing economies continued to grow in 2008, but at a much lower rate than the year before. Indian economy and agriculture cannot be completely insulated from the global and domestic economic recessions. The impact of economic crisis on Indian agriculture and fisheries were transmitted through three distinct channels, viz., financial sector, exports and exchange rates, and the impact manifests itself in several direct and indirect ways. Some of the impacts were decreased GDP growth rate, high inflation, FDI inflows and international trade.

Apu Das, Kumar N.R., Biswajit Debnath and Mandal S.C.

2012-01-01

366

The economic impact of pig-associated parasitic zoonosis in Northern Lao PDR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The parasitic zoonoses human cysticercosis (Taenia solium), taeniasis (other Taenia species) and trichinellosis (Trichinella species) are endemic in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This study was designed to quantify the economic burden pig-associated zoonotic disease pose in Lao PDR. In particular, the analysis included estimation of the losses in the pork industry as well as losses due to human illness and lost productivity. A Markov-probability based decision-tree model was chosen to form the basis of the calculations to estimate the economic and public health impacts of taeniasis, trichinellosis and cysticercosis. Two different decision trees were run simultaneously on the model's human cohort. A third decision tree simulated the potential impacts on pig production. The human capital method was used to estimate productivity loss. The results found varied significantly depending on the rate of hospitalisation due to neurocysticerosis. This study is the first systematic estimate of the economic impact of pig-associated zoonotic diseases in Lao PDR that demonstrates the significance of the diseases in that country. PMID:23417333

Choudhury, Adnan Ali Khan; Conlan, James V; Racloz, Vanessa Nadine; Reid, Simon Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley G; Thompson, Andrew R C; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Whittaker, Maxine

2013-02-16

367

Development and application of a methodology for monitoring social and economic impacts of demonstration projects: methodology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents a longitudinal socioeconomic monitoring methodology for identifying and assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale energy facilities on small communities. Chapter 2 presents a methodology for formulating a longitudinal socioeconomic monitoring program. One of the most important analytical issues involved in evaluating the data collected through a monitoring effort - the problem of attribution of socioeconomic change (since other factors besides energy development may be simultaneously affecting socioeconomic parameters) is discussed. Chapter 2 also discusses the interrelationships among various impact parameters and categories. In chapters 3 through 8 impact indicators are presented. These indicators have been divided among six broad impact categories. These include: economic and employment effects; demographic effects; public service delivery effects - both supplied through public and private vendors; public fiscal effects; land use and housing effects; and attitudes. To the extent possible, chapters 3 through 8 follow a consistent format to present a variety of information for each impact category. These are: definition of the impact category; indicators measuring change; data requirements for each indicator; data sources and data collection techniques; monitoring issues: frequency of collection, length of overall collection period, geographic area; methods for identifying distribution of impact among various groups; and selected references for additional and/or specialized information.

1980-02-01

368

Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.

2010-01-01

369

Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.

Hausken, Kjell, E-mail: kjell.hausken@uis.n [Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)

2010-01-15

370

Framework for modelling economic impacts of invasive species, applied to pine wood nematode in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Direct economic impacts resulting from wood loss are computed using partial budgeting at regional scale, while impacts on social welfare are computed by a partial equilibrium analysis of the round wood market at EU scale. Substantial impacts in terms of infested stock are expected in Portugal, Spain, Southern France, and North West Italy but not elsewhere in EU in the near future. The cumulative value of lost forestry stock over a period of 22 years (2008-2030), assuming no regulatory control measures, is estimated at €22 billion. The greatest yearly loss of stock is expected to occur in the period 2014-2019, with a peak of three billion euros in 2016, but stabilizing afterwards at 300-800 million euros/year. The reduction in social welfare follows the loss of stock with considerable delay because the yearly harvest from the forest is only 1.8%. The reduction in social welfare for the downstream round wood market is estimated at €218 million in 2030, whereby consumers incur a welfare loss of €357 million, while producers experience a €139 million increase, due to higher wood prices. The societal impact is expected to extend to well beyond the time horizon of the analysis, and long after the invasion has stopped. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pinewood nematode has large economic consequences for the conifer forestry industry in the EU. A change in spatial resolution affected the calculated directed losses by 24%, but did not critically affect conclusions.

