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1

The Macroeconomic Impact of Defense Expenditure on Economic Growth of Pakistan: An Econometric Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The broad objective of the present study is to examine whether a long run relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth of Pakistan exist. For empirical investigation, an annual time series data over the period from 1980-2013, and ARDL was used. The empirical results support the existence of long run negative relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth. The results for long run negative relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth was suggested just in case Pakistan MKH does not hold during the period under study. The findings further suggested that the policy makers need to formulate appropriate policy to encourage and not to discourage the economic growth and development of Pakistan.

Muhammad Haseeb

2014-01-01

2

78 FR 67925 - Transfer of Real Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

...Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development AGENCY: Department...property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development. Most of the comments...PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 0 1. The...

2013-11-13

3

Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

4

Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk as a dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

5

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Science.gov (United States)

...property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair...PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 ...property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than...

2010-01-01

6

Economic Impact Analysis. Project Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study determined the economic impact of each dollar invested in Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc. (LVA). The analysis included 217 interviews, 165 in New York and 52 in Wisconsin; analysis of economic impact; and statistical validation and analysis. For every dollar spent by LVA, the value created (return) to the overall economy was a…

Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc., Syracuse, NY.

7

Defense Spending and Economic Growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates the nexus between defense spending and economic growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan. The empirical analysis is based on integration and cointegration properties of data over the period 1988-2007. The long run relationship between defense spending, economic growth and public debt are identified in a cointegration framework. The paper finds bidirectional causality between economic growth and public debt in China and India; unidirectional causality from defense spending to economic growth in China and Nepal, unidirectional causality from public debt to defense spending in India, and unidirectional causality from economic growth to public debt in Pakistan. The panel Granger causality test, however, confirms the presence of bidirectional causality between public debt and economic growth. The cointegration test at the end suggests that defense spending of a particular country can affect the defense spending of other country.

Rudra Prakash Pradhan

2010-10-01

8

Economic impact of antimicrobial resistance.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One reason antimicrobial-drug resistance is of concern is its economic impact on physicians, patients, health-care administrators, pharmaceutical producers, and the public. Measurement of cost and economic impact of programs to minimize antimicrobial-drug resistance is imprecise and incomplete. Studies to describe and evaluate the problem will have to employ new methods and be of large scale to produce information that is broadly applicable.

Mcgowan, J. E.

2001-01-01

9

Economic Impacts of Tourism Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is concerned with the economic impacts of tourism industry, especially in developing countries. Itinitially reviews the concept and using a model, it deals with the factors affecting the economic impactsassociated with tourism. The research findings indicated that with short-term and long-term strategic planningand using the specific abilities and tourism products of developing countries, which suffer from some indices asunemployment, limits in earning and...

Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

2011-01-01

10

Economic impact of world mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

11

Economic Impacts of Tourism Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is concerned with the economic impacts of tourism industry, especially in developing countries. Itinitially reviews the concept and using a model, it deals with the factors affecting the economic impactsassociated with tourism. The research findings indicated that with short-term and long-term strategic planningand using the specific abilities and tourism products of developing countries, which suffer from some indices asunemployment, limits in earning and currency flows, inflation and other problems, most of their economicproblems can be solved.

Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

2011-08-01

12

Defense Spending and Economic Growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigates the nexus between defense spending and economic growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan. The empirical analysis is based on integration and cointegration properties of data over the period 1988-2007. T...

Rudra Prakash Pradhan

2010-01-01

13

Economic impact of PCI remedies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper first outlines the data base on which the economic evaluation is performed. It includes: modifications of the design of the fuel; preconditioning of the fuel; ramping limitations; in-core fuel management modifications. The economic assumptions on which the study is performed are also outlined. They are representative of a PWR situation. For what fuel design modifications are concerned, some have a minor cost impact (e.g. pellet density, pellet length to diameter ratio, gap size, etc...), while some others may have a quite large impact on the fissile material cost (e.g. duplex pellet), the fabrication cost (e.g. coating of the cladding ID) or the reprocessing cost (e.g. interlayer between pellet and cladding). The preconditioning of the fuel may require to run the reactor in a mode unrelated to the energy demand. This aspect can be minimized by a proper adjustment of in-core fuel management. The ramping limitation is the most usually adopted approach. Different cases are investigated and the impact on generating cost is discussed. The in-core fuel management can also contribute to a better ramping performance of the fuel. Exemplative cases show that this leads to a minimum cost penalty. (author)

14

The impact of trade on economic growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of marginal intra-industry trade on economic growth. The manuscript questions the economic growth exogenous models. It introduces new proxies to explain the economic growth as in marginal intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The change of intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevant theoretical hyp...

Leita?o, Nuno Carlos

2012-01-01

15

Nutrition economics – characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the ab...

Lenoir-wijnkoop, I.; Dapoigny, M.; Dubois, D.; Ganse, E.; Gutie?rrez-ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, T.; Poley, M. J.; Salminen, S.; Nuijten, M. J. C.

2011-01-01

16

Impact of solar-energy development: the aggregate impact on basic economic objectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative (or complementary) programs are presented. The discussion distinguishes between short-run (one to five years) and long-run (over five years) impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing stock. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficiency, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense. (LEW)

Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

1982-01-01

17

Defense R&D: Effects on Economic Growth and Social Welfare  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the US, defense R&D share of GDP has decreased significantly since 1960. To analyze the implications on economic growth and welfare, we develop an R&D-based growth model that features the commonly discussed crowding-out and spillover effects of defense R&D on civilian R&D. The model also captures the important effects of defense technology on (a) national security and (b) aggregate productivity via the spin-off effect resembling consumption public goods and productive public goods respecti...

Chu, Angus C.; Lai, Ching-chong

2009-01-01

18

Precalving temperament and maternal defensiveness are independent traits but precalving fear may impact calf growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human safety can be compromised by the response of beef cows to handling or when defending their calf. However, little is known about how precalving temperament, postcalving defensiveness, and maternal care are related. The impacts of cow temperament on calf neonatal vigor and ADG are also unknown. Data were collected on 2 farms (Farm 1, n = 143, 1 parity; Farm 2, n = 237, 2 parities). Temperament was recorded before calving when restrained in a crush (crush score), on exit from the crush (flight speed), and when isolated with a handler. Defensiveness was recorded within 4 d after calving during handling of the calf. Maternal interactions with the calf and calf vigor were recorded for 3 h after calving (Farm 1 only) and ADG was measured over 7 mo. Crush score and flight speed were repeatable within a parity (range in repeatability 0.33 to 0.49; P calving ease or the amount of maternal behavior shown to the calf. At Farm 1, cows that exited the crush quickly had calves with a lighter birth weight (P = 0.023) and those that were agitated when isolated had calves with a decreased ADG (P = 0.017). Defensiveness was unrelated to ADG and neither temperament nor defensiveness affected calf vigor. Cow precalving temperament and postcalving defensiveness are repeatable but appear to be independent traits, neither of which is related to maternal interactions with the neonatal calf. Reducing precalving fearfulness should not affect postcalving behavior and changing postcalving defensiveness should not affect other maternal care traits. Fearful cows may produce calves with decreased birth weight and ADG, which, if confirmed, suggests that cow fearfulness may have wider economic implications than previously realized. PMID:23825324

Turner, S P; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B

2013-09-01

19

76 FR 54467 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to...information indicates that this type of supply chain structure exists because of the...this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by...

2011-09-01

20

75 FR 27778 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to...information indicates that this type of supply chain structure exists because of the...this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by...

2010-05-18

 
 
 
 
21

FEATURES IMPACT ASSESSMENT INFORMATION GLOBAL ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 The methodology of assessment of information impacts on the global economic changes in international economic relations. The information is considered as a means of forming a new global configuration and the global economy marked by the excretion of basic indicators that reflect the impact of information on the processes of globalization and information society indicators in individual countries.

???????, ?. ?. ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?. ?. ????????

2011-01-01

22

FEATURES IMPACT ASSESSMENT INFORMATION GLOBAL ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The methodology of assessment of information impacts on the global economic changes in international economic relations. The information is considered as a means of forming a new global configuration and the global economy marked by the excretion of basic indicators that reflect the impact of information on the processes of globalization and information society indicators in individual countries.

?.?. ???????

2011-09-01

23

Supplemental environmental impact statement - defense waste processing facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document supplements the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE Issued in 1982 (DOE/EIS-0082) to construct and operate the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a major DOE installation in southwestern South Carolina. That EIS supported the decision to construct and operate the DWPF to immobilize high-level waste generated as a result of nuclear materials processing at SRS. The DWPF would use a vitrification process to incorporate the radioactive waste into borosilicate glass and seal it in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal at a permanent geologic repository. The DWPF is now mostly constructed and nearly ready for full operation. However, DOE has made design changes to the DWPF since the 1982 EIS to improve efficiency and safety of the facility. Each of these modifications was subjected to appropriate NEPA review. The purpose of this Supplemental EIS is to assist DOE in deciding whether and how to proceed with operation of the DWPF as modified since 1982 while ensuring appropriate consideration of potential environmental effects. In this document, DOE assesses the potential environmental impacts of completing and operating the DWPF in light of these design changes, examines the impact of alternatives, and identifies potential actions to be taken to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socioeconomresources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, and health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

24

Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings

25

Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts

26

77 FR 26277 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public...35 million transaction specific working capital guarantee to support the export...Iraq. The repayment term of the working capital guarantee is 24 months. The...

2012-05-03

27

The Impact of Emerging MEMS-Based Microsystems on US Defense Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the impact of inserting Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) into US defense applications. As specific examples, the impacts of micro Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), radio frequency MEMS (RF MEMS), and Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) to provide integrated intelligence, communication, and control to the defense infrastructure with increased affordability, functionality, and performance are highlighted.

STAPLE,BEVAN D.; JAKUBCZAK II,JEROME F.

2000-01-20

28

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

29

Defense-Waste-Processing Faclity, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC: Draft environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103 m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

30

Defense Waste Processing Facility: Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. Final environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Envgy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

31

The impact of economic globalisation on health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches. PMID:16532301

Koivusalo, Meri

2006-01-01

32

Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available techniques for quantitative economic impact assessment: partial budgeting, partial equilibrium analysis, input output analysis, and computable general equilibrium analysis. These techniques differ in ...

Soliman, T. A. A.; Mourits, M. C. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Werf, W.

2010-01-01

33

Economic impact of mastitis in dairy cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis aims to assess the economic loss associated with clinical (CM) and subclinical (SCM) mastitis under current Swedish farming conditions. Stochastic simulation was used to investigate the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a 150-cow dairy herd. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis, assuming that the initial incidence (32 and 33 cases of CM and SCM per 100 cow-years, respectively) could be reduced by 50%, was estimated at €8 095. This figure corresponded to 5%...

Nielsen, Christel

2009-01-01

34

76 FR 58463 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee (MIC), co-chaired by the Departments of Commerce...Annual Materials Plan. The role of the MIC is to advise the National Defense Stockpile...Attn: Michael Vaccaro), e-mail: MIC@bis.doc.gov; and Douglas...

2011-09-21

35

77 FR 36536 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import...States has received an application for a $22.5 million working capital guarantee to support the export of approximately...

2012-06-19

36

Economic impacts of deforestation in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessments of the economic impacts of the deterioration of European forests are being made from two points of view - the marketing of wood products and the potential economic benefits which can possibly be derived from a healthy environment. This article considers the principal results of these studies and evaluates their limitations and usefulness. In reviewing some scientific aspects of current debate on the probable causes of deforestation, as well as, in examining government efforts towards air pollution abatement, the article makes reference to tabled data on deforestation in Europe. Overall, the results of economic impacts studies based on the use of simulation models indicate a significant reduction in local supplies to the European wood products industry thus resulting in a dramatic drop in world market share and consequent market instability. Economic losses due to the inability to capitalize on healthy forests are valued in the order of billions of dollars per year in terms of the loss of business in the wood products and commercial-recreational sectors. While pointing out the uncertainties involved in the formulation of these assessments, the article also suggests how their results can constitute useful guidelines in cost benefit analyses of proposed government interventions. A discussion is made of the efficacy of some of these interventions now being considered aimed at reforestation and air pollution abatement

37

How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding changes in efficient firm boundaries as consequence of changes in uncertainty. The analysis suggests that we need to be more precise in describing the nature of the uncertainty that is assumed in the various theories. Moreover, allowing for changes in levels of uncertainty requires that we take the processes of boundary changes into account in the theory of firm boundaries.

Foss, Kirsten

2010-01-01

38

Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The ...

La Pen?a, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

2014-01-01

39

The economic impacts of the tobacco settlement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent litigation against the major tobacco companies culminated in a master settlement agreement (MSA) under which the participating companies agreed to compensate most states for Medicaid expenses. Here the terms of the settlement are outlined and its economic implications analyzed using data from Massachusetts. The financial compensation to Massachusetts (and other states) under the MSA is substantial. However, this compensation is dwarfed by the value of the health impacts induced by the settlement. Specifically, Medicaid spending will fall, but only by a modest amount. More importantly, the value of health benefits ($65 billion through 2025 in 1999 dollars) from increased longevity is an order of magnitude greater than any other impacts or payments. The net efficiency implications of the settlement turn mainly on a comparison of the value of these health benefits relative to a valuation of the foregone pleasure of smoking. To the extent that the value of the health benefits is not offset by the value of the pleasure foregone, the economic impacts of the MSA will include a share of these health benefits. PMID:11887906

Cutler, David M; Gruber, Jonathan; Hartman, Raymond S; Landrum, Mary Beth; Newhouse, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B

2002-01-01

40

The Economic Impact of Venture Capital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to evaluate the macroeconomic impact of venture capital (VC). We test the assumption that VC is similar in several respects to business R&D performed by large firms and therefore contributes to economic growth through two main channels: innovation and absorptive capacity. The quantitative results, based on a panel of 16 OECD countries from 1990 to 2001, show that the social return of VC is significantly higher than the social return of business or public R&D. An increased ...

Pottelsberghe La Potterie, Bruno; Romain, Astrid

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

42

Development of circumferential impact limiters for a defense high level waste shipping cask  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Circumferential honeycomb impact limiters provide lightweight, low-volume impact protection for nuclear waste shipping casks with circular cross sections. GA Technologies has developed an empirical procedure for designing circumferential honeycomb impact limiters to limit the impact g-level to a predetermined level. Sandia National Laboratories has performed a series of tests demonstrating that the circumferential honeycomb impact limiters are effective and can be adequately designed using this empirical procedure. Circumferential honeycomb impact limiters are currently used on the Defense High Level Waste truck shipping cask and are planned for use on several new casks which are scheduled for development during the next few years. This paper describes the structural design of the circumferential honeycomb impact limiters, presents the empirical design procedure for predicting the impact g-level and required volume of honeycomb, and compares test results with predicted results. 1 ref. 1 fig

43

Development of circumferential honeycomb impact limiters for a defense high level waste shipping cask  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Circumferential honeycomb impact limiters provide lightweight, low-volume impact protection for nuclear waste shipping casks with circular cross sections. GA Technologies (GA) has developed an empirical procedure for designing circumferential honeycomb impact limiters to limit the impact g-level to a predetermined level. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has performed a series of tests demonstrating that the circumferential honeycomb impact limiters are effective and can be adequately designed using this empirical procedure. Circumferential honeycomb impact limiters are currently used on the Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) truck shipping cask and are planned for use on several new casks which are scheduled for development during the next few years. This paper describes the structural design of the circumferential honeycomb impact limiters, presents the empirical design procedure for predicting the impact g-level and required volume of honeycomb, and compares test results with predicted results. 1 ref., 3 figs

44

Government Information Public Impact of Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The era of information economy, benign information resources is scarce resources, information socio-economic activities is the most active factor. Information from the economics point of view, the transition economies in government information on the economic characteristics, economic function, pointed out that market imperfections and market information asymmetry, and the importance of open information market, namely the role of economic growth, And the unlimited demand for scarce resources of the conflict, through the allocation of resources and achieve the greatest meet the demand.

Qun Zhan

2009-02-01

45

Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the social and economic dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation in Italy. The ultimate aim of the paper is to provide policy makers and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with climate change impacts and adaptation from an economic perspective. In order to do so, first a conceptual and theoretical framework of the economic assessment of climate change impacts is presented and the state of the art about impact assessment studies is briefly analysed. Then, the Italian case is taken into account, by underlying the main impacts and adaptation challenges that are likely to be implied by climate change in the next decades. The analysis of the Italian case is particularly addressed through the description of the methodology and results of two case studies. The first one, dealing mainly with impact assessment, is carried out at the national level and is part of a EC funded project on Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). The second one is carried out at the local level and focuses on sea level rise impacts and adaptation in a plane south of Rome. The two case studies allow to propose simple and flexible methodologies for the economic impact assessment and the economic valuation of adaptation strategies

46

Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi capaz de modificar o padrão dos mecanismos de defesa medidos pelo Defensive Style Questionnaire.

Maria Inês Lobato

2009-12-01

47

Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients / Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Id [...] entidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes). Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi capaz de modificar o padrão dos mecanismos de defesa medidos pelo Defensive Style Questionnaire. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity [...] Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.

Maria Inês, Lobato; Walter José, Koff; Tiago, Crestana; Camila, Chaves; Jaqueline, Salvador; Analídia Rodolpho, Petry; Esalba, Silveira; Alexandre Annes, Henriques; Fábio, Cervo; Eduardo Siam, Böhme; Raffael, Massuda.

2009-12-01

48

The economic impact of obesity in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ross A Hammond, Ruth LevineEconomic Studies Program, Brookings Institution, Washington DC, USAAbstract: Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US, more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at least four major categories of economic impact linked with the obesity epidemic: direct medical costs, productivity costs, transportation costs, and human capital costs. We review current evidence on each set of costs in turn, and identify important gaps for future research and potential trends in future economic impacts of obesity. Although more comprehensive analysis of costs is needed, substantial economic impacts of obesity are identified in all four categories by existing research. The magnitude of potential economic impact underscores the importance of the obesity epidemic as a focus for policy and a topic for future research.Keywords: obesity, economic impact, United States, economic cost

Ross A Hammond

2010-08-01

49

The Impact of Public Expenditures on Economic Growth in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to examine the impact of the public expenditures on economic growth in Jordan during the time period (1993–2013, by determining the contribution of the current and capital expenditures on Education, Health, Economic Affairs, and Housing and community Utilities as a percent of the total public expenditures, and then examining the impact of each one of them on economic growth in Jordan. Two mathematical models have been designed to measure this impact, the first one measures the impact of current functional expenditures, and the second model measures the impact of capital functional expenditures on economic growth in Jordan. The empirical results show that the impact of current and capital expenditures on education has failed to enhance economic growth, and that is due to the high cost of education, especially higher education in the private sector in Jordan, as well as the growing rate of unemployment, and expenditures on health and economic affairs should be encouraged due to their positive impact on economic growth.

Ali Sulieman Al-Shatti

2014-09-01

50

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

51

Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

52

The economic impact of Junkanoo in The Bahamas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the21st century culture has moved from the periphery of economic activity to the centre. In the Caribbean, festivals are important generators of revenue. The Bahamian festival of Junkanoo resembles the carnivals of the Caribbean, but unlike them has not yet placed any emphasis on the economic aspects of the festival. This paper summarizes the findings of a study into the economic impact of Junkanoo.

Bethel, Nicolette

2014-10-01

53

The economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy) on South Africa's Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Northern Cape province. Data on biltong hunting were derived from a national survey conducted in 2007 and data on trophy hunting were derived from the Professional Hunting Association of South Africa (PHASA). The re...

Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville; Merwe, Petrus

2011-01-01

54

The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

2011-01-01

55

Economics: Welfare impacts of climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change can affect well-being in poor economies more than previously shown if its effect on economic growth, and not only on current production, is considered. But this result does not necessarily suggest greater mitigation efforts are required.

Hof, Andries F.

2015-02-01

56

The Impact of Rules on Economic Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the rules, the importance of those rules that influence economic activity. It will be presented the institutions starting from the "rules of the game" until the "rule of law". Then it will be explained the concept of "spontaneous order" and the importance of that order in society. For a good economic activity, we need a “good governance”. It will be explained what this means good governance and how addiction affects about institutional...

Veronica Coca

2010-01-01

57

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

58

Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The strengths and directions of these responses have been scarcely addressed in the literature. Using Taraxacum officinale, the root-feeding nematode Meloidogyne hapla and the locust Schistocerca gregaria as a model species, we examined to what degree above- and belowground herbivory affect (1) plant growth responses, (2) the induction of plant defensive traits, that is, leaf trichomes, and (3) changes in dispersal-related seed traits and seed germination. We compared the performance of plants originating from different populations to address whether plant responses are conserved across putative different genotypes. Overall, aboveground herbivory resulted in increased plant biomass. Root herbivory had no effect on plant growth. Plants exposed to the two herbivores showed fewer leaf trichomes than plants challenged only by one herbivore and consequently experienced greater aboveground herbivory. In addition, herbivory had effects that reached beyond the individual plant by modifying seed morphology, producing seeds with longer pappus, and germination success. PMID:25473483

de la Peña, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

2014-08-01

59

Weighing a dam's economic and environmental impact  

Science.gov (United States)

While some people claim that it was a publicity stunt or criticize it as an economic loss and a move in the wrong direction, the breaching of the low-slung Edwards Dam on July 1 has changed the landscape of the Kennebec River flowing through Augusta, Maine, and may also change the landscape for some other dammed rivers nationwide.The breaching marks the first time that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which licenses nonfederal hydroelectric projects, has ruled that a dam should be removed because the environmental damage that it causes outweighs its economic benefits.

Showstack, Randy

60

The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

77 FR 59397 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic...notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is...Cruse, Senior Vice President, Policy and Planning. [FR Doc. 2012-23866 Filed...

2012-09-27

62

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective ...

Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu, Tao; Ma, Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song, Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shiqiu

2006-01-01

63

Environmental and economic impact of alien terrestrial arthropods in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last few decades, the abundance and importance of invasive alien species have grown continuously due to the undiminished growth of global trade. In most cases, arthropod introductions were unintended and occurred as hitchhikers or contaminants. Alien arthropods can have significant environmental impacts and can be economically costly. To measure these impacts, we expand a generic impact scoring system initially developed for mammals and birds, and applied it to terrestrial arthropods. ...

Vaes-petignat, Sibylle; Nentwig, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

64

The economic impacts of air transport liberalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air transport liberalization constitutes a whole new level of globalization. The impacts it brings can be divided into direct, indirect, induced and catalytic. The magnitude of impacts is determined by various factors, including air transport liberalization multiplier, market saturation and the degree of liberalization of other sectors. Airlines profit from increased efficiency derived from economies of scale, economies of scope and density economies. On the demand side, the passengers enjoy ...

Grancay, Martin

2009-01-01

65

Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ?2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789?919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015?12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of national economy, by having economic profit over all scenarios of construction costs. (2) Export A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation amounts to 899? 1,140 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 7,324?9,287 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Value added inducing effect amounts to 339?464 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 766?778 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Employment inducing effect amounts to 3,616?4,339 men for the 1st reactor export and to 29,471 ?35, 364 men for the 10th reactor export. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost-benefit of exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically non-profitable for the natural gas price less than or equal to 10.23 $/MMBtu over all scenarios on exporting number of the reactors and turns out to be economically profitable for the other price level from the exporting number of 4 or 6. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost-benefit and value added inducing effect, exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically profitable from the point of view of national economy for more than equal to 2nd reactor depending on the scenarios of the natural gas price. (3) Intangible Social Gains The intangible social gains of SMART Project by contributing to Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improving Korea's global standing in the science area amounts to 245?458 billion won

66

Disparate impact of oxidative host defenses determines the fate of Salmonella during systemic infection in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species function in host defense via mechanisms that remain controversial. Pathogens might encounter varying levels of these species, but bulk measurements cannot resolve such heterogeneity. We used single-cell approaches to determine the impact of oxidative and nitrosative stresses on individual Salmonella during early infection in mouse spleen. Salmonella encounter and respond to both stresses, but the levels and impact vary widely. Neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes kill Salmonella by generating overwhelming oxidative stress through NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase. This controls Salmonella within inflammatory lesions but does not prevent their spread to more permissive resident red pulp macrophages, which generate only sublethal oxidative bursts. Regional host expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase exposes some Salmonella to nitrosative stress, triggering effective local Salmonella detoxification through nitric oxide denitrosylase. Thus, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species influence dramatically different outcomes of disparate Salmonella-host cell encounters, which together determine overall disease progression. PMID:24439899

Burton, Neil A; Schürmann, Nura; Casse, Olivier; Steeb, Anne K; Claudi, Beatrice; Zankl, Janine; Schmidt, Alexander; Bumann, Dirk

2014-01-15

67

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

68

Economic impact of stimulated technological activity. Part 1: Overall economic impact of technological progress: Its measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were performed at the national economic level to explore the aggregate effects of technological progress on economic growth. Inadequacies in existing marco-economic yardsticks forced the study to focus on the cost savings effects achieved through technological progress. The central questions discussed in this report cover: (1) role of technological progress in economic growth, (2) factors determining the rate of economic growth due to technological progress; (3) quantitative measurements of relationships between technological progress, its determinants, and subsequent economic growth; and (4) effects of research and development activities of the space program. For Part 2, see N72-32174.

