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Sample records for defense economic impact

  1. Defense industry and its impacts on economic growth in Korea

    Lee, Yong Hak

    1992-01-01

    This thesis reviews the connection between the Korean defense industry and Korean economic progress. The defense industry has both costs and benefits. Some argue that the benefits outweigh the costs; others argue the reverse. Because of the apparent diffusion of tension between South and North Korea, the domestic pressures to reduce the national defense budget are growing stronger. Consequently, some have questioned whether the Korean defense industry should be maintained. In fact, the K...

  2. Economic impact

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  3. Impact of defense conversion and US response

    Conversion from military to civilian products due to defense conversion after the end of the Cold War takes a long as 20 years. In USA there are over 50 government programs funded to assist in defence conversion. This paper concentrates on the three major programs that will have the greatest impact on the economy, in the framework of the issues and needs of American industry. Federal government and US industry are making a considerable effort to transform how to do business today. One of the most important emerging themes in the federal program is international competitiveness. Large federal expenditures are made to support research and development that will increase productivity, thereby helping industry in global economic competition. This, in turn will play a key role in absorbing a large quantity od resources affected by the end of the Cold War

  4. Economic impact analysis

    Bertelsen, Michael; Norton, George W.; Nguema, A.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a research proposal to study the economic impact of the SANREM CRSP projects as a cross-cutting research activity. A linear programming model is proposed to measure the costs and benefits of conservation agriculture in the shorter and longer term. Data for the Economic Impact Cross Cutting Research Activity will be collected during the baseline surveys conducted by the individual LTRAs in years 1 and 4.

  5. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility.

    Dustin L Pendell

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms.

  6. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  7. Economic impacts study

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  8. Economic impact of refugees

    Taylor, J. Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J.; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees’ impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120–$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally. PMID:27325782

  9. Economic impact of cultural tourism

    Zrinka Zadel; Sinisa Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...

  10. Economic impact assessment on SANREM

    Norton, George W.; Alwang, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This PowerPoint summarizes findings from SANREM’s economic impact assessment cross-cutting research activity (CRRA-6). It describes results from budgeting studies, linear programming models, and aggregate impact analysis for several study sites. Additionally, it provides information about the CCRA’s publications and training activities.

  11. Evaluating economic impacts

    2014-01-01

    Should a value be put on nature? On what basis can it be evaluated? Although disagreements persist as to the legitimacy of such evaluations, many economists think that economics can usefully be applied to the mechanisms leading to destruction of natural environments. Ecological and human systems are closely intertwined. The aim of an evaluation is to pro-vide tools on which to base environmental policy. But there has to be agreement as to the methods and criteria to apply. For the United Stat...

  12. The impact of the current defense build-down

    Ronnie Lowenstein; Richard Peach

    1992-01-01

    For the third time since the end of World War II, the United States is engaged in a long-term defense build-down. This article provides a broad macroeconomic overview of the current build-down relative to the build-downs following the Korean War and the Vietnam War. In addition, the authors examine regional and industrial impacts of cuts in defense spending.

  13. Economic Impact of Tourism

    Gabriela PĂDURE; Ion Adrian TURTUREANU

    2005-01-01

    As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due to over commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ by man. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact the destination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable to si...

  14. Socio-economic impact

    The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

  15. Economic Impact of Tourism

    Gabriela PĂDURE

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due toover commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ byman. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact thedestination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable to simple tourist activities. On the road to development, tourism products have alsowitnessed some changes. As the world changed and developed, new necessities were identified. As people became more aware, the needs changedand new tourism products were developed to satisfy these new found needs. The last few years have seen the emergence of new areas in tourism like,special interest tourism, green tourism, eco tourism, social tourism and so on.

  16. Economic impact of world mining

    Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

  17. ONTARIO GRAPE PRODUCTION ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Grier, Kevin; Martin, Larry J.; Stiefelmeyer, Kate

    2000-01-01

    This report was undertaken in order to measure the economic impacts of the grape industry on the Ontario economy and the impacts of maintaining the Wine Content Act at the 30% level. It will also provide an estimate of the benefits to grape growers and Ontario of increasing the requirements of the Wine Content Act to 75%. Specifically, the objectives are: 1. To determine the current contribution of the processing grape industry to the economy of Ontario. 2. To estimate the economic effects of...

  18. Amphibian immune defenses against chytridiomycosis: impacts of changing environments.

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Ramsey, Jeremy P; Pask, James D; Reinert, Laura K; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2011-10-01

    Eco-immunology is the field of study that attempts to understand the functions of the immune system in the context of the host's environment. Amphibians are currently suffering devastating declines and extinctions in nearly all parts of the world due to the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Because chytridiomycosis is a skin infection and remains confined to the skin, immune defenses of the skin are critical for survival. Skin defenses include secreted antimicrobial peptides and immunoglobulins as well as antifungal metabolites produced by symbiotic skin bacteria. Low temperatures, toxic chemicals, and stress inhibit the immune system and may impair natural defenses against B. dendrobatidis. Tadpoles' mouth parts can be infected by B. dendrobatidis. Damage to the mouth parts can impair growth, and the affected tadpoles maintain the pathogen in the environment even when adults have dispersed. Newly metamorphosing frogs appear to be especially vulnerable to infection and to the lethal effects of this pathogen because the immune system undergoes a dramatic reorganization at metamorphosis, and postmetamorphic defenses are not yet mature. Here we review our current understanding of amphibian immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis and the ability of the pathogen to resist those defenses. We also briefly review what is known about the impacts of temperature, environmental chemicals, and stress on the host-pathogen interactions and suggest future directions for research. PMID:21816807

  19. Economic impact of RVF outbreaks

    Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Chevalier, Véronique; Peyre, Marisa; Abdo-Salem, Shaïf; Bonnet, Pierre; Roger, François

    2012-01-01

    Dwarfing the direct losses due to ruminant abortions and flock mortality, the main economic impact of RVF is systemic and ensues from the trade restrictions aimed at its containment. Indeed, past outbreaks of RVF in East Africa and Middle East came as disturbing events in a commercial context of high specialization in trade of small ruminants and interdependence between East-African exporters and the Middle-Eastern importing countries. The two successive bans imposed by Middle-Eastern countri...

  20. 77 FR 59397 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-09-27

    ... UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its economic impact procedures. A draft of the proposed economic impact procedures can be accessed at the following location:...

  1. Economic impact of PCI remedies

    The paper first outlines the data base on which the economic evaluation is performed. It includes: modifications of the design of the fuel; preconditioning of the fuel; ramping limitations; in-core fuel management modifications. The economic assumptions on which the study is performed are also outlined. They are representative of a PWR situation. For what fuel design modifications are concerned, some have a minor cost impact (e.g. pellet density, pellet length to diameter ratio, gap size, etc...), while some others may have a quite large impact on the fissile material cost (e.g. duplex pellet), the fabrication cost (e.g. coating of the cladding ID) or the reprocessing cost (e.g. interlayer between pellet and cladding). The preconditioning of the fuel may require to run the reactor in a mode unrelated to the energy demand. This aspect can be minimized by a proper adjustment of in-core fuel management. The ramping limitation is the most usually adopted approach. Different cases are investigated and the impact on generating cost is discussed. The in-core fuel management can also contribute to a better ramping performance of the fuel. Exemplative cases show that this leads to a minimum cost penalty. (author)

  2. Economic Impact of Lyme Disease

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Martin I Meltzer; Peña, César A.; Hopkins, Annette B.; Wroth, Lane; Fix, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the economic impact of Lyme disease (LD), the most common vectorborne inflammatory disease in the United States, cost data were collected in 5 counties of the Maryland Eastern Shore from 1997 to 2000. Patients were divided into 5 diagnosis groups, clinically defined early-stage LD, clinically defined late-stage LD, suspected LD, tick bite, and other related complaints. From 1997 to 2000, the mean per patient direct medical cost of early-stage LD decreased from $1,609 to $464 (p

  3. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  4. The impact of trade on economic growth

    Leitão, Nuno Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of marginal intra-industry trade on economic growth. The manuscript questions the economic growth exogenous models. It introduces new proxies to explain the economic growth as in marginal intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The change of intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevant theoretical hyp...

  5. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    2010-01-01

    ... facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair...

  6. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; Ganse, Éric; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, Thomas; Poley, Marten; Salminen, Seppo; Nuijten, Mark

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to est...

  7. The incidence of public expenditure for defense and security on Colombian economic growth 1970-2003

    Alexander Cotte Poveda; Maria Fernanda Mera González

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the major effects of public military forces expenditure on Colombia economic growth during 1970-2003 span period. Time series methodology was used for economic data, allowing for determining the several different coefficients and final contribution to capital product, employment, defense expenditure (DE), security expenditure (SE) and public forces expenditure (PFE). It was found empirical evidence documenting that there is no positive and systematic relati...

  8. 78 FR 67925 - Transfer of Real Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development

    2013-11-13

    ... process it will follow in the development of such regulations (65 FR 13735). DOE has examined today's rule...-AA82 Transfer of Real Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development AGENCY... final rule published on February 29, 2000, 65 FR 10685, as final, with changes. The final...

  9. Economic and Social Impacts of the Media

    DellaVigna, Stefano; La Ferrara, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    We review the literature on the impact of exposure to the media. We cast a wide net and cover media impacts on education, family choices, labor and migration decisions, environmental choices, health, crime, public economics, attitudes, consumption and savings, and development economics. We stress five themes. First, the demand for entertainment plays a key role, with the economic impacts emerging largely as by-products. Second, to understand the media effects one cannot just focus on the dire...

  10. Economic and Social Impacts of the Media

    DellaVigna, Stefano; La Ferrara, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    In this survey, we review the literature on the impact of exposure to the media. We cast a wide net and cover media impacts on education, family choices, labor and migration decisions, environmental choices, health, crime, public economics, attitudes, consumption and savings, and development economics. We stress five themes. First, the demand for entertainment plays a key role, with the economic impacts emerging largely as by-products. Second, to understand the media effects one cannot just f...

  11. Supplemental environmental impact statement - defense waste processing facility

    This document supplements the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE Issued in 1982 (DOE/EIS-0082) to construct and operate the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a major DOE installation in southwestern South Carolina. That EIS supported the decision to construct and operate the DWPF to immobilize high-level waste generated as a result of nuclear materials processing at SRS. The DWPF would use a vitrification process to incorporate the radioactive waste into borosilicate glass and seal it in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal at a permanent geologic repository. The DWPF is now mostly constructed and nearly ready for full operation. However, DOE has made design changes to the DWPF since the 1982 EIS to improve efficiency and safety of the facility. Each of these modifications was subjected to appropriate NEPA review. The purpose of this Supplemental EIS is to assist DOE in deciding whether and how to proceed with operation of the DWPF as modified since 1982 while ensuring appropriate consideration of potential environmental effects. In this document, DOE assesses the potential environmental impacts of completing and operating the DWPF in light of these design changes, examines the impact of alternatives, and identifies potential actions to be taken to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, and health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  12. 76 FR 79679 - Economic Impact Policy

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811...

  13. 75 FR 20993 - Economic Impact Policy

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Room 1238, Washington, DC...

  14. 75 FR 27778 - Economic Impact Policy

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of... this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue, NW., Room...

  15. Impact of solar-energy development. The aggregate impact on basic economic objectives

    Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

    Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative programs are presented. Short run and long run impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing rock are distinguished. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficienty, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense.

  16. Economic impacts of climate change

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will probably have a limited impact on the economy and human welfare in the 21st century. The initial impacts of climate change may well be positive. In the long run, the negative impacts dominate the positive ones. Negative impacts will be substantially greater in poorer, hotter, and lower-lying countries. Poverty reduction complements greenhouse gas emissions reduction as a means to reduce climate change impacts. Climate change may affect the growth rate of the economy and ma...

  17. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  18. Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region

    The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts

  19. Economic Impact of FMD in Chazhoor Panchayath

    Litty Mathew and Deepa G Menon

    2008-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is probably the most important livestock disease in the world in terms of economic impact. Of all the vesicular diseases prevalent in India, FMD remains the greatest and most feared scourge. In Chazhoor Panchayat, 62 animals were affected with FMD, out of which 28 were vaccinated. The economic loss was calculated taking into consideration milk loss, losses due to abortion and treatment charges. The total economic loss was calculated as Rs 313900/- out of which loss in m...

  20. The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism

    Arroyo, Gloria M; San Buenaventura, Mariano

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and social impact of tourism in Pagsanjan in which tourism development project is located. Results show that the project’s various significant impacts include increases in employment and income and stimulation of political and women’s participation. While its impact on environment and on the people’s social life has been a mixture of positive and negative results, its impact on income distribution has been trifling. To maximize the tourism multiplier, the pape...

  1. The Economic Impact of Climate Change

    TOL, Richard S.J.

    2008-01-01

    I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates show that climate change initially improves economic welfare. However, these benefits are sunk. Impacts would be pr...

  2. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories

    Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

  3. Defense-Waste-Processing Faclity, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC: Draft environmental impact statement

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103 m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

  4. Global economic impacts of severe Space Weather.

    Schulte In Den Baeumen, Hagen; Cairns, Iver

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) strong enough to create electromagnetic effects at latitudes below the auroral oval are frequent events, and could have substantial impacts on electric power transmission and telecommunication grids. Modern society’s heavy reliance on these domestic and international networks increases our susceptibility to such a severe Space Weather event. Using a new high-resolution model of the global economy we simulate the economic impact of large CMEs for 3 different planetary orientations. We account for the economic impacts within the countries directly affected as well as the post-disaster economic shock in partner economies through international trade. For the CMEs modeled the total global economic impacts would range from US 380 billion to US 1 trillion. Of this total economic shock 50 % would be felt in countries outside the zone of direct impact, leading to a loss in global GDP of 0.1 - 1 %. A severe Space Weather event could lead to global economic damages of the same order as other weather disasters, climate change, and extreme financial crisis.

  5. Regional economic impact of oil spills

    An approach is demonstrated of coupling an environmental model to input-output analysis which aims to quantify the regional economic impact of an environmental accident. The model is implemented with the data of a potential oil spill interacting with the salmon aquaculture industry in Northern Norway. The production loss in salmon aquaculture and the regional income impact is computed and discussed. The approach used in this article could be a model for estimating the regional socio-economic impact of environmental factors like water and air pollution. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs

  6. The economic impact of molecular modelling

    Goldbeck, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The evidence for economic impact of molecular modelling of chemicals and materials is investigated, including the mechanisms by which impact is achieved and how it is measured. The impact pathway is followed from the fundamental theories via the users of software to the researchers that utilise the results and to new, engineered products. While a quantification of the impact of one methodology is very difficult, it has been possible to consider measures of impact a...

  7. How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?

    Foss, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis...... may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all...... these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding...

  8. The impact of economic globalisation on health.

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches. PMID:16532301

  9. The Impact of Checklist-Based Training on Teachers' Use of the Zone Defense Schedule

    Casey, Amy M.; McWilliam, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the impact of checklist-based training on teaching teams' use of the zone defense schedule. Three teaching teams (lead teacher plus 2 assistant teachers) in an inclusive early childhood program participated. A multiple baseline design across teams was used to determine whether accurate implementation of the zone defense schedule…

  10. The Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Immigration

    Bolin, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Immigration is a hotly contested policy issue in the United States. Diametrically opposed advocacy groups exchange counterclaims on immigration’s blessings or banes, sometimes with little pretext of objectivity. However, recent decades have also seen a growing body of nonpartisan scholarly analysis of immigration’s fiscal and economic impact in the US. An exploration of such study finds that the preponderance of evidence points to positive net fiscal and economic impacts—albeit modest ones—an...

  11. Wind Power: The Economic Impact of Intermittency

    Kooten, van, K.

    2009-01-01

    Wind is the fastest growing renewable energy source for generating electricity, but economic research lags behind. In this study, therefore, we examine the economics of integrating large-scale wind energy into an existing electrical grid. Using a simple grid management model to investigate the impact of various levels of wind penetration on grid management costs, we show that costs of reducing CO2 emissions by relying more on wind power depend on the generation mix of the existing electrical ...

  12. Economic Impacts of Immigration: A Survey

    Sari Pekkala

    2005-01-01

    This survey presents findings from recent empirical studies on economic impacts of immigration with particular emphasis on European and Nordic countries. The survey consists of three parts. First, we look at the extent of immigration as an economic phenomenon in various host countries. The second part deals with the assimilation of immigrant workers in host country labor markets and the use of social benefits by immigrants. Third, the effect of immigration on natives? labor market outcomes is...

  13. Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project

    Srinivasan KANNAN

    2007-01-01

    Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

  14. Assessing the economic impacts of ICT

    Smith, Keith

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a wide-ranging overview of issues related to the economic impacts of ICT. It discusses the broad issues of theory and method involved in thinking about a new radical technology, such as ICT, in economic change. However this discussion is extended in several directions – into a discussion of statistical and measurement issues, into an overview of the empirical dimensions of ICT in economic growth both at OECD and European levels, and into a discussion of the nature of ICT as a te...

  15. 78 FR 39728 - Economic Impact Policy

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has.... James Cruse, Senior Vice President, Policy and Planning. BILLING CODE 6690-01-P...

  16. 77 FR 69453 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $20.4 million long- term guarantee to support...

  17. 76 FR 54467 - Economic Impact Policy

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $25.1 million guarantee to support the U.S....

  18. 78 FR 30920 - Economic Impact Policy

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $650 million long- term guarantee or direct...

  19. 77 FR 68776 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $135 million direct loan to support the export...

  20. 77 FR 29344 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $4.3 billion direct loan to support the export...

  1. 77 FR 3772 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application to support the export of approximately $750 million in...

  2. 78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank United is re-notifying this transaction due to a request for increased financing. The foreign borrower is requesting a $225 million...

  3. 77 FR 36536 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $22.5 million working capital guarantee to...

  4. 77 FR 65686 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $14 million loan guarantee to support the...

  5. 78 FR 11884 - Economic Impact Policy

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $500 million direct loan to support the $325 million export of U.S....

  6. 77 FR 47840 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank United is re-notifying this transaction due to a request for increased financing. The foreign borrower...

  7. 77 FR 77078 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $448 million loan guarantee to support the export of approximately...

  8. 77 FR 40612 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $694 million long- term guarantee to support...

  9. 75 FR 148 - Economic Impact Policy

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $70 million direct loan to support the export...

  10. 77 FR 53201 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $21 million guarantee to support the $19 million export of a wire rod mill...

  11. 77 FR 44614 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application to support the export of approximately $2.3 billion in...

  12. 75 FR 28021 - Economic Impact Policy

    2010-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $400 million long- term ] guarantee to support...

  13. 75 FR 24700 - Economic Impact Policy

    2010-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application to provide short-term insurance support for a...

  14. 78 FR 37539 - Economic Impact Policy

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $63 million loan guarantee to support the export of approximately $74...