Soliman T; Mourits MC; van der Werf W; Hengeveld GM; Robinet C; Lansink AG

2012-01-01

371

The Ghost of Development Past: the Impact of Economic Security Policies on Saami Pastoral Ecosystems  

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Full Text Available To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was accompanied by reindeer herd accumulation and a corresponding degradation of resilience, increasing the susceptibility to herd losses to predators and adverse winters. For the last 20 years the Norwegian government has worked to halt degradation of pasture ecosystems and reduce susceptibility to environmental risks. These intended win-win policies have mainly been based on economic incentives, which have been developed together with Saami pastoralists through negotiated agreements. We argue that the continued degradation of the Saami pastoral ecosystems is a "ghost of the development past", as the big push policies have resulted in an economic security trap (EST). The gradual reduction of resilience has persisted as the ex post payments of disaster relief and predator compensation have impeded the long-term actions to reduce susceptibility to environmental risks, i.e., ex ante policies, thereby increasing dependency on elevated economic inputs to manage the risks. The transfer of liability for managing risks to the benefactor, both through ex ante and ex post policies, has further discouraged and constrained opportunities for adaptation by the pastoralists.

Vera H. Hausner; Per Fauchald; Torkild Tveraa; Elisabeth Pedersen; Johnny-Leo Jernsletten; Birgitte Ulvevadet; Rolf A. Ims; Nigel G. Yoccoz; Kari Anne. Bråthen

2011-01-01

372

The Economic Impacts of Pollinator Declines: An Approach to Assessing the Consequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since agricultural activities were first recorded, there have been shortages of pollinators. Today it seems that pollination systems in many areas of agriculture are threatened by the inadequacy or lack of sustainable managed, indigenous, or imported pollinators. Pollinator shortages can adversely affect crop production and commodity markets. This paper presents an economic model than can be used to measure some of the economic impacts of pollinator deficits on traded commodities. This economic analysis indicates that consumers of a commodity affected by a pollinator deficit may suffer because the commodity costs more and becomes less available. At the same time, although the producers of the affected commodity may experience crop declines, they may also experience economic gains in the form of higher prices. The amount the producer gains or loses depends on the shape of the supply and demand functions, and the magnitude of these losses or gains is an empirical question. Although there are few data available to evaluate this model, those we do have indicate that serious problems for world food supply, security, and trade could be in the offing if current declines in pollinator abundance, diversity, and availability are not reversed. Various crops and cropping systems are suggested as practical starting places for economic studies of the effects of pollinator declines, with emphasis on the type of data required.

Peter G. Kevan; Truman P. Phillips

2001-01-01

373

Appropriate Methodology for Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAK-B135 Interest in wind power development is growing as a means of expanding local economies. Such development holds promise as a provider of short-term employment during facility construction and long-term employment from ongoing facility operation and maintenance. It may also support some expansion of the local economy through ripple effects resulting from initial increases in jobs and income. However, there is a need for a theoretically sound method for assessing the economic impacts of wind power development. These ripple effects stem from subsequent expenditures for goods and services made possible by first-round income from the development, and are expressed in terms of a multiplier. If the local economy offers a wide range of goods and services the resulting multiplier can be substantial--as much as three or four. If not, then much of the initial income will leave the local economy to buy goods and services from elsewhere. Loss of initial income to other locales is referred to as a leakage. Northwest Economic Associates (NEA), under contract to the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), investigated three case study areas in the United States where wind power projects were recently developed. The full report, ''Assessing the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power,'' is available at NWCC's website http://www.nationalwind.org/. The methodology used for that study is summarized here in order to provide guidance for future studies of the economic impacts of other wind power developments. The methodology used in the NEA study was specifically designed for these particular case study areas; however, it can be generally applied to other areas. Significant differences in local economic conditions and the amount of goods and services that are purchased locally as opposed to imported from outside the will strongly influence results obtained. Listed below are some of the key tasks that interested parties should undertake to develop a reasonable picture of local economic impacts that may accrue from existing or future wind development.