1971-01-01

69

Social and macro economic impact of closure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

70

Economics of Biofuels: An Overview of Policies, Impacts and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the economics of biofuels. It starts by describing the remarkable growth of the biofuel industry over the last decade, with emphasis on developments in the United States, Brazil and the European Union, and it identifies the driving role played by some critical policies. After a brief discussion of the motivations that are commonly argued in favor of biofuels and biofuel policies, the paper presents an assessment of the impacts of biofuels from the economics perspective. In particular, the paper explains the basic analytics of biofuel mandates, reviews several existing studies that have estimated the economic impacts of biofuels, presents some insights from a specific model, and outlines an appraisal of biofuel policies and the environmental impacts of biofuels. The paper concludes with an examination of several open issues and the future prospects of biofuels.

GianCarlo Moschini

2013-03-01

71

Impact of Globalisation and Economic Reforms on Employment in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the basics of globalization, the economic reforms initiated in India and the trends in employment and the impact of globalisation are discussed. It is argued that the unorganised workers would expand further due to globalisation. Under the present deprived conditions of unorganised sector, this would lead to imbalance in the labour market leading to more supply of labours, low wages and low level of income. This situation would affect the social and economic conditions of th...

Dhas, Albert Christopher; Helen, Mary Jacqueline

2008-01-01

72

Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

73

Impact of venture capital on economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object of the research is public venture capital as a tool of venture capital market incentive, innovative business start-up financing, and state policy, which helps addressing imperfect/inefficient market situations where private venture capital does not access all market players. Purpose of the research is to reveal the importance of public venture capital to the national venture capital sector, its impact on the economy and, based on the experience of European countries, to create a hypoth...

Laurinavic?ius, Antanas

2014-01-01

74

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the so [...] cio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Madelien, Ferreira.

75

Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

76

Malaria and Climate Change: Discussion on Economic Impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Climate change is a global environmental change that is adversely affecting human health by causing various health impacts in countries throughout the world. Climate is the most influential driving force of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Changes in climate factors substantially affect reproduction, development, distribution and seasonal transmissions of malaria. Climate change increases the outbreak of malaria which causes adverse economic impacts in endemic regions. This study reviews literature related to economic impacts of malaria at different levels such as household and national level. The study also focuses on the impacts of malaria on the economic growth of various nations. Approach: Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Several electronic databases were searched for published literature in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to economic impacts of malaria illness. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Results: The literature review indicates that malaria causes great economic losses at household level through human morbidity and mortality and consequently lower labor productivity, disability and poverty. At the national level, malaria affects negatively the trade, investments, savings and tourism sector. Macroeconomic studies estimated that the annual growth rate of per capita GDP of malaria endemic countries was 0.25-1.3% points lower per year than that of non-malarious countries. Conclusion: Reducing the burden of malaria could help to break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty that contributes to economic growth of the endemic countries. Therefore, further research is urgently needed to ensure interventions for controlling the malaria disease more effectively in the advent of climate change.

Md. S. Mia

2011-01-01

77

Nicotine impact on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in HEMn-DP melanocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine is a compound of tobacco plants and is responsible for addictive properties of tobacco which is used by about one billion of smokers all over the world. Recently, nicotine has drawn even more attention due to its presumed neuroprotective and antioxidant features as far as common use in various forms of smoking cessation therapies. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn influence biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human melanocytes (HEMn-DP). Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was determined to be 2.52 mM. Nicotine modulated melanin biosynthesis in normal human melanocytes. Significant changes in hydrogen peroxide content and cellular antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx activities were stated in melanocytes exposed to nicotine, which indicates alterations of antioxidant defense system. The results obtained in vitro may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long-term exposition to nicotine. PMID:24942236

Delijewski, Marcin; Wrze?niok, Dorota; Otr?ba, Micha?; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

2014-10-01

78

Childhood Cataract: Magnitude, Management, Economics and Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of blindness among children in different regions varies from 0.2/1000 children to over 1.5/1000 children with a global figure estimated at 0.7/1000. This means that there are an estimated 1.4 million blind children worldwide.1 The proportion of blindness in children due to cataract varies considerably between regions from 10%-30% with a global average estimated at 14%, giving 190,000 children blind from cataract. 2 While the magnitude of childhood cataracts varies from place to place, it is a priority within all blindness control programmes for children. Children who are blind have to overcome a lifetime of emotional, social and economic difficulties which affect the child, the family and society.3 Loss of vision in children influences their education, employment and social life. The numbers blind with cataract do not reflect the years of disability and lost quality of life. Childhood blindness is second only to adult cataract as a cause of blind-person years. Approximately 70 million blind-person years are caused by childhood blindness of which about 10 million blind-person years (14% is due to childhood cataract. Timely recognition and intervention can eliminate blind-years due to childhood cataract, as the condition is treatable.

BR Shamanna

2004-01-01

79

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts.

Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

1984-11-01

80

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts

 
 
 
 
81

The economic impact of hunting: A regional approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT The core of South Africa tourism industry is based on wildlife tourism. Private game reserves and game farms which forms part of wildlife tourism constitute most of the wildlife products in South Africa. On these private reserves and game farms, hunting is one of the major income generators [...] for product owners. The aim of this study is to analyse the economic impact of hunting on the regional economies of three of South Africa's most important hunting provinces. The study used economic multipliers, input-output analysis, and related modelling processes through input-output (supply-use) tables and social accounting matrices (SAM). The results differed significantly for the three provinces, with Limpopo receiving the biggest impact (R2.6 billion) and the Free State having the highest multiplier (2.08). The geographical location of the game farms, the number of farms per province and the species available all influenced the magnitude of the economic impact of hunters over and above the traditional determinants of economic impact analysis. The implication of the research is that it will help product owners in the development of game farms or hunting products, contribute to policy formulation, especially for government decisions on what products to offer where, and how to create more jobs.

Petrus, van der Merwe; Melville, Saayman; Riaan, Rossouw.

2014-04-01

82

A cognitive and economic decision theory for examining cyber defense strategies.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyber attacks pose a major threat to modern organizations. Little is known about the social aspects of decision making among organizations that face cyber threats, nor do we have empirically-grounded models of the dynamics of cooperative behavior among vulnerable organizations. The effectiveness of cyber defense can likely be enhanced if information and resources are shared among organizations that face similar threats. Three models were created to begin to understand the cognitive and social aspects of cyber cooperation. The first simulated a cooperative cyber security program between two organizations. The second focused on a cyber security training program in which participants interact (and potentially cooperate) to solve problems. The third built upon the first two models and simulates cooperation between organizations in an information-sharing program.

Bier, Asmeret Brooke

2014-01-01

83

Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

2007-06-01

84

The uncertainty about the total economic impact of climate change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses a vote-counting procedure to estimate the probability density function of the total economic impact as a parabolic function of global warming. There is a wide range of uncertainty about the impact of climate change up to 3 °C, and the information becomes progressively more diffuse beyond that. Warming greater than 3 °C most likely has net negative impacts, and warming greater than 7 °C may lead to a total welfare loss. The expected value of the social cost of carbon is abou...

Tol, Richard S. J.

2011-01-01

85

The Economic Impact of US Sanctions with Respect to Cuba  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a request last spring by the House of Representatives, the US International Trade Commission issued its report late last month on the economic impact of US sanctions towards Cuba. The comprehensive report presents an overview of US sanctions on Cuba; a description of the Cuban economy and its trade and investment trends; an analysis of the "historical impact of US sanctions on both the US and Cuban economies"; and an evaluation of the current impact of US sanctions on US - Cuba bilateral trade, investment, employment, and consumers. The report makes no recommendations concerning US policy towards Cuba and explicitly avoids anticipating any change in the current sanctions regime.

86

Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

2005-07-01

87

Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is under way and impacts can already be observed and have to be expected for the future, even if mitigation measures can be implemented. A number of economical and industrial activities are influenced by or even depend on the climatic conditions. Hence, changing climate has implications for those activities, and adaptation to the changing environmental conditions may be required. This presentation gives an overview of different studies investigating climate change impacts on the economical and industrial sector, as well as related adaptation actions. This includes investigations of climate impacts on agriculture, tourism, insurance risk,design of protection of industrial utilities against flood, and electricity production. Further studies investigate the mitigation of CO2 emissions by using renewable energy generation and the use of alternative building materials.

Parey, S.; Bernardara, P.; Donat, M. G.

2012-04-01

88

Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social entification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

89

Economic and Financial Crime and its Impact on the Economic Security of Ukraine ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National economy criminalization and shadow economic relations reproduction has a significant impact on the whole system of national economy at every stage of the historical development, and in particular on the economic security of the state. Shadow economic relations become an obstacle to effective structural reforms in the state. They prevent the state coping with the economic crisis, making the national economy trade and speculative raw material appendage of the global economy. Prerequisites for the development and growth of the shadow economy exist in the system itself. This means that the development and growth of the shadow economy depend on the way of solving the system’s contradictions, which under certain conditions can become destructive. Shadow economy is enormous in scale. However, it is not easy to accurately measure it. Shadow economy arises from the desire to avoid measurement, and a number of scientists use indirect methods to give it a relative measure.?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ? ? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????. ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????-????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????. ??? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????????. ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ??-?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ?? ????????????? ??????.

Khavanov Artem V.

2012-12-01

90

The economic impact of wind industry development in Quebec  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impact of current and future development of wind power in Quebec was discussed. Key events were outlined, beginning with Hydro-Quebec's request for bids in 2003 for 1000 MW of wind power development. More than 4000 MW of power were filed under this call, where 8 projects were selected totalling 990 MW. Both direct and indirect economic impacts were attributed to start-up factories in the Gaspe region and elsewhere across the province. Energy capacity was increased in 2006 by 2,500 MW and is expected to reach more than 4,000 MW by 2015. It was noted that since the government of Quebec chose a non-traditional call for tender to support its emerging industry, it is difficult to attach an exact price tof wind energy, as the bid price included economic development costs associated with regional and provincial requirements. The second part of this document addressed the economic impact of wind industry development from 1997 to 2005, and the anticipated development from 2006 to 2015. Although the economic impact of wind energy development was small for the period 1997-2006, it was important for energy development in the Gaspe region, and established the groundwork for future development and the involvement of local wind tower manufacturers, engineering consulting firms, and the growth of local wind-related businesses in the region. It is anticipated that wind energy development will be very significant in terms of job creation. In addition, Quebec universities aeation. In addition, Quebec universities are dedicating more resources to training skilled turbine personnel and research in leading-edge fields to improve wind turbine design. It is estimated that $10 million will be paid annually in royalties to municipalities and landowners. In conclusion, from an environmental perspective, it is expected that 4,000 MW of wind capacity will annually produce about 12 TWh of electric energy, and displace an estimated 4 million tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) annually. 17 refs., 16 tabs

91

Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

92

The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clesome economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

93

The social and economic impact of nuclear energy in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model for structural analysis is introduced and discussed. An application is made to the 'Brazilian Nuclear System' defined by a structural matrix lying upon 42 factors (of which 11 are political 7 economic, 9 technological, 6 sociological, 7 ecological and 2 psychdogical, whose interactions are evalueted. The hierarchical ordering of these 42 factors shows the preponderance of the political ones, the technological factors being the least important. The study is completed by calculating the impact of a PWR pant construction in Brazilian territory, using an enlarged input-output method the sectorial impacts are determined for industrial production, value added, inderect imports and capital goods industries

94

Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated

95

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

2009-07-01

96

The economic impact of tourism in six German national parks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tourism in protected areas can create considerable income for adjacent communities. Based on face-to-face visitor surveys, the present study measures the structure, size and economic impact of tourist expenditure in the six German national parks Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer, Bayerischer Wald, Eifel, Müritz, Hainich and Kellerwald-Edersee. We find that mean daily expenditure per person is considerably below the national averages for tourists in Germany: day-trippers spend between EUR 7 and 1...

Marius Mayer; Martin Mueller; Manuel Woltering; Julius Arnegger; Hubert Job

2010-01-01

97

Economical impact of orchiectomy for advanced prostate cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the economical impact of surgical castration in comparison to the medical castration for patients with advanced prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2001, 32 patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent bilateral sub-capsular orchiectomy at our Hospital. The costs of this procedure were compared to the costs of medical castration with LH-RH analogues. RESULTS: The costs of the surgical procedure were extremely reduced when compar...

Paula, Adriano A. P.; Piccelli, Hilton R. S.; Pinto, Nilson P.; Teles, Antonio G.; Franqueiro, Antonio G.; Maltez, Adriano R. L.; Silva, Jose H.

2003-01-01

98

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...

Rai, Shivani M.

2013-01-01

99

Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

Zaheer Khan KAKAR

2011-12-01

100

Economic Impacts of Climate Change Policy - A Quantitative Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming has received growing attention during the last decade. The accumulation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere is likely to lead to significant climate changes. In order to avoid potentially larger adverse impacts, GHG emissions - most notably carbon dioxide (CO2) released from fossil fuel use - must be drastically reduced in the future. An economic assessment of climate change has to weigh the benefits from avoided undesirable consequences of global ...

Lo?schel, Andreas

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Economic comparison of centralizing or decentralizing processing facilities for defense transuranic waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is part of a set of analyses under direction of the Transuranic Waste Management Program designed to provide comprehensive, systematic methodology and support necessary to better understand options for national long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste. The report summarizes activities to evaluate the economics of possible alternatives in locating facilities to process DOE-managed transuranic waste. The options considered are: (1) Facilities located at all major DOE TRU waste generating sites. (2) Two or three regional facilities. (3) Central processing facility at only one DOE site. The study concludes that processing at only one facility is the lowest cost option, followed, in order of cost, by regional then individual site processing

102

Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment.

Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik

2010-01-01

103

The socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact [...] on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor's survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

Susan, Oberholzer; Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Elmarie, Slabbert.

104

A systematic approach for evaluating economic impact of voltage dips  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power quality is known to be as much an economical issue as a technical challenge. Voltage dip, one of the most prevailing power quality ailments, is known to cause wide-ranging disruptions with economic loses running into hundreds of thousands of dollars. This impact is likely to worsen as many modern electrical apparatus are increasingly relying on semiconductor devices that are vulnerable to voltage dips. Although there exists measures to mitigate against voltage dips but they can be costly and in many cases, it has been difficult to justify their investments. It is therefore imperative to evaluate the economic costs of such disruptions so that their severity can be fully comprehended and correction measures justified. This paper proposes a systematic approach for evaluating this cost in a manufacturing facility setting. It adopts the fault tree analysis to represent the relationship between devices that are vulnerable to voltage dips and processes that have high economical consequences if they are disrupted. The method considers the system performance, device tolerances, effect of device failures on manufacturing process and the corresponding economic losses. This evaluation allows the importance of individual devices to be assessed so that efforts can be concentrated on those financially more rewarding measures. (author)

105

Impact of recent technical developments on upgrading economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabsn. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

106

IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

2011-11-07

107

The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1 cost components included in the estimation; (2 the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies.

Lertpitakpong Chanida

2009-11-01

108

E-business development in Lithuania and the impact of the economic analysis of the country's economic competitiveness study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work the author has set the goal - to analyze e-business development in Lithuania and to investigate the economic characteristics of e-business impact on the country's economic competitiveness by using statistical data analysis. The scientific work was analyzed and systematized the various Lithuanian and foreign authors theoretical e-business development and its impact on economic competitiveness issues and the empirical basis of their relationship. Authors formed a research hypothesis w...

Z?emaitis, Vytautas; Milkintis, Martynas

2010-01-01

109

75 FR 32637 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements Thresholds (DFARS Case 2009...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Acquisition Regulations System; Department of Defense...Acquisition Regulations System, Attn: Ms. Amy...203,000 7,804,000 Singapore FTA...to have a significant economic impact on a substantial...Acquisition Regulations System. 0 Therefore, 48...

2010-06-08

110

Blufensin1 Negatively Impacts Basal Defense in Response to Barley Powdery Mildew  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to control the defense response against microbial attack. Both temporal and spatial gene expression are tightly regulated in response to pathogen ingress, modulating both positive and negative control of defense. BLUFENSIN1 (BLN1), a small peptide ...

111

The Impact of FDIs Flows on the Nigerien Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Niger, since the 70s has always adopted an approach that makes the IDE a major component of its development plan. It `s so, a series of measures have been taken to make the country more attractive to Foreign direct investment FDI This policy has guaranteed the country a few annual flow between the period 1970 to 2008.The aim of this paper is to try to study the impact of FDI on economic growth in Niger. Observe the literature study on FDI in Niger, however, it is also becoming important to see the between FDI and economic performance since it has not been addressed specifically yet. While it is still unclear of whether there is any relationship between FDI and economic growth in Niger, especially as regard to the causality within the relationship.The theory and the current empirical literature on the relationship between FDI and growth have provided ambiguous results. Using VAR (Vector Autoregressive model, this paper explores the causal relationship between FDI and economic growth for the period 1970-2008 in Niger. With in the Granger causality framework, this study finds a long-term relationship between FDI and economic growth. This finding is a long-term relationship between variables but failed to establish the direct correlation between each variable. This can be explained by the fact that low volume flows of FDI in Niger have major consequences on the economic system, particularly on employment, inflation and GDP. More, this weakness is emphasized by the insignificance of the volume of capital flows (domestic and foreign circulating in the Nigerian economy and domestic savings.

Ousseini Hamadou

2011-07-01

112

The Impact of Economic Crises on the Perception and Knowledge Level of Students Regarding Economic and Financial Concepts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Economic crisis, during the past two years, has an impact on Greek students of 17 years old. Elements of the crisis have intruded on their everyday life. Economic and financial concepts constitute part of their attempt to understand the world they live in and as a result affect their educational level. This paper is an exploratory attempt to study the effects of economic crisis in the economics knowledge of Greek students using a sample of 62 Senior High School (lyceum) students. Data analyze...

Iraklis Pliakis; Christos Digkas; Despoina Bousiou-Makridou; Stavros Tsopoglou

2013-01-01

113

Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) error correction framework to model oil demand in each economic sector separately. The results show that the dynamic panel data approach appears to give estimates consistent with the economic theory. The signs on the coefficients are correct and the magnitude of long-run responses is larger than that of the short-run responses. The single sector model approach yields similar but richer results. Since constant slopes are not imposed across sectors the characteristics and dynamics and responses can differ across sectors. The third part of my dissertation develops a simple Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model to investigate the economic consequences of the SPR for a "small oil-importing economy." This economy is subject to the risk of oil shocks. Government policy-makers attempt to mitigate the macroeconomic impacts of the shocks by establishing a SPR. The assigned values of the parameters in the model aim to reflect the basic characteristics of the Thai economy. The simulation results show that the impulse responses of key economic variables for different degrees of oil shocks follow the same pattern. When the degree of the shock increases, the magnitude of the stock drawdown increases, which helps lower the negative impact on economic welfare. I examine the welfare effects from alternative sizes of the SPR and the opportunity cost for the economy that result when it has to sacrifice additional resources to maintain and operate the SPR. This lowers the level of resources available for production and consumption in the long run. There exists a trade-off relationship between the sacrificed welfare in the long run and the less volatile welfare in the short run.

Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

114

Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialison the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental 'externalizations' and the effects of eco-taxes on the production costs of electricity and heat. In conclusion the presented method can be only used if there are specific laws that facilitate environmental protection. Economically speaking the indirect effect - energy tax is easier to establish. That means that it is much more easier and precise to determine the fuel consumption than emissions quantity in order to use it for carbon tax. The combined tax is a more accurate one. Establishment of the pollutant quantities for extraction, processing and transportation phases are more difficult because of the lack of information regarding the efficiencies and energy consumptions. (authors)

115

Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

2000-05-01

116

Economic impact analysis of independent power projects in British Columbia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Independent power producer (IPP) projects have been active in British Columbia's (BC) regulated electricity market since the late 1980s. The 49 IPP projects developed in the province currently account for approximately 10 per cent of BC's electricity generation, and IPP development continues to expand in nearly every region. This study presented an economic impact analysis of IPP projects in BC. The economic impacts of IPP projects were divided into 2 categories: (1) existing IPP projects, and (2) potential IPP projects. The study showed that the total power potential supplied by BC IPP projects would increase from a current level of 5940 annual GWh to approximately 14,149 GWh. BC could also be generating a further 21,321 GWh of annual output to service demand domestically in addition to exporting to the United States. The value of capital investment in existing IPPs across BC was estimated at $2.8 billion. Capital investment in potential IPPs was estimated at $26.1 billion in 2009 constant dollars. Government revenues generated through the construction phase of potential IPP projects were estimated at $1.6 billion. IPP projects are expected to have a significant impact on First Nations groups, contribute to provincial energy self-sufficiency, and have little to no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 25 refs., 19 tabs., 24 figs.

117

Evaluation the potential economic impacts of Taiwanese biomass energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Taiwanese rice paddy land set-aside program diverts a substantial land area. Given today's high energy prices and interests in energy security, that set-aside area could be converted to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This study evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of such a policy change using a Taiwanese agricultural sector model. The results show that such a strategy provides increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. These outcomes indicate that the agricultural sector could play a positive role by producing renewable energy. -- Highlights: ? This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of converting set-aside area to produce bioenergy feedstocks. ? Taiwanese agricultural sector model is built and applied to evaluate such impacts. ? The empirical results show that producing bioenergy using set-aside area could provide increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. ? Agricultural sector in Taiwan could play a positive role by producing renewable energy.

118

Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can be applied to any product/processes combination.Bioethanol production was the case-study selected to high light the TESED framework. Two production processes using two different feedstocks, hardwood chips and cassava rhizome,have been analysed.

Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana

2014-01-01

119

The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.  

Science.gov (United States)

As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

O'Malley, Mary P; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B

2013-01-01

120

Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This transportation study assumes that defense high-level waste is stored in three locations (the Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls plants) and may be disposed of in (1) a commercial repository or (2) a defense-only repository, either of which could be located at one of the five candidate sites; also documented is a preliminary analysis of the costs and risks of transporting defense high-level waste from the three storage sites to the five potential candidate repository sites. 17 references, 4 figures, 27 tables

 
 
 
 
121

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model.

Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

1999-08-05

122

The Impact of FDIs Flows on the Nigerien Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Niger, since the 70s has always adopted an approach that makes the IDE a major component of its development plan. It `s so, a series of measures have been taken to make the country more attractive to Foreign direct investment FDI This policy has guaranteed the country a few annual flow between the period 1970 to 2008.The aim of this paper is to try to study the impact of FDI on economic growth in Niger. Observe the literature study on FDI in Niger, however, it is also becoming important to se...

Ousseini Hamadou

2011-01-01

123

Global Wind Energy Market, Industry and Economic Impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the global status of wind energy in order to establish a context for understanding the contemporary wind energy industry. It is discussed wind resources worldwide with the global wind distribution and mains concerns and how wind resources worldwide are spread globally. The world wind energy market outlook is shown; especially emphasis is given on global wind energy market by production side, wind energy converters manufacturers and economic impacts from wind energy industry on economy which it is devoted special attention to the job creation by wind energy industry.

Wagner Sousa de Oliveira

2012-04-01

124

Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

125

Incidence and economic impact of ophthalmological occupational accidents in Greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scope: This article seeks to assess the eco-nomic impact of industrial accidents with ref-erence to the incidence of opthalmological in-dustrial injuries occurring in the Thriacion Plain industrial zone in Greece during the period 1991-2000. Material and Methods: Data provided by 53 industrial units have been collected and classified. During the study period, 2,011 adults and juveniles out of the 15,600 people employed in the area (a 13% aggregate) suffered opthal-mological injuries occurring...

Kyriakos Souliotis; Yannis Tountas; Christina Golna; Michalis Angelou

2009-01-01

126

IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

2012-06-05

127

Impacts of Antifoam Additions and Argon Bubbling on Defense Waste Processing Facility Reduction/Oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe+2/?Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflthan the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

128

Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

Williams, J.L.

1994-05-01

129

Economical impact of orchiectomy for advanced prostate cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english PURPOSE: To demonstrate the economical impact of surgical castration in comparison to the medical castration for patients with advanced prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2001, 32 patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent bilateral sub-capsular orchiectom [...] y at our Hospital. The costs of this procedure were compared to the costs of medical castration with LH-RH analogues. RESULTS: The costs of the surgical procedure were extremely reduced when compared to published data on the medical treatment. Surgical castration did not have any stronger negative impact on the evolution of these patients when compared to medical castration. CONCLUSION: Surgical castration is an efficient and low cost treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

Adriano A. P. de, Paula; Hilton R. S., Piccelli; Nilson P., Pinto; Antonio G., Teles; Antonio G., Franqueiro; Adriano R. L., Maltez; Jose H., Silva.