  15. 75 FR 48333 - Economic Impact Policy

    2010-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $53 million long- term guarantee to support the export...

  16. 77 FR 26277 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $35 million transaction specific working...

  17. 78 FR 12316 - Economic Impact Policy

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $115 million direct loan to support the export of approximately $100...

  18. 77 FR 6563 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $1.74 billion loan to support the export...

  19. 77 FR 23247 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application to support the export of approximately $112 million in...

  20. 76 FR 28225 - Economic Impact Policy

    2011-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $47 million long- term guarantee to support...

  1. 77 FR 21981 - Economic Impact Policy

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $19.5 million long- term guarantee to support...

  2. 78 FR 34660 - Economic Impact Policy

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $99 million comprehensive loan guarantee to support the export...

  3. The Economic Impact of Colleges and Universities

    Siegfried, John J.; Sanderson, Allen R.; McHenry, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This essay describes methodological approaches and pitfalls common to studies of the economic impact of colleges and universities. Such studies often claim local benefits that imply annualized rates of return on local investment exceeding 100 percent. We address problems in these studies pertaining to the specification of the counterfactual, the…

  4. Economic Impact: Methodology and Overall Findings

    Dash, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes five phases of a comprehensive Economic Impact Study conducted by the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics (NCSSM) from 2009-2011. The methodology and assumptions of those analyses is summarized for those wishing to conduct similar studies. The paper also documents highlighted results, such as the school's…

  5. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness

    Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

  6. 77 FR 42271 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    2012-07-18

    ... information on the potential market impact of the quantities associated with the two material research and... Bureau of Industry and Security National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Supplement to the Fiscal Year 2013 Annual...

  7. Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    Listl, S; Galloway, J; Mossey, P A; Marcenes, W

    2015-10-01

    Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs of dental diseases worldwide to approximate the global economic impact. Estimation of direct treatment costs was based on a systematic approach. For estimation of indirect costs, an approach suggested by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health was employed, which factored in 2010 values of gross domestic product per capita as provided by the International Monetary Fund and oral burden of disease estimates from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Direct treatment costs due to dental diseases worldwide were estimated at US$298 billion yearly, corresponding to an average of 4.6% of global health expenditure. Indirect costs due to dental diseases worldwide amounted to US$144 billion yearly, corresponding to economic losses within the range of the 10 most frequent global causes of death. Within the limitations of currently available data sources and methodologies, these findings suggest that the global economic impact of dental diseases amounted to US$442 billion in 2010. Improvements in population oral health may imply substantial economic benefits not only in terms of reduced treatment costs but also because of fewer productivity losses in the labor market. PMID:26318590

  8. Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

  9. Economic impacts of deforestation in Europe

    Assessments of the economic impacts of the deterioration of European forests are being made from two points of view - the marketing of wood products and the potential economic benefits which can possibly be derived from a healthy environment. This article considers the principal results of these studies and evaluates their limitations and usefulness. In reviewing some scientific aspects of current debate on the probable causes of deforestation, as well as, in examining government efforts towards air pollution abatement, the article makes reference to tabled data on deforestation in Europe. Overall, the results of economic impacts studies based on the use of simulation models indicate a significant reduction in local supplies to the European wood products industry thus resulting in a dramatic drop in world market share and consequent market instability. Economic losses due to the inability to capitalize on healthy forests are valued in the order of billions of dollars per year in terms of the loss of business in the wood products and commercial-recreational sectors. While pointing out the uncertainties involved in the formulation of these assessments, the article also suggests how their results can constitute useful guidelines in cost benefit analyses of proposed government interventions. A discussion is made of the efficacy of some of these interventions now being considered aimed at reforestation and air pollution abatement

  10. Broad economic impact of nuclear power

    The decision to adopt, expand or reject a nuclear programme has implications that go beyond economic considerations limited to the cost of electricity produced. This report attempts to illustrate the treatment of macroeconomic factors in the decision-making process of various countries, and discusses the macroeconomic impacts of nuclear power, such as employment, balance of payments, security of supply, as well as environmental, health and socio-cultural issues. 274 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs., 9 appendices

  11. The Economic Impacts of Self-Employment

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Fleming, David A.; Rupasingha, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Even as self-employment continues to increase, policymakers remain largely unaware of this trend and fail to see it as an opportunity for addressing enduring joblessness. In part, this is explained by limited data on the self-employed and by widespread perceptions that returns to self-employment are low; that the self-employed are merely patching together piecemeal work opportunities requiring limited skills; and that there are no local economic impacts or spillover benefits into other sector...

  12. Economic impact of uranium mining in Texas

    The principal economic impacts are the result of three flows of money from the industry into the remainder of the state's economy. These are: money paid to individuals (personal income); money paid to other businesses (business income); and money paid to state and local governments (government revenues). Growth has come in a largely rural, seven-county area that lies within the triangle formed by the Laredo, San Antonio, and Corpus Christi metropolitan areas. 4 refs

  13. Above- and belowground herbivory jointly impact defense and seed dispersal traits in Taraxacum officinale

    de la Pena, Eduardo; Bonte, Dries

    2014-01-01

    Plants are able to cope with herbivores by inducing defensive traits or growth responses that allow them to reduce or avoid the impact of herbivores. Since above- and belowground herbivores differ substantially in life-history traits, for example feeding types, and their spatial distribution, it is likely that they induce different responses in plants. Moreover, strong interactive effects on defense and plant growth are expected when above- and belowground herbivores are jointly present. The ...

  14. 77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    2012-03-20

    ... the three material research and development projects will depend on the market for the materials... the potential market impact of the quantities associated with the three material research and... Bureau of Industry and Security National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for...

  15. 78 FR 68028 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...

    2013-11-13

    ... research and development projects. Public comments are an important element of the Committee's market... Bureau of Industry and Security National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of the Proposed Fiscal Year 2015 Annual Materials Plan...

  16. Socio-economic expenditure impacts report

    The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

  17. An economic analysis of commercially based tactical vehicles acquisition for the Department of Defense

    Williams, Delaney C.

    2001-01-01

    As defense budgets decline and traditional defense industry supplies downsize and consolidate, many believe that the Department of Defense (DoD) must continue to increase its business activities in the commercial marketplace. This thesis is an examination of one such venture, as a result of acquisition reform, that explores the viability of using commercially produced vehicles for military use in the Department of Defense as light tactical trucks. The National Automotive Center (NAC) has init...

  18. Social and economic impacts of climate.

    Carleton, Tamma A; Hsiang, Solomon M

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact. For example, we compute that temperature depresses current U.S. maize yields by ~48%, warming since 1980 elevated conflict risk in Africa by ~11%, and future warming may slow global economic growth rates by ~0.28 percentage points per year. In general, we estimate that the economic and social burden of current climates tends to be comparable in magnitude to the additional projected impact caused by future anthropogenic climate changes. Overall, findings from this literature point to climate as an important influence on the historical evolution of the global economy, they should inform how we respond to modern climatic conditions, and they can guide how we predict the consequences of future climate changes. PMID:27609899

  19. The evaluation of the impact of institutional environment on economics

    Šeputienė, Janina

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation investigates the impact of institutional environment on economics, considering the impact of international trade and geography factors as well. Aforementioned factors are called “deep determinants” of economic development, as they influence proximate determinants of economic growth – investments, human capital, and technology. The main object of research is the impact of institutional environment on countries’ economics. The primary aim is to reason the impact of institutiona...

  20. Climate Change: Socio-Economic impacts and violent conflict

    Ierland EC; Klaassen MG; Nierop T; van der Wusten H; PB-NOP; LUW

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a literature study on the socio economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect. The socio economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors in chapter 2 of the study. The impacts on property, ecos

  1. The economic impacts of the tobacco settlement.

    Cutler, David M; Gruber, Jonathan; Hartman, Raymond S; Landrum, Mary Beth; Newhouse, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2002-01-01

    Recent litigation against the major tobacco companies culminated in a master settlement agreement (MSA) under which the participating companies agreed to compensate most states for Medicaid expenses. Here the terms of the settlement are outlined and its economic implications analyzed using data from Massachusetts. The financial compensation to Massachusetts (and other states) under the MSA is substantial. However, this compensation is dwarfed by the value of the health impacts induced by the settlement. Specifically, Medicaid spending will fall, but only by a modest amount. More importantly, the value of health benefits ($65 billion through 2025 in 1999 dollars) from increased longevity is an order of magnitude greater than any other impacts or payments. The net efficiency implications of the settlement turn mainly on a comparison of the value of these health benefits relative to a valuation of the foregone pleasure of smoking. To the extent that the value of the health benefits is not offset by the value of the pleasure foregone, the economic impacts of the MSA will include a share of these health benefits. PMID:11887906

  2. The Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense surveys: lasting impacts.

    Underwood, Barbara A

    2005-05-01

    The Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND) Surveys provided previously unavailable representative information on the food and nutrition situations of military or civilian populations in 33 developing countries. Information on related social and economic conditions also were assessed. These data provided a framework for planning follow-up programs to correct problems identified and to prevent them from recurring, such as fortification of salt with iodine and sugar with vitamin A. Educational materials specific to the nutrient content of local foods, dietary patterns, and availability within countries and cultures were also developed, such as food composition tables and dietary guidelines. In-country scientists were motivated to continue nutrition research, and, in several countries, institutes and departments of nutrition evolved. Impact was documented by improved nutritional status in several countries, although success is not always attributed directly to the impetus provided through the ICNND Surveys. Furthermore, the surveys and their leaders provided inspiration and role models for aspiring young nutritionists both within their own countries and internationally. PMID:15867321

  3. Economic impact of potential NORM regulations

    Oil and gas field wastes and sites contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have quickly become a focus of substantial attention by regulators both at the state and federal level. Although currently regulated in a number of states, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has indicated a desire to develop federal regulations to address management and disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes. This paper provides a brief overview of current state NORM regulations, currently available technologies for managing and disposing NORM wastes, and the cost of employing these techniques. Based on these characterizations and alternative assumptions about the volume of NORM wastes, four alternative scenarios have been developed to bracket potential future NORM requirements. These scenarios have been used is the basis for an analysis of the potential economic and supply impacts of NORM requirements on the U.S. oil and gas industry. The results illustrate that a reasonable approach to regulation that focuses only on those NORM wastes that pose a risk and allows producers to use safe, low cost disposal methods (downhole or other) would have minimal economic impacts on the oil and gas industry. A very stringent regulatory approach that covered large volumes of wastes, required the use of higher cost disposal techniques, and required extensive site clean-up activities could have a substantial economic impact, resulting in a loss of up to 20 percent of U.S. oil production and 8 percent of U.S. gas production by 2000. The costs of compliance with these alternative approaches could range from $71 million to over $14 billion annually. Between these two cases lies the opportunity for regulators to develop requirements for management and disposal of NORM wastes that will address any environmental and human health risks posed at industry sites without imposing unnecessarily costly regulations on the U.S. oil and gas E ampersand P industry

  4. SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience

    Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

    2013-12-01

    Business interruption (BI) losses for the SAFRR tsunami scenario are derived from the forecasted physical damages of about 100 million at the Ports of Los Angeles (LA) and Long Beach (LB), and 700 million in marina damages, and 2 billion in inundated property damages along the California coast. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction in California's gross domestic product (GDP). The analysis involves several steps. First, estimates are made of immediate business interruption losses due to physical damage to facilities or to disruption of production. Second, total economic impacts (consisting of both direct and indirect effects) are measured by a general equilibrium (quantity and price multiplier effects) of lost production in other sectors through ripple effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. Third, many types of resilience are applied to demonstrate their potential reductions of the impacts. At the Ports of LA and LB, a two-day port shutdown, cargo losses, and additional terminal downtimes would expose 1.2 billion of trade (import and export) value associated with over 4 billion of BI losses. The sectors potentially most affected by trade disruptions are leather, metal, and motor vehicle manufacturing. Excess capacity, inventories, export conversion, and conservation could reduce the direct trade impacts by 85%. Production recapture alone (including clearing the backlog of waiting ships) could reduce BI losses by 85%. The Port of LA commercial fishing would be subject to damages to the fleet, perished fish that cannot be landed, and lost fishing days. Although BI losses are relatively small, the southern Californian fishing sector could incur a 4% drop in output. The impacts would depend on the speed at which boats are repaired and whether lost fishing days can be made up. Ship-building and repair could also be negatively affected, but these impacts would be offset somewhat by reconstruction. Effects on commercial fishing in other locations

  5. The Impact of TTIP: The underlying economic model and comparisons

    Pelkmans, Jacques; Lejour, Arjan; Schrefler, Lorna; Mustilli, Federica; Timini, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    What are the economic and other impacts of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership? At the request of the European Parliament, CEPS has provided an appraisal of the TTIP Impact Assessment carried out by the European Commission, with special elaboration of the underlying economic model. The methodology applied by the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) for this economic modelling is analysed in depth, together with the assumptions used to make TTIP amenable to an economic app...

  6. Streamlining Administrative Procedures at the Defense Language Institute: The Strategic Impact Model in Action

    Oded, Yaniv; Su, Bude

    2010-01-01

    Performance at the Defense Language Institute was examined through the prism of human performance technology and the strategic impact model. This examination revealed performance deficiencies in the administrative realm that required mainly a noninstructional intervention. A systematic analysis showed that digitizing administrative procedures…

  7. The economic impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs

    Brander, Luke M.; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.; van Beukering, Pieter J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Because ocean acidification has only recently been recognized as a problem caused by CO2 emissions, impact studies are still rare and estimates of the economic impact are absent. This paper estimates the economic impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs which are generally considered to be economically as well as ecologically important ecosystems. First, we conduct an impact assessment in which atmospheric concentration of CO2 is linked to ocean acidity causing coral reef area loss. Next,...

  8. External State Debts and their Impact on Economic Security

    Bidenko, Andriy; Galushko, Olena

    2013-01-01

    Theses are devoted to problem of state debts growing and their impact on economic security. Economic essence of state debts and methods of state debts management are considered. Dynamics of state debts in Ukraine is analyzed. Role of state debts in economy and their impact on economic security are discussed.

  9. Local economic impact of nuclear power

    The local economic impact of nuclear installations is examined and the conclusion reached that much of the subsequent area growth may be coincidental to the facility. Nuclear siting criteria favor proximity to a regional power grid, abundant water for cooling, and extensive vacant land with a major access road. These criteria coincide with the characteristics of commuter suburbs, centers for retirement, and recreation areas. Clustering of nuclear units introduces an extraordinary level of new construction, office requirements, and capital. Economic changes will occur at the start and completion of the construction stage and at the time of decommissioning the facility. Past experiences are detailed in terms of employment, payroll, housing, public services, and procurement. When construction is completed, employment falls to a relatively low level. Proximity to the plant offers no advantage in terms of local power rates. While nuclear facilities do not preclude other development in the area, there are restrictions on access, regulatory agencies may reject absorbing the cost of public use as a business expense in the rate structure, and security measures may constrain public use. There is pressure for tax equalization laws to compensate communities for the loss of potential property tax revenues. Some agencies (e.g., the Tennessee Valley Authority) make in-lieu-of-tax payments, while some plants have produced tax benefits large enough to effect significant public improvements. 8 references

  10. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  11. The Economic Impact of Weight Regain

    Sheppard, Caroline E.; Lester, Erica L. W.; Chuck, Anderson W.; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer; de Gara, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Obesity is well known for being associated with significant economic repercussions. Bariatric surgery is the only evidence-based solution to this problem as well as a cost-effective method of addressing the concern. Numerous authors have calculated the cost effectiveness and cost savings of bariatric surgery; however, to date the economic impact of weight regain as a component of overall cost has not been addressed. Methods. The literature search was conducted to elucidate the direct costs of obesity and primary bariatric surgery, the rate of weight recidivism and surgical revision, and any costs therein. Results. The quoted cost of obesity in Canada was $2.0 billion–$6.7 billion in 2013 CAD. The median percentage of bariatric procedures that fail due to weight gain or insufficient weight loss is 20% (average: 21.1% ± 10.1%, range: 5.2–39, n = 10). Revision of primary surgeries on average ranges from 2.5% to 18.4%, and depending on the procedure accounts for an additional cost between $14,000 and $50,000 USD per patient. Discussion. There was a significant deficit of the literature pertaining to the cost of revision surgery as compared with primary bariatric surgery. As such, the cycle of weight recidivism and bariatric revisions has not as of yet been introduced into any previous cost analysis of bariatric surgery. PMID:24454339

  12. Economic impacts of climate change in Australia: framework and analysis

    Full text: There is growing interest in understanding the potential impacts of climate change in Australia, and especially the economic impacts of 'inaction'. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the possible economic impacts of future climate change in Australia is undertaken using ABARE's general equilibrium model of the global economy, GTEM. In order to understand the potential economy-wide economic impacts, the broad climatic trends that Australia is likely to experience over the next several decades are canvassed and the potential economic and non-economic impacts on key risk areas, such as water resources, agriculture and forests, health, industry and human settlements and the ecosystems, are identified. A more detailed analysis of the economic impacts of climate change are undertaken by developing two case studies. In the first case study, the economic impact of climate change and reduced water availability on the agricultural sector is assessed in the Murray-Darling Basin. In the second case study, the sectoral economic impacts on the Australian resources sector of a projected decline in global economic activity due to climate change is analysed. The key areas of required development to more fully understand the economy-wide and sectoral impacts of climate change are also discussed including issues associated with estimating both non-market and market impacts. Finally, an analytical framework for undertaking integrated assessment of climate change impacts domestically and globally is developed

  13. Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2009-05-29

    This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

  14. Economic impact of syndesmosis hardware removal.

    Lalli, Trapper A J; Matthews, Leslie J; Hanselman, Andrew E; Hubbard, David F; Bramer, Michelle A; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    Ankle syndesmosis injuries are commonly seen with 5-10% of sprains and 10% of ankle fractures involving injury to the ankle syndesmosis. Anatomic reduction has been shown to be the most important predictor of clinical outcomes. Optimal surgical management has been a subject of debate in the literature. The method of fixation, number of screws, screw size, and number of cortices are all controversial. Postoperative hardware removal has also been widely debated in the literature. Some surgeons advocate for elective hardware removal prior to resuming full weightbearing. Returning to the operating room for elective hardware removal results in increased cost to the patient, potential for infection or complication(s), and missed work days for the patient. Suture button devices and bioabsorbable screw fixation present other options, but cortical screw fixation remains the gold standard. This retrospective review was designed to evaluate the economic impact of a second operative procedure for elective removal of 3.5mm cortical syndesmosis screws. Two hundred and two patients with ICD-9 code for "open treatment of distal tibiofibular joint (syndesmosis) disruption" were identified. The medical records were reviewed for those who underwent elective syndesmosis hardware removal. The primary outcome measurements included total hospital billing charges and total hospital billing collection. Secondary outcome measurements included average individual patient operative costs and average operating room time. Fifty-six patients were included in the study. Our institution billed a total of $188,271 (USD) and collected $106,284 (55%). The average individual patient operating room cost was $3579. The average operating room time was 67.9 min. To the best of our knowledge, no study has previously provided cost associated with syndesmosis hardware removal. Our study shows elective syndesmosis hardware removal places substantial economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system

  15. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including “all” papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (...