NWCC Economic Development Work Group

2003-12-17

374

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Selvarathinam Santhirasegaram

2007-01-01

375

Double-shell tanks for defense high-level radioactive waste storage: Waste Management Operations, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina: Final Environmental Impact Statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This final environmental impact statement (EIS) has been prepared in compliance with the September 29, 1979 directions of the Federal District Court for the District of Columbia (Natural Resources Defense Council, et al., vs Administrator ERDA/DOE, et al., (D.D.C. Civ. No. 76-1691). The statement analyzes the impacts of the various design alternatives for the construction of fourteen 1.3 million gallon high-activity waste tanks. The EIS evaluates the effects of these alternative designs on tank durability, on the ease of waste retrieval from such tanks, and the choice of technology and timing for long-term storage or disposal of the wastes

1980-01-01

376

Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

2009-01-01

377

Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As an optional step of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase in the ISO standards, normalization aims to express the magnitude of the impacts by comparing the characterized results against a common reference situation - the normalization references. In this study, we used inventories of two economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006 for North America. The normalization references have been calculated using recommended factors as well as with interim factors, as needed. It is found that, in spite of different inventory assumptions, the normalization references fall within the same order of magnitude for both North America and Europe. By analysing the most contributing substances, metals turn out to dominate the impacts in both regions. This may be explained by the interim status of the characterization factors (CFs) for metals, which might be overestimated in the current model. Part of the explanation may also lie in the incomplete coverage of organics in both the inventory and the CF databases. With respect to the intended global character of the USEtoxTM model, different approaches to determine normalization references of other economic systems (e.g. Asia or world) are discussed in relation to these findings. Overall, we thus recommend the use of the provided set of normalization references for USEtoxTM, but we also advocate 1) to perform an update as soon as a more comprehensive inventory can be obtained and as soon as characterization factors for metals are revised; 2) to consider extension to other economic systems in order to allow normalization in USEtoxTM to be used on a global scale.

Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne

2011-01-01

378

Macro-economic impact of loss of health; Macro-economische impact van gezondheidsverlies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More healthy life years are achievable by dwelling improvements. This article computes the healthy life years that may be gained by increased ventilation rates. It concerns the diseases Asthma, COPD en lung cancer. Increased ventilation removes house dust mites and their allergens, as well as tobacco smoke, which are associated with these diseases. Costs and savings are computes and compared in order to test the macro-economical feasibility of increased ventilation in dwellings. [Dutch] Door verbetering van woningen zijn veel gezonde levensjaren te behalen. In dit artikel worden de gewonnen gezonde levensjaren uitgerekend door meer ventileren voor de ziekten astma, COPD en longkanker. Zowel huisstofmijtallergeen als tabaksrook zijn geassocieerd met astma, COPD en longkanker. De kosten en de opbrengsten van meer ventileren worden met elkaar vergeleken om de macro-economische haalbaarheid te toetsen.

Franchimon, F. [BAM Techniek, Capelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands); Ament, H.J.A. [Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Knies, J.; Pernot, C.E.E. [Pernot Consulting, Heeze (Netherlands); Van Bronswijk, J.M.H. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2010-11-15

379

The indirect economic impacts of co-morbidities on people with depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that people with depression often have other co-morbid conditions; however this is rarely acknowledged in studies that access the economic impacts of depression. This paper aims to quantify the association between co-morbid health conditions and labour force status and economic circumstances of people with depression. This study undertakes cross-sectional analysis using a dataset that is representative of the 45-64 year old Australian population with depression. The probability of being out of the labour force increases with increasing number of co-morbidities, and the amount of weekly income received by people with depression decreased with increasing numbers of co-morbidities. Those with depression and three or more co-morbidities were 4.31 times more likely to be out of the labour force (95% CI: 1.74-10.68), and received a weekly private income 88% lower (95% CI: -94%, -75%) than people with depression alone. It is important to consider the co-morbid conditions an individual has when assessing the impact of depression on labour force participation and economic circumstances. PMID:23507049

Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Passey, Megan E; Percival, Richard; Kelly, Simon J

2013-03-16

380

Progressive decommissioning of French nuclear power plants: economic and geopolitical impacts; Declassement progressif du parc nucleaire francais: impacts economiques et geopolitiques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author analyzes the french energy safety in the next twenty years. The first part is devoted to the electric production park structure in 2020, with a presentation of the electric power economy, the carbon cost introduction and the economic choices in the deregulation system. The second part discusses the economical and geopolitical impacts of a gas-nuclear substitution. (A.L.B.)

Noel, P

1998-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

Economic impact of public resource supply constraints in northeast Oregon. Forest Service general technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional, fixed-price (input-output) economic models provide a useful framework for conceptualizing links in a regional economy. Apparent shortcomings in these models, however, severely restrict our ability to deduce valid prescriptions for public policy and economic development. A more efficient approach using regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) models as well as a brief survey of relevant literature is presented. Computable general equilibrium results under several different resource policy scenarios are examined and contrasted with a fixed-price analysis. In the most severe CGE scenario, elimination of Federal range programs caused the loss of 1,371 jobs (2.3 percent of regional employment) and $29 million (1.6 percent) of house income; and an 80-percent reduction in Federal log supplies resulted in the loss of 3,329 jobs (5.5 percent of regional employment), and $76 millin (4.2 percent) of household income. These results do not include positive economic impacts associated with improvement in salmon runs. Economic counter scenarios indicate that increases in tourism and high-technology manufacturing and growth in the population of retirees can largely offset total employment and income losses.

Waters, E.C.; Holland, D.W.; Haynes, R.W.; Quigley, T.M.

1997-04-01

382

Air Pollution, Its Mortality Risk, and Economic Impacts in Tehran, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Air pollution in Tehran is widely recognized as a serious environmental challenge,posing significant threats to the health of the resident population. Improving air quality will be difficult for many reasons,including climate and topography, heavy dependence on motor vehicles for mobility, and limited resources to reduce polluting emissions.Consequently, it is useful to have information regarding the scale of the health threat and the economic value of reducing that threat.Methods: This paper integrates information on air quality, population, economic valuation, and health science to assess the most serious impact of fine particle pollution on humans, which is increased mortality risk, and provides estimates of the costs of present pollution levels,both in terms of risk and in terms of economic value relative to attaining air quality standards.Results:Mid-range results indicate that mortality risk for the population aged 30 and over would be reduced from 8.2 per 1,000 residents annually to 7.4 per 1,000 and that the estimated annual economic benefits of this reduced risk would be $378.5 million, if health-based World Health Organization-recommended annual average PM2.5 standards were met.Conclusions:The potential public health benefits of reducing particulate air pollution are significant, and will increase with growing population.

V Brajer; J Hall; M Rahmatian

2012-01-01

383

Annual economic impacts of seasonal influenza on US counties: Spatial heterogeneity and patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Economic impacts of seasonal influenza vary across US counties, but little estimation has been conducted at the county level. This research computed annual economic costs of seasonal influenza for 3143 US counties based on Census 2010, identified inherent spatial patterns, and investigated cost-benefits of vaccination strategies. The computing model modified existing methods for national level estimation, and further emphasized spatial variations between counties, in terms of population size, age structure, influenza activity, and income level. Upon such a model, four vaccination strategies that prioritize different types of counties were simulated and their net returns were examined. The results indicate that the annual economic costs of influenza varied from $13.9 thousand to $957.5 million across US counties, with a median of $2.47 million. Prioritizing vaccines to counties with high influenza attack rates produces the lowest influenza cases and highest net returns. This research fills the current knowledge gap by downscaling the estimation to a county level, and adds spatial variability into studies of influenza economics and interventions. Compared to the national estimates, the presented statistics and maps will offer detailed guidance for local health agencies to fight against influenza.