2003-04-01

130

Economical impact of orchiectomy for advanced prostate cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the economical impact of surgical castration in comparison to the medical castration for patients with advanced prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2001, 32 patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent bilateral sub-capsular orchiectomy at our Hospital. The costs of this procedure were compared to the costs of medical castration with LH-RH analogues. RESULTS: The costs of the surgical procedure were extremely reduced when compared to published data on the medical treatment. Surgical castration did not have any stronger negative impact on the evolution of these patients when compared to medical castration. CONCLUSION: Surgical castration is an efficient and low cost treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

Adriano A. P. de Paula

2003-04-01

131

ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CULTURAL FESTIVALS: THE CASE OF CALABAR CARNIVAL IN NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the economic impacts of the Calabar Carnival Festival in Nigeria. A convenience sample of 464 attendees was used for the study. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was employed in collecting relevant social and economic data from respondents. The result supported the claim that event tourism has positive economic impacts on the host community.

Bassey Benjamin Esu; Vivian Mbaze-Ebock Arrey; Glory Basil; Emmanuel Essien Eyo

2011-01-01

132

ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CULTURAL FESTIVALS: THE CASE OF CALABAR CARNIVAL IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the economic impacts of the Calabar Carnival Festival in Nigeria. A convenience sample of 464 attendees was used for the study. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was employed in collecting relevant social and economic data from respondents. The result supported the claim that event tourism has positive economic impacts on the host community.

Bassey Benjamin Esu

2011-09-01

133

HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

OANA SIMONA HUDEA (CARAMAN

2012-05-01

134

Technical and economic impact of crosswell technology: Progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conoco's Crosswell Reservoir Characterization (CRC) team is using Decision and Risk Analysis (D and RA) to evaluate the potential economic impact of the authors' projects. D and RA can be a useful tool for refining the direction of a project and communicating the value of information in economic terms. Initial studies show that CRC has high potential economic value. Three steps were used to analyze the value of the CRC project. A high-level, industry-wide model was developed to look at the technical, application, and commercialization success of the technology. The team considered an infill drilling decision in shallow shelf carbonates as a detailed case. For that case, fully integrating crosswell information with supporting data (well logs, cores, production information, etc.) leads to a three-fold increase in expected value. The third step, a portfolio analysis of all crosswell applications, was initiated, but not completed. Given the potential broad application of CRC and the value obtained by the one detailed case, the technology is expected to have a very high value

135

Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

2007-06-01

136

Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Severprofessional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

137

Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

138

The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic growth will follow the creation of stable and sizeable RE markets. Indeed, this is a highly attrac

Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

2013-06-15

139

Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President�������¢����������������s commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and greenhouse gas emissions at the global level. In principle, these benefits can be measured as a return on research investments, with appropriate consideration of time lags to research outcomes and attribution to private as well as public expenditure. With appropriate metrics, the same could be true for benefits to public health, environmental quality, and food productivity and security. Federal funding of research leads to the development of human capital that is deployed in a variety of occupations with economic and social impacts. Research also produces information that is used in formal (e.g., regulatory and judicial) and informal (e.g., firm and consumer) decision making processes. In addition to reviewing the range of work (by academics, consultants, and research agencies themselves) that has been done in measuring research outcomes and providing a forum to discuss their methods, this report also considers the different methodologies used across fields of research (e.g., agriculture and energy research) to identifies which are applicable to a range of federal S&T funding.

Olson, S; Merrill, S

2011-08-31

140

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT SECTORIAL EXPENDITURE ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Government expenditures remain the bedrock of Nigeria’s economic growth. Hence the need to criticallyevaluate the impact of expenditures’ some priority sectors on the economic growth. A Cochrane-Orcutt and ECM method was adopted to measure the long run effect of selected macroeconomic variables economic growth. The result shows that expenditure on telecommunication, Defence and security, Education and Health Sector have made positive impact on Nigeria’s economic growth. But transport...

Ebiringa; Oforegbunam Thaddeus; Charles-Anyaogu Nneka B

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The economic impact of stroke in The Netherlands: the €-restore4stroke study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Stroke has a considerable socio-economic impact worldwide and is the leading cause of disabilities in the Western world. Economic studies of stroke focus merely on physical aspects and clinical interventions. To our current knowledge there is no comprehensive economic study investigating the economic impact of stroke including psychological and social aspects. The €-Restore4Stroke project, part of a large comprehensive research programme Restore4Stroke, ...

van Eeden Mitchel; van Heugten Caroline M; Maa, Evers Silvia

2012-01-01

142

Potential impacts of elevated aerosol layers on high energy laser aerial defense engagements  

Science.gov (United States)

This study quantifies the impacts on high energy laser (HEL) air defense performance due to atmospheric effects in the marine boundary layer driven by varying elevated aerosol layers. The simulations are run using several different engagement geometries to more completely show the effects of aerosols. High adaptive optics are applied to reduce the turbulence effects. The atmospheric effects are defined using the worldwide probabilistic climatic database available in the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model. The anticipated effects on HEL propagation performance is assessed at 1.0642 ?m across the world's oceans, mapped on a 1° × 1° grid, and at 573 land sites. The scenarios evaluated are primarily near-surface and horizontal over ranges up to 10000 meters. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer and winter) for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are used. Results indicate profound effects of elevated aerosol layers on HEL engagements as compared to standard scenarios without elevated layers. Also, results suggest changing optical properties to have additional significant effects. HELEEOS includes a fast-calculating, first principles, worldwide surface to 100 km, atmospheric propagation and characterization package. This package enables the creation of profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer transmission, path and background radiance at wavelengths from the ultraviolet to radio frequencies. Physics-based cloud and precipitation characterizations are coupled with a probability of cloud free line of sight (CFLOS) algorithm for air-to-air, air-tosurface, and surface-to-air (or space) look angles. HELEEOS characterizes aerosol environments using the Advanced Navy Aerosol Model (ANAM) or various representations of maritime particulates from the Global Aerosol Dataset (GADS). In the lowest 50 m, HELEEOS defines optical turbulence with the Navy Surface Layer Optical Turbulence (NSLOT) model. HELEEOS was developed under the sponsorship of the High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office.

Fiorino, Steven T.; Shirey, Stephen M.; Via, Michelle F.; Grahn, Daniel J.; Krizo, Matthew J.

2012-06-01

143

Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel and requires the Secretary of Energy to evaluate five potential repository sites. One factor that is to be examined is transportation of radioactive materials to such a repository and whether transportation might be affected by shipments to a defense-only repository, or to one that accepts both defense and commercial waste. In response to this requirement, The Department of Energy has undertaken an evaluation of the cost and risk associated with the potential shipments. Two waste-flow scenarios are considered which are related to the total quantity of defense high-level waste which will be placed in a repository. The low-flow case is based on a total of 6700 canisters being transported from one site, while the high-flow case assumes that a total of 20,000 canisters will be transported from three sites. For the scenarios considered, the estimated shipping costs range from $105 million to $257 million depending upon the mode of transport and the repository location. The total risks associated with shipping defense high-level waste to a repository are estimated to be significantly smaller than predicted for other transportation activities. In addition, the cost of shipping defense high-level waste to a repository does not depend on whether the site is a defense-only or a commercial repository. Therefore, the transportation considerations are not a basis for the selection of one of the two disposal options

144

The firm-level societal and economic impact of private equity in Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES This study addresses the lack of comprehensive research on the economic and societal impact of private equity in Europe and especially in Finland. The thesis has two-fold research objective; (1.) to build a solid understanding on how the societal and economic impact can be assessed in Finland based on existing literature and (2.) to empirically examine what can we say about the firm-level societal and economic impact of the investing activities of the members of Finnis...

Ma?nnisto?, Lasse

2009-01-01

145

77 FR 42271 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, 1401 Constitution Avenue...Office of Europe, Middle East, and Africa, 2201 C...Industries and Economic Security, Bureau of...

2012-07-18

146

77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, 1401 Constitution Avenue...Office of Europe, Middle East, and Africa, 2201 C...Industries and Economic Security, Bureau of...

2012-03-20

147

Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

148

China and Brazil: Economic Impacts of a Growing Relationship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyses the economic impacts of China’s re-emergence on Brazil, looking at both the direct effects of China on Brazil in terms of bilateral trade and investment flows and the indirect effects through increased competition in export markets for manufactured goods and higher world prices for primary commodities. Despite a surge in Chinese FDI in Brazil in 2010, the main driver of bilateral relations is trade. While bilateral trade has grown rapidly, the pattern that has emerged has given rise to concern because Brazil’s exports are concentrated in a small number of primary products while imports from China are almost entirely of manufactured goods that are becoming more technologically sophisticated over time. Brazil has benefitted in the short term from the high prices of primary commodities (partly caused by growing Chinese demand, but has lost export markets to China in manufactures, contributing to the “primarization” of the country’s export basket.

Rhys Jenkins

2012-01-01

149

Economic impact of biofouling on a naval surface ship.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the overall economic impact of hull fouling on a mid-sized naval surface ship (Arleigh Burke-class destroyer DDG-51) has been analyzed. A range of costs associated with hull fouling was examined, including expenditures for fuel, hull coatings, hull coating application and removal, and hull cleaning. The results indicate that the primary cost associated with fouling is due to increased fuel consumption attributable to increased frictional drag. The costs related to hull cleaning and painting are much lower than the fuel costs. The overall cost associated with hull fouling for the Navy's present coating, cleaning, and fouling level is estimated to be $56M per year for the entire DDG-51 class or $1B over 15 years. The results of this study provide guidance as to the amount of money that can be reasonably spent for research, development, acquisition, and implementation of new technologies or management strategies to combat hull fouling. PMID:21161774

Schultz, M P; Bendick, J A; Holm, E R; Hertel, W M

2011-01-01

150

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

SHIVANI M. RAI

2013-11-01

151

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TSUNAMI ON TAMIL NADU – AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper examine to the Indian Ocean Tsunami on 26 December 2004 has left coastal lands flattened and billions of dollars worth infrastructure, economic assets and materials were devastated. It had severe impacts on coastal fishing communities in Tamil Nadu destroying houses, boats, fishing gear, agricultural land and etc. The livelihood security of lakhs of costal rural folk who are directly dependent on marine fisheries has been shattered by destruction of their dwelling and more importantly their only means of earnings, namely, the craft and gear. The Andaman & Nicobar islands were the worst affected and among the coastal areas. Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry suffered the worst damage, some parts of Kerala and south Andhra Pradesh also experienced loss of human lives and property in India

T. Sherley Gnana Sathiya

2014-04-01

152

Technical and economic impacts of active management on distribution network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the deregulation of energy market and the appeal for environment protection, more and more distributed generation (DG) is embedded in the distribution network. However the approach of connecting DG in most cases is based on a so-called ''fit and forget'' policy and the capacity of DG is limited rigidly by distribution network operator (DNO) to avoid the negative effects of high level penetration. Therefore active management (AM) is put forward as an effective method to network reinforcement for the connection and operation of DG. In this paper, the concept and principle of AM are introduced, and several indices are proposed to evaluate both technical and economic impacts of AM on distribution network with DG. To simplify the simulation fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) algorithm is introduced. The test results on a sample system represent that AM will lead to decrease of power generation of DG, but it can reduce energy losses and improve voltage profile effectively. Furthermore, AM will take great economic incentives to DG developer as well as DNO with reasonable policy. (author)

153

Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable.

154

The economic impact of the 2003 cricket world cup on Potchefstroom| / C. du Plessis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It was the purpose of this study to determine the economic benefits of the 2003 Cricket World Cup for the host community, through analysing the spending patterns of local residents, non-residents and local businesses. In the context of sport event tourism, economic impact is defined as the net economic change in a host community that results from spending attributed to a sport event or facility. The purpose of an economic analysis is to measure the economic benefits that accrue...

Du Plessis, Cornelia

2004-01-01

155

Understanding and Reducing the Impact of Defensiveness on Management Learning: Some Lessons from Neuroscience  

Science.gov (United States)

The neurosciences have expanded our understanding of the role of the "old" brain in generating defensive reactions to threat. Because the learning and practice of management skills pose various forms of threat to would-be practitioners, the question of how individuals respond to threat and how this affects their ability to learn has also…

Holmer, Leanna L.

2014-01-01

156

Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

1978-05-01

157

Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

158

Temperature impacts on economic growth warrant stringent mitigation policy  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated assessment models compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained gross domestic product (GDP) growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth rates in the DICE model through two pathways, total factor productivity growth and capital depreciation. This damage specification, even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, substantially slows GDP growth in poor regions but has more modest effects in rich countries. Optimal climate policy in this model stabilizes global temperature change below 2 °C by eliminating emissions in the near future and implies a social cost of carbon several times larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of climate change impacts on economic growth, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages and GDP are three critical uncertainties requiring further research. In particular, optimal mitigation rates are much lower if countries become less sensitive to climate change impacts as they develop, making this a major source of uncertainty and an important subject for future research.

Moore, Frances C.; Diaz, Delavane B.

2015-02-01

159

Impact of Economic Reform on the Nigerian Telecommunications Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the early days of nationalization, it seemed axiomatic that price and quality standards could be better managed by State Owned Enterprises (SOE. Subsequent experience, however demonstrates that public ownership and control are different as the challenges of imposing effective public interests over nationalized enterprise had proved intractable. This study tests the causal and reciprocal relationships between investment in telecommunications and GDP during the transitional period between 1985 an 2003 in addition to the impact of the reforms on the performance of the firms in the telecommunications sector. The research reveals strong and positive relationship between economic reform and firms’ revenue and profit. The regression analysis shows that the telecommunications sector is statistically insignificant in explaining the GDP. Also, the impact of investment in telecommunications was found to be an insignificant predictor of GDP and vice versa even when the investment was lagged by one year. This paper recommends the provision of supporting infrastructure including electricity and the building of public data networks (PDNs in concert with private telecommunications operators. The derailed privatisation of NITEL should also be concluded. Finally, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC should address the issue of poor quality of service of the telecommunications service providers.

Onakoya Adegbemi Babatunde

2013-05-01

160

The Impacts of Uranium and Thorium on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) vitrifies high level liquid waste (HLLW) into borosilicate glass for stabilization and permanent disposal. The viscosity of the borosilicate glass melt as a function of temperature is the single most important variable affecting the melt rate and pour ability of the glass. The viscosity determines the rate of melting of the raw feed, the rate of glass bubble release (foaming and fining), the rate of homogenization, the adequacy of heat transfer, the devitrification rate, and thus, the quality (in terms of glass homogeneity) of the final glass product. If the viscosity is too low, excessive convection currents can occur during melting, increasing corrosion/erosion of the melter materials of construction (refractory and electrodes) and making control of the melter more difficult. The lowest glass viscosities allowed in the DWPF melter have, therefore, been determined to be approximately 20 poise. DWPF glasses must pour continuously into a large steel canister for ultimate storage in a geologic repository, but glasses with a viscosity greater than or equal to 500 poise do not readily pour. Moreover, too high a viscosity can reduce product quality by causing voids in the final glass. A conservative range of 20-110 poise at a melt temperature, Tmelt or Tm, of 1150 degrees C was, therefore, established for DWPF production. In summary, a uranium term is not needed in the DWPF viscosity model as lon needed in the DWPF viscosity model as long as the U3O8 concentrations of the glasses being melted are less than or equal to 5.76 wt percent, the maximum value examined in this study. The fact that a U-plus-6 term is not needed in the DWPF viscosity model is consistent with the fact that U-plus-6 has four bridging and two non-bridging oxygen bonds. Therefore, the impact of the number of bridging and non-bridging oxygens is approximately equal at U3O8 concentrations of less than or equal to 5.76 wt percent. Uranium may not have an impact at higher U3O8 concentrations but this would have to be demonstrated since the effects of the 0.66:0.33 BO to NBO ratio may become more significant as the U3O8 content increases. While U-plus-6 appears to have little to no impact on glass viscosity, this may or may not be true for U-plus-4 and U-plus-5 in glass since these species were not examined in this study. This is of especial note since the DWPF is currently operating at a REDOX target of 0.2 where 45 percent of the uranium is U-plus-6, 45 percent is U-plus-5, and 10 percent is U-plus-4. An additional 26 glasses for which 98 viscosity-temperature measurements were available indicate disparate roles for ThO2 depending on the U3O8 concentration and the Al2O3 concentration of the glasses measured. For the data generated on three DWPF glasses at SRNL where the ThO2 content and U3O8 content were each in the 2.5-3.0 wt percent range, the presence of ThO2 made the melts more fluid. This is consistent with what is known from the literature about the coordination chemistry of Th-plus-4 in glass, e.g. that it may act as a weak network modifier. However, twenty two West Valley mixed uranium-thorium glasses with U3O8 approximately 0.6-0.7 wt percent and ThO2 of 3.5-3.6 wt percent, demonstrate a trend toward more polymerized melts (higher viscosities). The West Valley glasses are much higher in Al2O3 than the glasses measured at SRNL although they are in the range of the DWPF viscosity model. This indicates that there may be a synergistic interaction between ThO2, U3O8, and Al2O3 that needs further investigation

 
 
 
 
161

Understanding the impact of the economic crisis on child and maternal health among the poor: Opportunities for South Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic crisis hit many countries in 2007 and the effects are still being felt, especially in poorer developing nations. Much of the debate surrounding the economic crisis and its impacts has focused on the financial and economic aspects - import/export impacts, economic growth losses, labor force cutbacks, and fiscal imbalances. The social impact, especially on poor and vulnerable groups, has received less mention. Yet, if countries are to address the overall impacts of the economic cri...

Abdul Cader, Azra; Perera, Lakwimashi

2011-01-01

162

Agricultural Insurance In Nigeria And The Economic Impact: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural production faces myriad of risks. Nevertheless, two major risks are of concern to the agricultural sector- price risk caused by potential volatility in prices and production risk resulting from uncertainty about the levels of production that primary producers can achieve from their current activities. It is likely that these major risks will increase in the future – price risk due to liberalization of trade and production risk caused by the effect s of climate change. Agricultural risks not only affect farmers, they also affect the whole agribusiness value chain. Each of the participants along the supply chain, from the Government, Financial Institutions, suppliers of inputs, the distributor, the trader, the processor and the end consumers, are subject to these risks. Agricultural investments unfortunately are among the most risky economic ventures one can embark upon, the absolute dependence on unpredictable weather conditions, like storm, flood, drought and other natural hazards make income from crop products and agricultural products like livestock poultry and dairies to be very unstable. Agricultural Insurance policies serve as securities for banks as indemnification for financial losses suffered by farmers and those in the agricultural value chain resulting from damages to their products, and also provides funds for servicing such loans. This paper is concerned exclusively with the role of agricultural insurance in the agribusiness and in the development of the economy. It gives an introduction and a review of the agricultural sector that led to the agricultural insurance decree in 1993. The paper describes the various products available under the agricultural insurance while a section was devoted to analyzing the economic impact of agriculture Insurance on the economy, then conclusion and recommendations.

Festus M. Epetimehin

2011-10-01

163

The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

Falconer, John

2007-01-01

164

Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

Tegen, S.

2014-11-01

165

Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Small Wind: JEDI Model in the Works (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation covers the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in economic impact analysis for wind power Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, JEDI results, small wind JEDI specifics, and a request for information to complete the model.

Tegen, S.

2012-06-01

166

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.

2014-01-01

167

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

2014-01-01

168

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT SECTORIAL EXPENDITURE ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Government expenditures remain the bedrock of Nigeria’s economic growth. Hence the need to criticallyevaluate the impact of expenditures’ some priority sectors on the economic growth. A Cochrane-Orcutt and ECM method was adopted to measure the long run effect of selected macroeconomic variables economic growth. The result shows that expenditure on telecommunication, Defence and security, Education and Health Sector have made positive impact on Nigeria’s economic growth. But transportation and agricultural expenditures have impacted negatively in the economic growth in Nigeria. The conclusion therefore is that the level of government expenditures for transportation and agricultural development is still not adequate to build the much need capacity in the sectors to impact positively to economic growth

Ebiringa

2012-11-01

169

A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II are widely used for the economic impact assessments. The current paper will review economic impact studies in the c conference - MICE tourism related events and then discusses the issues related to the I-O model and general equilibrium models framework

Kumar J.

2014-01-01

170

THE IMPACT OF THE FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE SLOVENSKE ŽELEZNICE D.O.O.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diploma thesis deals with analysis of the impact of financial and economic crisis on Slovenske železnice d.o.o. business. Phenomenom of financial and economic ceisis in the abroad and in Slovenia are defined in the theoretical part. Impacts of financial and economic crisis on Slonenske železnice business in years 2007-2010 are exposed too.The foundation of empirical part of doploma is detailes anaysis of the three principal business units: Fregiht transport, Passanger traffic and Infras...

Konatar, Andreja

2013-01-01

171

The Economic Impact on the Dominican Republic of Baseball Player Exports to the USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper pulls together into one practical model two strands of economic theory to assess the impact of baseball player exports on the aggregate economic performance of the Dominican Republic. On one hand, foreign trade theory predicts a strong correlation between a country’s exports and economic performance measured as per capita income. On the other hand, microeconomic research finds a positive, but statistically insignificant, impact of sports activities on local economies....

Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

2006-01-01

172

The Impact of Economic Sanctions in the 1990s  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The end of the Cold War served as a strating point for a true proliferation in the use of economic sanctions as an instrument of foreign policy. Diplomacy is increasingly resorting to economic sanctions [...

Bergeijk, P. A. G.

1995-01-01

173

Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)

Duarte, Carlos Henrique; Schaeffer, Roberto [Energy Planning Program - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, CT, C-211, Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)

2010-10-15

174

Economic impact of fuel properties on turbine powered business aircraft  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal objective was to estimate the economic impact on the turbine-powered business aviation fleet of potential changes in the composition and properties of aviation fuel. Secondary objectives include estimation of the sensitivity of costs to specific fuel properties, and an assessment of the directions in which further research should be directed. The study was based on the published characteristics of typical and specific modern aircraft in three classes; heavy jet, light jet, and turboprop. Missions of these aircraft were simulated by computer methods for each aircraft for several range and payload combinations, and assumed atmospheric temperatures ranging from nominal to extremely cold. Five fuels were selected for comparison with the reference fuel, nominal Jet A. An overview of the data, the mathematic models, the data reduction and analysis procedure, and the results of the study are given. The direct operating costs of the study fuels are compared with that of the reference fuel in the 1990 time-frame, and the anticipated fleet costs and fuel break-even costs are estimated.

Powell, F. D.

1984-01-01

175

Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

N. Sudarsan

2013-02-01

176

Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system.

177

The impact of the global economic crisis on non-oil operations of ports in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is generally accepted that the recent economic crisis of 2007-2010 has caused widespread economic recession in different countries. Since the ports and coastal regions are of great importance to economic infrastructure, this study examined the possible impact resulting from such a global economic crisis on the ports in Iran. First, the annual number of berthing vessels of gross tonnage over a thousand tons as well as loading and unloading of non-oil cargoes and containers were extracted fr...

Ahmadzadeh Mashinchi, Sina

2010-01-01

178

Impact of Innovation on Economic Growth in the Economic Modeling on the Example of Special Economic Zones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This publication is dedicated to innovative investment role of innovation in the modeling of economic growth The publication is entered major economic models containing in itself a solu- tion comparable to the intellectual capital and technological investments in the perspective of the last hundred years, with particular emphasis on micro-economic, such as special economic zones On the basis of the model P Warr, estimating the efficiency of the SEZ, based on the latest conc...

Pastusiak, Rados?aw

2012-01-01

179

Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact  

Science.gov (United States)

Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

Baghiryan, M.

180

Selective chemical inhibition of agr quorum sensing in Staphylococcus aureus promotes host defense with minimal impact on resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial signaling systems are prime drug targets for combating the global health threat of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections including those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is the primary cause of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and the quorum sensing operon agr is causally associated with these. Whether efficacious chemical inhibitors of agr signaling can be developed that promote host defense against SSTIs while sparing the normal microbiota of the skin is unknown. In a high throughput screen, we identified a small molecule inhibitor (SMI), savirin (S. aureus virulence inhibitor) that disrupted agr-mediated quorum sensing in this pathogen but not in the important skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mechanistic studies employing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and a novel AgrA activation reporter strain revealed the transcriptional regulator AgrA as the target of inhibition within the pathogen, preventing virulence gene upregulation. Consistent with its minimal impact on exponential phase growth, including skin microbiota members, savirin did not provoke stress responses or membrane dysfunction induced by conventional antibiotics as determined by transcriptional profiling and membrane potential and integrity studies. Importantly, savirin was efficacious in two murine skin infection models, abating tissue injury and selectively promoting clearance of agr+ but not ?agr bacteria when administered at the time of infection or delayed until maximal abscess development. The mechanism of enhanced host defense involved in part enhanced intracellular killing of agr+ but not ?agr in macrophages and by low pH. Notably, resistance or tolerance to savirin inhibition of agr was not observed after multiple passages either in vivo or in vitro where under the same conditions resistance to growth inhibition was induced after passage with conventional antibiotics. Therefore, chemical inhibitors can selectively target AgrA in S. aureus to promote host defense while sparing agr signaling in S. epidermidis and limiting resistance development. PMID:24945495

Sully, Erin K; Malachowa, Natalia; Elmore, Bradley O; Alexander, Susan M; Femling, Jon K; Gray, Brian M; DeLeo, Frank R; Otto, Michael; Cheung, Ambrose L; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry A; Horswill, Alexander R; Hall, Pamela R; Gresham, Hattie D

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

The impact of the British model on economic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

Simon György Jr.