  16. Analysis of Department of Defense social media policy and its impact on operational security

    Leonhardi, Eric V.; Murphy, Mark; Kim, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The emergence and rapid adoption of social media by society has forced the Department of Defense (DOD) to adapt, and ultimately develop and incorporate, social media policy into its cybersecurity strategy. While social media has influenced DOD strategy, it has also had a direct impact on the organization’s operational security (OPSEC). DOD personnel using social media represent a potential OPSEC risk through the various ways and means ...

  17. A look at local economic impacts

    The benefits of mega-projects such as Hibernia and the Sable Offshore Energy Project on the local economies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were discussed. It was argued that most of the spin-off activities of such mega-projects are realized externally because the projects are driven by external interests and external funding, and are designed for external markets. Few of the short-term activities that can be done locally provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Studies have shown that the impact of mega-projects on smaller economies is mainly on the construction sector and related supplies industries. Another reason why mega-projects have limited real effects on the local economy is that foreign investors have traditional supply sources, often with affiliated companies. Local availability of appropriate skills is yet another potential limiting factor. Moreover, most mega-projects have social, environmental and political consequences that are often under-estimated and ignored. In this author's view, most mega-projects have limited long-term domestic spin-offs. The challenge is to maximize the net benefits, and to minimize the social and environmental costs

  18. The Economic Impact of the Horse Industry in Virginia

    Terance J. Rephann

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of Virginia\\'s horse industry using input-output analysis. Statewide impacts are further disaggregated into three categories: (1) expenditures on horse maintenance and support by horse owners and operations, (2) expenditures on horse shows and competitions, and (3) expenditures associated with pari-mutuel racing activities. Results indicate a total economic impact of 16,091 jobs and $670 million in value-added impact.

  19. 40 CFR 225.3 - Procedure for invoking economic impact.

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 33 CFR 209.120 and 209.145. (b) If the decision of the Chief of Engineers is that ocean... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for invoking economic impact... DUMPING CORPS OF ENGINEERS DREDGED MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.3 Procedure for invoking economic impact....

  20. Socio-Economic Impact of Higher Education in Pakistan

    Anam Azam, Muhammad Rafiq, Fauzia Nazir

    2015-01-01

    In  this study, the socio-economic impact of higher education in Pakistan are studied. The main objective of this study was to examine and analyse the casual relationship between socio/economic impacts in higher education. The study has also highlighted the firm relationship in higher education. The findings showed that there is positive relationship in higher education.

  1. The economic substantiation for creating defense "support zone" of the Arctic region of Russia

    Bryzgalova A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the theoretical foundations of the transition from "continuous" development of the Russian territories of the Far North that proved to be ineffective to the "focal" development based on the concentration of resources within the anchor sectors of the regional economy. The defensive specialisation of the Kola "bearing point" which is a part of the system of eight "bearing zones" located respectively in each of the Arctic regions of Russia is being proved. The value of communication networks in ensuring the effective functioning of naval Arctic closed cities as a core of the defense "bearing point" is discussed from the standpoint of the new economic geography. Рассмотрены теоретические основы перехода от доказавшего свою неэффективность "непрерывного" развития территорий Крайнего Севера России к "очаговому" развитию, основанному на концентрации ресурсов в пределах якорных секторов регионального хозяйства. Доказан оборонный профиль Кольской "опорной точки", входящей в систему восьми "опорных зон", локализованных соответственно в каждом арктическом субъекте Российской Федерации. С позиций новой экономической географии обосновано значение коммуникационной сети для обеспечения эффективного функционирования военно-морских арктических закрытых административно-территориальных образований, выступающих ядром "опорной точки" оборонного значения

  2. The Impact of High School Economics on the College Principles of Economics Course.

    Brasfield, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 1,119 students in introductory college economics courses to determine the impact of high school economics on student achievement. Finds that prior high school economics was positively and significantly related to students grades in both introductory microeconomics and macroeconomics courses. (CFR)

  3. Spatial Variability of Tourism Demand and Differences in Economic Impact in a Rural Economic Development Context

    Das, Biswa R.; Rainey, Daniel V.

    2008-01-01

    Statistically predicted future tourism demand is used to conduct an economic impact analysis in twelve tourism zones in the state of Arkansas. The analysis reveals spatial variability in employment, and output growth that will continue into the future. Tourism has the potential as an economic growth engine for the state, especially in economically disadvantaged regions with long-term benefits.

  4. The Impact Of Economic News On Financial Markets

    Parker, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of economic news, that is, the difference between economic announcements and what was anticipated, on financial markets. The three contributions of this paper are, first, the market expectation is derived from economic derivative prices that allow a full distribution for the market expectation to be derived. Economic derivatives data better predict financial market movements and also allow for testing whether there is information in the high moments of th...

  5. GLOBAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UKRAINE

    ЛУК’ЯНЕНКО, О.Д.; ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет імені Вадима Гетьмана»

    2012-01-01

     Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.  

  6. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  7. Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Italy

    The paper deals with the social and economic dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation in Italy. The ultimate aim of the paper is to provide policy makers and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with climate change impacts and adaptation from an economic perspective. In order to do so, first a conceptual and theoretical framework of the economic assessment of climate change impacts is presented and the state of the art about impact assessment studies is briefly analysed. Then, the Italian case is taken into account, by underlying the main impacts and adaptation challenges that are likely to be implied by climate change in the next decades. The analysis of the Italian case is particularly addressed through the description of the methodology and results of two case studies. The first one, dealing mainly with impact assessment, is carried out at the national level and is part of a EC funded project on Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). The second one is carried out at the local level and focuses on sea level rise impacts and adaptation in a plane south of Rome. The two case studies allow to propose simple and flexible methodologies for the economic impact assessment and the economic valuation of adaptation strategies

  8. The territorial economic impact of entrepreneurial youthfulness

    Lafuente González, Esteban Miguel; Gómez Araujo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and youth population interact to enhance economic performance, and actions oriented to bring down social barriers linked to the fear to entrepreneurial failure are as important as policies focused on access to finance or human capital formation. Entrepreneurship generates opportunities for professional development, social and economic integration, the maintenance of the rural population and the attraction of new residents to these territories. Young entrepreneurs face more th...

  9. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including "all" papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity. PMID:27200030

  10. Impact risk assessment and planetary defense mission planning for asteroid 2015 PDC

    Vardaxis, George; Sherman, Peter; Wie, Bong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integrated utilization of analytic keyhole theory, B-plane mapping, and planetary encounter geometry, augmented by direct numerical simulation, is shown to be useful in determining the impact risk of an asteroid with the Earth on a given encounter, as well on potential future encounters via keyhole passages. The accurate estimation of the impact probability of hazardous asteroids is extremely important for planetary defense mission planning. Asteroids in Earth resonant orbits are particularly troublesome because of the continuous threat they pose in the future. Based on the trajectories of the asteroid and the Earth, feasible mission trajectories can be found to mitigate the impact threat of hazardous asteroids. In order to try to ensure mission success, trajectories are judged based on initial and final mission design parameters that would make the mission easier to complete. Given the potential of a short-warning time scenario, a disruption mission considered in this paper occurs approximately one year prior to the anticipated impact date. Expanding upon the established theory, a computational method is developed to estimate the impact probability of the hazardous asteroid, in order to assess the likelihood of an event, and then investigate the fragmentation of the asteroid due to a disruption mission and analyze its effects on the current and future encounters of the fragments with Earth. A fictional asteroid, designated as 2015 PDC - created as an example asteroid risk exercise for the 2015 Planetary Defence Conference, is used as a reference target asteroid to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of computational tools being developed for impact risk assessment and planetary defense mission planning for a hazardous asteroid or comet.

  11. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  12. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  13. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  14. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  15. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  16. Global Economic Slowdown: It's impact on employment in India

    Mr. S. S. Shimpale

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present global economic crisis has its roots in housing loans issued to many people, by the American financial companies,who have not the repaying capacity. First of all economic recession heated to American economy and after that the major economies of the world were destructed by it. The recession in the US market and the economic slowdown termed as Global recession have engulfed complete world economy with a varying degree of recessional impact.World over the impact has diversified and its impact can be observed from the very fact of falling Stock market. In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction, a general slowdown in economic activity over a period of time.

  17. Economic impact World Rowing Championships 2014

    Faille Deutekom, Marije de la; Verhoogt, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Economische impact World Rowing Championships 2014 Van 24 tot 31 augustus 2014 vond op de Bosbaan in Amsterdam de World Rowing Championships (WRC) plaats. Met het oog op de verdere ontwikkeling van het evenement wil de World Rowing Federation (FISA inzicht krijgen in de economische impact van dit ev

  18. Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system

    Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

  19. Methodology for evaluating economic impacts of transportation

    Huang, Guoxiong

    1990-01-01

    This research addresses two important issues facing transportation economists and planners: the relationship between transportation investment and economic development and the methodology for evaluating transportation projects and programs. Transportation is viewed as an important factor which enters the production functions of firms and the consumption functions of individuals. The demand for and the supply of transportation cannot be determined within the transportation syste...

  20. Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Bangladesh

    DeFrancis, Marc P.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the nonmonetary, financial, and economic costs of poor sanitation in the areas of health, drinking water, and domestic water, as well as user preference and welfare. Financial costs refer to the direct financial expense paid in monetary terms by someone, such as changes in household and government spending and real income losses for households. Nonmonetary costs consist ...

  1. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  2. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs...

  3. AASA Survey: Impact of the Economic Downturn on School Jobs

    AASA, The School Superintendent's Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to gauge how school districts across the country are responding to the current economic downturn, the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) continues to assess various measures of economic impact. Earlier AASA surveys addressed trends in districts' initial responses to the downturn, districts'…

  4. Book review: The economic impacts of natural disasters

    McDermott, Tom

    2013-01-01

    "The Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters." Edited by Debarati Guha-Sapir and Indhira Santos. Oxford Univesity Press. May 2013. --- Since the turn of the millennium, more than one million people have been killed and 2.3 billion others have been directly affected by natural disasters around the world. Economic Impacts presents six national case studies (Bangladesh, Vietnam, India, Nicaragua, Japan and the Netherlands) and seeks to show how household surveys and country-level macroeconomic dat...

  5. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah; Jaafar Mastura; Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Par...

  6. A cognitive and economic decision theory for examining cyber defense strategies.

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Cyber attacks pose a major threat to modern organizations. Little is known about the social aspects of decision making among organizations that face cyber threats, nor do we have empirically-grounded models of the dynamics of cooperative behavior among vulnerable organizations. The effectiveness of cyber defense can likely be enhanced if information and resources are shared among organizations that face similar threats. Three models were created to begin to understand the cognitive and social aspects of cyber cooperation. The first simulated a cooperative cyber security program between two organizations. The second focused on a cyber security training program in which participants interact (and potentially cooperate) to solve problems. The third built upon the first two models and simulates cooperation between organizations in an information-sharing program.

  7. Adapting to Health Impacts of Climate Change in the Department of Defense.

    Chrétien, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes climate change as a threat to its mission and recently issued policy to implement climate change adaptation measures. However, the DoD has not conducted a comprehensive assessment of health-related climate change effects. To catalyze the needed assessment-a first step toward a comprehensive DoD climate change adaptation plan for health-this article discusses the DoD relevance of 3 selected climate change impacts: heat injuries, vector-borne diseases, and extreme weather that could lead to natural disasters. The author uses these examples to propose a comprehensive approach to planning for health-related climate change impacts in the DoD. PMID:27081888

  8. Economic impact World Rowing Championships 2014

    Faille Deutekom, Marije de la; Verhoogt, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Economische impact World Rowing Championships 2014 Van 24 tot 31 augustus 2014 vond op de Bosbaan in Amsterdam de World Rowing Championships (WRC) plaats. Met het oog op de verdere ontwikkeling van het evenement wil de World Rowing Federation (FISA inzicht krijgen in de economische impact van dit evenement. Zij heeft de Hogeschool van Amsterdam in samenwerking met Hogeschool Inholland en Sport2B gevraagd hier onderzoek naar te doen. Daarnaast heeft de FISA enkele aanvullende vragen geformulee...

  9. Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ∼2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789∼919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015∼12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of

  10. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  11. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  12. Climate change impacts on forestry: Economic issues

    Meteorological evidence indicates the likelihood of global climatic warming in the near future. A study was carried out of the economic effects of climate change on the Canadian forestry sector. The measurement of net economic benefits of climate change, and the complexities associated with such measurements are discussed. Assuming a productivity increase of 20% as a result of carbon dioxide doubling, Canada's potential harvests of timber would increase by a total of 7.5%, as a result of less but more productive forest land. An economic analysis was carried out of the shift in timber supply balances due to changes in the US forest sector due to climate change. A decline in US productivity is expected due to lower rainfall and increased desert conditions in many parts of the US. It is not clear whether Canada experiences a net gain or a net loss on account of the climate changes modelled, as in addition to the elasticities of supply and demand, it also depends on existing trade barriers and the extent to which timber production in other countries is affected by climate change. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  14. Social and macro economic impact of closure

    The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

  15. Defensive medicine or economically motivated corruption? A confucian reflection on physician care in China today.

    Chen, Xiao-Yang

    2007-01-01

    In contemporary China, physicians tend to require more diagnostic work-ups and prescribe more expensive medications than are clearly medically indicated. These practices have been interpreted as defensive medicine in response to a rising threat of potential medical malpractice lawsuits. After outlining recent changes in Chinese malpractice law, this essay contends that the overuse of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions cannot be attributed to malpractice concerns alone. These practice patterns are due as well, if not primarily, to the corruption of medical decision-making by physicians being motivated to earn supplementary income, given the constraints of an ill-structured governmental policy by the over-use of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. To respond to these difficulties of Chinese health care policy, China will need not only to reform the particular policies that encourage these behaviors, but also to nurture a moral understanding that can place the pursuit of profit within the pursuit of virtue. This can be done by drawing on Confucian moral resources that integrate the pursuit of profit within an appreciation of benevolence. It is this Confucian moral account that can formulate a medical care policy suitable to China's contemporary market economy. PMID:18027252

  16. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  17. Economic impacts of sanitation in Southeast Asia : summary

    anonymous

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the major health, water, environmental, tourism and other welfare impacts associated with poor sanitation in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. By examining the economic impacts of poor sanitation, and the potential gains from improved sanitation, this study provides important evidence to support further investments in sanitation. The goal of this report is to show decision makers at the country and regional levels how the negative impacts of poor sanitation...

  18. Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Pakistan

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    In Pakistan, the deterioration of the environment continues to harm livelihoods and health, increasing the vulnerability of the nation's poor. It has long been clear that lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities has a wide variety of impacts; however, the data and evidence needed to verify the size of the burden imposed on the people of Pakistan are limited. As a result, inv...

  19. Impact of venture capital on economic development

    Laurinavičius, Antanas

    2014-01-01

    Object of the research is public venture capital as a tool of venture capital market incentive, innovative business start-up financing, and state policy, which helps addressing imperfect/inefficient market situations where private venture capital does not access all market players. Purpose of the research is to reveal the importance of public venture capital to the national venture capital sector, its impact on the economy and, based on the experience of European countries, to create a hypoth...

  20. Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts

    The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict

    The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

  2. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  4. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  5. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  6. Green Jobs in Tennessee: Economic Impact of Green Investments

    Murat Arik

    2011-01-01

    The term green jobs has been widely used to describe jobs in businesses that are particularly related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, or environmental sustainability. The Business and Economic Research Center has partnered with the Tennessee Department of Labor and Workforce Development to estimate the economic impact of six ground-breaking green investments in Tennessee: Hemlock Semiconductor, Wacker Chemie AG, Volkswagen, Nissan Leaf and Storage Battery Manufacturing, Tennessee Sola...

  7. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION AND GOVERNANCE ON LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Armenia ANDRONICEANU

    2013-01-01

    Globalization and the crises context have influenced the local economic development in Romania and determined the government to adapt its policies according to them. This paper presents part of the results of a specific research on the impact of globalization and the government policies to the local economic development. The sample was composed by small and medium size enterprises from Bucharest. They are specialized in export of products from three main areas. The research methodology includ...

  8. The Local Economic Impact of Wind Power Deployment

    May, Nils G.; Nilsen, Øivind Anti

    2015-01-01

    Globally installed wind power capacity has grown tremendously since 2000. This study focuses on the local economic impacts of wind power deployment. A theoretical model shows that wind power deployment is not necessarily driven by locally-accruing economic payoffs, but also by other factors such as emphasis on environmentally-friendly energy production and its associated benefits. The theoretical analysis is followed by an empirical analysis using German county-level panel data...

  9. Valuing the Coast: Economic Impacts of Connecticut's Maritime Industry

    Pomeroy, Robert S.; Nataliya Plesha; Umi Muawanah

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain and document the significance of the maritime industry to Connecticut’s economy. The specific objective was to estimate the total economic impact of maritime industry sectors through the use of an economic model of the Connecticut economy. This study defines the Connecticut maritime industry as including, but not limited to, shipbuilding, commercial fishing, aquaculture, tourism, recreational boating and fishing, marine manufacturing, marine engineering...

  10. Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais

    Maria Inês Lobato; Walter José Koff; Tiago Crestana; Camila Chaves; Jaqueline Salvador; Analídia Rodolpho Petry; Esalba Silveira; Alexandre Annes Henriques; Fábio Cervo; Eduardo Siam Böhme; Raffael Massuda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant dif...

  11. Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact

    Majdzadeh Reza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies.

  12. The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park

    Melville Saayman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

  13. Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct). A software tool for rapidly approximating economic impacts

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Starks, Shirley J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellebracht, Lory A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct) analysis tool that has been in use for the last 5 years to rapidly estimate approximate economic impacts for disruptions due to natural or manmade events. It is based on and derived from the well-known and extensively documented input-output modeling technique initially presented by Leontief and more recently further developed by numerous contributors. REAcct provides county-level economic impact estimates in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment for any area in the United States. The process for using REAcct incorporates geospatial computational tools and site-specific economic data, permitting the identification of geographic impact zones that allow differential magnitude and duration estimates to be specified for regions affected by a simulated or actual event. Using these data as input to REAcct, the number of employees for 39 directly affected economic sectors (including 37 industry production sectors and 2 government sectors) are calculated and aggregated to provide direct impact estimates. Indirect estimates are then calculated using Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) multipliers. The interdependent relationships between critical infrastructures, industries, and markets are captured by the relationships embedded in the inputoutput modeling structure.