Mao Liang; Yang Yang; Qiu Youliang; Yang Yan

2012-01-01

384

Regional impacts of increasing energy prices. [MASTER (Metropolitan and State Economic Regions) model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the Metropolitan and State Economic Regions (MASTER) model. MASTER forecasts annual economic activity in all 268 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) and 48 non-SMSA Rest-of-State Areas (ROSAs) in the continental United States. Among other variables, MASTER forecasts employment in twelve industrial sectors; employment in each sector is determined by the levels of and annual changes in real electricity and natural gas prices and other factors. Thus, the model is capable of assessing the effects of energy price changes on local economic activity. The remainder of the paper is divided into four sections. In the first, the model is described. Model structure, equation specification, data sources, equation estimation, and model simulation are discussed. MASTER's predictive capabilities are evaluated in the second section. Theil backcast statistics are presented for each of eight US cities. In the third section, the impacts of five different energy-price scenarios on economic activity in each of the eight cities is assessed. Conclusions are discussed in the final section.

Moe, R.J.; Adams, R.C.; Scott, M.J.

1983-07-01

385

The Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth in Small-Open Developing Economies  

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Full Text Available The essence of this study is to verify the macroeconomic implications of cross-border remittances for economic growth prospects of small-open developing economies for the period, 1996-2006. A set of dynamic panel models specified within the framework of Blundell-Bond Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) was empirically analyzed. Using annual panel data from 31 small-open developing countries from Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, this study argues that, contemporaneously, remittances contribute significantly to growth in small-open developing economies. Remittances, however, contribute more to long-run economic growth in Latin America and the Caribbean than to Sub-Saharan Africa. In dynamic terms, remittances retard growth, but with overall positive long-run growth impact across these developing economies. The methodology is very important to apply in another field.

C.R.K. Ahortor; D.E. Adenutsi

2009-01-01

386

An empirical study to measure the impact of financial and macro economical figures on capital adequacy  

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Full Text Available Capital adequacy plays an important role for reducing different risk components in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of financial and macro economical factors on capital adequacy. We gather the necessary information from financial statements and balance sheets of nine Iranian private banks over the period of 2005-2011. The results of analyzing the data based on the implementation of linear regression technique reveal that there are some meaningful relationship between financial figures, including bank size and profitability, and capital adequacy. However, the survey does not show any relationship between macro economical factors, including growth domestic product and inflations, and capital adequacy.

Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard; Mohsen Babaei dazghei

2012-01-01

387

Economic, energy and greenhouse emissions impacts of some consumer choice, technology and government outlay options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The impacts of selected spending options in the Australian economy are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and a range of economic parameters. Six case studies of one current-practice and one alternative, environmentally motivated spending option are carried out, describing consumer choices, technologies and government outlays. The assessment method is based on input-output theory and, as such, enables both the direct and indirect effects of spending to be quantified. In general, the results indicate that pro-environmental objectives, such as reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, are compatible with broad socio-economic benefits, such as increases in employment and income, and reductions in imports

388

Sustainability of biomass electricity systems. An estimate of costs, macro-economic and environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since the 1990s there has been a renewal of interest in the possibility of sustainable generating energy from biomass, an interest driven in part by the climate issue. Other motives are the search for alternatives for parts of Western agriculture and progress in the technological feasibility of efficiently producing high-quality energy from biomass. World-wide this renewed interest has led to a clear increase in research, demonstration and commercial implementation of biomass energy systems. A recent thesis concludes that biomass can contribute to all aspects of sustainability. In the context of sustainable development (often viewed as a concept having economic, social and ecological dimensions), the central question asked by this Ph.D. research is: How do biomass electricity systems compare to fossil-fuel systems and to the land-use that they may replace, in terms of costs, macro-economic and environmental impacts. This article presents a number of conclusions