2007-01-01

182

Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production o [...] f hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group.

Karina, Stucken; Robin, Koch; Tal, Dagan.

183

Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), crop management techniques are applied to stimulate reproductive development in order to obtain high seed yields. These include a low plant density, manipulation of canopy size to avoid lodging and shading of fruiting organs, synchronization of flowering with pollinating insects as well as controlling pests. High seed yield is correlated to inflorescence density and seed yield per inflorescence, traits which should be selected for in breeding populations as moderate to high heritability has been found. However, seed yield is a genetically complex trait and in the perennial, insect-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve the economic impacts of modern plant breeding for a better livelihood and environment.

Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette

2015-01-01

184

Off-shoring’s Impact on Economic Growth of Developing Countries in Central and Eastern Europe.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the impact of the increased off-shoring in business and manufacturing to Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Since the off-shoring process is a relatively new activity, there is no precise definition of how to measure its direct impact on a country’s economy. Thus the study is dedicated to identify the main economic factors associated with off-shoring and to examine their impact on the economic growth. The study has used a dataset on economic characteristics for 9 CEE ...

Buchenko, Olga

2011-01-01

185

Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose

186

State Investment in Universities: Rethinking the Impact on Economic Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Does investing taxpayer money in higher education lead to major payoffs in economic growth? State legislators and policy makers say yes. They routinely advocate massive appropriations for university education and research, even in poor economic times, on the grounds that taxpayers will be rewarded many times over. The investment of federal funds…

Schalin, Jay

2010-01-01

187

The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

Hossein Askari

2012-09-01

188

State and local economic impacts from wind energy projects: Texas case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to estimate economic impacts from 1398 MW of wind power development in four counties in west Texas. Project-specific impacts are estimated at the local level (i.e., within a 100-mile radius around the wind farms) and at the state level. The primary economic policy question addressed is how investment in wind energy affects the state and local communities where the wind farms are built. During the four-year construction phase approximately 4100 FTE (full time equivalents) jobs were supported with turbine and supply chain impacts accounting for 58% of all jobs generated. Total lifetime economic activity to the state from the projects equated to more than $1.8 billion, or $1.3 million per MW of installed capacity. The total economic activity to the local communities was also substantial, equating to nearly $730 million over the assumed 20-year life cycle of the farms, or $0.52 million per MW of installed capacity. Given the current level of impacts observed, and the potential for increased impacts via greater utilization of instate manufacturing capacity and the development of trained wind industry specific laborers, Texas appears to be well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development. - Highlights: ? We use the JEDI model to assess economic impacts from wind development in west Texas. ? Total lifetime economic impact from 1398 MW wind equated to more than $1.8 billion. equated to more than $1.8 billion. ? Texas is well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development.

189

The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998; ANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorpormerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico-FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The impact of SNL activities on Central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the Central New Mexico Region includes: Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance Counties (Figure 1). Total impact represents both direct and indirect resending by business, including induced effects (resending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico

190

Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

191

Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

2013-08-01

192

local people perceptions toward social,economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Kermanshah (Iran)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines local people perceptions about social, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in the cultural heritage destination of Kermanshah in Iran. The study focused on residents in the vicinity of popular heritage attraction...

mostafa mohammadi

2010-01-01

193

Impacts of nuclear and hydroelectric great projects: economical, technological, environmental and social aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some studies about the Great Impacts of Energy Sources, mainly nuclear power plant and hydroelectric power plant, in Brazil are presented. The technological, economical, social and environmental aspects are described

194

The impact of the economic environment on financial reports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Financial reporting represents a current issue of economic environment, given globalization and the recent economic crisis. Accounting -as profession - along with the investors and state institutions have started a comprehensive project of accounting convergence designed to improve the comparability of accounting information released by financial statements synthesis. The success of the project can only be provided by taking into account several constraints imposed by the economic environment, and not only. Therefore, attention must be paid to the voice of capital markets and large multinational corporations regarding the future development of financial reporting.

Valentin Burc?

2011-06-01

195

Cloud computing and prospective business and economic impacts in developing country: A case study of Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cloud computing model is a modern concept of computation that provides a number of benefits for its adopters. This online computing model has been widely used in the western world and accepted to have some business and economic impacts. This paper provides some basic knowledge about cloud computing along with its economic benefits. The author proposes that there is an endogenous relationship between the cloud computing and each of the business and economic variables, namely output, employ...

Keesookpuna, Chutipong; Mitomob, Hitoshi

2011-01-01

196

Climate Change and Potential Economic Impacts in Ireland: The Case for Adaptation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis explores a number of key economic impacts associated with climate change in Ireland. It begins by examining the idea of climate change as a so called “wicked problem”, and in turn investigates uncertainty, the importance of ethics in economic valuation, and the complexities associated with creating economic assessments, formulating policy and carrying out appropriate action. Drawing on sustainability science the terms resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity are also di...

Flood, Stephen

2012-01-01

197

Economic impact analysis of terrorism events: Recent methodological advances and findings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

National security is a basic responsibility of national governments, but it is also intangible. What can economic analysis contribute? Benefit-cost analysis has rarely been applied because of the ambiguous and commons nature of the benefits. Our group at the University of Southern California's Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism (CREATE) has worked to elaborate and apply economic impact analysis to describe the expected losses from various hypothetical terrorist attacks. Our in...

Gordon, Peter; Moore, James E.; Richardson, Harry W.

2008-01-01

198

Estimating the economic value to societies of the impact of health research: a critical review.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Estimating the economic value to societies of health research is a complex but essential step in establishing and justifying appropriate levels of investment in research. The practical difficulties encountered include: identifying and valuing the relevant research inputs (when many pieces of research may contribute to a clinical advance); accurately ascribing the impact of the research; and appropriately valuing the attributed economic impact. In this review, relevant studies identified from ...

Buxton, Martin; Hanney, Steve; Jones, Teri

2004-01-01

199

Impact of Economic Crisis on Changes in Motivation of Employees in Woodworking Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with the motivation of employees of a woodworking enterprise and analyses the level of individual motivation before (2004) and after the economic crisis and its effects in Slovakia (2012). The aim of the paper is to identify the most important motivation factors for employees and to consider the impact of financial crisis on the change in perception of individual motivation factors and their economic and social impact on employees. A questionnaire, as a method of inquiry, was ...

Miloš Hitka; Alexandra Hajduková; Žaneta Balážová

2014-01-01

200

Economic impacts of climate change on tuna fisheries in Fiji islands and Kiribati  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the possible economic consequences of a change in the tuna fisheries in the Pacific Ocean resulting from climate change. On the background of Lehodey's (2000) study of potential changes in the tuna fisheries, we survey possible economic impacts in terms of quantities and values and give examples of macroeconomic impacts. The two main effects of climate change on tuna fishing are likely to be a decline in the total stock and a migration of the stock westwards. This will le...

Aaheim, Asbjørn; Sygna, Linda

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Lag Structure of the Impact of Business Ownership on Economic Performance in OECD Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the impact of changes in the number of business owners on three measures of economic performance, viz. employment growth, GDP growth and labor productivity growth. Particular attention is devoted to the lag structure. The analysis is performed at the country level for 21 OECD countries. Our results confirm earlier evidence on three stages in the impact of entry on economic performance: an initial direct positive effect, followed by a negative effect due to exiting capa...

Carree, M. A.; Thurik, A. R.

2006-01-01

202

The impact of economic crises on social inequalities in health: what do we know so far?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since 2008, Western countries are going through a deep economic crisis whose health impacts seem to be fundamentally counter-cyclical: when economic conditions worsen, so does health, and mortality tends to rise. While a growing number of studies have presented evidence on the effect of crises on the average population health, a largely neglected aspect of research is the impact of crises and the related political responses on social inequalities in health, even if the negative consequences o...

Bacigalupe, Amaia; Escolar-pujolar, Antonio

2014-01-01

203

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-06-01

204

The Impact of Short-Term Economic Fluctuations on Kindergarten Enrollment  

Science.gov (United States)

For some 5-year-olds, delayed kindergarten enrollment may result in long-term academic benefits. Although waiting an additional year allows for further development prior to the start of formal education, the economic costs of the next best alternatives can be significant. This study examines the impact of short-term economic fluctuations on a…

Herman, Douglas A.

2010-01-01

205

Progressive decommissioning of French nuclear power plants: economic and geopolitical impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyzes the french energy safety in the next twenty years. The first part is devoted to the electric production park structure in 2020, with a presentation of the electric power economy, the carbon cost introduction and the economic choices in the deregulation system. The second part discusses the economical and geopolitical impacts of a gas-nuclear substitution. (A.L.B.)

206

Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

Goldberg, M.

2013-12-31

207

The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for fa...

Burke, T. R.

1988-01-01

208

he Impact of Economic Paradoxes on the Pharmaceutical Market Evolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The population’s health represents the most important economic resource in a society. The social-economic role of heath protection is determined by the proper allocation of public financial resources but also partially, by the allocation of the populations own income. The general law of demand can be applied to the drugdemand. The well-knowneconomic paradoxes R. Giffen, T. Veblen and A. Rugina canbefound on the pharmaceuticalmarket and determine the elasticity of drug demand. The quantity...

Margaritti, Doina; Angela-Eliza Micu

2012-01-01

209

Technical Report on the Impact of MgO on Defense Waste Processing Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect(s) of removing MgO from DWPF frits to assess the impact on liquidus temperature and the durability of the glass product. Removal of MgO from the frit was hypothesized to lead to a decrease in liquidus temperature and thereby allow increased waste loading

210

The Impact of High-Fat Diet on Metabolism and Immune Defense in Small Intestine Mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved procedures for sample preparation and proteomic data analysis allowed us to identify 7700 different proteins in mouse small intestinal mucosa and calculate the concentrations of >5000 proteins. We compared protein concentrations of small intestinal mucosa from mice that were fed for two months with normal diet (ND) containing 34.4% carbohydrates, 19.6% protein, and 3.3% fat or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 25.3% carbohydrates, 24.1% protein, and 34.6% fat. Eleven percent of the quantified proteins were significantly different between ND and HFD. After HFD, we observed an elevation of proteins involved in protein synthesis, protein N-glycosylation, and vesicle trafficking. Proteins engaged in fatty acid absorption, fatty acid ?-oxidation, and steroid metabolism were also increased. Enzymes of glycolysis and pentose phosphate cycle were decreased, whereas proteins of the respiratory chain and of ATP synthase were increased. The protein concentrations of various nutrient transporters located in the enterocyte plasma membrane including the Na(+)-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1, the passive glucose transporter GLUT2, and the H(+)-peptide cotransporter PEPT1 were decreased. The concentration of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which turned out to be the most strongly expressed enterocyte transporter, was also decreased. HFD also induced concentration changes of drug transporters and of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, which suggests effects of HFD on pharmacokinetics and toxicities. Finally, we observed down-regulation of antibody subunits and of components of the major histocompatibility complex II that may reflect impaired immune defense and immune tolerance in HFD. Our work shows dramatic changes in functional proteins of small intestine mucosa upon excessive fat consumption. PMID:25285821

Wi?niewski, Jacek R; Friedrich, Alexandra; Keller, Thorsten; Mann, Matthias; Koepsell, Hermann

2014-10-23

211

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives th...

Susanti Linuwih; Setiawan Setiawan; Dwiatmono A. W Dwiatmono A. W; Wiryadi Wiryadi

2010-01-01

212

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives the largest contribution to GRDP in Province of Archipelago of Riau. This can be understood that the contribution is more than 72.0% not only based on GRDP at current prices, but also based on GRDP at constant prices. Economic growth rate in regions in Province of Archipelago of Riau is higher than national economic growth rate. The model fits well because the coefficient of determination R2 is more than 85%. There are only 3 worse models, i.e. based on building construction in Batam (with R2= 59.6%, in Tanjungpinang (with R2=74.0%, and based on transportation and communication in Tanjungpinang (with R2=37.1%.

Susanti Linuwih

2010-08-01

213

Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

2012-12-01

214

The Impact of Economic Freedom on Per Capita Real GDP: A Study of OECD Nation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study of the impact of economic freedom on per capita real GDP among OECD nations over the 2003-2006 period, with each OECD nation during this time frame being treated as a de facto “economic region” within the OECD, finds strong initial support for the hypothesis proffered here that the higher the degree of economic freedom, the higher the level of economic activity and hence the higher the per capita real GDP level. In particular, the per capita real GDP level in each of the 30 nat...

Cebula, Richard; Clark, J. R.; Mixon, Franklin

2012-01-01

215

THE IMPACT OF PROPERTY RIGHTS FREEDOM ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE OECD NATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study empirically investigates of the impact on per capita real economic growth of property rights freedom. After controlling for nominal long term interest rates, net exports, a measure of political stability, and other factors, panel least squares as well as panel two stage least squares estimations using a four-year panel data set for the OECD nations as a group reveal that higher levels of property rights freedom lead to an increased rate of per capita real economic growth. Furthermore, it is found that whereas higher nominal long term interest rates lead to diminished economic growth net export growth and greater political stability enhance economic growth

Richard J. Cebula

2011-02-01

216

The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Sudan for the period 1982-2009 by using a simultaneous equation model that links human capital i.e. school attainment; and investment in education and health to economic growth, total productivity, foreign direct investment, and human development index. Based on three-stage least squares technique, the empirical results of the paper show that quality of the education has a determinant role in the economic growth; health quality factor has a positive impact on economic growth as expected and total factor productivity which mainly represents the state of technology has adverse effect on economic growth and human development due to the obsolete and old fashion technology.

Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi

2013-06-01

217

he Impact of Economic Paradoxes on the Pharmaceutical Market Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The population’s health represents the most important economic resource in a society. The social-economic role of heath protection is determined by the proper allocation of public financial resources but also partially, by the allocation of the populations own income. The general law of demand can be applied to the drugdemand. The well-knowneconomic paradoxes R. Giffen, T. Veblen and A. Rugina canbefound on the pharmaceuticalmarket and determine the elasticity of drug demand. The quantity of drugs needed to assure the populations health presents insignificant modifications to the price fluctuations, to the populations’ income, the resources allocated by the state and by each patient.

Doina MARGARITTI

2012-11-01

218

Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

219

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financial and cost accounting methods to reflect efforts of organizations towards sustainability and to provide management with information needed to make sustainable business decisions have been broadly recognized. Information on environmental performance of organizations might be available to some extent, but, decision-makers of internal company, as well as those in public authorities, are seldom able to link environmental information to economic variables and are crucially lacking environmental cost information. As a consequence, decision makers fail to recognize the economic value of natural resources as assets, and the business and financial value of good environmental performance. Beyond “goodwill” initiatives, a few market-based incentives exist to integrate environmental concerns in decision-making. This paper gives an overview of the approaches of environmental management accounting and we analyze environmental cost in condition by actual economic crisis.

Sorin BRICIU

2010-01-01

220

REFLECTIONS ABOUT SOCIO-ECONOMIC CORN CROP IMPACT IN SINALOA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Sinaloa farmers have many problems to produce “white corn” Maize, due to the Federal Government Politics. Maize is the principal food for Mexicans people, so this state has the highest production levels, moreover the corn demand is one million ton annually, its use to produce ethanol. Farmers are not convince to produce “yellow corn”, because the incentives economic support are not available.

Leobardo Gerardo-Montoya; Adolfo Dagoberto Armenta-Bojorquez

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The economic impact of telecommunications diffusion on UK productivity growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure competition, investment and productivity. Using econometric modelling and input-output economics, the analysis examines and measures the extent to which telecommunications has contributed to national and sectoral productivity performance. The main findings from this paper suggests that most industries have benefited from the incorporation of advances of telecommunications technology, which might have, amongst o...

Correa, Lisa

2003-01-01

222

Economic perspectives on the impact of climate variability and change: A summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is presented of a collection of papers on the economic methodologies applicable to studies of the impact of global climate variability and change. The research was sponsored by the Canadian Climate program and was conducted as part of a project investigating the potential impacts on various sectors of the Canadian economy of climate warming due to the greenhouse effect. Topics of the papers include microeconomic analysis, benefit/cost analysis, input-output analysis, policy options regarding water levels in the Great Lakes, the scenario approach to assessing socio-economic sensitivities to climate change in the agri-food sector, and analysis of weather impacts. Several analytical tools are seen to be readily applicable to economic analyses of the effects of climate change, and issues of future water supply and demand are seen as central to climate impact assessment, and of particular concern to Canada

223

Policy instruments to limit negative environmental impacts from increased international transport: An economic perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transport activities have adverse environmental and health impacts, of which local and regional air pollution, climate change, and noise impacts are the most important. This paper is a non-comprehensive overview of existing and potential policies to deal with these negative impacts, with a focus on international transport. We define international transport as those transport activities that are mainly derived from the globalization of economic activity, not as cross-border transport flows in ...

Dender, Kurt; Crist, Philippe

2009-01-01

224

Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

2014-08-01

225

The Impact of Membrane Lipid Composition on Macrophage Activation in the Immune Defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage membrane lipid composition on gene expression and cytokine synthesis thereby highlighting signal transduction processes, macrophage activation as well as macrophage defense mechanisms. Using RAW264.7 macrophages as a model system, we identified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA of both the n-3 and the n-6 family to down-regulate the synthesis of: (i the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?; (ii the co-stimulatory molecule CD86; as well as (iii the antimicrobial polypeptide lysozyme. The action of the fatty acids partially depended on the activation status of the macrophages. It is particularly important to note that the anti-inflammatory action of the PUFA could also be seen in case of infection of RAW264.7 with viable microorganisms of the genera R. equi and P. aeruginosa. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that PUFA from both the n-3 and the n-6 family down-regulate inflammation processes in context of chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens.

Julia Schumann

2011-11-01

226

The Impact of Membrane Lipid Composition on Macrophage Activation in the Immune Defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage membrane lipid composition on gene expression and cytokine synthesis thereby highlighting signal transduction processes, macrophage activation as well as macrophage defense mechanisms. Using RAW264.7 macrophages as a model system, we identified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of both the n-3 and the n-6 family to down-regulate the synthesis of: (i) the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?; (ii) the co-stimulatory molecule CD86; as well as (iii) the antimicrobial polypeptide lysozyme. The action of the fatty acids partially depended on the activation status of the macrophages. It is particularly important to note that the anti-inflammatory action of the PUFA could also be seen in case of infection of RAW264.7 with viable microorganisms of the genera R. equi and P. aeruginosa. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that PUFA from both the n-3 and the n-6 family down-regulate inflammation processes in context of chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens. PMID:22174614

Schoeniger, Axel; Adolph, Stephanie; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Schumann, Julia

2011-01-01

227

Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenuesto $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs

228

ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OPERATING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed the need to reform international financial institutions and new global financial architecture. Changes in their structure and operation should lead to global economic stability. Members of the Euro zone are faced with a new attitude towards the international financial institutions, particularly the International Monetary Fund. Proclaimed missions of International Monetary Fund and World Bank clearly differ in theory, but with the passage of time their activities have become increasingly intertwined.

Slobodan Cerovic

2013-06-01

229

Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

230

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financ...

Briciu, Sorin; Betianu, Leontina

2010-01-01

231

The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South Africa's unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, [...] the question therefore is how to make best use of the country's available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water shortages, a condition exacerbated by climate change and the presence of invasive alien plant species. In this paper we address the question of sectoral water allocation by applying a macro-economic comparative static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model using an integrated database comprising South Africa's Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and sectoral water use balances. We refer to AsgiSA, the South African Government's Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa, and conclude that introducing the proposed programmes in a business-as-usual and water-intensive manner will strengthen the current growth in the demand for water. This will bring forward, or accelerate, the need for introducing water rationing among sectors. The importance of this conclusion cannot be emphasised enough. Water is essential, and recognised in as much in the preamble to the National Water Act of 1998, with regards to livelihoods, health and from a socio-economic development perspective since there are no substitutes for it. While water rationing is imminent, the reality thereof has not yet led to a rethink of macro-economic policies. This delayed effect can create a degree of comfort and ill-founded complacency leading to non-action, whereas there is an urgent need for proactive measures towards water conservation.

James, Blignaut; Jan, van Heerden.

2009-07-01

232

ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OPERATING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed t...

Slobodan Cerovic; Pero Petrovic; Stanislav Cerovic

2013-01-01

233

Import protection and export performance: Their impact on economic growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For a long time economists have been presuming a strong and positive relationship between a country's engagement in international trade and its economic performance. Already Adam Smith stressed the importance of trade as a means of widening markets, thereby increasing the division of labour and thus raising the level of productivity; John Stuart Mill on the other side laid greater emphasis on the dynamic effects of international trade (called indirect effects) . Thus it was generally believed...

Heitger, Bernhard

1986-01-01

234

REFLECTIONS ABOUT SOCIO-ECONOMIC CORN CROP IMPACT IN SINALOA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Sinaloa farmers have many problems to produce “white corn” Maize, due to the Federal Government Politics. Maize is the principal food for Mexicans people, so this state has the highest production levels, moreover the corn demand is one million ton annually, its use to produce ethanol. Farmers are not convince to produce “yellow corn”, because the incentives economic support are not available.

Leobardo Gerardo-Montoya

2010-04-01

235

The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life hist...

O’malley, Mary P.; Lee-brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

2013-01-01

236

Impact of Hydropower Projects on Economic Growth of AJK.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to official estimates, territory of Azad Jammu & Kashmir has a potential to generate about 4600 MW of hydroelectricity, the cheapest source of energy. Total deficit in energy Pakistan is facing these days is about 5000 MW. So, only AJK can fulfill more than 90% of deficit of now demanded energy for entire country. Beside this direct and explicit advantage of hydropower projects to power sector, these projects may be extremely useful in improving many economic and social indicators a...

Atiq-ur-rehman, Atiq-ur-rehman; Anis, Hafsa

2008-01-01

237

The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa’s unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, the question therefore is how to make best use of the country’s available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water sh...

Blignaut, James Nelson; Heerden, J. H.

2009-01-01

238

Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wagsupply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

239

ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ROMANIA ALONG TIME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five years after the onset of the strongest economic crisis that has seen a global economy, the world still seems to be far from solved problems. Neither Romania is no exception, sustainable economic recovery we all want is (for now only hope. We have allowed the material to make some suggestions on how the economy might revive. We talked first about the vital need for revival of investment, supporting them through tax incentives to entrepreneurs. I then point the better absorption of European funds, the source of revival of the Romanian economy. Also advocate for greater accountability in spending public money, so terms like necessity, opportunity and social need not remain only in books, but to be used effectively in the allocation of budgetary resources. We detailed several times how I propose we approached the Romanian economy and revitalize major role essential, you must have it in technical and scientific economic recovery. The regret of not having experience in macroeconomics, in order to put more ideas on the table, still think that the detailed material could give thought to avid readers.

Gheorghe GRIGORESCU

2013-06-01

240

Economic impact on the Florida economy of energy price spikes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substantial disturbance in oil supplies is likely to generate a large price upsurge and a downturn in the level of economic activity. Each of these two effects diminishes demand by a certain amount. The specific price surge required to reduce demand to the lower level of supply can be calculated with an oil demand function and with empirical estimations of the association between price spikes and declines in economic activity. The first section presents an energy demand model for Florida, which provides the price and income elasticities needed. The second section includes theoretical explanations and empirical estimations of the relationship between price spikes and recessions. Based on historical evidence, it seems that Florida's and the nation's economic systems are very sensitive to oil price surges. As price spikes appear damaging to the economy, it could be expected that reductions in the price of oil are beneficial to the system. That is likely to be the case in the long run, but no empirical evidence of favorable short-term effects of oil price decreases was found. Several possible explanations and theoretical reasons are offered to explain this lack of association. The final section presents estimates of the effect of oil disruptions upon specific industries in Florida and the nation

 
 
 
 
241

Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin

Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

2012-04-01

242

Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

Wallace Tyner

2012-05-30

243

Economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to broaden the purview of fiscal impact analysis to include impacts on the local private sector that may stem from local public sector changes. More specifically, attention is focused on the limiting case, in which new private sector development yields positive changes in fiscal capacity, but does not increase public service demands or interact with the local private sector. This phenomenon is termed a ''pure'' change in fiscal capacity, or, stated differently, pure tax revenue importation. Interest in this issue stems from an analysis of the local impacts of constructing and operating nuclear power stations. Nuclear power stations, like other electrical generating facilities, are characterized by large capital-labor ratios, implying that the impact of siting would be to increase local taxable capacity, via the property tax base, to a greater extent than local private sector activity, via new hirings. Moreover, a small labor force implies a modest change in the demand for local public services, and facilities of this nature by themselves demand few, if any, public services. A nuclear power station, however, may be distinguished from other electrical generating facilities through siting regulations that require locating in a low population density area, a fact which ensures the influence on the community will be substantial. The question of how and to what degree feedback effects from local public to local private sector may take place is described

244

The Impact of Current Economic Crisis on Community Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of the study was to examine the impact of the recession on (1) community college funding, (2) community college student support services, and (3) on student enrollment. This study relied on data from document analysis and interview of community college personnel and students. The current crisis has resulted in a steep budget reduction to…

Okpala, Comfort O.; Hopson, Linda; Okpala, Amon O.