  14. Malaria and Climate Change: Discussion on Economic Impacts

    Md. S. Mia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Climate change is a global environmental change that is adversely affecting human health by causing various health impacts in countries throughout the world. Climate is the most influential driving force of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Changes in climate factors substantially affect reproduction, development, distribution and seasonal transmissions of malaria. Climate change increases the outbreak of malaria which causes adverse economic impacts in endemic regions. This study reviews literature related to economic impacts of malaria at different levels such as household and national level. The study also focuses on the impacts of malaria on the economic growth of various nations. Approach: Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Several electronic databases were searched for published literature in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to economic impacts of malaria illness. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Results: The literature review indicates that malaria causes great economic losses at household level through human morbidity and mortality and consequently lower labor productivity, disability and poverty. At the national level, malaria affects negatively the trade, investments, savings and tourism sector. Macroeconomic studies estimated that the annual growth rate of per capita GDP of malaria endemic countries was 0.25-1.3% points lower per year than that of non-malarious countries. Conclusion: Reducing the burden of malaria could help to break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty that contributes to economic growth of the endemic countries. Therefore, further research is urgently needed to

  15. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  17. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

  18. Value Added: The Economic Impact of Public Universities.

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This monograph reports the results of a survey of the economic impact on state and local economies of the 194 member institutions of the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. Analysis of responses (from 111 institutions) is reported in text and graphs. An introductory section notes that the recent emphasis on cutting…

  19. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  20. The Economic Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Cameroon

    Molua, Ernest L.; Lambi, Cornelius M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of climate change on crop farming in Cameroon. The country's economy is predominantly agrarian and agriculture and the exploitation of natural resources remain the driving force for the country's economic development. Fluctuations in national income are due not merely to the decline in world demand for Cameroon's traditional agricultural exports or to mistake...

  1. Study shows major economic impact of higher education

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A new study conducted by the Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service at the University of Virginia provides an unprecedented look at the large impact of Virginia's public colleges, universities, and community colleges on Virginia's economic output, job creation, and state tax revenues.

  2. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON COUNTY ALBA HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Claudia Olimpia MOISA

    2012-01-01

    The present paper, dominated by the global economic crisis effects is and continues to be a critical time for global tourism industry and for Romanian too. This study tries to play on a particular case, Park Hotel, located in Alba Iulia, the impact of this phenomenon over tourist hotel services.

  3. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON COUNTY ALBA HOTEL INDUSTRY

    MOISA Claudia Olimpia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, dominated by the global economic crisis effects is and continues to be a critical time for global tourism industry and for Romanian too. This study tries to play on a particular case, Park Hotel, located in Alba Iulia, the impact of this phenomenon over tourist hotel services.

  4. Clinical and economic impact of etanercept in real-life

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Andersen, Peter Hundevadt; Lorentzen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Real-life data on the therapeutic effectiveness and costs of etanercept are scarce. Objectives: To assess the clinical and economic impact of etanercept in patients with psoriasis in Denmark and Norway. MATERIAL & METHODS: This prospective, non-interventional study in a private dermat...

  5. Criteria for comparing economic impact models of tourism

    Klijs, J.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Korteweg Maris, D.; Bryon, J.

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial differences between models of the economic impacts of tourism. Not only do the nature and precision of results vary, but data demands, complexity and underlying assumptions also differ. Often, it is not clear whether the models chosen are appropriate for the specific situation

  6. Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) Economic Impact Study

    Paff, L. A.; D'Allegro, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) conducted a study to measure the economic impact of the five colleges located in Berks County: Alvernia College, Albright College, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus (Penn State Berks) and Reading Area Community College (RACC). Although many higher…

  7. Wildfire: It's Economic Impact on Grazing Livestock in Northern Nevada

    Honeycutt, S.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate changes and Nevada experiences long severe drought, a key understanding of the economic impacts of wildfire on grazing livestock is essential in the assurance of livestock production in future management of Nevada's rangeland. The focus of this research is to determine the economic impact in the reduction of rangeland available for livestock grazing due to wildfires. The datasets utilized in this research are from 2007 & 2012 and include Bureau of Land Management wildfire, grazing allotments and herd management area geospatial data along with USDA Census of Agriculture, Inventory & Sales Information for cattle & calves, sheep & lambs, and goats. Presented in the results will be the direct, indirect, and induced economic effects of wildfires on rangeland production.

  8. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy

  9. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995

    Lansford, R.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Office of Energy, Science and Technology; Ben-David, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Economics

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency`s far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE`s impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy.

  10. Critical review on the socio-economic impact of tendinopathy

    Chelsea Hopkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no studies that determine the total burden that tendinopathy places on patients and society. A systematic search was conducted to understand the impact of tendinopathy. It demonstrated that the current prevalence is underestimated, particularly in active populations, such as athletes and workers. Search results demonstrate that due to the high prevalence, impact on patients' daily lives and the economic impact due to work-loss, treatments are significantly higher than currently observed. A well-accepted definition by medical professionals and the public will improve documentation and increase awareness, in order to better tackle the disease burden.

  11. The NASA Lewis Research Center: An Economic Impact Study

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), established in 1941, is one of ten NASA research centers in the country. It is situated on 350 acres of land in Cuyahoga County and occupies more than 140 buildings and over 500 specialized research and test facilities. Most of LeRC's facilities are located in the City of Cleveland; some are located within the boundaries of the cities of Fairview Park and Brookpark. LeRC is a lead center for NASA's research, technology, and development in the areas of aeropropulsion and selected space applications. It is a center of excellence for turbomachinery, microgravity fluid and combustion research, and commercial communication. The base research and technology disciplines which serve both aeronautics and space areas include materials and structures, instrumentation and controls, fluid physics, electronics, and computational fluid dynamics. This study investigates LeRC's economic impact on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures LeRC's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they 'ripple' throughout the economy. To fully explain LeRC's overall impact on the region, its contributions in the areas of technology transfer and education are also examined. The study uses a highly credible and widely accepted research methodology. First, regional economic multipliers based on input-output models were used to estimate the effect of LERC spending on the Northeast Ohio economy. Second, the economic models were complemented by interviews with industrial, civic, and university leaders to qualitatively assess LeRC's impact in the areas of technology transfer and education.

  12. The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

  13. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  14. IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

    2011-11-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

  15. Impacts of Antifoam Additions and Argon Bubbling on Defense Waste Processing Facility Reduction/Oxidation

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe+2/ΣFe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program.

  17. Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program

  18. The economic impact of wind industry development in Quebec

    The economic impact of current and future development of wind power in Quebec was discussed. Key events were outlined, beginning with Hydro-Quebec's request for bids in 2003 for 1000 MW of wind power development. More than 4000 MW of power were filed under this call, where 8 projects were selected totalling 990 MW. Both direct and indirect economic impacts were attributed to start-up factories in the Gaspe region and elsewhere across the province. Energy capacity was increased in 2006 by 2,500 MW and is expected to reach more than 4,000 MW by 2015. It was noted that since the government of Quebec chose a non-traditional call for tender to support its emerging industry, it is difficult to attach an exact price tof wind energy, as the bid price included economic development costs associated with regional and provincial requirements. The second part of this document addressed the economic impact of wind industry development from 1997 to 2005, and the anticipated development from 2006 to 2015. Although the economic impact of wind energy development was small for the period 1997-2006, it was important for energy development in the Gaspe region, and established the groundwork for future development and the involvement of local wind tower manufacturers, engineering consulting firms, and the growth of local wind-related businesses in the region. It is anticipated that wind energy development will be very significant in terms of job creation. In addition, Quebec universities are dedicating more resources to training skilled turbine personnel and research in leading-edge fields to improve wind turbine design. It is estimated that $10 million will be paid annually in royalties to municipalities and landowners. In conclusion, from an environmental perspective, it is expected that 4,000 MW of wind capacity will annually produce about 12 TWh of electric energy, and displace an estimated 4 million tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) annually. 17 refs., 16 tabs

  19. Office of Economic Impact and Diversity 2003 annual report

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This report covers a one-year period in which the Office successfully completed several major activities. The Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (ED) is responsible for the development and implementation of Department-wide polices in the areas of small business, diversity and minority economic development. ED oversees civil rights laws, rules, and regulations, and establishes Department-wide civil rights policy. Additionally, ED promotes excellence in the workplace and adheres to the objectives stated below relative to the President’s Management Agenda (PMA): Strategic management of human capital; Competitive sourcing; Improved financial performance; Expanded electronic government, and Budget and performance integration

  20. The economic impact of obesity in the United States

    Hammond, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Ross A Hammond, Ruth LevineEconomic Studies Program, Brookings Institution, Washington DC, USAAbstract: Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US), more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at least four major categories of ec...

  1. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.;

    2014-01-01

    truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can be......Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so that...

  2. The Impact Imperative: A Space Infrastructure Enabling a Multi-Tiered Earth Defense

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Phipps, Claude; Smalley, Larry; Reilly, James; Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Impacting at hypervelocity, an asteroid struck the Earth approximately 65 million years ago in the Yucatan Peninsula a m . This triggered the extinction of almost 70% of the species of life on Earth including the dinosaurs. Other impacts prior to this one have caused even greater extinctions. Preventing collisions with the Earth by hypervelocity asteroids, meteoroids, and comets is the most important immediate space challenge facing human civilization. This is the Impact Imperative. We now believe that while there are about 2000 earth orbit crossing rocks greater than 1 kilometer in diameter, there may be as many as 200,000 or more objects in the 100 m size range. Can anything be done about this fundamental existence question facing our civilization? The answer is a resounding yes! By using an intelligent combination of Earth and space based sensors coupled with an infrastructure of high-energy laser stations and other secondary mitigation options, we can deflect inbound asteroids, meteoroids, and comets and prevent them &om striking the Earth. This can be accomplished by irradiating the surface of an inbound rock with sufficiently intense pulses so that ablation occurs. This ablation acts as a small rocket incrementally changing the shape of the rock's orbit around the Sun. One-kilometer size rocks can be moved sufficiently in about a month while smaller rocks may be moved in a shorter time span. We recommend that space objectives be immediately reprioritized to start us moving quickly towards an infrastructure that will support a multiple option defense capability. Planning and development for a lunar laser facility should be initiated immediately in parallel with other options. All mitigation options are greatly enhanced by robust early warning, detection, and tracking resources to find objects sufficiently prior to Earth orbit passage in time to allow significant intervention. Infrastructure options should include ground, LEO, GEO, Lunar, and libration point

  3. Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies

    This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

  4. Impact of uncertainty in economic projections for stabilization scenarios

    Krakauer, N. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Scenarios for the stabilization of greenhouse gas emissions and/or atmospheric concentrations typically take economic and technological growth, and thus the 'background', no-controls emissions trajectory, as essentially given, most commonly based on one or more of the IPCC SRES scenarios. One limitation of this set of scenarios is that they postulate a rather small range of future economic growth rates, based on extrapolation from recent experience as well as assumed tendencies such as international 'convergence'. Because there is no validated theoretical or empirical method to reliably predict long-term (decade to century) changes in the size and composition of the world economy, the uncertainty in economic path is large and likely understated by any measure derived from the ensemble of SRES scenarios. Considering a wider range of economic trajectories complicates stabilization scenarios. In particular, slow economic growth would imply that future generations will be relatively less able to invest in emissions controls or adapt to detrimental impacts of climate change. I show with a simple integrated assessment model that taking into consideration the possibility of economic slowdown generally heightens the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas emissions now, rather than in future decades, for stabilizing radiative forcing or welfare damage at a given target.

  5. The economic impact of South Africa’s international airports

    Rose Luke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is strongly linked to economic growth and plays a major role in providing greater mobility and choice, leading to an improvement in incomes and welfare. Transport infrastructure such as highways, bridges, ports, airports and railways is critical in achieving economic growth. If the supply of these facilities does not keep up with rising demand, the cost of moving goods will increase, and there will be a downward pressure on profits and growth. Airports play a critical role in generating employment within an economy, creating wealth, contributing to the tax base, stimulating tourism and contributing to world trade. While the latter two are less easily measured, it is possible to determine a base impact that an airport has on an economy by measuring the direct and indirect gross domestic product, employment and taxation impacts. This study quantifies these for the three main international airports in South Africa.

  6. Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund

    The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated

  7. Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund

    Kaiser, M.J.; Olatubi, W.O.; Pulsipher, A.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

    2005-05-01

    The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated. (author)

  8. The Impact of Public Spending on Regional Economic Dynamics

    Henry Antonio Mendoza Tolosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact that public spending and investment have upon economic growth in the departments of Colombia is examined using the results of national accounts for the years 2000-2011. Figures for departmental production by activity, along with change over the period and information for the gross public capital are brought together to create a statistical model to assess effects. A data panel model is chosen to relate the existing differences between departments and compare the impact of spending and investment between departments using the available information. Results indicate that public spending and investment play an important role in departmental economic dynamic and that its effect is greater in larger and wealthier departments.

  9. The social and economic impact of nuclear energy in Brazil

    A model for structural analysis is introduced and discussed. An application is made to the 'Brazilian Nuclear System' defined by a structural matrix lying upon 42 factors (of which 11 are political 7 economic, 9 technological, 6 sociological, 7 ecological and 2 psychdogical, whose interactions are evalueted. The hierarchical ordering of these 42 factors shows the preponderance of the political ones, the technological factors being the least important. The study is completed by calculating the impact of a PWR pant construction in Brazilian territory, using an enlarged input-output method the sectorial impacts are determined for industrial production, value added, inderect imports and capital goods industries

  10. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  11. The economic impact of tourism in six German national parks

    Mayer, Marius; Mueller, Martin; Woltering, Manuel; Arnegger, Julius; Job, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Tourism in protected areas can create considerable income for adjacent communities. Based on face-to-face visitor surveys, the present study measures the structure, size and economic impact of tourist expenditure in the six German national parks Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer, Bayerischer Wald, Eifel, Müritz, Hainich and Kellerwald-Edersee. We find that mean daily expenditure per person is considerably below the national averages for tourists in Germany: day-trippers spend between EUR 7 and 13 ...

  12. Lebanon : Economic and Social Impact Assessment of the Syrian Conflict

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    To provide a solid basis to define its needs and frame its priorities in terms of the specific assistance it seeks from the international community as well as to inform its own domestic policy response, the Government of Lebanon (GoL) requested the World Bank to lead an Economic and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) of the Syrian conflict on Lebanon. Upon an official request from the Prime M...

  13. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF INTRODUCING ROTATIONS ON LONG ISLAND POTATO FARMS

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; White, Gerald B.

    1984-01-01

    Potatoes have been grown continuously on many Long Island (New York) fields. Environmental concerns have raised questions about the continued usage of this practice. A farm-level linear programming model was used to investigate the economic impacts of crop rotations which result in reduced potato acreage. Crop rotations (an Integrated Pest Management tactic) reduced total pesticide use, but also reduced returns above variable costs as successively stringent rotation requirements were forced i...

  14. The Impact of Inclusion Criteria in Health Economic Assessments

    Anke Richter; Patricia Thieda; Kylie Thaler; Gerald Gartlehner

    2011-01-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore t...

  15. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-01-01

    Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management), 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following...

  16. Assessing the Social Impacts of the Economic Crisis in Ukraine

    Center of Social Expertise

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in three stages during 2009 through April 2011. The main objective of the study is to determine, on the basis of usage of qualitative data collection methods, impact of the economic crisis on the most vulnerable population groups, as well as to monitor dynamics of changes in the lives of the respondents by consistently comparing the results of each of the consec...

  17. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  18. The impact of unions on the economic performance of firms

    Cassoni, A.; G. Fachola; G. Labadie

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the impact of unionization at the industry level and of the degree of centralization in bargaining – the industry or the firm - on wages and on the economic performance of firms within the manufacturing sector in Uruguay, using a panel of establishments for the period 1988-1995. The model, estimated using the Generalized Method of Moments, used controls for the degree of exposure to international and regional competition, and a set of industry and firm characteristics. The...

  19. Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan

    Zaheer Khan KAKAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

  20. The economic impact of Norseman Xtreme Triathlon 2013

    Alexandrian, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical examination of the direct economic impact of Norseman Xtreme Triathlon in Eidfjord. Confirming the results of other ex post analyses of sports in general, this study finds statistically significant evidence that Norseman Xtreme Triathlon contribute positively to a host‘s economy. The visitors of the event were surveyed with two different self-administrated questionnaires, developed by the researcher. The main generators of expenditure were found to be: accommo...

  1. Input-Outrageous: The Economic Impacts of Modern Biofuels Production

    Swenson, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Measuring the net economic impacts of ethanol plants has been problematical: access to good industrial accounts is limited, the sector has historically gone through volatile swings, regional logistical responses to a plant beyond corn inputs are not well understood, and the sector is currently expanding rapidly. In the current uncertain energy world, the prices paid for inputs and received for outputs are also volatile. There exists quite a bit of confusion about the overall value of this dim...

  2. The Economic and Educational Impact of Native American Art Markets

    Wray, Taylor Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This research will investigate the economical and educational impact of Native American art markets. The information will compare and contrast the approaches of two museum-operated Native American art market programs, the Autry National Center in Los Angeles, California and the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art in Indianapolis, Indiana. Information collected on these market programs included observation, library research and personal interviews. This study will present a b...

  3. Estimating economic impact using ex post econometric analysis: Cautionary tales

    Robert Baumann; Victor Matheson; Gordon Gekko

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of techniques that can be used to estimate the economic impact of stadiums, events, championships, and franchises on local economies. Utilizing data from National Collegiate Athletic Association championships, this paper highlights the potential problems that can be made if city and time effects are not handled and unit-roots are not accounted for. In addition, the paper describes the technique for estimating dynamic panel data and the advantages that come with...

  4. Economic crisis impact on Remittances and Migration level in Albania

    Adela Shera; Ardita Shehaj

    2014-01-01

    Remittances of international migrants as the second largest flow of incomes contribute to the well-being of their households of origin and also have an impact at macro-economic level. Out-migration is an effective means for low-income households to quickly overcome shortages of income. The sustenance of poor households might have been more difficult without such remittances. From a macro perspective, remittances contribute to the equalization of the income distribution among households having...

  5. Hosts' perception of economic and socio-cultural tourism impacts

    Kamšek, David; Milfelner, Borut; Ogorelc, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing tourism perceptions of host communities and residentsʼ attitudes toward tourism development has been gaining increasing attention in the tourism research. This paper examines how residents perceive positive and negative economic and socio-cultural impacts of tourism. The authors identify several differences between two groups of respondents: residents employed in tourism and other residents. The study provides tourism planners with useful information concerning specific elements ass...

  6. Economic Impact of Ecotourism in Mount Cameroon Region

    Njumba, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Ecotourism activities are growing in popularity around the world and generating considerable financial effects to the local population. The definitions of this phenomenon are still evolving, but generally include references to travel to natural areas and local conservation benefits. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impact of this business to the youths and the local communities in the Mount Cameroon region under a Non Governmental Organization (NGO) called Mount Cameroon...