2001-01-01

389

Evaluating the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession in Michigan.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reaffirms the diversity and breadth of the veterinary profession. As it turns out, some of the furthest-reaching impacts of the veterinary medical profession were largely non-quantifiable. The veterinary medical profession had a substantial direct economic impact in Michigan during 1995. The total economic contribution of the veterinary medical profession to Michigan during 1995 that was attributable to expenditures on salaries, supplies, services, and their multiplier effect was approximately $500 million. In addition, the profession was associated with nearly 8,500 jobs (combined professional and lay positions). The veterinary medical profession was also considered to have an impact on the prosperity of the live-stock, equine, and pet food industries in Michigan, even though the economic contribution in these areas could not be directly quantified. Economic well-being of the individual businesses in these industries is directly related to the health and productivity of the associated animals, and improvements in output or productivity that accompany improved animal health likely carry substantial economic benefits in these sectors. In addition, progressive animal health management provides a crucial method of managing risk in the animal industries. Similarly, although the economic contribution could not be quantified, the veterinary medical profession enhances the safety and quality of human food through research, regulation, and quality assurance programs in livestock production, minimizing the risk of drug residues and microbial contamination. During 1995, approximately 5.3 million Michigan residents benefitted from the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being that accompanies companion animal ownership. By preserving the health and longevity of companion animals, veterinarians sustain and enhance these aspects of the human-animal bond. As Michigan enters a new century, it is likely that the state's veterinary medical profession will continue to make a highly valued societal contribution. Pets, equines, and food animals will continue to have prominent roles in Michigan for the foreseeable future, as will the human-animal bond, food safety, and medical research. Clearly, for economic and noneconomic reasons, it will be in the interest of the people of Michigan to seek opportunities to maintain and enhance the vitality of the state's veterinary medical profession. It was our hope that results of this study would provide university administrators, legislators, MVMA executives, and others with information needed to justify the ongoing provision of public support for the veterinary medical profession. In addition, we expect that the results will supply useful material for public relations and marketing campaigns by the MVMA and the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine and will provide the media with public interest stories to promote the veterinary profession. Although this study considered the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession only in Michigan, the results can provide an important reference point for educators, policy markers, and legislators in other states. In addition, this study could serve as a methodologic model for veterinary organizations in other states, or at the national level, to emulate. PMID:10638314

Lloyd, J W; Dartt, B A

2000-01-01

390

Evaluating the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession in Michigan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reaffirms the diversity and breadth of the veterinary profession. As it turns out, some of the furthest-reaching impacts of the veterinary medical profession were largely non-quantifiable. The veterinary medical profession had a substantial direct economic impact in Michigan during 1995. The total economic contribution of the veterinary medical profession to Michigan during 1995 that was attributable to expenditures on salaries, supplies, services, and their multiplier effect was approximately $500 million. In addition, the profession was associated with nearly 8,500 jobs (combined professional and lay positions). The veterinary medical profession was also considered to have an impact on the prosperity of the live-stock, equine, and pet food industries in Michigan, even though the economic contribution in these areas could not be directly quantified. Economic well-being of the individual businesses in these industries is directly related to the health and productivity of the associated animals, and improvements in output or productivity that accompany improved animal health likely carry substantial economic benefits in these sectors. In addition, progressive animal health management provides a crucial method of managing risk in the animal industries. Similarly, although the economic contribution could not be quantified, the veterinary medical profession enhances the safety and quality of human food through research, regulation, and quality assurance programs in livestock production, minimizing the risk of drug residues and microbial contamination. During 1995, approximately 5.3 million Michigan residents benefitted from the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being that accompanies companion animal ownership. By preserving the health and longevity of companion animals, veterinarians sustain and enhance these aspects of the human-animal bond. As Michigan enters a new century, it is likely that the state's veterinary medical profession will continue to make a highly valued societal contribution. Pets, equines, and food animals will continue to have prominent roles in Michigan for the foreseeable future, as will the human-animal bond, food safety, and medical research. Clearly, for economic and noneconomic reasons, it will be in the interest of the people of Michigan to seek opportunities to maintain and enhance the vitality of the state's veterinary medical profession. It was our hope that results of this study would provide university administrators, legislators, MVMA executives, and others with information needed to justify the ongoing provision of public support for the veterinary medical profession. In addition, we expect that the results will supply useful material for public relations and marketing campaigns by the MVMA and the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine and will provide the media with public interest stories to promote the veterinary profession. Although this study considered the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession only in Michigan, the results can provide an important reference point for educators, policy markers, and legislators in other states. In addition, this study could serve as a methodologic model for veterinary organizations in other states, or at the national level, to emulate.