2011-01-01

245

Economic, organizational, and institutional impact of the survivability validation process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses some of the key economic, organizational, and institutional issues associated with the development and use of survivability validation protocols. It discusses factors affecting protocols, considerations for protocol selection, test- bed/simulator/analysis tool availability, organizational issues affecting protocol use, deviations precluding adherence to validated protocols, and protocol advantages. Knowledge of these factors will assist developers of survivability validation protocols in designing more flexible protocols that can be tailored for differing circumstances without losing the fidelity or assurance that the protocol will produce the desired survivability level.

Brock, G. [Kaman Sciences Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

1993-08-01

246

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing within the crisis context for the retail sector.

Sorin Toma

2010-12-01

247

Analysis: Economic Impacts of Wind Applications in Rural Communities; June 18, 2004 -- January 31, 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to compile completed studies on the economic impact of wind farms in rural communities and then to compare these studies. By summarizing the studies in an Excel spreadsheet, the raw data from a study is easily compared with the data from other studies. In this way, graphs can be made and conclusions drawn. Additionally, the creation of a database in which economic impact studies are summarized allows a greater understanding of the type of information gathered in an economic impact study, the type of information that is most helpful in using these studies to promote wind energy development in rural communities, and the limitations on collecting data for these studies.

Pedden, M.

2006-01-01

248

Impact of Foreign Aid on Economic Development in Jordan (1990-2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the impact of foreign aid on economic development, suggest that poor countries have to relay on the foreign aid as a resource to fill the deficit. There are many form of foreign resources like Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, External Loans and Credit, Technical Assistance, Project and non Project Aid and many other forms. But most of under developed countries where Jordan one of them don't have the investment friendly situation. So in one way or the other have to relay on foreign aid and debt rather than other form of financial foreign resources. This study analyses the trend and impact of foreign aid on the economic development of Jordan during the period 1990-2005 using for this purpose different statistical techniques. From the analysis of the related data of Jordan it is clear that the foreign capital flow has a direct impact on the economic development of Jordan.

Mwafaq D. Al-Khaldi

2008-01-01

249

Transmission Line Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are freely available, user-friendly tools that estimate the potential economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The Transmission Line JEDI model can be used to field questions about the economic impacts of transmission lines in a given state, region, or local community. This Transmission Line JEDI User Reference Guide was developed to provide basic instruction on operating the model and understanding the results. This guide also provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data contained in the model.

Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-10-01

250

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly on economic growth than their expenditureon transport and communication. Increased expenditure on all sectors was recommended especially on engineering construction. In addition policy modifications are needed to ensure that government expenditure on the transportation and communication sector achieve greater impacts on economic growth.

ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY

2012-04-01

251

The ghost of development past : the impact of economic security policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big pu...

Hausner, Vera Helene; Fauchald, Per; Tveraa, Torkild; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Jernsletten, Johnny-leo L.; Ulvevadet, Birgitte; Ims, Rolf Anker; Yoccoz, Nigel; Bra?then, Kari Anne

2011-01-01

252

The ghost of development past :the impact of economic security policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was...

Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Ims, Rolf A.; Birgitte Ulvevadet; Johnny-Leo Jernsletten; Elisabeth Pedersen; Torkild Tveraa; Per Fauchald; Hausner, Vera H.; Kari Anne. Bråthen

2011-01-01

253

2008 Global Economic Crisis and Its Impact on India's Exports and Imports  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After the introduction of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization by the name of economic reforms Indian economy has been integrated with the global economy. This integration enabled India to move on high growth path but that integration exposed Indian economy to adverse impacts from the world economy. India’s share in the world trade is less than 2 per cent. India’s vision in the world trade is not only earning foreign exchange but also to induce the economic growth and developme...

Sivakumar, Marimuthu

2012-01-01

254

Assessing the economic impacts of agricultural carbon sequestration: Terraces and agroforestry in the Peruvian Andes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an increasing demand for information about the economic impact of agricultural carbon (C) sequestration in the developing world, but as yet no studies have assessed the potential for farmers in the highland tropics to participate in C contracts. In this paper we show how an econometric-process simulation model, designed to simulate the value of terrace and agroforestry investments, can be used to assess the economic feasibility of C sequestration. We use this model to simulate the im...

Antle, J. M.; Stoorvogel, J. J.; Valdivia, R. O.

2007-01-01

255

Hazardous waste management in South African mining : a CGE analysis of the economic impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is no doubt that an improved hazardous waste management in mining and mineral processing will reduce environmental and health risks in South Africa. However, skeptics fear that waste reduction, appropriate treatment and disposal are not affordable within the current economic circumstances, neither from an economic nor from a social point of view. This paper mainly deals with the first aspect and touches upon the second. It investigates the short-run and long-run sectoral impacts of an e...

Wiebelt, Manfred

1999-01-01

256

The economic impact of the insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses: a qualitative approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Little research has focused on the economic hardship among the insured with severe illnesses and high treatment costs, in particular, the consequence of poorer insurance coverage for high-cost illnesses. Therefore, we presented the case for identifying the experiences of insured patients with severe chronic and acute illnesses. This study identified a qualitative understanding of the economic impact of severe chronic and acute illnesses and household strategies to deal with high t...

Budi Aji; Shelby Suzanne Yamamoto; Rainer Sauerborn

2014-01-01

257

Annual economic impacts of seasonal influenza on US counties: Spatial heterogeneity and patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Economic impacts of seasonal influenza vary across US counties, but little estimation has been conducted at the county level. This research computed annual economic costs of seasonal influenza for 3143 US counties based on Census 2010, identified inherent spatial patterns, and investigated cost-benefits of vaccination strategies. The computing model modified existing methods for national level estimation, and further emphasized spatial variations between counties, in terms ...

Mao Liang; Yang Yang; Qiu Youliang; Yang Yan

2012-01-01

258

Impact Of Insurance On Economic Growth: The Case Of Republic Of Macedonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of insurance and economic growth, with empirical analysis for the Republic of Macedonia. We apply multiple regression and control for other relevant determinants of economic growth. The analysis used data for the period 1995 - 2010. In order to solve the model in the analysis will use the technique of least squares, followed by analysis of variability in order to identify the effects of each variable. Insurance development is measured by insu...

Jordan Kjosevski

2013-01-01

259

The economic impact of climate change on road infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa countries: Evidence from Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climate change scenarios for many Sub-Saharan African countries including Ghana indicate that temperatures will increase while rainfall will either increase or decrease. The potential impact of climate change on economic systems is well-known. However, little has been done to assess its economic impact on road infrastructure. This work assesses the economic impact of climate change on road infrastructure using the stressor-response methodology. Our analysis indicates that it will cumulatively...

Twerefou, Daniel Kwabena; Adjei-mantey, Kwame; Strzepek, Niko Lazar

2014-01-01

260

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products.

 
 
 
 
261

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

Demirbas, Ayhan [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-11-15

262

Economic Impacts from Indiana's First 1,000 Megawatts of Wind Power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The magnitude of Indiana's available wind resource indicates that the development of wind power infrastructure has the potential to support millions of dollars of economic activity in the state. The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are tools used to estimate some of the economic impacts of energy projects at the state level. JEDI calculates results in the form of jobs, earnings, and economic output in three categories: project development and onsite labor, local revenue and supply chain, and induced impacts. According to this analysis, the first 1,000 MW of wind power development in Indiana (projects built between 2008 and 2011): supported employment totaling more than 4,400 full-time-equivalent jobs in Indiana during the construction periods; supports approximately 260 ongoing Indiana jobs; supported nearly $570 million in economic activity for Indiana during the construction periods; supported and continues to support nearly $40 million in annual Indiana economic activity during the operating periods; generates more than $8 million in annual property taxes; generates nearly $4 million annually in income for Indiana landowners who lease their land for wind energy projects.

Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Hauser, R.

2014-08-01

263

Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

264

Economic impacts of noxious facilities: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer`s ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities.

Nieves, L.A.

1993-09-01

265

Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). Part I. Sectoral Analysis of Climate Impacts in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on the results of the research work carried out by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) within the WISE project. This project aims at investigating the effects and the impacts of extreme weather events, particularly very warm summers, mild winters and storms, on the socio-economic systems of European countries. The output consists of a series of empirical studies, both of quantitative and qualitative descriptive nature. The work of FEEM in the WISE project covers the quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate extremes on the socio-economic system in Italy and the analysis of individuals' perception of climate extremes based on results from individuals' surveys. In this paper is presented the statistical modelling of the impact of weather, through quantitative analysis of activity time series. In particular, the core sectors analysed include fires, health, energy use, tourism and agriculture

266

Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia. 46 refs

267

The economic impact of demographic structure in OECD countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the impact of demographic structure, the proportion of the population in each age group, on growth, savings, investment, hours, interest rates and inflation using a panel VAR estimated from data for 20 OECD economies, mainly for the period 1970-2007. This flexible dynamic structure with interactions among the main macroeconomic variables allows us to estimate long-run effects of demographic structure on the individual countries. Our estimates confirm the importance of these effects.

Aksoy, Yunus; Grasl, Tobias; Smith, Ron P.

2012-01-01

268

THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the socio economic lives of people. It was found out that the activities of microfinance institutions resulted in increased social interaction and socio economic sustainability.

MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA

2011-01-01

269

The formation and economic impact of perceptions of risk surrounding nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the results of an investigation of factors determining the nature of risk perceptions associated with eleven nuclear facilities and their impact on local economic development. The paper indicates that the nature of risk perceptions depends primarily on the level of communication by plant officials within the local community, the track record of the facility operator, the process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, and the level of economic links each facility has with the local community. The research indicates that adverse risk perceptions have not affected economic development

270

Climate change impacts on the biophysics and economics of world fisheries  

Science.gov (United States)

Global marine fisheries are underperforming economically because of overfishing, pollution and habitat degradation. Added to these threats is the looming challenge of climate change. Observations, experiments and simulation models show that climate change would result in changes in primary productivity, shifts in distribution and changes in the potential yield of exploited marine species, resulting in impacts on the economics of fisheries worldwide. Despite the gaps in understanding climate change effects on fisheries, there is sufficient scientific information that highlights the need to implement climate change mitigation and adaptation policies to minimize impacts on fisheries.

Sumaila, U. Rashid; Cheung, William W. L.; Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Pauly, Daniel; Herrick, Samuel

2011-12-01

271

Green lights : quantifying the economic impacts of drought  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt is made to estimate the global cost of drought.

Fisker, Peter Kielberg

2014-01-01

272

Social, economic, and ecological impact of social forestry in Kolar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information on socioeconomic status, land ownership and use, domestic energy consumption and village organization in relation to forestry was collected orally and by questionnaire from individual households from 4 taluks in Kolar district, Karnataka. Data were also recorded from field studies carried out in Dec 1980- Feb 1981. After an introduction, and descriptions of the social forestry programme and of the present study (3 chapters), the results are reported in 3 further chapters which describe the historical evolution of land use pattern and community participation, economic effects and ecological effects. It is concluded that social forestry as practised so far lacks the organizational and economic capabilities to provide the basic needs of rural people, although it has been successful in motivating the participation of individual farmers. New forest cover has emerged at the cost of food crops, and this change in land use has worsened the condition of both landless agricultural labourers and marginal farmers in terms of employment and availability of food, fodder, fuel and other forest products. The incomes of larger farmers have gone up, mainly because of large-scale planting of eucalyptus which sells for high prices to the rayon and pulp industries but is said to be of little use as domestic fuel. Planting of species traditionally used as farm trees and providing basic material needs is low. The final chapter analyses the proposed World Bank project on social forestry in Karnataka, which is an extension of present practices, and it is concluded that the project will accentuate the effects already seen in the area.

Shiva, V.; Sharatchandra, H.C.; Bandyopadhyay, J.

1981-01-01

273

Economic impact study of a large-scale wind power development in James Bay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quebec's leading renewable energy consulting firm was commissioned by Yuddin Energy Inc. to conduct an economic impact study of a large-scale wind power development in order to identify the economic benefits associated with the development and operation of a 1,650 MW wind power development in James Bay region in northern Quebec. The project, which is promoted by the Cree Nation of Chisasibi, proposes the installation of 3 wind power projects along the La Grand River between LG1 and LG2 and in the Laforge/Brisay area. The project will comprise one 1,00 MW and two 325 MW wind turbine arrays, for a total of 1,100 units of 1.5 MW size wind turbine generators. The budget for the entire project is $3.04 billion. Once implemented, the project will generate about 5 TWh of energy per year. The study evaluated the local, regional and provincial economic impacts of the project. It measured the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts during the construction, operation and maintenance phases of the project in terms of employment, added value, wages and salaries, income taxes and other government revenues. The study considered that a large portion of the direct construction jobs may be filled by First Nations workers and the Cree transport industry. The economic benefits of the operational and maintenance phase are permanent for the life of the project, which is expected to create 286 direct jobs at the local level. It was concluded that the James Bay Wind Power development is of great economic interest. It will have a long-term economic impact for the Cree communities and will attract additional manufacturing of wind turbines in Quebec and deepen the base of expertise within Quebec to service North America's expanding renewable energy industry. The project will also make a significant contribution to the production of clean energy in Quebec. 19 refs., 17 tabs., 2 appendices.

NONE

2005-03-01

274

Economic Impact of Religious Tourism in Mardin, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, the number of religious tourists to the province of Mardin, in Southeastern Turkey has increased continuously during the last decade. Using a combination of methods this study aimed to assess the impact of religious tourism development on the local community and economy. We found that the effect is mainly positive. The hotels have high occupancy rates throughout the year and many new hotels have been built during the last five years. Also most visitors eat in local restaurants at least once a day and patronize local shops and businesses. The development of religious tourism has also led to the creation of many new jobs.

Istvan Egresi

2012-12-01

275

Health Care: Economic Impact of Caring for Geriatric Patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

National health care expenditures constitute a continuously expanding component of the US economy. Health care resources are distributed unequally among the population, and geriatric patients are disproportionately represented. Characterizing this group of individuals that accounts for the largest percentage of US health spending may facilitate the introduction of targeted interventions in key high-impact areas. Changing demographics, an increasing incidence of chronic disease and progressive disability, rapid technological advances, and systemic market failures in the health care sector combine to drive cost. A multidisciplinary approach will become increasingly necessary to balance the delicate relationship between our constrained supply and increasing demand. PMID:25459539

Rich, Preston B; Adams, Sasha D

2015-02-01

276

Solar power satellites: Commercialization and socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commercialization prospects for solar power satellites are assessed with reference to their possible impacts on the viability of the fossil fuel market and on international energy and environmental policies. The technical aspects which are examined include: solar panel sizing in relation to solar cell efficiency; the development of point-contact solar cell technology; the feasibility of the use of lunar materials; microwave transmission from the moon; optimum satellite positioning; the use of robots for in-space satellite assembly; satellite transmitted power for hydrogen production and storage; marketable product estimated development time

277

Bank Savings and Bank Credits in Nigeria: Determinants and Impact on Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the determinants of bank savings in Nigeria as well as examined the impact of bank savings and bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth from 1970-2006. We adopted two impact models; Distributed Lag-Error Correction Model (DL-ECM) and Distributed Model. The empirical results showed a positive influence of values of GDP per capita (PCY), Financial Deepening (FSD), Interest Rate Spread (IRS) and negative influence of Real Interest Rate (RIR) and Inflation Rate (INFR) ...

Orji Anthony

2012-01-01

278

URBANIZATION AND THE IMPACT OF ECO ECONOMIC MEASURES IN URBAN AREAS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urbanization and the impact of eco-economic measures in urban areas. Urban development has a powerfull global dimension. Cities interact and have a major impact on environment, overcoming their spatial barriers. They are acting just like real centers of progress, offering new and various opportunities reasons strong enough to generate an exponential increase on the population number in these areas.Global consumption of resources, consumption of energy and water have the biggest values in the...

M?D?LINA DOCIU; ANCA DUN?RIN?U

2012-01-01

279

Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

280

Predicting the economic impact of the 2010 FIFA World Cup on South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of the sporting industry on economic decision making has increased dramatically since the global media explosion in the 1980s. Tourism and advertising revenues generated by mega-events such as World Cups or Olympic Games have become a major boost to the economies of hosting nations. In addition, globalisation has placed great emphasis on the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), especially to developing countries. This paper seeks to examine the impact of the 2010 FIFA Wor...

Bohlmann, H. R.; Heerden, J. H.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Analysis of physiological and economical impacts of the roadside trees pruning.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of physiological and economical impacts of the roadside trees pruning. The management of the roadside trees requires special care. Several factors interact with their growth and development, many trees presenting decay. In addition of aesthetic impact, this decay leads to high pruning costs, or even costs of replacing trees, and serious risk of tree fall. Although the situations are more and more complicated, an increasing lack in trees monitoring is observed. Due to neglected planta...

Baudoin J.P.; Toussaint A.; Kervyn de Meerendre V.; Delcroix B.

2002-01-01

282

Economic Impact of Dengue Illness and the Cost-Effectiveness of Future Vaccination Programs in Singapore  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Dengue illness causes 50–100 million infections worldwide and threatens 2.5 billion people in the tropical and subtropical regions. Little is known about the disease burden and economic impact of dengue in higher resourced countries or the cost-effectiveness of potential dengue vaccines in such settings. Methods and Findings: We estimate the direct and indirect costs of dengue from hospitalized and ambulatory cases in Singapore. We consider inter alia the impacts of den...

Carrasco, Luis R.; Lee, Linda K.; Lee, Vernon J.; Ooi, Eng Eong; Shepard, Donald S.; Thein, Tun L.; Gan, Victor; Cook, Alex R.; Lye, David; Ng, Lee Ching; Leo, Yee Sin

2011-01-01

283

Green jobs? Economic impacts of renewable energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) are analyzed in this text. Although a growing RE industry can be observed in Germany the overall effect of large increases of RE based electricity and heat generating technologies on the German economy require a careful model based analysis. The applied model PANTA RHEI has been used among others to evaluate the German energy concept in 2010. It takes positive and negative impacts of RE into account. The paper shows the overall effects under different assumptions for fossil fuel prices, domestic installations and international trade. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the development of RE world markets and German exports to these markets. Almost all of these scenarios exhibit positive net employment effects. Under medium assumptions net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. Only with assumptions for German RE exports below today's level, net impacts are slightly negative. Gross employment will increase from 340 thousand in 2009 to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030. - Highlights: ? This paper analyzes labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) in Germany. ? It shows the overall effects under different assumptions. ? The development of world markets and German RE exports are very important. ? Net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. ? Gross employment will increase to between 500 and ill increase to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030.

284

Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

1991-12-31

285

Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

1991-01-01

286

The economic impact and cost of visual impairment in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims To quantify the total economic costs of vision loss in Australia. Methods Prevalence data of visual impairment, unpublished data on indirect costs, and national healthcare cost databases were used. Results Vision disorders cost Australia an estimated A$9.85 billion in 2004. A$4.8 billion is the loss of wellbeing (years of life lost as a result of disability and premature mortality). Vision disorders rank seventh and account for 2.7% of the national loss of wellbeing. Direct health system costs total A$1.8 billion. They have increased by A$1 billion over the last 10?years and will increase a further A$1–2 billion in the next 10?years. Cataract, the largest direct cost, takes 18% of expenditure. The health system costs place vision disorders seventh, ahead of coronary heart disease, diabetes, depression, and stroke. Indirect costs, A$3.2 billion, include carers' costs, low vision aids, lost earnings, and other welfare payments and taxes. Conclusions Even a developed economy such as Australia's cannot afford avoidable vision loss. Priority needs to be given to prevent preventable vision loss; to treat treatable eye diseases; and to increase research into vision loss that can be neither prevented nor treated. PMID:16488942

Taylor, H R; Pezzullo, M L; Keeffe, J E

2006-01-01

287

Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in crop productivity, producers in some regions face adaptation costs through either intensification or spatial expansion of agricultural production. Impacts are relatively small in the first half of the century, but intensify later. Additional adaptation options are investigated through the use of different levels of trade liberalization in the model (Schmitz et al. 2012). MAgPIE results also have been compared to other global agro-economic models in AgMIP. Third, climate-induced changes are aggregated for major world regions as the sum of producer and consumer surplus across spatial units. Different equity weighting schemes are investigated based on Frankhauser et al. (1997), in order to take spatial differences in population density and economic wealth into account. Finally, agricultural damages are implemented into the macro-economic framework of ReMIND-R. This approach of a detailed study of climate change impacts along the effect chain from bio-physical impacts to economic assessment is an important next step in the development of damage assessments with regard to long-term climate change. It will be extended in the future to other impact areas. The separate models involved have benefitted from checks for robustness in the course of AgMIP and other model intercomparison exercises.

Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

2012-12-01

288

The Economic Impact of a Technical College on Its Local Economy: A Case Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the economic impact of Walker Technical Institute (WTI) in Georgia on its local economy. In 1994, the annual report by Georgia's Department of Technical and Adult Education found a 77% increase from 1985 in the number of students participating in classes. State financial support for the Department of Technical and Adult…

Brooks, L. Rayburn; Miller, Michael T.

289

Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

2014-01-01

290

Economic and fiscal impacts of large-scale development projects: implications for nuclear waste repositories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the local economic and fiscal implications of siting high-level nuclear waste repositories in rural areas. The economic and fiscal effects of repository development fall into two categories: (1) standard impacts similar to those that would be associated with developing any large-scale industrial facility in an isolated area; (2) special impacts that result from the hazardous nature of the nuclear materials stored and from federal ownership of the facility. Standard economic and fiscal impacts include employment effects (direct and secondary), local income changes, alterations in community price structures, effects on community services, and changes in revenues and costs for local jurisdictions. Special impacts include the possibility of diminished activity in other basic economic sectors, negative effects on the area's long-term growth prospects and a consequent dampening of investment in the local trade an service sectors, additional costs for local jurisdictions (e.g., for preparing evacuation plans), and limited local tax revenues resulting from the tax-exempt status of the facility. These special effects are difficult to quantify and require additional analysis. 47 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

291

Field veterinary survey on clinical and economic impact of Schmallenberg virus in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

We implemented a questionnaire-based methodology targeting veterinary field practitioners to evaluate clinical and economic impact of Schmallenberg virus in Belgium. First suspicious cases were detected as soon as July 2011. The mean cost for individual symptomatic treatment was 65 or 107 Euros, in case of fatal outcome or apparent recovery, respectively. PMID:23279714

Martinelle, L; Dal Pozzo, F; Gauthier, B; Kirschvink, N; Saegerman, C

2014-06-01

292

The possible impacts of energy imports in the economic growth of USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study wants to analysis the relations of causality and the effects of the imports of energy in economic growth of the USA. VAR methodology associated with Granger causality analyses are used to investigate the relations between energy imports, investment and employment. The results indicate serious negative impact of energy imports on private sector investment and in the level of employment.

Pereira, Vitor

2007-01-01

293

The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

Barreca, Alan I.

2010-01-01

294

The Co-Occurrence of Reading Disorder and ADHD: Epidemiology, Treatment, Psychosocial Impact, and Economic Burden  

Science.gov (United States)

The co-occurrence of reading disorder (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received increasing attention. This review summarizes the epidemiology, treatment strategies, psychosocial impact, and economic burden associated with the co-occurrence of these conditions. Common genetic and neuropsychological deficits may partially…

Sexton, Chris C.; Gelhorn, Heather L.; Bell, Jill A.; Classi, Peter M.

2012-01-01

295

The Impact of Economic Shocks on Quality of Life and Social Capital in Small Towns  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic shocks are sudden events causing a significant impact on the local economy. Disaster community literature predicts that community outcomes from shocks will depend on the kind of shock. Consensus crisis shocks will be followed by increases in social capital and quality of life. Corrosive community shocks will result in declines in these…

Besser, Terry L.; Recker, Nicholas; Agnitsch, Kerry

2008-01-01

296

Radiological and economic impact of decommissioning charged particle accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the real radiological and economic consequences of future dismantling of particle accelerators, only insufficient information was available in literature or even at the individual accelerator facilities themselves. DGXI of the European Commission hence launched a project with focus on gathering quantitative and scientifically sound data on the number of accelerators in the EU, on the status of activation of the different facilities, on the awareness of the possible problems at dismantling and on cost evacuations for full scale decommissioning. The project was granted to the VUB with subcontracts to NIRAS/ONDRAF, MAN and CEA-Saclay. With the replies received to an extensive questionnaire, a database was set up with the necessary data for evaluating the decommissioning problems to be expected at the different facilities. From this database three accelerators were chosen as reference cases (VUB medium energy cyclotron, IRMM 200 MeV electron linear accelerator and the 6 GeV proton synchrotron Saturne in Saclay). Extensive sampling of their concrete shieldings (more than 200 drill cores) and metal parts of accelerator and infrastructure, followed by accurate ?-spectrometric analysis and custom designed 3D interpolation, yield data on the 3D distribution of the activity in the different rooms of the installations. In addition to the ?-spectrometric analysis, an analysis of the tritium content of the concrete was performed by measuring the water liberated from d by measuring the water liberated from heating ground concrete samples. These specific activity distributions allow evaluation of both immediate and deferred decommissioning costs using different scenarios (different clearance levels, different waste management prices, different labor costs and different decommissioning techniques) based on real situations in France, Germany and Great Britain. Several important conclusions and recommendations with respect to decommissioning both existing and future accelerator facilities will be presented. Finally some options for prevention of activation of concrete and metal parts are discussed. (author)

297

The economic impact of giving up nuclear power in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite de France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value and would penalize its shareholders, the State. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas-price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially-amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclearore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (author)

298

Counting Jobs and Economic Impacts from Distributed Wind in the United States (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference poster describes the distributed wind Jobs and Economic Development Imapcts (JEDI) model. The goal of this work is to provide a model that estimates jobs and other economic effects associated with the domestic distributed wind industry. The distributed wind JEDI model is a free input-output model that estimates employment and other impacts resulting from an investment in distributed wind installations. Default inputs are from installers and industry experts and are based on existing projects. User input can be minimal (use defaults) or very detailed for more precise results. JEDI can help evaluate potential scenarios, current or future; inform stakeholders and decision-makers; assist businesses in evaluating economic development impacts and estimating jobs; assist government organizations with planning and evaluating and developing communities.