  7. Impact of recent technical developments on upgrading economics

    A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  8. IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION

    Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

    2012-06-05

    During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

  9. Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1

    In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

  10. The Impact of Membrane Lipid Composition on Macrophage Activation in the Immune Defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Julia Schumann; Herbert Fuhrmann; Stephanie Adolph; Axel Schoeniger

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage membrane lipid composition on gene expression and cytokine synthesis thereby highlighting signal transduction processes, macrophage activation as well as macrophage defense mechanisms. Using RAW264.7 macrophages as a model ...

  11. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  12. Economic impacts from shifting cropland use from food to fuel

    Without the availability of idle cropland, biomass energy crops will have to compete with other crops and pasture land use. In this paper, we investigate: (a) the economic feasibility of using cropland, traditionally used for pasture, hay and other commodity crops, for production of biomass crops to be used as an energy source for electric utilities; (b) the impact of biomass crop production on crop and livestock prices, farm income, and the cost of food to consumers. We find a $1-4 billion demand for biomass crops may result in a 2-12% impact on farm sector prices. This impact warrants further exploration into estimating the opportunity cost for biomass crop production when idle cropland is not available. (Author)

  13. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  14. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  15. The impact of physics assumptions on fusion economics

    The development of fusion promises a long term supply of energy with widespread resources and good safety and environmental properties. However the introduction of fusion into the future energy market will rely on the development of an economically viable fusion power plant. Although predictions of the likely cost of electricity produced by a future fusion power plant are uncertain, it is important that an assessment is made to ensure that the likely economics are not unreasonable. In this paper the impact of different physics (and other) constraints on the economics of fusion is considered. Comparison with the expected future cost of electricity from other sources must take account of the trends in the energy market, particularly at present towards sources with low external costs related to impact on human health and the natural environment. Although these costs depend on the country concerned, a range of expected future costs can be derived. Comparison with the expected range of fusion costs shows that fusion can contribute to the future energy market. (author)

  16. The Impact of Feminism in Economics: Beyond the Pale? A Discussion and Survey Results.

    Albelda, Randy

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 213 economists to determine the role feminism has played in economics and economic views. Finds that, although the number of women studying economics has increased, feminism has little impact on scholarship in economics. Discusses the reasons for this lack of impact. (CFR)

  17. Economic impact analysis of independent power projects in British Columbia

    Independent power producer (IPP) projects have been active in British Columbia's (BC) regulated electricity market since the late 1980s. The 49 IPP projects developed in the province currently account for approximately 10 per cent of BC's electricity generation, and IPP development continues to expand in nearly every region. This study presented an economic impact analysis of IPP projects in BC. The economic impacts of IPP projects were divided into 2 categories: (1) existing IPP projects, and (2) potential IPP projects. The study showed that the total power potential supplied by BC IPP projects would increase from a current level of 5940 annual GWh to approximately 14,149 GWh. BC could also be generating a further 21,321 GWh of annual output to service demand domestically in addition to exporting to the United States. The value of capital investment in existing IPPs across BC was estimated at $2.8 billion. Capital investment in potential IPPs was estimated at $26.1 billion in 2009 constant dollars. Government revenues generated through the construction phase of potential IPP projects were estimated at $1.6 billion. IPP projects are expected to have a significant impact on First Nations groups, contribute to provincial energy self-sufficiency, and have little to no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 25 refs., 19 tabs., 24 figs.

  18. Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses

    The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

  19. Evaluation the potential economic impacts of Taiwanese biomass energy production

    The Taiwanese rice paddy land set-aside program diverts a substantial land area. Given today's high energy prices and interests in energy security, that set-aside area could be converted to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This study evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of such a policy change using a Taiwanese agricultural sector model. The results show that such a strategy provides increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. These outcomes indicate that the agricultural sector could play a positive role by producing renewable energy. -- Highlights: → This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of converting set-aside area to produce bioenergy feedstocks. → Taiwanese agricultural sector model is built and applied to evaluate such impacts. → The empirical results show that producing bioenergy using set-aside area could provide increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. → Agricultural sector in Taiwan could play a positive role by producing renewable energy.

  20. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  1. Economic impacts from energy efficiency programs - Variations in multiplier effects by program type and region. Volume 1

    Research indicates that the value of omitted program effects - specifically non-energy benefits (NEBs) - represent a significant share of overall program impacts. One of the largest components of societal benefits is the direct and indirect economic and job creation effects stimulated by the investment in conservation on behalf of the program. The literature has indicated that the valuations assigned to this category of these categories can be large, but much of the literature overstates the impact of economic NEBs. We conducted extensive research to develop reliable and defensible estimates of these benefits categories. This study used input-output analysis to update the economic multipliers for NEBs in several ways. Net: Developed 'net' estimates of the multipliers (rather than 'gross' factors)Variations by Region: Estimated multipliers for multiple states and for the entire US; Variations by Program Type: Developed estimates based on different types or categories of programs (e.g weatherization vs. new construction vs. appliance programs, etc.), Variations in Baseline Assumptions: Different assumptions about where the expenditures are transferred 'from' for the net analysis (e.g. from 'generation', from a mixed market basket, etc.); and Variations over Time: Used data from multiple time periods to examine changes in the size of multipliers over time. We examined the results by state, by program type, and over time and found dramatic differences in the economic impacts by program type and territory under consideration. The results provide estimates of the economic impacts derived from the program; however, for communities or utilities with economic development goals, the results can be used to help select between program alternatives. The results are new, and the revised figures have been used to compute more reliable and tailored estimates of economic non-energy benefits that can be applied in regulatory tests

  2. Potential impacts of elevated aerosol layers on high energy laser aerial defense engagements

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Shirey, Stephen M.; Via, Michelle F.; Grahn, Daniel J.; Krizo, Matthew J.

    2012-06-01

    This study quantifies the impacts on high energy laser (HEL) air defense performance due to atmospheric effects in the marine boundary layer driven by varying elevated aerosol layers. The simulations are run using several different engagement geometries to more completely show the effects of aerosols. High adaptive optics are applied to reduce the turbulence effects. The atmospheric effects are defined using the worldwide probabilistic climatic database available in the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model. The anticipated effects on HEL propagation performance is assessed at 1.0642 μm across the world's oceans, mapped on a 1° × 1° grid, and at 573 land sites. The scenarios evaluated are primarily near-surface and horizontal over ranges up to 10000 meters. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer and winter) for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are used. Results indicate profound effects of elevated aerosol layers on HEL engagements as compared to standard scenarios without elevated layers. Also, results suggest changing optical properties to have additional significant effects. HELEEOS includes a fast-calculating, first principles, worldwide surface to 100 km, atmospheric propagation and characterization package. This package enables the creation of profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer transmission, path and background radiance at wavelengths from the ultraviolet to radio frequencies. Physics-based cloud and precipitation characterizations are coupled with a probability of cloud free line of sight (CFLOS) algorithm for air-to-air, air-tosurface, and surface-to-air (or space) look angles. HELEEOS

  3. The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.

    O'Malley, Mary P; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  4. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    O’Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  5. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth.

    Stojkoski, Viktor; Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country's productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country's productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries. PMID:27560133

  6. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth

    Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country’s productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country’s productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries. PMID:27560133

  7. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are major or minor. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  8. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  9. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura;

    2015-01-01

    pratense L.), crop management techniques are applied to stimulate reproductive development in order to obtain high seed yields. These include a low plant density, manipulation of canopy size to avoid lodging and shading of fruiting organs, synchronization of flowering with pollinating insects as well as......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...... and hence achieve the economic impacts of modern plant breeding for a better livelihood and environment....

  10. Impact of Economic Crises on Mortality: The Case of Mexico

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of economic crises on mortality in Mexico. Identification of that effect is difficult because the GDP itself may be a function of health. In order to solve for endogeneity, we propose the use of two sets of instrumental variables at the state level. Our findings suggest that a one percent decrease in GDP would lead to an increase of 0.5 percent of the mortality rates. Children and the elderly constitute the most vulnerable groups. The findings imply that the 2008 crisis ...

  11. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  12. Economic impacts of a transition to higher oil prices

    Tessmer, Jr, R. G.; Carhart, S. C.; Marcuse, W.

    1978-06-01

    Economic impacts of sharply higher oil and gas prices in the eighties are estimated using a combination of optimization and input-output models. A 1985 Base Case is compared with a High Case in which crude oil and crude natural gas are, respectively, 2.1 and 1.4 times as expensive as in the Base Case. Impacts examined include delivered energy prices and demands, resource consumption, emission levels and costs, aggregate and compositional changes in gross national product, balance of payments, output, employment, and sectoral prices. Methodology is developed for linking models in both quantity and price space for energy service--specific fuel demands. A set of energy demand elasticities is derived which is consistent between alternative 1985 cases and between the 1985 cases and an historical year (1967). A framework and methodology are also presented for allocating portions of the DOE Conservation budget according to broad policy objectives and allocation rules.

  13. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  14. Understanding and Reducing the Impact of Defensiveness on Management Learning: Some Lessons from Neuroscience

    Holmer, Leanna L.

    2014-01-01

    The neurosciences have expanded our understanding of the role of the "old" brain in generating defensive reactions to threat. Because the learning and practice of management skills pose various forms of threat to would-be practitioners, the question of how individuals respond to threat and how this affects their ability to learn has also…

  15. HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS

    OANA SIMONA HUDEA (CARAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

  16. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Intelligent Transport Systems

    JUAN Zhicai; WU Jianping; Mike McDonald

    2006-01-01

    A general review of the socio-economic impact of the intelligent transport system (ITS) is presented with a case study to demonstrate the data envelopment analysis method. Cost-benefit analyses are still the dominant method for evaluating ITS and other transport engineering projects, while cost effective analyses and multi-criteria appraisals are widely used to define and prioritize objectives by providing useful information for the most promising policy decisions. Both cost-benefit analyses and a data envelopment analysis method are applied to analyze the socio-economic impact of convoy driving systems. The main findings are that a convoy provides a worthwhile benefit-cost ratio when more than 30% of the traffics in the convoys and the traffic load exceeds 5500 vehicles/h for a three-lane motorway. The results also show that for a fixed percentage of convoys, increased demand will increase the data envelopment analysis method relative efficiency and that the neglect of certain output indicators of an ITS may result in underestimation of the system effects.

  17. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-09

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico--FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major

  18. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold

    Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

    2007-06-01

    The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

  19. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  20. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which

  1. Preferred drug lists: Potential impact on healthcare economics

    Kimberly Ovsag

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Ovsag, Sabrina Hydery, Shaker A MousaPharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, New York, USAObjectives: To analyze the implementation of Medicaid preferred drug lists (PDLs in a number of states and determine its impact on quality of care and cost relative to other segments of healthcare.Methods: We reviewed research and case studies found by searching library databases, primarily MEDLINE and EBSCOHost, and searching pertinent journals. Keywords initially included “drug lists,” “prior authorization,” “prior approval,” and “Medicaid.” We added terms such as “influence use of other healthcare services,” “quality of care,” and “overall economic impact.” We mainly used primary sources.Results: Based on our literature review, we determined that there are a number of issues regarding Medicaid PDLs that need to be addressed. Some issues include: (a the potential for PDLs to influence the utilization of other healthcare services, (b criteria used by Medicaid for determining acceptance of drugs onto a PDL, (c the effect of PDL implementation on compliance to new regimens, (d the potential effects of restricting medication availability on quality of care, (e administrative costs associated with PDLs, and (f satisfaction rates among patients and medical providers. This review highlighted expected short-term cost savings with limited degree of compromised quality of PDL implementation, but raised the concern about the potential long-term decline in quality of care and overall economic impact.Conclusions: The number of concerns raised indicates that further studies are warranted regarding both short-term cost benefits as well as potential long-term effects of Medicaid PDL implementation. Objective analysis of these effects is necessary to ensure cost-effectiveness and quality of care.Keywords: preferred drug lists, medicaid, healthcare costs, managed care

  2. The Impacts of Uranium and Thorium on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) vitrifies high level liquid waste (HLLW) into borosilicate glass for stabilization and permanent disposal. The viscosity of the borosilicate glass melt as a function of temperature is the single most important variable affecting the melt rate and pour ability of the glass. The viscosity determines the rate of melting of the raw feed, the rate of glass bubble release (foaming and fining), the rate of homogenization, the adequacy of heat transfer, the devitrification rate, and thus, the quality (in terms of glass homogeneity) of the final glass product. If the viscosity is too low, excessive convection currents can occur during melting, increasing corrosion/erosion of the melter materials of construction (refractory and electrodes) and making control of the melter more difficult. The lowest glass viscosities allowed in the DWPF melter have, therefore, been determined to be approximately 20 poise. DWPF glasses must pour continuously into a large steel canister for ultimate storage in a geologic repository, but glasses with a viscosity greater than or equal to 500 poise do not readily pour. Moreover, too high a viscosity can reduce product quality by causing voids in the final glass. A conservative range of 20-110 poise at a melt temperature, Tmelt or Tm, of 1150 degrees C was, therefore, established for DWPF production. In summary, a uranium term is not needed in the DWPF viscosity model as long as the U3O8 concentrations of the glasses being melted are less than or equal to 5.76 wt percent, the maximum value examined in this study. The fact that a U-plus-6 term is not needed in the DWPF viscosity model is consistent with the fact that U-plus-6 has four bridging and two non-bridging oxygen bonds. Therefore, the impact of the number of bridging and non-bridging oxygens is approximately equal at U3O8 concentrations of less than or equal to 5.76 wt percent. Uranium may not have an impact at

  3. Senate Voting On the Strategic Defense Initiative: The Impact of the 1991 Gulf War

    James F. Pasley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of the success of the Patriot missile system in the 1991 Gulf War on Senate roll call votes for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI. Previous studies have shown that both Party Identification (PID and Ideology have had a significant effect on senators' votes on defense weapons systems. Using Logit regression techniques, this paper examines whether PID and Ideology, both of which are central to political identity, remained significant factors in three Senate votes on SDI; this paper is unique compare to previous studies of such matters in that it adds two additional explanatory variables to existing models: (1 the extent to which each state might benefit from SDI and (2 whether or not the senator from each state was up for re-election in 1992 It is hypothesized that the findings will suggest that external factors played a role in the SDI Senate votes in question. Specifically, it is hypothesized that the effects of the Gulf War Patriot missile successes led to greater legislative support (compared to support levels from previous years for the Strategic Defense Initiative among Democrats, those senators whose states would benefit from SDI funding, and those senators seeking re-election.

  4. THE CONCEPT OF "SMART DEFENSE" IN THE CONTEXT OF AN EFFICIENT DEFENSE PLANNING

    Teodor FRUNZETI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international security environment is currently undergoing a series of fundamental changes becoming increasingly complex. Consequently, international actors need to find innovative ways to manage security and defense. The global financial and economic crisis has had a strong impact on military budgets, making it necessary for states and regional and international organizations concerned with such issues to streamline their defense planning and the more so because, in addition to the already consecrated risks and security threats, there are also new challenges. The concepts of “pooling and sharing” and “smart defense” have become, in this context, increasingly popular generating new initiatives in defense planning. However, despite some successes in this regard and their presentation as ideal solutions for managing defense in the current context, these concepts involve a number of difficulties to overcome that sometimes may translate into strategic political military and even economic disadvantages.

  5. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    Olson, S; Merrill, S

    2011-08-31

    Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President's commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and

  6. Modelling the economic impacts of addressing climate change

    This Power Point report presents highlights of the latest economic modelling of Canada's Kyoto commitment to address climate change. It presents framework assumptions and a snapshot under 4 scenarios. The objective of this report is to evaluate the national, sectoral, provincial and territorial impacts of the federal reference case policy package in which the emissions reduction target is 170 Mt from a business-as-usual scenario. The reference case policy package also includes 30 Mt of sinks from current packages of which 20 Mt are derived from the forestry sector and the remainder from agricultural sector. The report examined 4 scenarios based on 2 international carbon prices ($10 and $50) per tonne of carbon dioxide in 2010. The scenarios were also based on the fiscal assumptions that climate change initiatives and revenue losses would directly affect the governments' balances, or that the government balances are maintained by increasing personal income tax. A comparison of impacts under each of the 4 scenarios to 2010 was presented. The model presents impacts on GDP, employment, disposable income per household, and energy prices. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events

    Safarzynska, Karolina; Brouwer, Roy; Hofkes, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the possible contribution of evolutionary economics to macro-economic modelling of flood impacts to provide guidance for future economic risk modelling. Most macro-economic models start from a neoclassical economic perspective and focus on equilibrium outcomes, either in a static or dynamic way, and describe economic processes at a high level of aggregation. As a consequence, they typically fail to account for the complexity of social interactions and other behavioural res...

  8. The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model.

  9. The Use of Economic Impact Studies as a Service Learning Tool in Undergraduate Business Programs

    Misner, John M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the use of community based economic impact studies as service learning tools for undergraduate business programs. Economic impact studies are used to measure the economic benefits of a variety of activities such as community redevelopment, tourism, and expansions of existing facilities for both private and public producers.…

  10. Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India.

    Kathage, Jonas; Qaim, Matin

    2012-07-17

    Despite widespread adoption of genetically modified crops in many countries, heated controversies about their advantages and disadvantages continue. Especially for developing countries, there are concerns that genetically modified crops fail to benefit smallholder farmers and contribute to social and economic hardship. Many economic studies contradict this view, but most of them look at short-term impacts only, so that uncertainty about longer-term effects prevails. We address this shortcoming by analyzing economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. Building on unique panel data collected between 2002 and 2008, and controlling for nonrandom selection bias in technology adoption, we show that Bt has caused a 24% increase in cotton yield per acre through reduced pest damage and a 50% gain in cotton profit among smallholders. These benefits are stable; there are even indications that they have increased over time. We further show that Bt cotton adoption has raised consumption expenditures, a common measure of household living standard, by 18% during the 2006-2008 period. We conclude that Bt cotton has created large and sustainable benefits, which contribute to positive economic and social development in India. PMID:22753493

  11. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  12. Economic impacts of the ShakeOut scenario

    Rose, A.; Wei, D.; Wein, A.

    2011-01-01

    For the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario, we estimate $68 billion in direct and indirect business interruption (BI) and $11 billion in related costs in addition to the $113 billion in property damage in an eight-county Southern California region. The modeled conduits of shock to the economy are property damage and lifeline service outages that affect the economy’s ability to produce. Property damage from fire is 50% greater than property damage from shaking because fire is more devastating. BI from water service disruption and fire each represent around one-third of total BI losses because of the long duration of service outage or long restoration and reconstruction periods. Total BI losses are 4.3% of annual gross output in the affected region, an impact far larger than most conventional economic recessions. These losses are still much lower than they potentially could be due to the resilience of the economy.

  13. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Cristina PLOSCARU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the construction market, while in Eastern European countries the majority is held by the civil and non-residential constructions. In addition, in the West the medium budget per capita spent on construction is 3-4 times higher than that spent in Eastern countries. But, according to previsions in the coming years the countries that will witness a growth, albeit small, will be the Eastern ones. The paper highlights the impact of the economic and financial crisis in the construction industry on a European and national level, as the sustainable constructions that may represent the sector’s future.