Lloyd JW; Dartt BA

2000-01-01

391

Socio-Economic Impact of Social Forestry on Farmers in District Faisalabad  

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Full Text Available Present study deals with the survey which was conducted to study the Socio-economic impact of social forestry on farmers in District Faisalabad. Forest community of plants and animals dominated by woody vegetation. In Pakistan there is not appropriate forestry system and farmers are not aware of social forestry. The main purpose of the study were to measure : to examine Socio-economic characteristics of farmers affecting planting : to examine the motivating factors behind the adoption of social forestry. To determine the farmer’s awareness about the advantages and disadvantages of social forestry. This study was undertaken in District Faisalabad. A sample of 150 respondents were selected. Date were analyzed by using statistical techniques.

Ume-Laila; Farkhanda Anjum

2001-01-01

392

Economical impact of tropical theileriosis in the Cappadocia region of Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was initiated to investigate the economical impact of vaccination against tropical theileriosis in cattle in Cappadocia in Turkey. A total of 554 vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were monitored for Theileria annulata infection using microscopic examination serology by measuring the antibody response of the animals by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The prevalence of T. annulata infection, morbidity and mortality were significantly higher in unvaccinated than in vaccinated cattle, whereas the seropositivity was significantly lower in the unvaccinated group. Acute tropical theileriosis cases were diagnosed in 156 of 554 (27.61%) cattle, and 86 of 156 (56.21%) died from the disease. The total economic losses because of tropical theileriosis were estimated at US $598,133 for 2 years.

Inci A; Ica A; Yildirim A; Vatansever Z; Cakmak A; Albasan H; Cam Y; Atasever A; Sariozkan S; Duzlu O

2007-09-01

393

The economic impact of tourism on local residents in Wolong Nature Reserve  

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Full Text Available Theoretically, tourism can generate economic benefits for local residents, while whether the benefits can come true in reality is a crucial issue. To obtain the actual direct economic impact that tourism have on local residents, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Wolong Nature Reserve (WNR). Total income generated by tourism, employment opportunities for local participants, and income distributions were included in the questionnaire. The results showed that there’s a considerable gap between actual effects and theoretical expectations from tourism in WNR: the total income generated by tourism was small; the employment opportunities were limited; and the income was unevenly distributed among local participants as well as among local people and outsiders. Measures, including developing new tourism items, establishing educational projects, providing special funds, and implementing a relocation policy, were proposed to improve the effectiveness of tourism as integrated tool for development and conservation.

Yang Liu; Yihe Lü

2008-01-01

394

Advances in Ileitis Control, Diagnosis, Epidemiology and the Economic Impacts of Disease in Commercial Pig Herds  

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Full Text Available Proliferative enteropathy, commonly known as “ileitis” continues to be a significant production-limiting disease in pig herds throughout the world. The disease can be controlled with a combination of vaccination and antibiotic medication. However, pressure from consumers to reduce antibiotic use in livestock industries highlights the need to better understand the epidemiology of ileitis, the mechanisms of immunity, and to identify management factors that can reduce the load of Lawsonia intracellularis in both pigs and the environment. New diagnostic assays and economic modelling of ileitis will help producers target optimal treatment times and minimize the production losses associated with ileitis. This review aims to outline the current advances in disease diagnosis, epidemiology, control strategies and the economic impact of both clinical and sub-clinical disease.

Alison M. Collins

2013-01-01