Tegen, S.

2014-05-01

299

CAPITAL ACCOUNT CONVERTIBILITY IN INDIA: THE IMPACT OF CAPITAL INFLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH, EXPORTS AND IMPORTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capital Account Convertibility increases inflows of foreign capital in the country and these inflows have got far reaching impact on the economy. In this article an attempt is made to study the impact of foreign capital inflows on macro economic variables of the Indian economy such as IIP, Exports, and Imports. Using co-integration and Error Correction Models we find that the inflow of foreign capital (INFK and FPI cause positively the change in the Index of Industrial production (IIP i.e. economic growth in India. The study also reveals that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between inflows of capital and imports; there is an evidence for economic growth influencing the inflows of FDI but not vice versa and Inflows of foreign capital causing an increase in exports. In view of these findings some policy measures relating capital inflows are suggested.

Laila Memdani

2012-04-01

300

Economic Development Impacts of Colorado's First 1,000 Megawatts of Wind Energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This fact sheet summarizes the findings of a report authored by Sandra Reategui and Suzanne Tegen of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). A confluence of events ignited soaring growth in the number of Colorado?s wind power installations in recent years, from 291 megawatts (MW) of nameplate capacity in 2006 to 1,067 MW (nameplate capacity) in 2007. Analyzing the economic impact of Colorado?s first 1,000 MW of wind energy development not only provides a summary of benefits now enjoyed by the state?s population, but it also provides a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other new wind project scenarios, including the U.S. Department of Energy?s 20% Wind Energy by 2030 scenario. The analysis can be used by interested parties in other states as an example of the potential economic impacts if they were to adopt 1,000 MW of wind power development.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

local people perceptions toward social,economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Kermanshah (Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines local people perceptions about social, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in the cultural heritage destination of Kermanshah in Iran. The study focused on residents in the vicinity of popular heritage attractions in the region. According to the survey, a high percentage of the answers, emphasizes the positive impacts of tourism toward local people. Besides, social aspects of tourism impacts are found to be the strongest and most favorable perceptions. The Findings in Semi structured interviews with residents supported the survey results.

mostafa mohammadi

2010-10-01

302

Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

2013-12-01

303

Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The constraints of conventional cross-breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale, contrary to the situation in ornamentals. Thermal neutrons, X-rays or gamma rays have yielded commercial mutants, with only isolated cases of success with chemical mutagens or chronic irradiation. The latter method often results in severe cumulative injury to plants. The main method followed in the mutation breeding of tree fruits has been acute irradiation of the meristematic multicellular buds. Chimera formation and reversion present serious problems. Selection is usually performed in the second vegetatively propagated progeny, mV2, in an attempt to overcome chimerism. Some induced mutants have already been used as parents in conventional cross-breeding programmes. Future targets for mutation breeding will probably not deviate essentially from those formulated in the past, although more emphasis will have to be placed on easily selectable simple traits and the problem of reversion. 83 refs, 2 tabs

304

Impact of Financial Liberalization on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have tried to explore the link between financial liberalization index (FLI and economic growth in Pakistan by using annual data for 1971- 2007. The Phillips Perron unit root test is utilized to verify the level of integration and Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL technique for obtaining long run and short run coefficients. The empirical finding indicates that FLI and economic growth are positively linked in the short run. On the other hand, FLI is statistically insignificant in the long run, while the impact of real interest rate (RIR on economic growth is negative and significant. This means that one unit increase in the RIR causes GDP to decline by Rs. 1.03 million. Our investigation recommends that SBP and the GOP should pursue financial liberalization policies that are consistent with economic growth.

Qazi Muhammad Adnan Hye

2013-02-01

305

The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the countries of South East Europe. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced during the transition period have enabled countries to cope with external shocks such as those associated with the recent global economic crisis. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variable impact across countries is assessed. Several types of institutions are examined, including the degree to which countries have adopted the acquis communautaire, determined by the extent of their EU integration, progress with transition, and the broad institutional environment measured through the quality of governance. The paper asks whether countries with a more flexible economy due to faster progress with transition reforms were better able to adjust to the impact of external shocks. It concludes that the variable impact of the global crisis in the region can be explained mainly by their degree of integration into the global economy, and that the institutional reforms that were introduced during the boom times have made countries more integrated into the global economy, and therefore more vulnerable to the impact of the global economic crisis.

Bartlett Will

2011-01-01

306

Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensuP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

307

Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

308

Impact of economic crimes on the financing of development: Case of developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, many studies have showed that weak institutions and the extent of economic crimes in developing countries are one of the deep causes of their poor economic performances. Debt crises which are among other consequences of a low of public levies are accentuated in developing countries, in particular with the development of what is generally known as shadow economy. This research aims to study the potential link existing between economic crimes and the financing of development in developing countries. The economic crimes sector, which is an essential component of the underground economy has a negative effect on the tax mobilization, by cons, the quality of governance is a positive factor in favor of state budgets. This sector is an important fiscal centre which unfortunately for both social and political reasons, sometimes bears fiscal charges beyond its real contributory capacities. This study aims in particularly to investigate the impact of economic crimes on Financing for Development in approximately one hundred developing countries through the channel of public resource mobilization. The main results of empirical analyses using data covering the period 1996-2012 confirm that, it is better for developing countries to fight against economic crimes playing on improving the quality of institutional governance to ensure economic growth sustainability.

Tarik TALII

2013-07-01

309

Assessing the impact of the Nitrate Directive on farming systems using a bio-economic modelling chain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bio-economic models can be used to assess the impact of policy and environmental measures through economic and environmental indicators. Focusing on agricultural systems, farmers’ decisions in terms of cropping systems and the associated crop management at field scale are essential in such studies. The objective of this paper is to present a study using a bio-economic model to assess the impact of the Nitrate Directive in the Midi-Pyrenees region (France) by analyzing, at the farm scale, fa...

Belhouchette, H.; Louhichi, K.; Therond, O.; Mouratiadou, I.; Wery, J.; Ittersum, M. K.; Flichman, G.

2011-01-01

310

The Role Of Contested And Uncontested Passes In Evaluating Defensive Basketball Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global economic impact of basketball is measured in tens of billions of dollars and requires the efficient use of resources to maximize success on and off the court. Today, coaches, players, investors, and owners need to take full advantage of modern analytical methods and digital video software capabilities to make the most efficient use of a team’s resources. This research is the first in a series that makes full use of modern analytic methods and begins to define new defensive and offensive criteria to supplement the decades old game box score performance information. Data envelopment analysis and statistical methods are used to evaluate two new defensive performance metrics on defensive efficiency. The two new defensive metrics are contested and uncontested passes that are fully defined in the article’s appendix. Future research will expand the sample size and allow for more comprehensive models of basketball team defensive efficiency.

James T. Bartholomew

2011-11-01

311

DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

Constantin PREDA

2012-01-01

312

An Investigation of the Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available

This paper posits to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria. A study of this nature is necessary because foreign direct investment is an important component of private investment which is widely believed to be the engine of economic growth in any modern economy. In order to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria and the causal relationship between them, liner regression and granger causality test were used. The data used were from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin (2006 and national account of Nigeria (2007. The study has shown that foreign direct investment has a positive impact on gross domestic product in Nigeria and we therefore accept the alternative hypothesis. It is recommended that there is the need to put in place concrete policies to engender a positive and competitive enabling environment that would attract more foreign investors. There must also be relentless wars against corruption and insecurity in order to give confidence to investors.

Key words: Domestic investment; Foreign direct investment; Capital formation and economic growth

Abu Maji

2011-09-01

313

The Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Laws on Restaurants and Bars in 9 States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Smoke-free air laws in restaurants and bars protect patrons and workers from involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, but owners often express concern that such laws will harm their businesses. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between local smoke-free air laws and economic outcomes in restaurants and bars in 8 states without statewide smoke-free air laws: Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia. A secondary objective was to examine the economic impact of a 2010 statewide smoke-free restaurant and bar law in North Carolina. Methods Using quarterly data from 2000 through 2010, we estimated dynamic panel data models for employment and sales in restaurants and bars. The models controlled for smoke-free laws, general economic activity, cigarette sales, and seasonality. We included data from 216 smoke-free cities and counties in the analysis. During the study period, only North Carolina had a statewide law banning smoking in restaurants or bars. Separate models were estimated for each state. Results In West Virginia, smoke-free laws were associated with a significant increase of approximately 1% in restaurant employment. In the remaining 8 states, we found no significant association between smoke-free laws and employment or sales in restaurants and bars. Conclusion Results suggest that smoke-free laws did not have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in any of the states studied; they provided a small economic benefit in 1 state. On the basis of these findings, we would not expect a statewide smoke-free law in Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, or West Virginia to have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in those states.

Brett R. Loomis, MS

2013-08-01

314

Impact of major design parameters on the economics of Tokamak power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A parametric systems studies program is now in an active stage at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of results from this systems analysis effort. The impact of major design parameters on the economics of tokamak power plants is examined. The major parameters considered are: (1) the plant power rating; (2) toroidal-field strength; (3) plasma ?/sub t/; (4) aspect ratio; (5) plasma elongation; (6) inner blanket/shield thickness; and (7) neutron wall load. The performance characteristics and economics of tokamak power plants are also compared for two structural materials

315

Input-output model of regional environmental and economic impacts of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The costs of delayed licensing of nuclear power plants calls for a more-comprehensive method of quantifying the economic and environmental impacts on a region. A traditional input-output (I-O) analysis approach is extended to assess the effects of changes in output, income, employment, pollution, water consumption, and the costs and revenues of local government disaggregated among 23 industry sectors during the construction and operating phases. Unlike earlier studies, this model uses nonlinear environmental interactions and specifies environmental feedbacks to the economic sector. 20 references

316

Economic Impact Assessment of Climate Change: A Multi-gas Investigation with WIAGEM-GTAPEL-ICM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climate change is a long-term issue due to the long lifespan of greenhouse gases and the delayed response of the climate system. This paper investigates the long-term economic consequences of both climate change impacts and mitigation efforts by applying the multiregional, multi-sectoral integrated assessment model WIAGEM based on GTAP-EL coupled with the reduced-form multi-gas climate model ICM. We investigate emissions reduction paths to reach a radiative forcing target of 4.5 w /m . Econom...

Kemfert, Claudia; Truong, Truong Phuoc; Bruckner, Thomas

2005-01-01

317

Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and their impact on socio economic dimension of farmer’s lives. For data analysis quantitative techniques of multiple regression & regression for moderation were applied by using SPSS 16.

Raja Irfan Sabir

2014-08-01

318

Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

319

Evaluation of economic impact of climatic change on agro-forestry systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change has a strong influence on agro-forestry systems. Present estimations evisage that changes in climate patterns and extreme events connected to climate change will have greater impacts in the future. This paper seeks to illustrate the articulation of the problems concerning the economic evaluation of climate change, with particularly attention to open problems and future lines of research. Research on this topic, though using methods and approaches consolidated in the disciplines of resource economics and evaluation, still have several open problems, particularly in the field of multidisciplinary studies of the man-environmental relations, policy evaluation and development of decision support systems for decision makers.

Vittorio Gallerani

320

Positive Impact of Art as a Communication Instrument on Economical Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many factors that affect economical productivity like climate, or like raw materials or like international relationships or like physchology of employers. Professional organisations or companies use different instruments to increase producticity on economy. Spiritual conditions of employers and employees are especially regarded for economical productivity recently. Though economy is mostly a concrete area, main component of economy is human and human need spiritual support and impacts in his life. It is known that spiritual support always feed human and provide him much energy. Employers or companies who are interested in art and who participate in artistic activities become more productive than others and attract people to their productions.

Sedat Cereci

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging station located in a workplace parking garage. • Emissions from the power grid. • Economic analysis. • Parametric analysis for parking rates, installed capacities to show benefits to vehicle and garage owner. - Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) have high potential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and for providing a way to utilize renewable energy sources for the transportation sector. On the other hand, charging millions of PEVs could overload the power grid, increase emissions and significantly alter economic characteristics. A day-time photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle charging station located in a workplace parking garage is considered in this research. The results show the impact of PV based workplace charging on the economics and emissions from the power grid. An optimal charge scheduling strategy is compared with an uncontrolled charging case to perform the economics and emissions analysis. Two locations (Columbus, OH and Los Angeles, CA) are selected such that the analysis includes different scenarios of yearly variation of solar radiation and finance structure. A high fidelity hourly simulation model for energy economic analysis is developed considering different types of vehicles, statistical data for driving distances, parking time, installation cost, tax rebates and incentives. An incremental parking rate for accessing the charging facility is considered for economic analysis for the garage owner and the vehicle owner. The analysis is extended to consider the impact of carbon tax implementation on the driver economics and shows the feasibility of such PV based charging stations. Parametric analysis for different parking rates and installed capacities show (i) the feasibility of a PV based workplace charging facility, (ii) benefits to the vehicle owner and the garage owner, and (iii) the need for an optimal charging controller

322

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Arkansas Nuclear One Station case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined.

Pijawka, K.D.

1982-07-01

323

Economic and Environmental Impacts of Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in Southeast Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Harmful non-indigenous species (NIS) impose great economic and environmental impacts globally, but little is known about their impacts in Southeast Asia. Lack of knowledge of the magnitude of the problem hinders the allocation of appropriate resources for NIS prevention and management. We used benefit-cost analysis embedded in a Monte-Carlo simulation model and analysed economic and environmental impacts of NIS in the region to estimate the total burden of NIS in Southeast Asia. The total annual loss caused by NIS to agriculture, human health and the environment in Southeast Asia is estimated to be US$33.5 billion (5th and 95th percentile US$25.8–39.8 billion). Losses and costs to the agricultural sector are estimated to be nearly 90% of the total (US$23.4–33.9 billion), while the annual costs associated with human health and the environment are US$1.85 billion (US$1.4–2.5 billion) and US$2.1 billion (US$0.9–3.3 billion), respectively, although these estimates are based on conservative assumptions. We demonstrate that the economic and environmental impacts of NIS in low and middle-income regions can be considerable and that further measures, such as the adoption of regional risk assessment protocols to inform decisions on prevention and control of NIS in Southeast Asia, could be beneficial. PMID:23951120

Nghiem, Le T. P.; Soliman, Tarek; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Tan, Hugh T. W.; Evans, Theodore A.; Mumford, John D.; Keller, Reuben P.; Baker, Richard H. A.; Corlett, Richard T.; Carrasco, Luis R.

2013-01-01

324

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

325

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

326

Economic Impact Analyses of Interdisciplinary Multi-hazard Scenarios: ShakeOut and ARkStorm  

Science.gov (United States)

U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are using an interdisciplinary strategy to develop and analyze multi-hazard scenarios to help communities enhance resilience to natural hazard disasters. Two such scenarios are the southern California ShakeOut earthquake and the California ARkStorm winter storm. Both scenarios are multi-hazard: Shakeout ground motions trigger landslides and liquefaction and ARkStorm involves wind, flood, landslide, and coastal hazards. A collaborative scenario-process engages partners and stakeholders throughout the development and use of the scenarios, In doing so, community resilience is enhanced by educating communities about hazards and hazard interdependencies, building networks from scientists to decision makers, exercising emergency management strategies, identifying emergency management issues, and motivating solutions prior to an event. In addition, interdisciplinary scenarios stimulate research on the various steps of analysis (e.g., natural hazard processes, physical damages, societal consequences, and policy connections). In particular, USGS scientists have collaborated with economists to advance methods to estimate the economic impacts (business interruption losses) of disasters. Our economic impact analyses evolved from the economic module in the Federal Emergency Management Agency's loss-estimation tool, HAZUS-MH, to a more encompassing input-output analysis for ShakeOut, to a more sophisticated Computable General Equilibrium model for ARkStorm. The analyses depend on physical damage and restoration time estimates from engineers and geographic analyses of economic assets in hazard zones. Economic resilience strategies are incorporated to represent resourcefulness and ingenuity that avoids potential losses during and after an event. Such strategies operate at three levels of the economy: micro (e.g., ability to catch up on lost production time), meso (e.g., coordination within a sector to share resources), and macro (e.g., price adjustments to redistribute scarce resources). A sensitivity analysis of the ARkStorm economic impact model explores the effects of 1) the magnitude of the shocks (e.g., flood damages to buildings and infrastructure, agricultural productivity, and lifeline service disruptions), 2) the sustainability of the economic resilience strategies, and 3) the amount, timing, and source of reconstruction funds. The inclusion of an economic analysis in ShakeOut and ARkStorm broadens the range of interest in the scenario results. For example, the relative contribution of ShakeOut economic shocks to business interruption losses emphasized the need to reduce the impacts of fire following earthquake and water service disruption. Based on the magnitude and duration of the economic impacts for the ARkStorm scenario, policy experts surmised that business interruption policy time elements would be exceeded and business interruptions would be largely unfunded calling attention to the need for innovative funding solutions. Finally, economic impact analyses inform the question of paying now to mitigate or paying more later to recover.

Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

2011-12-01

327

Impact of Nuclear Power and Desalination Plant Construction Toward National and East Java Economic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to determine the economic impacts of the construction of the nuclear power plant 2 x 100 MW(e) SMART type with desalination 4 x 10,000 m3 which would conduct in years 2008 to 2017 in Madura Island, East Java. The predicted IO tables of 2008-2017 have been created by the application of dynamic IO projection. The economic impact was estimated through multiplier effect which covers direct impact and indirect impact as well as the induced effect. The expenditures of SMART nuclear power and desalination plant to the domestic contractors is estimated to amount to 88.2 million US dollar or 25.6 % of the whole expenditures. The total impact of the project to the national economy would be Rp. 6,329,347 million, Rp. 8,439,130 million, and Rp. 12,658,695 million for each scenario of the exchange rate as high as Rp. 7,500/US dollar, Rp. 10,000/US dollar, Rp. 15,000/US dollar, respectively for the scenario of dynamic growth. The total impact of the project to the provincial economy of East Java would be as much as Rp. 3,253,498 million, Rp. 4,337,997 million, and Rp. 6,506,995 million for each scenario of the exchange rate as high as Rp. 7,500/US dollar, Rp. 10,000/US dollar, Rp. 15,000/US dollar, respectively under the former scenario. Cumulative direct impact since pre-construction to construction period had been calculated as much as US dollar 101.8 million for sectors number 48.52 and 62. This have brought much impact on other sectors have brought much impact on other sectors in national or provincial levels of economy. (author)

328

Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth of Nigeria: A Time Series Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the impact of tax reforms on the economic growth of Nigeria from 1994 to 2009. To achieve the objective of the study, relevant secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin, Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS, Office of the Accountant General of the Federation, and other relevant government agencies. The data collected were analysed using relevant descriptive statistics and econometric models such as White test, Ramsey RESET test, Breusch Godfrey test, Jacque Berra test, Augmented Dickey Fuller test, Johansen test, and Granger Causality test. The results from the various test shows that tax reforms is positively and significantly related to economic growth and that tax reforms granger cause economic growth. On the basis of the findings, the study concluded that tax reforms improves the revenue generating machinery of government to undertake socially desirable expenditure that will translate to economic growth in real output and per capita basis. However, it was recommended that sustainable economic growth cannot be attained with tax reform processes except obsolete tax laws and rates are reviewed in line with macro economic objectives, corrupt-free and efficient tax administrative machinery with personnel’s and accountability and transparency of government officials in the management of tax revenue.

G.N. Ogbonna

2012-02-01

329

Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.iod.

330

A simulation of the economic impact of renewable energy development in Morocco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we identify the renewable energy source (RES) demand scenarios for Morocco, the needs of RES installed capacity according to those scenarios and the detailed investment plans needed to achieve such installed capacity supply. Then, using a dynamic variant input–output model, we simulate the macroeconomic impact of the foreign investment inflows needed to make available these Moroccan RES generation capacity plans in the medium and long term. The use of concentrated solar plants, photovoltaic generation and wind power farms are considered and compared in the simulation. - Highlights: ? An evaluation of RES economic impact in Morocco from 2010 to 2040 is simulated. ? Different scenarios about import dependency and energy exports have been considered. ? The impact on GDP range from 1.21% to 1.99%. ? The impact on employment range from 269 to 499 thousand jobs. ? The alternative that produces most benefits would be the installation of windmills.

331

The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

332

Impact of the Influential Factors of Economic Competitiveness upon Romania’s West Region Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s context, marked by globalization and increasingly wide recognition of interdependencies, competitiveness has become an essential condition for market success. Starting from these considerations, the authors of the present paper intend to forward a research survey related to the impact of the influential factors of economic competitiveness on the firms operating in Romania’s West Region, research using a direct study method to grasp the firm managers’ perceptions regarding competitiveness factors of influence. The paper ends by presenting several proposals regarding the identification of measures for the economic competitiveness growth, both micro- and macro- economic. Consequently the paper approaches a subject of current interest, which stirs the preoccupation of specialists, governments, mass media and, last but not least, the interest of entrepreneurs, irrespective of their domain of activity.

Diana T?nase

2013-06-01

333

Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

2010-06-01

334

URBANIZATION AND THE IMPACT OF ECO ECONOMIC MEASURES IN URBAN AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urbanization and the impact of eco-economic measures in urban areas. Urban development has a powerfull global dimension. Cities interact and have a major impact on environment, overcoming their spatial barriers. They are acting just like real centers of progress, offering new and various opportunities reasons strong enough to generate an exponential increase on the population number in these areas.Global consumption of resources, consumption of energy and water have the biggest values in these areas resons to adopt and improve measures of control and sustainable development for these areas.

M?D?LINA DOCIU

2012-03-01

335

CAPITAL ACCOUNT CONVERTIBILITY IN INDIA: THE IMPACT OF CAPITAL INFLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH, EXPORTS AND IMPORTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capital Account Convertibility increases inflows of foreign capital in the country and these inflows have got far reaching impact on the economy. In this article an attempt is made to study the impact of foreign capital inflows on macro economic variables of the Indian economy such as IIP, Exports, and Imports. Using co-integration and Error Correction Models we find that the inflow of foreign capital (INFK) and FPI cause positively the change in the Index of Industrial production (IIP) i.e....

Laila Memdani; Ramakrishna, G.

2012-01-01

336

Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 39 papers contained in Vol. 3, 3 were inputted to INIS. They deal with the use of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers in the determination of building material contamination by toxic elements, with underground waste repositories and ground water contamination, and the impact of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the hydrosphere and other environmental components. (Z.S.)

337

Bank Savings and Bank Credits in Nigeria: Determinants and Impact on Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the determinants of bank savings in Nigeria as well as examined the impact of bank savings and bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth from 1970-2006. We adopted two impact models; Distributed Lag-Error Correction Model (DL-ECM and Distributed Model. The empirical results showed a positive influence of values of GDP per capita (PCY, Financial Deepening (FSD, Interest Rate Spread (IRS and negative influence of Real Interest Rate (RIR and Inflation Rate (INFR on the size of private domestic savings. Also a positive relationship exists between the lagged values of total private savings, private sector credit, public sector credit, interest rate spread, exchange rates and economic growth. We therefore recommend, among others, that government’s effort should be geared towards improving per capita income by reducing the unemployment rate in the country in a bid to accelerate growth through enhanced savings.

Orji Anthony

2012-01-01

338

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model Geothermal User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Geothermal Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an Excel-based user-friendly tools that estimates the economic impacts of constructing and operating hydrothermal and Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) power generation projects at the local level for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Model Geothermal User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in using and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted.

Johnson, C.; Augustine, C.; Goldberg, M.