  14. Technical and economic impacts of active management on distribution network

    With the deregulation of energy market and the appeal for environment protection, more and more distributed generation (DG) is embedded in the distribution network. However the approach of connecting DG in most cases is based on a so-called ''fit and forget'' policy and the capacity of DG is limited rigidly by distribution network operator (DNO) to avoid the negative effects of high level penetration. Therefore active management (AM) is put forward as an effective method to network reinforcement for the connection and operation of DG. In this paper, the concept and principle of AM are introduced, and several indices are proposed to evaluate both technical and economic impacts of AM on distribution network with DG. To simplify the simulation fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) algorithm is introduced. The test results on a sample system represent that AM will lead to decrease of power generation of DG, but it can reduce energy losses and improve voltage profile effectively. Furthermore, AM will take great economic incentives to DG developer as well as DNO with reasonable policy. (author)

  15. Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain

    The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable. (author)

  16. Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain

    The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable.

  17. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  18. EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

  19. An approach to evaluating the economic impact of emissions trading

    The command-and-control system to air quality controls is a mixture of technology-forcing standards for existing sources and offset for new sources. More stringent controls are required to achieve the ambient air quality standards in non-attainment urban areas which have been conformed with burgeoning economic growth. Due to the economy of scale and locale of polluting sources, some sources can implement these controls in a more cost-effective manner than others. In order to minimize the control costs of regulated sources, trading of emissions has been stipulated and has occurred among power plants to curb acid rain at the national level. Southern California is currently embarking on the trading of oxides of nitrogen, reactive organic compounds, and oxides of sulfur among existing and new stationary sources. New economic opportunities for entrepreneurs with advances control technology will arise under emissions trading. Trading will also result in the redistribution of emissions geographically and across industries. Through the linkage of a linear-programming trading model, a regional econometric model, and an urban airshed model, the impact of trading on the Southern California economy can thus be examined. This paper describes a framework which can be used to compare and contrast RECLAIM with the command-and-control system; and discusses a few issues which may arise in a trading market and how these issues can be dealt with are also examined

  20. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  1. Price System for Water Supply and its Economic Impact Analysis

    Jing Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the actual economic circumstances and water price level, the CGE model to simulate the price policy for multiple water sources is modified and expanded. A water price reform plan is proposed to meet water-saving requirements and water resources allocation. The affected scale and scope for implementing the water price policy is evaluated on a quantitative basis. Research results indicate that a reasonable water price system in Tianjin in 2020 should be set up as follows: the comprehensive tap water price stands at 4$/m3, the tap water price for industrial, administrative and business service sectors is 2.4$/m3, and the tap water price for special industry and domestic use are 8.8$/m3 and 1.4$/m3 respectively. The adjusted water price will bring about tangible results to water resources allocation optimization and water conservation. Although most sectors are negatively affected to varying degrees after raising the water price, particularly the lodging and catering sectors, a 100% water price rising will produce only little impact on price index, and sectoral output and employment will not cause economic fluctuations or social instability. Water price adjustments, as long as it is reasonable, will be more positive than negative on the whole. Research outcomes will provide a scientific decision-making basis for formulating the local water price policy.

  2. Economic Impact of Forest Damage in an Alpine Environment

    PALETTO, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the situation regarding the main types of damage to forests and their respective economic consequences, with reference to a case study in the Italian Alps (Trentino province. Each kind of damage (wind and snow, defoliation, fire and tillage has been analysed in terms of its impact on four forest functions (production, protection, tourism-recreation and carbon sequestration and evaluated in monetary terms. Market value was used to estimate the production and carbon sequestration functions, replacement cost method for protection, and contingent valuation for tourism-recreation. Applying desk research on damage caused by the main biotic and abiotic factors to this particular case study led us to estimate a annual damage of about € 1,624,921 equal to 4.71 € per hectare. This can be considered a lower bound estimate of possibly greater damage. Another interesting result that emerged from the evaluation exercise is that the wealth of information produced through monitoring and scientific research in the last twenty years does not readily lend itself to economic analysis.

  3. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which

  4. The Economic Impact of the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute

    Stanley McMillen; Kathryn Parr; Xiumei Song

    2005-01-01

    This analysis of the Clark contributes to the collective effort to understand the economic impact of the arts in the Berkshires, and raises national consciousness about the economic contribution that arts organizations make to their communities.

  5. Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects

    Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

  6. 78 FR 66929 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis

    2013-11-07

    ... impact analysis. DATES: The Federal Register notice published on August 5, 2013 at 78 FR 47317 is... Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis AGENCY: Policy and Planning Division, Export-Import Bank of... public of its intent to conduct a detailed economic impact analysis regarding a loan guarantee to...

  7. Institutional Strategies for Capturing Socio-Economic Impact of Academic Research

    Scoble, Rosa; Dickson, Keith; Hanney, Steve; Rodgers, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of socio-economic impact is an emerging theme for publicly-funded academic research. Within this context, the paper suggests that the concept of institutional research capital be expanded to include the capture and evaluation of socio-economic impact. Furthermore, it argues that understanding the typology of impacts and the tracking…

  8. Impact of Financial Liberalization on Economic Growth in Iran: An Empirical Investigation

    Banam, Karim Chashm

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this thesis is to investigate the impact of financial liberalization on economic growth in Iran through Johansen Cointegration tests by using time series data from 1965 to 2005. While testing for the impact of financial repression on the economic growth in Iran, the thesis also investigates the determinants of economic growth in Iran. A financial liberalization index is used in econometric models along with the conventional theoretical determinants of economic growth as s...

  9. The Impact of Crop Insurance on the Economic Performance of Hungarian Cropping Farms

    Sporri, Martina; Baráth, Lajos; Bokusheva, Raushan; Ferto, Imre

    2012-01-01

    Crop insurance products can improve and stabilize economic performance. However, due to insurance market imperfections, the use of insurance products often requires governmental support. This paper analyses the actual impact of insurance products on the economic performance of cropping farms by linking the economic performance model with the insurance demand model. For this analysis, a simultaneous equation system is solved. Our estimations show a negative impact of insurance on the economic ...

  10. IMPACT OF INFORMAL INSTITUTIONS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Katarina Marosevic; Zvonimir Jurkovic

    2013-01-01

    Achieving the long-term economic growth rate and development is the aspiration of all economic policy makers. Contemporary economic theory recognizes institutions as fundamental sources of economic prosperity. According to Douglas North (1991), institutions represent designed limitations that manage political, economic and social interactions. Precisely, institutions are the rules of behavior in a society, or more formally speaking, the restrictions on which man has fi gured out how to shape ...

  11. A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism

    2014-01-01

    MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts) of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O) model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II) are widel...

  12. Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate

    The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

  13. Agricultural Insurance In Nigeria And The Economic Impact: A Review

    Festus M. Epetimehin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production faces myriad of risks. Nevertheless, two major risks are of concern to the agricultural sector- price risk caused by potential volatility in prices and production risk resulting from uncertainty about the levels of production that primary producers can achieve from their current activities. It is likely that these major risks will increase in the future – price risk due to liberalization of trade and production risk caused by the effect s of climate change. Agricultural risks not only affect farmers, they also affect the whole agribusiness value chain. Each of the participants along the supply chain, from the Government, Financial Institutions, suppliers of inputs, the distributor, the trader, the processor and the end consumers, are subject to these risks. Agricultural investments unfortunately are among the most risky economic ventures one can embark upon, the absolute dependence on unpredictable weather conditions, like storm, flood, drought and other natural hazards make income from crop products and agricultural products like livestock poultry and dairies to be very unstable. Agricultural Insurance policies serve as securities for banks as indemnification for financial losses suffered by farmers and those in the agricultural value chain resulting from damages to their products, and also provides funds for servicing such loans. This paper is concerned exclusively with the role of agricultural insurance in the agribusiness and in the development of the economy. It gives an introduction and a review of the agricultural sector that led to the agricultural insurance decree in 1993. The paper describes the various products available under the agricultural insurance while a section was devoted to analyzing the economic impact of agriculture Insurance on the economy, then conclusion and recommendations.

  14. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  15. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  16. GLIMPSES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT ON POVERTY REDUCTION

    Mehendra R

    2015-01-01

    The term economic growth is one of the most powerful macroeconomic variables that help to reduce poverty and improving the quality of life in developing countries. Economic growth can generate virtuous circles of prosperity and opportunity. Strong economic growth and better employment opportunities improve incentives for parents to invest in their children’s education by sending them to school. A strong economic growth therefore advances human development that, in turn, promotes economi...

  17. THE CLASIFICATION OF INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    2009-01-01

    There is a simple case which combines different lines of thought of the institutional economy: institutions matter. If this hypothesis is considered to be central, transaction costs economics, property rights economics are part of institutional economics, as well as in public choice theory's approaches and constitutional economy. Regardless of how they are defined institutions are correlated with economic growth, wealth, welfare, etc. More and more authors in the literature involve institutio...

  18. Comparing economic and environmental impacts of propane, CNG, methanol

    How well does propane stack up as a motor fuel against CNG, methanol, ethanol, and gasoline? This question has been addressed -- indirectly -- in various studies made by David Gushee over the period of time since the Congress first began seriously considering the advocacy of alternative fuels as a means of improving urban air quality, increasing energy security, reducing oil imports, increasing domestic content of transportation fuels, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. A brief overview of the comparative advantages and disadvantages of the various alternative motor fuels, with particular emphasis on propane, was presented by Gushee at the NPGA Governmental Affairs Conference in Washington, DC in October. Subsequently, at BPN's request, he supplied copies of the slides he showed on that occasion, together with copies of certain presentations he has made in the past based upon his studies. The following is a paraphrased and abridged rewrite -- in the interest of saving space -- of a presentation made by Gushee at a meeting of the National Conference of State Legislatures. In his address, Gushee analyzed the impacts of the various fuels on both the economics of transportation and the environment

  19. Economic impact of fuel properties on turbine powered business aircraft

    Powell, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective was to estimate the economic impact on the turbine-powered business aviation fleet of potential changes in the composition and properties of aviation fuel. Secondary objectives include estimation of the sensitivity of costs to specific fuel properties, and an assessment of the directions in which further research should be directed. The study was based on the published characteristics of typical and specific modern aircraft in three classes; heavy jet, light jet, and turboprop. Missions of these aircraft were simulated by computer methods for each aircraft for several range and payload combinations, and assumed atmospheric temperatures ranging from nominal to extremely cold. Five fuels were selected for comparison with the reference fuel, nominal Jet A. An overview of the data, the mathematic models, the data reduction and analysis procedure, and the results of the study are given. The direct operating costs of the study fuels are compared with that of the reference fuel in the 1990 time-frame, and the anticipated fleet costs and fuel break-even costs are estimated.

  20. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact.

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-06-28

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development. PMID:27441070

  1. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  2. Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems

    To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)

  3. Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems

    To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system.

  4. A Framework for Determining Highway Truck-Freight Benefits and Economic Impacts

    Wang, Zun; Sage, Jeremy; Goodchild, Anne; Jessup, Eric; Casavant, Kenneth; Knutson, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for calculating both the direct freight benefits and the larger economic impacts of transportation projects. The identified direct freight benefits included in the methodology are travel time savings, operating cost savings, and environmental impacts. These are estimated using regional travel demand models (TDM) and additional factors. Economic impacts are estimated using a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. The total project impacts are estimate...

  5. Socio-economic scenarios for climate change impact assessment : a guide to their use in the UK Climate Impacts Programme

    2001-01-01

    Enormous challenges are faced in devising socio-economic scenarios for the assessment of future impacts and there is very little experience to draw upon. Socio-economic scenarios have not been widely used within impacts studies, but this report will serve to encourage their use more widely within the UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP). The aim has been to develop a scenarios framework through which stakeholders are able to reflect upon possible alternative futures and to make...

  6. A Transactions Cost Economics (TCE) Approach to Optimal Contract Type

    Raymond Franck; Francois Melese; John Dillard

    2006-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) This study examines defense acquisition through the new lens of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE). TCE is an emergent field in economics that has multiple applications to defense acquisition practices. TCE''s original focus was to guide ''make-or-buy?'' decisions that define the boundaries of a firm. This study reviews insights afforded by TCE that impact government outsourcing (''buy'' decisions), paying special attention to defense pro...

  7. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Simon György Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  8. [The impact of health economics: a status report].

    Tunder, R

    2011-12-01

    "Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given. PMID:22108908

  9. Economic impacts of climate change on agrifood markets: A bio-economic approach with a focus on the EU

    Blanco Fonseca, Maria; Ramos, Fabien; Van Doorslaer, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Projections for world food production and prices play a crucial role to evaluate and tackle future food security challenges. Understanding how these projections will be affected by climate change is the main objective of this study. By means of a bio-economic approach we assess the economic impacts of climate change on agrifood markets, providing both a global analysis and a regionalised evaluation within the EU. To account for uncertainty, we analyse the IPCC emission scenario A1B for the 20...

  10. The economic impact of the Aardklop National Arts Festival in Potchefstroom / A. van Heerden

    Van Heerden, Adriette

    2003-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to determine the economic benefits of events to the host community from both a supply and demand side. In the context of event tourism, economic impact is defined as the net economic change in a host community that results from spending attributed to a cultural event. The purpose of an economic impact analysis is to measure the economic benefits that accrue to a community (Fayos-Sola, 1997:242). This concerns the enhancement of the host populatio...

  11. The NASA Lewis Research Center's Expendable Launch Vehicle Program: An Economic Impact Study

    Austrian, Ziona

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the economic impact of the Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) Expendable Launch Vehicle Program (ELVP) on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures ELVP's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they "ripple" throughout the economy. The study uses regional economic multipliers based on input-output models to estimate the effect of ELVP spending on the Northeast Ohio economy.

  12. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

  13. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Fact Sheet)

    Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Mid-Atlantic region.

  14. Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)

    Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

  15. St. Louis Community College and the Local Economy: An Estimate of the College's Economic Impact.

    Cosgrove, John J.

    This report presents results of a study conducted to estimate the economic impact of St. Louis Community College (SLCC) on the local economy. Introductory material discusses the purpose of economic impact studies, and an analysis of the demography of SLCC and the St. Louis area is provided. Next, the project model used in the study is presented,…

  16. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  17. The Economic Impact of Dickinson College on Carlisle and Cumberland County, 2010

    Bellinger, William; Bybel, Alexandra; de Cabrol, Charles; Frankel, Zachary; Kosta, Elizabeth; Laffey, Thomas; Letko, Lauren; Pehlman, Robert; Peterson, Eric; Roderick, Benjamin; Rose, Leo; Schachter, Andrew; Wang, Jue; Wood, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study of Dickinson College represents an unusually complete, detailed, and balanced study of the local and regional economic impact of an academic institution. Among other features, it includes estimates of the college's positive and negative effects on local government, local as well as county wide economic impact estimates, and a relatively…

  18. REGIONAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF A WATERSHED PLANNING PROCESS TO REDUCE EROSION AND STREAM SEDIMENTATION

    Beaulieu, Jeffrey R.; Kraft, Steven E.; Beck, Roger J.; Bennett, David; Sengupta, Raja; Peterson, William C.

    2003-01-01

    Farm-level and watershed-wide land-use changes resulting from policy initiatives are linked to a regional input/output model. As a result not only can the direct economic impacts at the farm and watershed levels be determined, so too can the direct and induced economic impacts at the regional level.

  19. The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA

    Falconer, John

    2007-01-01

    Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

  20. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

  1. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose

  2. Technical Report on the Impact of MgO on Defense Waste Processing Facility

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect(s) of removing MgO from DWPF frits to assess the impact on liquidus temperature and the durability of the glass product. Removal of MgO from the frit was hypothesized to lead to a decrease in liquidus temperature and thereby allow increased waste loading

  3. The Potential Economic Impact of an Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Canada

    Krystynak, Ronald H.E.; Charlebois, Pierre A.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease is of concern to Canada's livestock industry due to the resulting economic consequences. The primary economic impact of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak would arise from the trade embargo placed on Canadian exports of animals and animal products to countries free of the disease. Agriculture Canada's Food and Agriculture Regional Model was used to estimate the economic impact of such a trade embargo. Two scenarios, a small and large out...

  4. Economic and social impact of introducing casino gambling: a review and assessment of the literature

    Alan Mallach

    2010-01-01

    Reviews and assesses the existing literature on the potential economic impact of introducing casino gambling into a community or region, first by discussing the casinos? effect on economic activity and growth within a community or region, and then by exploring their effect on government revenues. Also discusses the literature related to the economic impact of social costs widely associated with gambling, such as increases in crime, bankruptcy, and problem gambling.

  5. Impact of Food Beverage Price Index and Exchange Rate Volatility on Economic Growth

    Onasanya Olanrewaju k; Adeniji Oyebimpe Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Many factors such as money supply, exchange rate, interest rate, gross domestic product, inflation rate, unemployment rate, frictional unemployment and other flow variables have great impact on economic growth rate. These factors have significant effect on capital movement, business outlook and economic development. Over past decades, numerous studies have used these variables to investigate their impact on economic growth especially using the econometric approach. Results obtained from such ...

  6. Economic Impact Assessment of IPM CRSP Activities in Bangladesh and Uganda: A GIS Application

    Debass, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assist planners and scientists in assessing the economic implications of the USAID-funded Integrated Pest Management-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP) research activities. The study presents a framework and a set of procedures for documenting, evaluating and communicating aggregate economic impacts of IPM technologies within targeted areas and across agro-ecological regions. Performing an economic impact assessment involves consideration of ...

  7. The Economic Impact on the Dominican Republic of Baseball Player Exports to the USA

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper pulls together into one practical model two strands of economic theory to assess the impact of baseball player exports on the aggregate economic performance of the Dominican Republic. On one hand, foreign trade theory predicts a strong correlation between a country’s exports and economic performance measured as per capita income. On the other hand, microeconomic research finds a positive, but statistically insignificant, impact of sports activities on local economies. A...

  8. The socio-economic impacts of Singaporean cross-border tourism in Malaysia and Indonesia

    Hampton, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Cross-border tourism is often proposed by governments as an incentive for economic growth, but critics have suggested that its impacts are, in fact, overplayed. This paper presents research in the Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore Growth Triangle. It presents a study of Singaporean cross-border tourism to its neighbours and discusses its economic impacts in two locations: Kukup, a traditional fishing village in Malaysia; and Bintan island in Indonesia. The project examined the broad economic...

  9. A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism

    Kumar J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II are widely used for the economic impact assessments. The current paper will review economic impact studies in the c conference - MICE tourism related events and then discusses the issues related to the I-O model and general equilibrium models framework

  10. Impact of economic models on European Union economies development

    Cristina BURGHELEA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The horizon of 2050 is projected a new vision of the economy, supported by a coordination of economic policies in order to generate sustainable growth, employment levels, social cohesion, which would contribute to economic and financial recovery of European Union.Challenges facing the Union are higher than before the recession, while the margin of maneuver is limited. Enhanced role of Union demonstrate increasingly economic and politic power of emerging countries.

  11. The Impact of Economic Development on Higher Education in China

    FengyuWang; CodyS.Ding

    2004-01-01

    Higher education is not only directly dependent on economic development, but may also make a great contribution to economic development. The development of China's economy has made a great difference in the scope of higher education, including expansion of higher education institutions, improvement of the quality of the institutions, and promoting reform of educational systems. This article discusses the recent development in these three areas as the consequence of economic changes in China.

  12. Expenditure policy in Angola : impact on economic development and inequality

    Delgado, Albertina da Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Government Expenditure (GE) is an instrument by which the State distributes resources with efficiency and responsibility. Several studies have analysed the relationship between GE and economic growth, as well as the relationship between inequality and GE by region. Studies in Africa have found a positive relationship between education and health spending with respect to economic growth, which means that the greater public investment in education and health, the greater the economic growth. ...

  13. The impact of economic crisis on energy consumption

    An attempt to make a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the impact of some macro-economic and energy factors on the final energy consumption and the energy efficiency in different branches of Bulgarian industry, services and householding is presented. The relation between energy consumption and the gross national product (GNP) is discussed. During the last 4-5 years along with the rapid decrease of GDP and corresponding drop in the fuel and energy consumption, the following negative trends toward decreasing the efficiency of the energy sector are observed: decrease of efficiency of the primary energy resources (PER) usage; unsubstantiated increase of electrification coefficient of the fuel/energy balance of the country; decrease of the industrial sector's share in the final energy consumption. The consumption decrease is due, on one hand, to the drop in industrial production, construction and services, and on the other - to the cutting of energy resources import, the imposed restrictions in energy consumption, the rise of fuel and energy prices and the deterioration of consumers' solvency. It is concluded that the economy crisis in the country leads to a sharp drop in the fuel and energy consumption, but the further shrinking of the industrial production without undertaking considerable structural changes and without implementing energy-saving measures and technologies leads to an increase of energy intensity of the industry, which is already high as compared to the developed industrial countries. The necessity to rationalize the fuel/energy balance structure and to move from supply-side to demand-side policies as to limit the consumption of energy is stressed out. (R.I.)

  14. User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint

    Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

  15. The Mynydd Y Cemmaes windfarm impact study - Volume IIE -economic impact: final report

    This report, from the Energy Technology Support Unit, is part of a wider impact study of the construction, commissioning and operation of a wind farm in Montgomeryshire in Powys. In particular, the document focuses on the effects on the local and regional economy of the windfarm development, covering both construction and operation of the facility. The aim of the study is to provide predictions of the economic impact of similar projects on local, rural communities, including the attitudes of local people to such schemes before and after construction. The study concluded that payment to local farmers, whose livelihoods were at risk, produced great benefits to these families, and payments to the community council benefited the local area. Public opinion was broadly in favour of the wind farm as a tourist attraction which could be used to raise money and as an educational asset. (UK)

  16. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL’s researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects.

  17. IMPACTS OF ECONOMIC ADULTERATION ON THE U.S. HONEY INDUSTRY

    Fairchild, Gary F.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Nichols, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Research for this paper was funded by the National Honey Board to provide a basis for industry dialogue on the need for a quality assurance program. The paper provides a background perspective on economic adulteration, industry perspectives on the extent of economic adulteration in the U.S. honey industry, estimates of potential economic impacts, and a discussion of trends and issues relevant to economic adulteration.

  18. The Economic Impact of Ebola on Sub-Saharan Africa : Updated Estimates for 2015

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The most severe impact of the Ebola epidemic, which began in Guinea in December 2013 and quickly spread to Liberia and Sierra Leone, has been in lost human lives and suffering. This report, prepared for the World Economic Forum at Davos, focuses on the indirect, economic costs, in particular the effects on economic output in 2015. Most of the economic cost is driven by aversion behavior, w...

  19. Multi-basin, Multi-sector Drought Economic Impact Model in Python: Development and Applications

    Gutenson, J. L.; Zhu, L.; Ernest, A. N. S.; Oubeidillah, A.; Bearden, B.; Johnson, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most economically disastrous natural hazards, one whose impacts are exacerbated by the lack of abrupt onset and offset that define tornados and hurricanes. In the United States, about 30 billion dollars losses is caused by drought in 2012, resulting in widespread economic impacts for societies, industries, agriculture, and recreation. And in California, the drought cost statewide economic losses about 2.2 billion, with a total loss of 17,100 seasonal and part-time jobs. Driven by a variety of factors including climate change, population growth, increased water demands, alteration to land cover, drought occurs widely all over the world. Drought economic consequence assessment tool are greatly needed to allow decision makers and stakeholders to anticipate and manage effectively. In this study, current drought economic impact modeling methods were reviewed. Most of these models only deal with the impact in the agricultural sector with a focus on a single basin; few of these models analyze long term impact. However, drought impacts are rarely restricted to basin boundaries, and cascading economic impacts are likely to be significant. A holistic approach to multi-basin, multi-sector drought economic impact assessment is needed.In this work, we developed a new model for drought economic impact assessment, Drought Economic Impact Model in Python (PyDEM). This model classified all business establishments into thirteen categories based on NAICS, and using a continuous dynamic social accounting matrix approach, coupled with calculation of the indirect consequences for the local and regional economies and the various resilience. In addition, Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model was combined for analyzing drought caused soil erosion together with agriculture production, and then the long term impacts of drought were achieved. A visible output of this model was presented in GIS. In this presentation, Choctawhatchee-Pea-Yellow River Basins, Alabama

  20. State Investment in Universities: Rethinking the Impact on Economic Growth

    Schalin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Does investing taxpayer money in higher education lead to major payoffs in economic growth? State legislators and policy makers say yes. They routinely advocate massive appropriations for university education and research, even in poor economic times, on the grounds that taxpayers will be rewarded many times over. The investment of federal funds…

  1. IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON DIFFERENTIATION OF LAW

    Petrov, Dmitriy

    2014-01-01

    The article considers socio-economic prerequisites of differentiation in law. The origins of the notion «differentiation of law» are analyzed. Differentiation of law is determined by both external (socio-economic) and internal (special legal) factors, but external factors play a crucial role in the process of differentiation.

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C;

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  3. Economic impacts of East Coast Fever immunization on smallholder farms, Kenya: a simulation analysis

    Nyangito, Hezron O.; Richardson, James W.; Mundy, Darrell S.; Mukhebi, Adrian W.; Zimmel, Peter; Namken, Jerry

    1996-01-01

    A whole farm simulation model, Technology Impact Evaluation System (TIES), was used to assess ex-ante financial and economic impacts of immunization of dairy cattle against East Coast Fever (ECF) by the infection and treatment method (ITM) on smallholder farms from two sites in Kenya. Four alternative strategies of immunization in combination with different levels of acaricide use were compared with the current acaricide-based method of control. The economic impacts were estimated using simul...

  4. Economic impacts of invasive species in forests: past, present, and future.

    Holmes, Thomas P; Aukema, Juliann E; Von Holle, Betsy; Liebhold, Andrew; Sills, Erin

    2009-04-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative species are a by-product of economic activities, with the vast majority of nonnative species introduced by trade and transport of products and people. Although most introduced species are relatively innocuous, a few species ultimately cause irreversible economic and ecological impacts, such as the chestnut blight that functionally eradicated the American chestnut across eastern North America. Assessments of the economic costs and losses induced by nonnative forest pests are required for policy development and need to adequately account for all of the economic impacts induced by rare, highly damaging pests. To date, countrywide economic evaluations of forest-invasive species have proceeded by multiplying a unit value (price) by a physical quantity (volume of forest products damaged) to arrive at aggregate estimates of economic impacts. This approach is inadequate for policy development because (1) it ignores the dynamic impacts of biological invasions on the evolution of prices, quantities, and market behavior, and (2) it fails to account for the loss in the economic value of nonmarket ecosystem services, such as landscape aesthetics, outdoor recreation, and the knowledge that healthy forest ecosystems exist. A review of the literature leads one to anticipate that the greatest economic impacts of invasive species in forests are due to the loss of nonmarket values. We proposed that new methods for evaluating aggregate economic damages from forest-invasive species need to be developed that quantify market and nonmarket impacts at microscales that are then extended using spatially explicit models to provide aggregate estimates of impacts. Finally, policies that shift the burden of economic impacts from taxpayers and forest landowners onto parties responsible for introducing or spreading invasives, whether through the imposition of tariffs on products suspected of imposing unacceptable risks on native forest ecosystems or by requiring

  5. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  6. The impact of the economic environment on financial reports

    Valentin Burcă

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial reporting represents a current issue of economic environment, given globalization and the recent economic crisis. Accounting -as profession - along with the investors and state institutions have started a comprehensive project of accounting convergence designed to improve the comparability of accounting information released by financial statements synthesis. The success of the project can only be provided by taking into account several constraints imposed by the economic environment, and not only. Therefore, attention must be paid to the voice of capital markets and large multinational corporations regarding the future development of financial reporting.

  7. The Impact of Public Investment on Economic Growth in Pakistan

    Ejaz Ghani; Musleh-Ud Din

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the role of public investment in the process of economic growth, in the context of Pakistan’s economy, using the vector autoregressive approach (VAR). Based on theoretical considerations, the model also includes private investment and public consumption besides public investment. The results show that growth is largely driven by private investment and that no strong inference can be drawn from the effects of public investment and public consumption on economic growth.

  8. THE IMPACT OF RESTRUCTURING UPON THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Laurentiu Radu

    2014-01-01

    Achieving economic objectives means meeting requirements of efficiency, profitability and profit. Restructuring phenomenon becomes part of the strategic thinking regarding the process of refurbishment and modernization through continuous adaptation to the economic structural changes. This phenomenon that is increasing in many countries, due to the mechanisms of transition to the market economy and especially the recession one, makes it necessary a broader approach in looking for ways to antic...

  9. FORMING MANAGEMENT IMPACTS IN AVIATION COMPANIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM

    Victoria Prokhorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  10. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Burke, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for fa...

  11. The impact of SMEs in the economic development of Kosovo

    Sami A. Morina; Edisona G. Kurhasku; Ilir Krasniqi

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of enterprises around 98% operating in Kosovo are micro-, small- and medium enterprises. In 2012, SMEs provide 80% of jobs from all companies. Therefore, SMEs are the biggest contributor to economic growth and employment and generate the bulk of the state budget. Therefore, development of SMEs is one of the most important aspects for economic growth and competitiveness. Legal and institutional reforms have led to a system that enables the rapid and free development of SMEs i...

  12. Tourism's Impact on Long-Run Mexican Economic Growth

    Edgar J. Sanchez Carrera; W. Adrian Risso; Juan Gabriel Brida

    2008-01-01

    Tourism is one of the most important factors in the productivity of Mexican economy with significant multiplier effects on economic activity. This paper investigates possible causal relationships among tourism expenditure, real exchange rate and economic growth by using quarterly data. Johansen cointegration analysis shows the existence of one cointegrated vector among real GDP, tourism expenditure and real exchange rate where the corresponding elasticities are positive. The tourism-led growt...

  13. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  14. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  15. Asteroid Defense: Comparison of Kinetic-Impact and Nuclear Stand-Off Schemes

    Gisler, G. R.; Ferguson, J.; Plesko, C. S.; Weaver, R.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the deflection of hazardous near-earth objects using either a kinetic impactor or a nuclear stand-off burst. If the object is known to be competent, the kinetic impactor is shown to be highly efficient. The momentum delivered to the object can be much greater than the momentum of the impactor because of the reaction force produced by ablation from the impact crater. We use an adaptive-mesh hydrocode to study the momentum-enhancement factor, or beta, varying the assumptions regarding the equation of state and the strength of the target. Spall from the back side of the asteroid, which partly counters the favorable effect of ablation, is also included in the calculations. For objects not known to be competent, the nuclear stand-off burst option may be preferable. In this case, crucial questions surround the optimum height of burst and the radiation characteristics of the burst. The same hydrocode, with radiation diffusion included, is used to study this case as well. Figures of merit from both these studies include the bulk momentum imparted to the asteroid and the degree to which the asteroid is disrupted. LA-UR-14-26234

  16. Fiscal and Economic Impacts of Beverage Excise Taxes Imposed by Maine Public Law 629

    Gabe, Todd

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the fiscal and economic impacts of the new and increased taxes on malt liquor (i.e., beer), wine and soft drinks imposed by Public Law 629. By fiscal impacts, we mean the increase in beverage taxes that would be paid by households and businesses. Our analysis suggests that Public Law 629 would lead to an estimated $40.7 million in additional beverage taxes per year. Economic impacts refer to the changes in statewide economic activity (e.g., sales rev...

  17. Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais

    Maria Inês Lobato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi

  18. The Impact of Membrane Lipid Composition on Macrophage Activation in the Immune Defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Julia Schumann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage membrane lipid composition on gene expression and cytokine synthesis thereby highlighting signal transduction processes, macrophage activation as well as macrophage defense mechanisms. Using RAW264.7 macrophages as a model system, we identified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA of both the n-3 and the n-6 family to down-regulate the synthesis of: (i the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α; (ii the co-stimulatory molecule CD86; as well as (iii the antimicrobial polypeptide lysozyme. The action of the fatty acids partially depended on the activation status of the macrophages. It is particularly important to note that the anti-inflammatory action of the PUFA could also be seen in case of infection of RAW264.7 with viable microorganisms of the genera R. equi and P. aeruginosa. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that PUFA from both the n-3 and the n-6 family down-regulate inflammation processes in context of chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens.

  19. Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt

    Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

  20. Effect of daily milk production on the economic impact of mastitits in cattle herds

    Fabiana Alves Demeu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify the effect of daily productivity per animal on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. A simulation study was conducted using the CU$TO MASTITE computational program. Dairy herds with an average production of 10, 20 and 30 liters of milk/day were considered. As preventive measures, expenses with mastitis incidence monitoring (culture and antibiogram, somatic cell count in the tank and somatic cells count per animal, pre and post dipping, vaccination, and treatment of dry cows were computed. Treatments of clinical cases, which corresponded to 7% of all lactating cows, were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as total losses (reduction in production and milk disposal during treatment and antibiotic withdrawal period plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. An increase in daily productivity per animal reduced the economic impact of mastitis. Higher productivity was associated with lower economic impact values, per liter of commercialized milk, due to optimization of the products and materials used per animal, reducing operating expenses. The expenses with preventive treatment corresponded to a maximum of 13.5% of economic impact. This percentage was lower than the economic impact of expenses with curative treatment. These results demonstrate the advantages of investing in preventive treatment, which will contribute to reduce the economic impact of mastitis.

  1. Economic impact of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) on work in Europe.

    Bevan, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the leading cause of work disability, sickness absence from work, 'presenteeism' and loss of productivity across all the European Union (EU) member states. It is estimated that the total cost of lost productivity attributable to MSDs among people of working age in the EU could be as high as 2% of gross domestic product (GDP). This paper examines the available evidence on the economic burden of MSDs on work across Europe and highlights areas of policy, clinical and employment practice which might improve work outcomes for individuals and families and reduce the economic and social costs of MSDs. PMID:26612235

  2. REVERSIBLE IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS AND THE IMPACT ON ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    MIRON VASILE-CRISTIAN-IOACHIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an essential objective of economic entities activating in the energy sector. The profit and loss account provides relevant information for performance analyzes, but evaluating the factors which determined the modification of the financial result demands detailed analyzes based on specific techniques. This paper develops and implements an econometric model that analyses the relation between gross profit and the reversible impairment of assets. The results of the analysis have shown that, in the energy sector, there is a significant connection between those two variables.

  3. he Impact of Economic Paradoxes on the Pharmaceutical Market Evolution

    Doina MARGARITTI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The population’s health represents the most important economic resource in a society. The social-economic role of heath protection is determined by the proper allocation of public financial resources but also partially, by the allocation of the populations own income. The general law of demand can be applied to the drugdemand. The well-knowneconomic paradoxes R. Giffen, T. Veblen and A. Rugina canbefound on the pharmaceuticalmarket and determine the elasticity of drug demand. The quantity of drugs needed to assure the populations health presents insignificant modifications to the price fluctuations, to the populations’ income, the resources allocated by the state and by each patient.

  4. Impact of global economic crisis on international and national turism

    Gica Gherghina Culita; Florentina Margarit

    2011-01-01

    The economic crisis is one of the most important events of the last period and it was felt in every economic sector of each country. Tourism, as an important sector of the economies, was affected too. Lack bugets made hole in the economy, population has dropped resigned and expensive trips or long vacations. Such revenues began to decline. We present in paper a top job of countries that have experienced crisis in the tourism sector, making the current fall in income to foreign tourists, but a...

  5. Tajikistan - Economic and Distributional Impact of Climate Change

    Heltberg, Rasmus; Reva, Anna; Zaidi, Salman

    2012-01-01

    Tajikistan is highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of global climate change, as it already suffers from low agricultural productivity, water stress, and high losses from disasters. Public awareness of the multiple consequences of climate change is high, with possible impacts on health, natural disasters, and agriculture of greatest public concern. Climate change can potentially deepen ...

  6. The Farm Level Economic Impacts of Increased Cash Lease Rates

    Raulston, J. Marc; Knapek, George M.; Richardson, James W.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Anderson, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Higher commodity price expectations have led to increases in cash lease rates nationwide. This study evaluates the farm level impacts of higher cash lease rates. Current levels of cash rents along with land tenure arrangements of specific farms are instrumental in determining the impacts of increases in lease rates.

  7. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  8. Innovation Impact on the Beer Market during Economic Crisis in Romania

    Morosanu Dora Maria; Bumbac Robert

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is a means to success for the beer companies in the years to come. Even during the recent economic crisis it is noticeable an increase of profitability by leveraging the impact of the innovation.

  9. The Economic Impact of Ecotourism on the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Area, Oregon

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study of the economic impact of ecotourism and the demographics of ecotourists was conducted at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon, from June1993-May 1994....

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  11. The Economic Impact of Telecommunications Diffusion on UK Productivity Growth

    Correa, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure competition, investment and productivity. Using econometric modelling and input-output economics, the analysis examines and measures the extent to which telecommunications has contributed to national and sectoral productivity performance. The main findings from this paper suggests that most industries have benefited from the incorporation of advances of telecommunications technology, which might have, amongst o...