2012-09-01

339

Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The core objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI on the economic development of Bangladesh. To attain the objective, this paper has conducted statistical analyses of the relationships between FDI and its impact on selected macroeconomic indicators such as Gross Domestic Product, Inflation Rate, and Balance of Trade. The study has examined time series data over a period of fifteen years, from 1999 to 2013. Multiple Regression Analyses were utilized to measure the relationship between independent (FDI and dependent variables (macroeconomic indicators. The results obtained in this research signify a negative correlation between FDI and economic growth and may be a concern for the government of Bangladesh. The government might focus on required reforms and policy implications to make foreign investment more beneficial.

Afzalur Rahman

2015-01-01

340

Comparing the Clinical and Economic Impact of Laparoscopic Versus Open Liver Resection  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Laparoscopic liver resection has thus far not gained widespread acceptance among liver surgeons. Valid questions remain regarding the relative clinical superiority of the laparoscopic approach as well as whether laparoscopic hepatectomy carries any economic benefit compared with open liver surgery. Objective The aim of this work is to compare the clinical and economic impact of laparoscopic versus open left lateral sectionectomy (LLS). Methods Between May 2002 and July 2008, 44 laparoscopic LLS and 29 open LLS were included in the analysis. Deviation-based cost modeling (DBCM) was utilized to compare the combined clinical and economic impact of the open and laparoscopic approaches. Results The laparoscopic approach compared favorably with the open approach from both a clinical and economic standpoint. Not only was the median length of stay (LOS) shorter by 2 days in the laparoscopic group (3 versus 5 days, respectively, P = 0.001), but the laparoscopic cohort also benefited from a significant reduction in postoperative morbidity (P = 0.001). Because the groups differed significantly in age and ratio of benign to malignant disease, a subgroup analysis limited to patients with malignant disease was undertaken. The same reduction in LOS and postoperative morbidity was evident within the malignant subgroup undergoing laparoscopic LLS (P = 0.003). The economic impact of the laparoscopic approach was noteworthy, with the laparoscopic approach US$1,527–2,939 more cost efficient per patient compared with the open technique. Conclusion Our study seems not only to corroborate the safety and clinical benefit of the laparoscopic approach but also suggests a fiscally important cost advantage for the minimally invasive approach. PMID:20033324

Vanounou, Tsafrir; Steel, Jennifer L.; Nguyen, Kevin Tri; Tsung, Allan; Marsh, J. Wallis; Geller, David A.; Gamblin, T. Clark

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Public Debt on Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria 1975-2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper focuses on the impact of public debt on economic growth using Nigeria as a case study. An analysis of the long-run relationship and impact of debt from the perspective of the value impact and proportional impact was done. The value impact variables used herein include the external debt value, domestic debt value, total debt value and budget deficit figures. The proportional impact variables are ratios of the value impact to the gross domestic product (GDP. An augmented Cobb Douglas model was used and subsequently a dynamic version of the functional relationship was estimated using Co-integration technique to capture the long-run impact of debt variables on economic growth. The result showed that the joint impact of debt on economic growth is negative and quite significant in the long-run though in the short-run the impact of borrowed funds and coefficient of budget deficit is positive. In the study, the speed at which the short-run equation converges to equilibrium in the long-run as shown by the Error Correction Mechanism coefficient was found to be slow. The conclusion from this study is that though in the short-run the impact of borrowed fund on the Nigerian economy was positive, the impact of debt in the long-run depressed economic growth as a result of incompetent debt management.

Key words:

Obademi Olalekan Emmanuel

2012-08-01

342

Turkey's Accession to the European Union in terms of impact on the EU's security and defense policies: potential and drawbacks A adesão da Turquia à União Europeia em termos de impacto nas políticas de segurança e defesa: potencial e limitações  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the impact of Turkey's likely entry in the European Union (EU) in terms of the EU's foreign, security and defense policies. It reviews Turkish capabilities, namely its military capabilities, which could provide the EU with valuable defense assets. There are differences related to Turkey's relations with the EU, which have increasingly spilled over into the NATO, hindering the development of cooperation over crisis management operations. The article then delves in the impli...

Maria do Céu Pinto

2010-01-01

343

Modeling the economic impact of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a theoretical approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David S Cobden1, Louis W Niessen2, Frans FH Rutten1, W Ken Redekop11Department of Health Policy and Management, Section of Health Economics – Medical Technology Assessment (HE-MTA, Erasmus MC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USAAims: While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis.Methods: We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM and oral (OAD medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1 and one which incorporated it (analysis 2. Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Results: In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY. This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM.Conclusions: Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be ­considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health ­economic outcomes, and validation of different approaches to modeling adherence, is warranted.Keywords: economics, modeling, adherence, diabetes, cost-effectiveness

David S Cobden

2010-08-01

344

Economic impact of increased aid flows for HIV/AIDS in developing countries : briefing note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a tension between the rational for increased investments of human and financial resources to tackle the impact of AIDS and the potential economic implications of such increased aid flows in macroeconomic, budgetary, and sectoral terms. The note concludes that the discussion about the potential negative effects of increased aid flows for AIDS is more relevant with regards to the credibility and predictability of donor financing, than to the macroeconomic problems of absorbing new aid ...

Compernolle, P.

2004-01-01

345

Determining the physical and economic impact of environmental design criteria for ultra-deep mines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Please read the abstract in the section 00front of this document © 2000 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Naam, 2000, Determining the physical and economic impact of environmental design criteria for ultr...

Webber, R. C. W.

2001-01-01

346

Charcoal production technologies: Environmental and socio-economic impacts with Brazilian examples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The indirect use of solar energy through photosynthesis, wood and charcoal requires reforestation with fast-growing species to supply continuously charcoal for industrial and domestic needs. This concept, sometimes referred to as an energy farms, is the conversion of sunshine into food, fibre, furniture, paper and pulp products. It the charcoal production uses primitive, low-yield technologies, it endangers the economic viability of the wood energy source and causes negative environmental impacts. 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

347

Economic Impact Assessment of Katchi Abadi Improvement Programme A Case Study of Punjab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of the study was to assess the economic impact of the Katchi Abadi Improvement Programme (KIP) that was implemented from 1985 to 1990 on the individuals, households and institutions in the Punjab. Seven hundred households from the katci abadis of three districts (Rawalpindi, Faisalabad and Multan) which are representatives of three geographical zones (Northern, Central and Southern) of the Punjab province were selected by using the systematic random sampling technique. The ...

Haq Nawaz Anwar; Zafar, M. I.

2003-01-01

348

Cultural and socio-economic impacts of Mediterranean marine protected areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) may be important for protecting the marine environment, but they may also have substantial socio-cultural impacts about which very little is currently known, or acknowledged. In the Mediterranean, few data are available on the socio-economic consequences of MPAs. The present study reviews the existing data on MPAs in Spain, France, Italy and Greece. A general increase in tourist activities in Mediterranean MPAs is evident, as are increases in the abundances of la...

Badalamenti, Fabio; Ramos Espla?, Alfonso A?ngel; Voultsiadou, Eleni; Sa?nchez Lizaso, Jose? Luis; D Anna, Giovanni; Pipitone, Carlo; Mas Herna?ndez, Julio; Ruiz Ferna?ndez, Juan Manuel; Whitmarsh, David; Riggio, Silvano

2000-01-01

349

Impact of the Influential Factors of Economic Competitiveness upon Romania’s West Region Firms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In today’s context, marked by globalization and increasingly wide recognition of interdependencies, competitiveness has become an essential condition for market success. Starting from these considerations, the authors of the present paper intend to forward a research survey related to the impact of the influential factors of economic competitiveness on the firms operating in Romania’s West Region, research using a direct study method to grasp the firm managers’ perceptions regarding com...

Diana T?nase; Adrian T?nase; Florin Fran?

2013-01-01

350

Climate change impacts on North African countries and on some Tunisian economic sectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global temperature is increasing and that the main cause is the accumulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human activities. The economic costs alone will be very large: as extreme weather events such as droughts and floods become more destructive and frequent; communities, cities, and island nations are damaged or inundated as sea level rises; and agricultural output is disrupted. Impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity are also likely to be ...

Leila Radhouane

2013-01-01

351

The impact of the financial and economic crisis on world trade and trade policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Forum is dedicated to a discussion of the effects of the global financial and economic crisis on both international trade and trade policy. What changes could be observed in the volume and structure of trade and what transmission channels were involved? Has the international competitiveness of the European Union and its member countries been affected? What has been the impact of the crisis on trade policy? Are the widespread fears of a revival of protectionism justified? How can trade po...

Curran, Louise; Escaith, Hubert; Hallaert, Jean-jacques; Barfield, Claude; Evenett, Simon J.; Koopmann, Georg

2009-01-01

352

Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.)

353

Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

354

The impact of the economic and financial crisis on the foreign trade in metallurgical products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The manifestation of the global financial crisis severely affected the foreign trade worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the financial and economic crisis on foreign trade at the level of countries and groups ofcountries that have global leadership in the area, with an emphasis on the metallurgical products. The analysis results show that this branch was affected to a higher percentage compared to the amount of the value of the trade in goods.

Ca?runtu, C.; Dobrota?, G.

2013-01-01

355

The impact of the economic and financial crisis on the foreign trade in metallurgical products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The manifestation of the global financial crisis severely affected the foreign trade worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the financial and economic crisis on foreign trade at the level of countries and groups ofcountries that have global leadership in the area, with an emphasis on the metallurgical products. The analysis results show that this branch was affected to a higher percentage compared to the amount of the value of the trade in goods.

C. C?runtu

2013-10-01

356

Socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on patient employment after ten years  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Birmingham hip resurfacing is an attractive option for treatment of arthritis in young and active patients. The aim of this study was to assess the socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on their employment and work intensity at ten years. A cohort of 90 consecutive patients with 100 Birmingham hip resurfacing, performed by single surgeon, were reviewed prospectively. The mean age was 51 years at surgery. Prospective review was undertaken from surgery until the tenth post-operat...

Malek, Ibrahim A.; Hashmi, Munawar; Holland, James P.

2011-01-01

357

Empirical Study on the Impact of Domestic Economic Cycle on Sichuan’s Tourism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article empirically enquires, from the perspective of demand, the impact of economic cyclical fluctuation on Sichuan tourism. The findings show that Sichuan tourism demand proves elastic to CPI, Sichuan’s GNI capita and interest rate, and that CPI and interest rate fluctuations are negatively correlated with Sichuan domestic tourism demand, while, with which Sichuan’s GNI capita is positively associated. The study also finds that per capita national income and the local consumer pric...

Junrong Liu; Qin Yan

2012-01-01

358

The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated w...

Chipman, A.; Morrison, E.

2013-01-01

359

High impact, low probability? An empirical analysis of risk in the economics of climate change  

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To what extent does economic analysis of climate change depend on low-probability, high-impact events? This question has received a great deal of attention lately, with the contention increasingly made that climate damage could be so large that societal willingness to pay to avoid extreme outcomes should overwhelm other seemingly important assumptions, notably on time preference. This paper provides an empirical examination of some key theoretical points, using a probabilistic integrated asse...

Dietz, Simon

2009-01-01

360

Cellulosic biofuels analysis: Case study of biofuel comparison economics and road infrastructure impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The passage of U.S. laws mandating and subsidizing advanced cellulosic biofuels may spur the development of a commercial cellulosic biofuels industry. However, a cellulosic industry will only develop if the overall economics including government incentives render investment in the sector attractive to private investors. Assuming the industry is developed, it will have impacts on the road infrastructure in biomass rich states like Indiana. ^ This thesis has two main objectives: determine the...

Rismiller, Craig William

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Globalisation’s ugly stepsister : estimating some economic impacts of localisation in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is growing concern that globalisation is unable to address unemployment and alleviate poverty sufficiently to achieve the targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Increasing numbers of development economists and practitioners advocate some or other policy favouring the localisation of economic activity in local communities. The authors’ research and policy impact analysis are rooted in the sincere belief that localisation, as defined in this paper, is required alongside ...

Breitenbach, Marthinus C.; Slabbert, Tielman J. C.

2008-01-01

362

Economic activity in the South Asian Population in Britain: the impact of ethnicity, religion and class  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This paper expands the existing literature on ethnicity and economic activity in Britain by studying the impact of religion and class. It argues that while the class location of the different South Asian groups is important in determining their labour market outcomes, it does not operate independently from ethnicity; rather it is highly influenced by ethnicity in the process of determining the labour market participation of these groups. We use data obtained from the 2001 ...

Khattab, Nabil; Johnston, Ron; Modood, Tariq; Sirkeci, Ibrahim

2011-01-01

363

THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE  

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This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the soc...

MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA; Gombarume, Fungai B.; KOSMAS NJANIKE; ANXIOUS CHARIKINYA

2011-01-01

364

Economic and Health Impacts Associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium Drinking Water Outbreak?Alamosa, CO, 2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alam...

Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J.; Brunkard, Joan M.

2013-01-01

365

Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of ...

Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

2013-01-01

366

Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth of Nigeria: A Time Series Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study examines the impact of tax reforms on the economic growth of Nigeria from 1994 to 2009. To achieve the objective of the study, relevant secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin, Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Office of the Accountant General of the Federation, and other relevant government agencies. The data collected were analysed using relevant descriptive statistics and econometric models such as White test, Ramsey RESET te...

Ogbonna, G. N.; Appah Ebimobowei

2012-01-01

367

The Impact of Growing Public Debt on Economic Growth in the European Union  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper attempts to empirically explore the transmission mechanism regarding the short-term impact of public debt and growth. We examine and evaluate the direct effect of higher indebtedness on economic growth for countries in the EU which are in the epicentre of the current sovereign debt crisis. In comparison to similar empirical studies, our research will add to the existing literature by extending the sample of countries and providing the latest empirical evidence for a non-linear and c...

Jernej Mencinger; Aleksander Aristovnik; Miroslav Verbi?

2014-01-01

368

The Impact of Tribal Colleges in the Economic Development of Tribal Communities: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The essay examines a fairly new phenomenon in American Education: Tribal Colleges. As unique institutions of higher learning, established to specifically address educational and cultural needs of American Indians, they play a pivotal role in individual student and tribal community empowerment. It will be illustrated in-depth how one particular Tribal College – Salish Kootenai College – positively impacts and greatly contributes to the economic development of its tribal community.

Grob, Anne

2009-01-01

369

Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of ...

Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

2013-01-01

370

????????????????? The Impact of the Economic Restructuring on the Demand of the Labor Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“?????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The economic restructuring and barriers to labor mobility are the most important market constrains when it comes to analyzing employment for they dynamically change the demand and supply of the labor market. Due to various internal and external factors the economic growth, featuring high energy consumption and high investment, is becoming unsustainable, so the economic restructuring is pressing. This article summarized the non-equilibrium structural changes in China and discussed the impact on the labor demand of the changes in industrial structures, foreign trade, urbanization, income growth and demography. To be specific, as the structure of three industries is moving forward to “three, two, one”, a large number of surplus labor in agriculture needs to be transferred. The low-end manufacturing is struggling because of shrinking foreign trade and soaring production cost, but the service industry has a large demand for labor force. Urbanization promotes city building, public services, infrastructure construction, financial services, high-end manufacturing, software design and other industries. The income growth inevitably leads to corresponding changes in consumption structure. For example, the consumption of household appliances and communication devices upgrade. The demand for the elderly services will also develop with the aging of the population. All these changes will exert impacts on the demands for the related labor markets. As the economic restructuring accelerates, laborers also need to improve their quality and skills so as to meet the requirements of the labor markets.

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2011-10-01

371

The economic impact of strengthening fuel quality regulation-reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the impact of strengthening vehicle emission regulation on economic activities. The government attempts to use three regulation measures to protect air quality from transportation emission. The measures include the aggregate limit (bubbles), the vehicle emission standard, and the fuel quality standard. Especially, we focus on the economic impact of reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel quality standard. Sulfur content in diesel fuel is one of the main factors in worsening local air quality. The emission from diesel vehicle accounts for 51.8% of total vehicle emission in Korea. If sulfur content reduction regulation is implemented, then the petroleum industry should build more facility to produce low sulfur content diesel, leading to additional production costs and increasing prices and decreasing outputs. We use computable general equilibrium model to analyze how the sulfur reduction regulation affects economic activities and trace out local emission reduction cost and GDP loss. And we suggest the tax-recycling mechanism to mitigate the negative economic costs due to the sulfur reduction regulation

372

Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authoritystent with policy making authority

373

GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS: CAUSES, IMPACT ON INDIAN ECONOMY, AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global economic crisis started in United States of America mainly due to ‘sub-prime mortgages’ where interest rate was slower down and there was a great demand for housing loans. Later, American banks repackaged this debt to worldwide financial instruments called ‘Collateralized debt obligations’ and sold them worldwide, which resulted in unaffordable mortgage payments and many people defaulted or undertook foreclosure. Then this mortgages crisis affected worldwide. Different views on the reasons of the crisis include sub-prime mortgage, securitization and repackaging of loans, excessive leverage, mismatch between financial innovation and regulation, fair value accounting rules, typical characteristics of US financial system, failure of global corporate governance & complex interplay of multiple factors. Developed countries have so far been the most affected, with a decline in FDI inflows in 2008, mainly due to sluggish market prospects. Flows into developing economies continued to grow in 2008, but at a much lower rate than the year before. Indian economy and agriculture cannot be completely insulated from the global and domestic economic recessions. The impact of economic crisis on Indian agriculture and fisheries were transmitted through three distinct channels, viz., financial sector, exports and exchange rates, and the impact manifests itself in several direct and indirect ways. Some of the impacts were decreased GDP growth rate, high inflation, FDI inflows and international trade.

Apu Das, Kumar N.R., Biswajit Debnath and Mandal S.C.

2012-05-01

374

Selective Chemical Inhibition of agr Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus Promotes Host Defense with Minimal Impact on Resistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial signaling systems are prime drug targets for combating the global health threat of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections including those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is the primary cause of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and the quorum sensing operon agr is causally associated with these. Whether efficacious chemical inhibitors of agr signaling can be developed that promote host defense against SSTIs while sparing the normal microbiota of t...

Sully, Erin K.; Malachowa, Natalia; Elmore, Bradley O.; Alexander, Susan M.; Femling, Jon K.; Gray, Brian M.; Deleo, Frank R.; Otto, Michael; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Sklar, Larry A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Hall, Pamela R.; Gresham, Hattie D.

2014-01-01

375

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) (1 ?g gm-1) and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight) and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH con...

Sivasankaran, T. G.; Udayakumar, R.; Panjamurthy, K.; Albert Singh, V.

2007-01-01

376

The Economic Impacts of Pollinator Declines: An Approach to Assessing the Consequences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since agricultural activities were first recorded, there have been shortages of pollinators. Today it seems that pollination systems in many areas of agriculture are threatened by the inadequacy or lack of sustainable managed, indigenous, or imported pollinators. Pollinator shortages can adversely affect crop production and commodity markets. This paper presents an economic model than can be used to measure some of the economic impacts of pollinator deficits on traded commodities. This economic analysis indicates that consumers of a commodity affected by a pollinator deficit may suffer because the commodity costs more and becomes less available. At the same time, although the producers of the affected commodity may experience crop declines, they may also experience economic gains in the form of higher prices. The amount the producer gains or loses depends on the shape of the supply and demand functions, and the magnitude of these losses or gains is an empirical question. Although there are few data available to evaluate this model, those we do have indicate that serious problems for world food supply, security, and trade could be in the offing if current declines in pollinator abundance, diversity, and availability are not reversed. Various crops and cropping systems are suggested as practical starting places for economic studies of the effects of pollinator declines, with emphasis on the type of data required.

Truman P. Phillips

2001-06-01

377

Socio-economic and other non-radiological impacts of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is to introduce, in a generic sense, the elements that could comprise a socio-economic and non-radiological environmental impact assessment. The various social, economic and environmental impacts that could be associated with surface and near surface disposal are discussed through factors that could apply at the local, regional or national level. Impact management is also discussed. The report also introduces concepts to help Member States develop their own approaches to undertaking impact assessment and management. The report is intended to complement IAEA documents on the technology and safety aspects of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The scope of this report includes a discussion of a range of social, economic and nonradiological environmental impacts relevant to surface and near surface disposal and illustrations of some impact management measures

378

Socio-economic implications of climate change: Canadian climate impacts program study results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of results of the Canadian Climate Impacts Program series of studies examining the socio-economic impacts of climate change. In the Great Lakes basin, climate change may impact on numerous economic sectors. Lower lake levels could result in increased dredging of ports and channels or reduced cargo loads. Lower lake levels added to increased use of water could result in a loss of 4,165 GWh of power generation for the Canadian hydro-electric generating stations on the Great Lakes. A warmer climate may lead to crop failures in the agricultural heartlands of Ontario, as the advantages of higher temperature may be offset by moisture stress. The downhill ski industry may be decimated in southern Ontario. Rising sea levels may cause increased risk of storm surges and river flooding in the coastal areas of Canada. A warmer climate would probably be beneficial to aquaculture and allow longer inshore fishing seasons. Costs to oil and gas exploration due to sea ice and icebergs would be practically eliminated. Results for the Praire provinces were mixed: one study concluded that impacts would be minimal while another predicted a moderate reduction in spring wheat potential. 24 refs., 1 fig

379

Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ? We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ? Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ? Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ? Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

380

Exchange rate volatility and oil prices shocks and its impact on economic sustainability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Impact of exchange rate volatility has received a great attention from the last century, its importance is certain in all sectors of the economy and it affects welfare as well as social life of the economy. Exchange rate between two currencies tells the value of one currency in terms of others one. Depreciation/Appreciation of exchange rate affects economic growth in terms of trade and shifts income to/from exporting countries from/to importing countries. The factors affecting exchange rate are inflation, interest rate, foreign direct investment, government consumption expenditure and balance of trade. This research study examines the impact of oil prices and exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Germany based on 40-year annual data. Cointegration technique is applied to check the impact of macroeconomic variables on exchange rate in the long run and short run. It is estimated that imports, exports, inflation, interest rate, government consumption expenditure and foreign direct investment had significant impacts on real effective exchange rate in the long run and short run. Sin addition, Engle Granger results indicate that relationship was significant for the long run and its error correction adjustment mechanism (ECM in short a run is significant and correctly signed for Germany.

Khuram Shaf

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Selvarathinam Santhirasegaram

2007-01-01

382

Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Fiscal Policy on Economic Growth of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study provides empirical analysis of the impact of fiscal policy on economic growth in Nigeria. Time series data from 1986 to 2010 relevant to the study were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin, Volume 22 and the National Bureau of Statistics. The ordinary least square method of multivariate regression was utilized in analyzing the log-linearized Model. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test was employed to establish the stationarity of the variables while the General-to-Specific approach to Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model was used for testing for the existence of long-run and short-run equilibrium conditions. The findings were that, there is evidence of long run equilibrium relationship between fiscal policy and economic growth in Nigeria during the period studied. The adjusted R2 value of 0.6850 showed that about 68.5% of the total variation in the real GDP is explained by the independent variables included in the model. Specific fiscal policy variables that have significant and positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria are government recurrent and capital expenditures. Non-oil taxes and government total debts have no significant impact on real GDP. Only capital expenditure has short run equilibrium relationship with economic growth. It is therefore recommended that government should establish a strong fiscal responsibility and transparency system in the fiscal institutions; and tax reforms should be such that would encourage increase in investment and fight corruption. Government debts should be channelled towards provision of critical infrastructure so as to provide the enabling investment environment, while fiscal policy should be complemented with the use of effective monetary policy.

Alex E. Osuala

2014-05-01

383

Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

384

Study of the economic and environmental impacts of the research and development program of the Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A partnership between the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) Energy Technology Centre (CETC) of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), and the Canadian coal and steel industries, the Canadian Carbonization Research Association (CCRA) which conducts research and development activities with its partners. This document summarizes the economic and environmental impacts of the research and development program administered by the CCRA. More than 25 research programs have been undertaken by the CCRA since it was established in 1964. The activities dealt with specific technical challenges which the Canadian coal industry faced with regard to the production and marketing of metallurgical coal, as well as the uses of coal and alternative fuels such as natural gas to make coke used in blast furnaces. The report detailed the scope of CETC's energy for high temperature processes, then addressed program resources and study methodology. Three categories of impacts were discussed: general-level impacts, economic and environmental impacts, and quantitative estimates of economic impacts. The attribution of impacts was examined and future directions were examined in the last section of the report. It was determined that CETC participation in the research program is still required, due to the fact that it is Canada's only technical support available to the Canadian coking coal industry. The survival of Canadian coal producers owes something to the economic impacts derives something to the economic impacts derived from the CCRA under the current decreasing metallurgical coal prices conditions. 2 tabs

385

Concurrent and legacy economic and environmental impacts from establishing a marine energy sector in Scotland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examine the economic and environmental impact that the installation of 3 GW of marine energy capacity would have on Scotland. This is not a forecast, but a projection of the likely effects of meeting the Scottish Government's targets for renewable energy through the development of a marine energy sector. Energy, with a particular focus on renewables, is seen by the Scottish Government as a 'key sector', with high growth potential and the capacity to boost productivity (Scottish Government, 2007a. The Government Economic Strategy. The Scottish Government, Edinburgh). The key nature of this sector has been identified through targets being set for renewable energy to achieve environmental and economic benefits. Using a regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of Scotland we show that the development of a marine energy sector can have substantial and beneficial impacts on GDP, employment and the environment over the lifetime of the devices, given the encouragement of strong indigenous inter-industry linkages. Furthermore, there are also substantial ''legacy'' effects that persist well beyond the design life of the devices. (author)

386

The economic impact of H1N1 on Mexico's tourist and pork sectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

By examining tourist arrivals and pork output and trade statistics, this analysis estimates the economic impact to the Mexican tourism and pork sectors because of the H1N1 influenza pandemic. It also assesses the role of the international response in the context of this economic impact. For tourism, losing almost a million overseas visitors translated into losses of around $US2.8bn, which extended over a five-month period, mostly because of the slow return of European travellers. For the pork industry, temporal decreases in output were observed in most of the country and related to H1N1 incidence (p?=?0.048, r?=?0.37). By the end of 2009, Mexico had a pork trade deficit of $US27m. The losses derived from this pandemic were clearly influenced by the risk perception created in tourist-supplying and pork trade partners. Results suggest that the wider economic implications of health-related emergencies can be significant and need to be considered in preparedness planning. For instance, more effective surveillance and data gathering would enable policy to target emergency funding to the sectors and regions hardest hit. These results also stress the importance of being familiar with trade networks so as to be able to anticipate the international response and respond accordingly. PMID:23744805

Rassy, Dunia; Smith, Richard D

2013-07-01

387

Social, economic, and health impact of the respiratory syncytial virus: a systematic search.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundBronchiolitis caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and its related complications are common in infants born prematurely, with severe congenital heart disease, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as in immunosuppressed infants. There is a rich literature on the different aspects of RSV infection with a focus, for the most part, on specific risk populations. However, there is a need for a systematic global analysis of the impact of RSV infection in terms of use of resources and health impact on both children and adults. With this aim, we performed a systematic search of scientific evidence on the social, economic, and health impact of RSV infection.MethodsA systematic search of the following databases was performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Spanish Medical Index, MEDES-MEDicina in Spanish, Cochrane Plus Library, and Google without time limits. We selected 421 abstracts based on the 6,598 articles identified. From these abstracts, 4 RSV experts selected the most relevant articles. They selected 65 articles. After reading the full articles, 23 of their references were also selected. Finally, one more article found through a literature information alert system was included.ResultsThe information collected was summarized and organized into the following topics: 1. Impact on health (infections and respiratory complications, mid- to long-term lung function decline, recurrent wheezing, asthma, other complications such as otitis and rhino-conjunctivitis, and mortality; 2. Impact on resources (visits to primary care and specialists offices, emergency room visits, hospital admissions, ICU admissions, diagnostic tests, and treatments); 3. Impact on costs (direct and indirect costs); 4. Impact on quality of life; and 5. Strategies to reduce the impact (interventions on social and hygienic factors and prophylactic treatments).ConclusionsWe concluded that 1. The health impact of RSV infection is relevant and goes beyond the acute episode phase; 2. The health impact of RSV infection on children is much better documented than the impact on adults; 3. Further research is needed on mid- and long-term impact of RSV infection on the adult population, especially those at high-risk; 4. There is a need for interventions aimed at reducing the impact of RSV infection by targeting health education, information, and prophylaxis in high-risk populations. PMID:25358423

Díez-Domingo, Javier; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; Melero, José A; Sánchez-Luna, Manuel; Aguilar, María; Blasco, Antonio; Alfaro, Noelia; Lázaro, Pablo

2014-10-30

388

Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test-region by linking land-use data from Corine Land Cover and the typology from the FADN database. Issues related to carbon sequestration have also been addressed at an infra-regional scale, including both spatial and dynamic dimensions. This analysis relies on the use of micro-economic, dynamic land-use model, a geo-referenced database of soils characteristics and a carbon accounting model. We estimate the costs of carbon sequestration when switching from annual crops to pluri-annual energy crops, which allow higher carbon sequestration rates for a longer period of time. (author)

389

Air Pollution, Its Mortality Risk, and Economic Impacts in Tehran, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Air pollution in Tehran is widely recognized as a serious environmental challenge,posing significant threats to the health of the resident population. Improving air quality will be difficult for many reasons,including climate and topography, heavy dependence on motor vehicles for mobility, and limited resources to reduce polluting emissions.Consequently, it is useful to have information regarding the scale of the health threat and the economic value of reducing that threat.Methods: This paper integrates information on air quality, population, economic valuation, and health science to assess the most serious impact of fine particle pollution on humans, which is increased mortality risk, and provides estimates of the costs of present pollution levels,both in terms of risk and in terms of economic value relative to attaining air quality standards.Results:Mid-range results indicate that mortality risk for the population aged 30 and over would be reduced from 8.2 per 1,000 residents annually to 7.4 per 1,000 and that the estimated annual economic benefits of this reduced risk would be $378.5 million, if health-based World Health Organization-recommended annual average PM2.5 standards were met.Conclusions:The potential public health benefits of reducing particulate air pollution are significant, and will increase with growing population.

M Rahmatian

2012-04-01

390

Economic impacts of EU climate policy until 2020; EU:n ilmastopolitiikan talousvaikutukset vuoteen 2020  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study evaluates the impacts of EU climate policy on the emission allowance price, electricity prices, the competitiveness of industry and macroeconomic developments in the third EU emission trading period 2013-2020. The economic impacts of climate policy on Finland are compared to the impacts on the entire EU area. It turns out that due to its cold climate and heating energy demand, higher export intensity of the economy and higher energy intensity of the industry Finland pays a higher price for EU climate policy in terms of output and employment losses than the EU on average. The study examines the macroeconomic effects of climate policy also in the more distant future, assuming that climate policy is tightened further in the 2020s. Climate policy implemented by emission trading means that the long-term economic growth in the EU area depends essentially on emission-free electricity production, and no longer on other growth factors, such as the labour supply and productivity growth. (orig.)

Rantala, O. E-mail: olavi.rantala@etla.fi

2012-07-01

391

Energie-Nederland. Financial and economic impact of a changing energy market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed study of the Dutch power market has been carried out, including an assessment of the financial implications for conventional power plants. This study is to provide insight into the potential implications of the 16% RES (renewable energy sources) target without prescribing a particular scenario or outcome, or suggesting possible solutions. The study focuses on the potential financial and economic impact of meeting the RES target under different market scenarios. Also, the potential impact on security of supply and the need for flexible back-up capacity in the period 2013-2020 are assessed. Furthermore, an analysis is performed of potential market prices that are required for the economic feasibility of flexible back-up generation capacity with a very limited load factor. For the assessment of the financial impact of a changing energy market, the Dutch power market is modelled under various scenarios. Use has been made of a detailed model of Northwest Europe, in which all power stations, interconnections, and constraints (i.e. RES potential) are accounted for. In all scenarios, the 16% RES target is a binding constraint in that model. This means the model determines the least-cost option to meet this target, including wind onshore and offshore (up to the limit estimated by ECN), dedicated biomass and co-firing of biomass, and other sources such as solar.

NONE

2013-03-15

392

Economic Impact Assessment of Katchi Abadi Improvement Programme A Case Study of Punjab  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to assess the economic impact of the Katchi Abadi Improvement Programme (KIP that was implemented from 1985 to 1990 on the individuals, households and institutions in the Punjab. Seven hundred households from the katci abadis of three districts (Rawalpindi, Faisalabad and Multan which are representatives of three geographical zones (Northern, Central and Southern of the Punjab province were selected by using the systematic random sampling technique. The analysis of the data revealed that KIP has major positive impact on the households` income that was increased up to average monthly income of Rs. 4535.0; the land value was increased up to average land value of Rs. 49,700.0/marla. The dwellers gained employment and business were generated. Moreover, the households` expenditure on health was reduced and expenditure on education was increased. This all indicates the positive impact of KIP on the economic aspects of the residents of katchi abadis. It can be concluded that KIP was relatively successful; however still there is room for improvement.

Haq Nawaz Anwar

2003-01-01

393

The Economic and Environmental Impact of a Suitable Forest Harvest Zone Allocation Using a GIS Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many countries are gradually adopting environmentally acceptable harvesting planning strategies. Various codes of practice such as FAO model code of forest harvesting have been developed for use at the international, regional and national levels to improve harvesting practices following concepts of low-impact harvesting. Since the last 20 years lowland forest in Peninsular Malaysia has declined gradually, and this has pushed harvesting operations to the hilly areas. The extent of damage to the forest environment, especially in hill forest has been alarming, mainly due to the complexity of its topography that lead to soil erosion. This study develops an integrated model of geoinformatics technology applied to forest harvest planning. The model determines the distribution and extent of allowable forest harvest zone from economic and environmental perspective using cartographical modelling and linear weighted combination approaches in a GIS.  This study uses remote sensing data and geographic information system technology for data extraction, manipulation, analysis and evaluation of impacts of the difference perspective for forest harvest zone. The study revealed that by integrating remote sensing and GIS modelling, a suitable harvest zone for harvesting operations could be determined from the economic and environmental perspective, thus the impact to areal extent of a suitable forest harvest were analysed and determined.

Hj. Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2009-03-01

394

Optimization of a Distillation Unit In Terms of Potential Environmental Impact and Economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Process energy integration and continuous improvement of process technology are increasing issues to ensure profitability of chemical productions. These objectives are increasingly important due to long-term environmental impact of energy degradation, such as resource depletion, emissions and the release of waste heat. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are integrated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to improve the process design. In this work different distillation process design alternatives have been considered with respect to evaluations of process economics and potential environmental impacts. Optimum design alternatives are analyzed related to these objectives. A multi-criteria decision making technique such as (Analytic Hierarchy Process) AHP is applied for ranking the alternatives. This method reveals that the heat pump distillation unit which has the highest score of 52 % is the best alternative when compare with base case. In terms of the effluent streams the base case has a less potential environmental impact (PEI) compared with heat pump. The lower total PEI/ kg (7.45E-01) of the base case illustrates that the material utilization efficiency of the base case is better than the heat pump whose PEI/ kg is 8.14E-01. (author)

395

The Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth in Small-Open Developing Economies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The essence of this study is to verify the macroeconomic implications of cross-border remittances for economic growth prospects of small-open developing economies for the period, 1996-2006. A set of dynamic panel models specified within the framework of Blundell-Bond Generalized Method of Moments (GMM was empirically analyzed. Using annual panel data from 31 small-open developing countries from Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, this study argues that, contemporaneously, remittances contribute significantly to growth in small-open developing economies. Remittances, however, contribute more to long-run economic growth in Latin America and the Caribbean than to Sub-Saharan Africa. In dynamic terms, remittances retard growth, but with overall positive long-run growth impact across these developing economies. The methodology is very important to apply in another field.

C.R.K. Ahortor

2009-01-01

396

Sustainability of biomass electricity systems. An estimate of costs, macro-economic and environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the 1990s there has been a renewal of interest in the possibility of sustainable generating energy from biomass, an interest driven in part by the climate issue. Other motives are the search for alternatives for parts of Western agriculture and progress in the technological feasibility of efficiently producing high-quality energy from biomass. World-wide this renewed interest has led to a clear increase in research, demonstration and commercial implementation of biomass energy systems. A recent thesis concludes that biomass can contribute to all aspects of sustainability. In the context of sustainable development (often viewed as a concept having economic, social and ecological dimensions), the central question asked by this Ph.D. research is: How do biomass electricity systems compare to fossil-fuel systems and to the land-use that they may replace, in terms of costs, macro-economic and environmental impacts. This article presents a number of conclusions

397

An empirical study to measure the impact of financial and macro economical figures on capital adequacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capital adequacy plays an important role for reducing different risk components in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of financial and macro economical factors on capital adequacy. We gather the necessary information from financial statements and balance sheets of nine Iranian private banks over the period of 2005-2011. The results of analyzing the data based on the implementation of linear regression technique reveal that there are some meaningful relationship between financial figures, including bank size and profitability, and capital adequacy. However, the survey does not show any relationship between macro economical factors, including growth domestic product and inflations, and capital adequacy.

Mohsen Babaei dazghei

2012-09-01

398

GEOPHYSICAL EVIDENCE FOR AN IMPACT CRATER IN VICHADA, NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA AND ITS ECONOMIC POTENTIAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prominent positive free-air gravity anomaly mapped over a roughly 50-km diameter basin is consistent with a mascon centered on (4°30'N, -69°15'W in the Vichada Department, Colombia, South America. The inferred impact crater is nearly one third the size of the Chicxulub Crater. It must have formed recently, in the last 30 m.a because it controls the path of the Vichada River. The impact crater structure has been partially eroded and is almost completely covered by vegetation. No antipodal relationship has been established. The proposed impact appears to have contributed to the development of mineral deposits of economic interest. The impact shock waves extensively thinned and disrupted the Precambrian cratonic crust. Athick sedimentary cover, dense vegetation and erosional processes greatly limits direct geological testing of the inferred impact basin. Ground follow up gravity and magnetic surveys are recommended for confirming the regional free air gravity anomalies.

Hernández Orlando

2009-12-01

399

The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ? or â??mixed methodâ? research methodology was employed for each case study.

Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

2013-02-11

400

Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the ..Section..1603 Treasury Grant Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the Section 1603 grant program.

Steinberg, D.; Porro, G.; Goldberg, M.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
401

The Impact of Growing Public Debt on Economic Growth in the European Union  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper attempts to empirically explore the transmission mechanism regarding the short-term impact of public debt and growth. We examine and evaluate the direct effect of higher indebtedness on economic growth for countries in the EU which are in the epicentre of the current sovereign debt crisis. In comparison to similar empirical studies, our research will add to the existing literature by extending the sample of countries and providing the latest empirical evidence for a non-linear and concave (i.e. inverted U-shape relationship. The empirical analysis primarily includes a panel dataset of 25 sovereign member states of the EU. Our sample of EU countries is divided into subgroups distinguishing between so-called ‘old’ member states, covering the period 1980–2010, and ‘new’ member states, covering the period 1995–2010. In order to account for the impact of the level of the debt-to-GDP ratio on the real growth rate of GDP, we employ a panel estimation on a generalized economic growth model augmented with a debt variable, while also considering some methodological issues like the problems of heterogeneity and endogeneity. The results across all models indicate a statistically significant non-linear impact of public debt ratios on annual GDP per capita growth rates. Further, the calculated debt-to-GDP turning point, where the positive effect of accumulated public debt inverts into a negative effect, is roughly between 80% and 94% for the ‘old’ member states. Yet for the ‘new’ member states the debt-to-GDP turning point is lower, namely between 53% and 54%. Therefore, we may conclude that the threshold value for the ‘new’ member states is lower than for the ‘old’ member states. In general, the research may contribute to a better understanding of the problem of high public debt and its effect on economic activity in the EU.

Jernej Mencinger

2014-02-01

402

Economic and health impacts associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium drinking water outbreak-Alamosa, CO, 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n?=?369/1,732) reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n?=?108) reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n?=?699/771, 91%) reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n?=?233) drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreak's estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations) was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677-$6,002,879), and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471-$7,792,973) with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks. PMID:23526942

Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J; Brunkard, Joan M

2013-01-01

403

Wind versus coal: Comparing the local economic impacts of energy resource development in Appalachia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two energy development scenarios were compared for the Coal River Mountain in Raleigh County, West Virginia: (1) mountaintop mining (MTM) of coal, and (2) wind energy plus underground mining of coal. Economic impact computations over the life of each energy development scenario were made on a county basis for output of goods and services, the number of jobs created, and local earnings. Externality costs were assigned monetary values for coal mining and subtracted from earnings. Premature mortality within the general population due to additional coal mining accounted for 96% of these external cost computations. The results showed that economic output over the life of each scenario was twice as high for MTM mining as wind energy plus underground coal mining. Over the short term, employment and earnings were higher for MTM mining, but towards the end of the scenario, cumulative employment and earnings became higher under scenario (2). When local externality costs were subtracted from local earnings, MTM coal production had an overall negative net social impact on the citizens of Raleigh County. The external costs of MTM coal production provide an explanation of the existence of a “resource curse” and the conflicting results of output versus income provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped. - Highlights: ? Mountaintop mining (MTM) was compared to wind plus underground mining. ? Economic output was twice as high for MTM. ? Employment anas high for MTM. ? Employment and earnings were cumulatively higher for wind energy. ? Including local externality costs, MTM had an overall negative net social impact. ? Results provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped.

404

State and local planning procedures dealing with social and economic impacts from nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The roles of state and local agencies in planning for and managing social and economic impacts of nuclear power plants are studied. In order to be effective in these roles state and local agencies must work with each other as well as the NRC. A comparative case study approach is used which analyzes six sites in three West Coast states. The case studies included plants in operation, plants under construction, and plants still in the planning stages. In contrast to some states, all three of these states have moderately centralized procedures for siting power plants, and all have strong environmental laws

405

Economic Impacts of a Premature Nuclear Phase-Out in Switzerland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the economic impacts of two policy proposals: "Strom ohne Atom" (SOA) and "Moratorium Plus" (MOP), both of which contain a premature phase-out of nuclear power in Switzerland. While MOP restricts business-as-usual operation time of existing nuclear power plants to 40 years, which results in a cutback of 10-20 years, SOA foresees a reduction in operation time of 20-30 years and administers combined heat and power to substitute for nuclear energy. Based on simulations wi...

Bo?hringer, Christoph; Wickart, Marcel; Mu?ller, Andre

2001-01-01

406

WP/082 The Economic Costs of Climate Change: A Multi-Sector Impact Assessment for Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Unlike existing studies, we adopt a multi-sectoral approach and consider the full range of climate projections. Biophysical damages are translated into economic costs using a dynamic economywide model. Our results for Vietnam indicate that the negative impacts on agriculture and roads are modest, at least until 2050. Larger costs are caused by rising sea levels and cyclone strikes. Overall, climate change is likely to reduce Vietnam’s national income by between one and two percent by 2050 (relative to a historical baseline). Damages double under more extreme projections. Our findings suggest that there are benefits from pre-emptive action, but also opportunity costs from precautionary adaptation investments.

Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

2012-01-01

407

Long term environmental and socio-economic impact of an envisaged hydrogen energy program in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a program of electrolytic hydrogen generation for Brazil using solar cells is proposed. The generated hydrogen will serve as an energy carrier, and will eventually replace the fossil fuels. Three different scenarios have been considered. The proposed site for hydrogen production is the northeast region of Brazil. The impact of hydrogen utilization to the environment and the socio-economical development of Brazil is also studied. Considering the growing problems resulting from the fossil fuel utilization around the world, the visualized program presented herein predicts several interesting and beneficial results. (author)

408

RESPIRATORY SYNDROME: A MAJOR THREAT TO THE LIVESTOCK FARMERS AND ITS ECONOMIC IMPACT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epidemiology of a respiratory syndrome was studied at Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC, Karachi, Pakistan and its economic impact was estimated. Among 5889 buffaloes examined, 2.3% animals were suffering from this syndrome. From some of the sick animals, Pasteurella multocida, the causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia, was isolated. In the present study, an average loss of Rs. 0.2 million per farm was calculated and the extrapolated values for 0.2 and 0.8 million animals present in LDC and other dairy colonies in Karachi were Rs. 225.6 and Rs. 1128.1 million, respectively.

A. B. ZAHUR, U. FAROOQ, M. HUSSAIN1, S. H. HASHMI2 AND R. MUNEER

2007-10-01

409

An Empirical Analysis on the Impact of FDI on China's Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 90s in 20th century, along with the establishment of applying the socialist market economy mechanism, China has gained considerable achievements in using foreign capitals. FDI (Foreign Direct Investment has already become one of important source of capitals for Chinese modernization construction. China is the county attracting the most FDI in the world at present. Therefore, this paper tends to study the benefit of China using foreign capitals in perspective of FDI’s impacts on GDP according to data from 1985 to 2008, which is meaningful for China making best use of foreign capitals and driving the economic development in China.

Xiaohong Ma

2009-05-01

410

The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants

411

GLOBAL BUSINESS ACTIVITIES IN LIGHT OF THE IMPACTS OF THE ECONOMIC RECESSION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper focuses on the impacts of the economic recession in 2008-2009, which resulted in significant losses in manufacturing, investments, foreign trade and led to a major rise in unemployment and decrease in the standard of living. Based on the assumptions about the growth of global economy, the attention is paid to the activities of business sphere in the area of investments in terms of the Index of investor confidence published in 2010. As the main motive for investments in the forthcomi...

PETER KUZMIŠIN

2010-01-01

412

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA (1 ?g gm-1 and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH content in testis was observed. This combination was found to be decreased Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD activity in testis. Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive Substrate (TBARS and Catalase (CAT Activity were observed to be increased in testis. In contrast, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx activity was decreased in testis. The results are discussed in detail.

T.G. Sivasankaran

2007-01-01

413

Desk-study on the impact Chinese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has in Angola’s socio-economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses on the impact Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from China has on Angola’s socio-economic development, and whether this development is long-term sustainable. Based on the United Nations’ definition of Sustainable Development, the indicators used to scrutinise the impact of FDI are: GDP, infrastructure development, corruption, unemployment, poverty and inequality rates, among others

Vargas Murgui, Monica

2014-01-01

414

Types of adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security to the impact of subjects of tax regulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article offers the authors’ approach to identification of types of adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security to negative influence of subjects of tax regulation. It determines composition of these subjects and, separately, regulation subjects that form fundamental grounds of the tax sphere and subjects of effective influence, which directly interact with entrepreneurial structures and realise tax regulation of their activity in practice. As regards direct adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security, the article offers to mark out its individual types with respect to the set goal, essence of changes in the system of economic security, degree of its manageability and nature of accumulated changes. Moreover, the article offers a list of catalysts and inhibitors of adaptation of the system of enterprise economic security to impact of subjects of tax regulation. It also marks out adaptation parameters of the system of enterprise economic security to the impact of subjects of tax regulation and provides their gradations.

Pohorelov Yurii S.

2014-01-01

415

The economic and environmental impacts of biofuel taxes on heating plants in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sweden`s energy policy is currently based on a large-scale introduction of biofuels. Following a 1980 nuclear power referendum, the current plan is to phase out nuclear power, replacing nuclear energy with renewable energy sources. This policy is supported by various tax breaks for biofuels. There is an ongoing discussion about a restructuring of the energy tax system, which will have far-reaching impact on the markets for biofuels. This paper evaluates the impact of changes in current energy taxation by analyzing a panel of approximately 150 district heating plants in Sweden. We estimate plant-specific production functions and derive the economic repercussions of the tax. We also estimate the resulting changes of emissions of sulfur, NOX and particulates and assess the externality costs Arbetsrapport 258. 6 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

Braennlund, R.; Kristroem, B.; Sisask, A.

1998-12-31

416

Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the range of labour markets across the region and assesses the ongoing relevance of the development model that is posited on low labour cost manufacturing aimed at assisting export industries. Impacts considered include migration flows of labour, the possibility of augmenting added value to existing production and the need to upgrade skills and competencies.

John Walsh

2010-10-01

417

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE DYNAMIC OF INTERNATIONAL FDI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FDI flows are internationally recognized for the benefits they generate (technological transfer, know – how, industrial reorganization, raising the number of working places. Foreign capitals increased significantly under the impact of globalization and accelerated the interdependencies between economies up to 2007, but, in the current crisis, the dynamic of FDI flows was affected in a negative manner, both in developed economies and in the developing ones. The aim of this paper is to reveal and analyze the evolution of FDI flows in the period 2007 – 2010, emphasizing the strong impact that economic crisis exerts. The results of the analysis presents the descending trend up to 2009, since 2010 being noticed a slight recovery which continued in the first trimester of 2011 and according to the forecasts will continue in the future.

Lenu?a Carp

2012-03-01

418

Energy pricing policy in economies in transition (EIT) - economic and social impact case of Poland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic and social impact of the energy policy and pricing in countries with economies in transition is shown on the Polish example. Detailed changes in industrial production, growth of investments in Poland are shown for the period 1990-1996 with annual inflation rate unemployment data. This is followed by expected growth of investments and inflation for the period 1993-2000. In the framework of primary energy consumption structure in 1994 and prospect for 2000 two possible scenarios of gas consumption by households, industry and for power generation, are presented up to 2010. Gas prices for the mentioned consumers in Poland are compared to those in Western Europe and environmental impacts are mentioned as well

419

Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

1995-03-01

420

The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture: A Ricardian approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. We use cross-sectional data on climate, hydrological, soil and household level data for a sample of 816 households. We estimate a seasonal Ricardian model to assess the impact of climate on net crop revenue per acre. The results show that climate affects crop productivity. There is a non-linear relationship between temperature and revenue on one hand and between precipitation and revenue on the other. Estimated marginal impacts suggest that global warming is harmful for crop productivity. Predictions from global circulation models confirm that global warming will have a substantial impact on net crop revenue in Kenya. The results also show that the temperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. Findings call for monitoring of climate change and dissemination of information to farmers to encourage adaptations to climate change. Improved management and conservation of available water resources, water harvesting and recycling of wastewater could generate water for irrigation purposes especially in the arid and semi-arid areas.

Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Karanja, Fredrick K.

2007-06-01