  12. RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY - INTERESTS VECTORS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT

    ANDREEA – EMANUELA DRǍGOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Russia's foreign policy was shaped by both a number of internal factors (government strategy, political elites, culture, economics and demography and external ones (international treaties, changes in the structure of the international power balance. In the post-soviet era Russian foreign policy was radically different from that of other major economic powers. One of the factors that influenced decisively Russia’s external strategies was the collapse of the USSR as a superpower (phenomenon described by the president Vladimir Putin as "the most powerful geo-political catastrophe of the XXst century". The shift from the former communist regime (a totalitarian one to an authoritarian oligarchy (the current regime was followed by the transition to a market economy, a phenomenon that coincided with Russia’s military and political diminished influence in the international arena. Our research aims to assess the main interest vectors that shaped Russian Foreign Policy considering the main events that constitute milestones: Russia’s emerging as a great energy power, the Crimean crisis and Western international economic sanctions that followed. Our paper will base the main assumption on a joint analysis both qualitative and quantitative, using main international economic indicators (GDP, FDI flows, trade flows, general government balance and general gross debt and the most relevant approaches in the literature in the field.

  13. Economic Liberalization and Its Impact on Women and Women's Education.

    Ghosh, Ratna

    1996-01-01

    Externally imposed macroeconomic restructuring in developing nations (termed economic liberalization or neoliberalism) has specific effects on women because free-market processes undervalue anything without direct monetary value. Two immediate effects on education are privatization and budget cutbacks, which result in differential access to…

  14. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  15. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE FISCAL REVENUES

    Inceu Adrian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to evaluate the situation of the fiscal revenues in Romania in the context of economic and financial crisis, because the fiscal revenues are the major source of financing the public expenditure. The evolution of the level of fiscal revenu

  16. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deze macro-economische impactstudie (MES) biedt kwantitatieve inzichten in de macro-economische effecten van de invoering tussen nu en 2030 van groene, op palmolie gebaseerde alternatieven voor de productie van elektriciteit, brandstoffen, chemicaliën en materialen in Maleisië.This Macro-economic Im

  17. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  18. On the macro-economic impacts of climate change under informational failures

    Cao, Ruixuan; Gohin, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Although the sources, extent and physical impacts of the future climate change are highly uncertain, available dynamic economic assessments implicitly assume that economic agents perfectly know them. Perfect foresight, rational expectations or active learning are standard assumptions underlying simulated results. To the contrary, this paper builds on the assumption that economic agents may suffer for a while from limited knowledge about the average and variability of physical impa...

  19. Global maps of climate change impacts on the favourability for human habitation and economic activity

    Füssel, Hans-Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the statistical relationship between climatic factors and the global distribution of population and economic activity. Building on this analysis, a new method is developed for assessing geographically explicit impacts of climate change on the suitability of regions for human habitation and economic activity. This method combines information about differences in the conditional distributions of population density and economic activity across climate categories with climate ...

  20. Impact of demographic features on economic development of India from 2001 - 2010

    Dr Bhawna, Rathore

    2012-01-01

    Impact of demographic features on economic development of India from 2001 - 2010 By Dr. Bhawna Rathore Population of a country is closely related to its economic growth. After the distraction caused by second world war in Germany and Japan, the efficient hard working educated and healthy population of these countries has contributed to a large extent to the rapid economic growth and reconstruction of these c...

  1. Impact of educational expenditure on economic growth in major Asian countries: Evidence from econometric analysis

    Lingaraj MALLICK; Pradeep Kumar DAS; Kalandi Charan PRADHAN

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates dynamics of expenditure on education and economic growth in selected 14 major Asian countries by using balanced panel data from 1973 to 2012. The results of Pedroni cointegration state the existence of long-run equilibrium relationships between expenditure on education and economic growth in all the countries. The FMOLS results revealed a positive and statistical significant impact of education expenditure on economic development of all the 14 Asian count...

  2. Economic Costs of Ocean Acidification: A Look into the Impacts on Shellfish Production

    Narita, Daiju; Rehdanz, Katrin; Richard S.J. Tol

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a major global problem. Yet economic assessments of its effects are currently almost absent. Unlike most other marine organisms, mollusks, which have significant commercial value worldwide, have relatively solid scientific evidence of biological impact of acidification and allow us to make such an economic evaluation. By performing a partial-equilibrium analysis, we estimate global and regional economic costs of production loss of mollusks due...

  3. Economic costs of oceanacidification: A look into the impacts on shellfish production

    Narita, Daiju; Rehdanz, Katrin; Richard S.J. Tol

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a major global problem. Yet economic assessments of its effects are currently almost absent. Unlike most other marine organisms, mollusks, which have significant commercial value worldwide, have relatively solid scientific evidence of biological impact of acidification and allow us to make such an economic evaluation. By performing a partial-equilibrium analysis, we estimate global and regional economic costs of production loss of mollusks due...

  4. Cloud computing and prospective business and economic impacts in developing country: A case study of Thailand

    Keesookpuna, Chutipong; Mitomob, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The cloud computing model is a modern concept of computation that provides a number of benefits for its adopters. This online computing model has been widely used in the western world and accepted to have some business and economic impacts. This paper provides some basic knowledge about cloud computing along with its economic benefits. The author proposes that there is an endogenous relationship between the cloud computing and each of the business and economic variables, namely output, employ...

  5. Impact of Economic Crisis on Municipal Budgets in the Czech Republic

    David Spacek; Petra Dvorakova

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to outline an impact of the economic crisis on municipal budgets in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how selected municipalities with different level of delegated state administration dealt with the economic slump from the financial perspective. The results of our research so far suggest that Czech municipal budgets have been affected by the economic crisis more than regional budgets, but less than the central budget. The reason is that the budgets contain different ...

  6. Impact of trade factors on economic growth: seemingly unrelated regression model

    Nawaz , Samar; Aziz , Arshad; Khalid ZAMAN

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of trade on the economic growth, using seemingly unrelated regression model for SAARC countries namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Srilanka for the period of 1980-2012. Trade factors include total exports, total imports, terms of trade, trade openness and investment. The results indicate the strong correlation between trade factors and economic growth, however, the magnitude of influencing economic growth varies factors to factors of international trade.

  7. Impacts of Import Liberalization Policy on Economic Growth in Vietnam: A Channel Analysis

    DINH Thi Hoang Yen

    2009-01-01

    Vietnam, a transitional economy that started its historic economic reform in 1986, has been pursuing both the market-oriented and state-controlled developments for more than twenty years. This study focuses on the country's liberalization on internal and international trade polices, an important path of economic reform, by measuring an index for import liberalization policy and then employing "channel analysis" to quantify impacts of import liberalization on the country's economic growth. The...

  8. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  9. Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

    Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

    2013-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

  10. The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Sport

    Szabó Földesi Gyöngyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis is the worst one in decades; it is surely the worst one the world has experienced since the Great Depression in the 1930s. Although it has affected countries with different positions in the global village in different ways and to different degrees, it has had worldwide consequences in most sub-systems of societies, including sport. These are hot issues in management and in everyday practice; still, relatively little attention has been paid to them within the social sciences. The objective of this paper is to close this gap by studying how the recent global economic crisis has affected sport. Two spheres of sport have been selected for analysis: mega sport events and grassroots sports. These two fields were chosen because of their social importance and because there is little scientific evidence about how they face and answer the challenges coming from the economic crisis. The topic is discussed from the theoretical perspective of the nexus of economy, politics, society, and culture. The methodological considerations refer to the lack of reliable sources for economic data related to sport. The results indicate that mega sport events have suffered less from the recession: there might be new actors, but the show goes on. The true loser is grassroots sport. Household impoverishment might lead to a decreased willingness of the individual practitioners to pay for sports goods and services and to a decreased contribution of volunteers working in sport. The funding models vary across countries, but generally both public and private funding has been reduced. In conclusion, it is underlined that no fields of sport have been left untouched by the current global economic crisis, but grassroots sports have suffered the most from it.

  11. Macro Economic Impacts of Installing Rice Husk Electricity Power Plants in Thailand

    Kunimitsu, Yoji; Ueda, Tatsuki

    2006-01-01

    Macro economic impacts of rice-husk power plants (RHPP) in Thailand were analyzed by an Input/Output method. Results show that RHPP decreased sensitivity coefficients especially in the petroleum-sector, economic merits were realized in the agricultural-sector but total induced production effects were lowered, and induced imports by consumption were reduced with RHPP.

  12. The Impact of Integrating Scholarship on Women into Introductory Economics: Evidence from One Institution.

    Lage, Maureen J.; Treglia, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Articulates five phases of integrating women's studies issues into a traditional curriculum. Examines the impact of integrating phase three, applying accepted economic theory to the realm of women, in an undergraduate introductory economics course. Includes a curriculum comparison of traditional and gender-inclusive courses. (MJP)

  13. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in

  14. The Impact of Short-Term Economic Fluctuations on Kindergarten Enrollment

    Herman, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    For some 5-year-olds, delayed kindergarten enrollment may result in long-term academic benefits. Although waiting an additional year allows for further development prior to the start of formal education, the economic costs of the next best alternatives can be significant. This study examines the impact of short-term economic fluctuations on a…

  15. Modelling the economic impact of three lameness causing diseases using herd and cow level evidence

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Østergaard, Søren; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-01-01

    Diseases to the cow's hoof, interdigital skin and legs are highly prevalent and of large economic impact in modern dairy farming. In order to support farmer's decisions on preventing and treating lameness and its underlying causes, decision support models can be used to predict the economic...

  16. Organized crime in the economic and financial sectors of Russia and its impact on Western Europe

    Sinuraja, T.

    1996-01-01

    This literature study focuses on the economical and financial aspects of organized crime of Russia and its impact on Western Europe. The first chapter focuses on the activities of organized crime in the economic sector of Russia taking the aluminium and oil businesses as examples. The second chapter

  17. The economic impact of Olympic tourism: When, who and how much?

    Mueller, Martin

    2010-01-01

    No Olympics could do without exact measuring. In the 100 m sprint race, milliseconds separate winners from losers. But when it comes to measuring the economic benefits of Olympic tourism, figures vary by several billion. How can we get a grip on the economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympics?

  18. The study of infectious intestinal disease in England: socio-economic impact.

    Roberts, J. A.; Cumberland, P.; Sockett, P. N.; Wheeler, J.; L. C. Rodrigues; Sethi, D.; Roderick, P. J.; Infectious Intestinal Disease Study Executive, I. I. D.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the socio-economic impact of infectious intestinal disease (IID) on the health care sector, cases and their families, cases of IID ascertained from a population cohort component and those presenting to general practices were sent a socio-economic questionnaire 3 weeks after the acute episode. The impact of the illness was measured and the resources used were identified and costed. The duration, severity and costs of illness linked to viruses were less than those linked to bacteria. ...

  19. The Impact of Bank and Non-Bank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China

    Cheng, X; Degryse, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the relationship between finance and growth in a fast growing country, such as China.Employing data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995-2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types of institutions - banks and non-bank financial institutions - have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth.Our findings indicate that only banking development shows a statistically significant and economically relevant impact on...

  20. Economic impacts of climate change on tuna fisheries in Fiji Islands and Kiribati

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible economic consequences of a change in the tuna fisheries in the Pacific Ocean resulting from climate change. On the background of Lehodey's (2000) study of potential changes in the tuna fisheries, we survey possible economic impacts in terms of quantities and values and give examples of macroeconomic impacts. The two main effects of climate change on tuna fishing are likely to be a decline in the total stock and a migration of the stock westwards. This will le...

  1. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON NATIONS AND MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS

    THOMAS M. FITZPATRICK

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the social and economics impact of corruption on national economies and multinational corporations. The paper addresses the importance of eliminating corruption from the standpoint of its macro economics effects on gross domestic product, foreign direct investment and entrepreneurial activity within an economy. It also examines the impact that corrupt business environments have on multi national corporations and their abilities to compete in such environments.

  2. IMPACTS OF CONCENTRATION IN HOG PRODUCTION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN RURAL ILLINOIS: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS

    Gomez, Miguel I.; Zhang, Liying

    2000-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of increasing concentration of the livestock sector on the economic welfare of rural Illinois. A pooled time-series, cross-sectional model is developed to study the dynamics of structural changes in hog production for the period 1981-1997. The model tests the efficient-market hypothesis on local rural economies. Keywords: hog production, concentration, economic impacts, rural communities

  3. Did the Economic Impact of CCCTB affect the Voting Behaviour of MEPs?

    ANNELIES ROGGEMAN; ISABELLE VERLEYEN; PHILIPPE VAN CAUWENBERGE; CARINE COPPENS

    2014-01-01

    On 19 April 2012, the Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) voted on the European Commission’s proposal for a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB). We exploit a unique research setting which was created by an economic impact assessment of CCCTB that was made available to the MEPs. Using regression analysis, we investigate if the voting behaviour of MEPs was influenced by the predicted economic impact of CCCTB on their country. Our results show that, even after controlling for pa...

  4. Impact of Economic Crisis on Changes in Motivation of Employees in Woodworking Industry

    Miloš Hitka; Alexandra Hajduková; Žaneta Balážová

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the motivation of employees of a woodworking enterprise and analyses the level of individual motivation before (2004) and after the economic crisis and its effects in Slovakia (2012). The aim of the paper is to identify the most important motivation factors for employees and to consider the impact of financial crisis on the change in perception of individual motivation factors and their economic and social impact on employees. A questionnaire, as a method of inquiry, was ...

  5. The impact of export-oriented entrepreneurship on regional economic growth

    José L. González-Pernía; Peña-Legazkue, Iñaki

    2011-01-01

    Although export-oriented new ventures and the field of international entrepreneurship have received considerable attention by scholars during the last decade (Oviatt and McDougla, 2005), their potential economic impact has not been sufficiently analyzed yet. To the best of our knowledge, no studies on this issue have been carried out at regional level. Despite the increasing impact of globalization, regions have emerged as the essential and active unit of economic development process (Scott a...

  6. The economic impact of the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival in Oudtshoorn / by Christine van Schalkwyk

    Van Schalkwyk, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the economic impact of tourists visiting the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival in Oudtshoorn. In the context of event tourism, economic impact can be defined as the net change in an economy resulting from the event. The change is caused by the activity involving the acquisition, operation, development and use of facilities and services. These in turn generate visitor spending, public spending and tax revenue (Lee, 2001:l). Determin...

  7. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  8. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    Goldberg, M.

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  9. The Economic Effects of Unions in Latin America: Their Impact on Wages and the Economic Performance of Firms in Uruguay

    Adriana Cassoni; Gastón J. Labadie; Gabriela Fachola

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the impact of unionization and the level of centralization in bargaining, at the level of the industry or the firm, on wages and on the economic performance of firms within the manufacturing sector in Uruguay, using a panel of establishments for the period 1988 to 1995. In doing so, we control for the degree of exposure to international and regional competition as well as for industry and firm characteristics. The main findings suggest that unionization increases wages and...

  10. Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions

    Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

  11. The impact of SMEs in the economic development of Kosovo

    Sami A. Morina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of enterprises around 98% operating in Kosovo are micro-, small- and medium enterprises. In 2012, SMEs provide 80% of jobs from all companies. Therefore, SMEs are the biggest contributor to economic growth and employment and generate the bulk of the state budget. Therefore, development of SMEs is one of the most important aspects for economic growth and competitiveness. Legal and institutional reforms have led to a system that enables the rapid and free development of SMEs in the market, and tax policy and tax rates are among the lowest in the region. Medium-term strategy for development of SMEs defines different priorities and policy measures for the development and growth of SMEs

  12. Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment

    One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

  13. Economic Impact Analysis of Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rice

    Alpuerto, Vida; Norton, George W.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of developing and releasing salinity-tolerant and phosphorous-deficiency-tolerant rice in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and the Philippines were estimated for marker-assisted breeding as compared to conventional breeding using economic surplus analysis. Marker-assisted breeding is estimated to save at least 2 to 3 years in the breeding cycle and result in incremental benefits over 25 years in the range of $300 to $800 million depending on the country, stress, and time lags. Salini...

  14. The Impact of Fiscal Policy to the Kosovo Economical Development

    Gani Asllani

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is defining and finding fiscal politics in the function of the development of our economy in this transition phase as well as identifying the fiscal measures to overpass the existing difficulties within future development framework of the country. The paper contains very important data regarding the level of economic charges with taxes, comparison of fiscal charge of some important economies of Europe and world with fiscal charges of our economy. General conclusion from ...

  15. The Global Economic Crisis: Impact on Indian Outward Investment

    Pradhan, Jaya Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Indian outward FDI flows have declined in 2008 and the first half of 2009. The global financial and economic crisis appears to have seriously dented overseas investment plans of emerging Indian multinationals. This paper looks at the trends and patterns of Indian OFDI flows in the current crisis period, what led to its slowdown, how Indian multinationals have fared, and what is their revival prospect.

  16. The Economical and Ecological Importance of the Environmental Impact Assessment

    Ungureanu Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Balancing human needs of the immediate future with those of the distant future has led to the concept of sustainability, understood by the fact that economic activities should not be extended over the ability of total capital – including natural one –, keeping a stock of capital being a safe measure to ensure increasing sustainable benefits. The world of business has learned that a primary purpose of obtaining short-term financial benefits, despite the sustainable benefits to maintain economi...

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS

    Sorin BRICIU; Leontina BETIANU

    2010-01-01

    Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financ...

  18. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

    Sorin Toma; Paul Marinesc; Niculae Sabin Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing withi...

  19. The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis

    Camelia SURUGIU

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

  20. Economic and environmental impacts of the Kyoto Protocol

    Christoph Böhringer; Carsten Vogt

    2003-01-01

    In 2003 the Kyoto Protocol, which imposes legally binding greenhouse gas emission constraints on industrialized countries, is likely to enter into force. The Protocol has been celebrated as a milestone in climate protection, but standard economic theory casts doubt that it will go beyond symbolic policy. In this paper, we show that the final concretion of the Kyoto Protocol is consistent with the theoretical prediction: Kyoto more or less boils down to business-as-usual without significant co...

  1. Land administration and its impact on economic development

    Subedi, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between land administration and economic development. More specifically, it assesses the role of land tenure security in productivity and that of land administration services in revenue generation. The empirical part of the study was undertaken in Nepal, Bangladesh and Thailand. A mixed method approach was employed for data collection, analysis and interpretation. The information was gathered using questionnaires, interviews, observations, informal di...

  2. Impact of Hydropower Projects on Economic Growth of AJK.

    Atiq-ur-Rehman, Atiq-ur-Rehman; Anis, Hafsa

    2008-01-01

    According to official estimates, territory of Azad Jammu & Kashmir has a potential to generate about 4600 MW of hydroelectricity, the cheapest source of energy. Total deficit in energy Pakistan is facing these days is about 5000 MW. So, only AJK can fulfill more than 90% of deficit of now demanded energy for entire country. Beside this direct and explicit advantage of hydropower projects to power sector, these projects may be extremely useful in improving many economic and social indicators a...

  3. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OPERATING

    Slobodan Cerovic; Pero Petrovic; Stanislav Cerovic

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed t...

  4. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ROMANIA ALONG TIME

    Gheorghe GRIGORESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Five years after the onset of the strongest economic crisis that has seen a global economy, the world still seems to be far from solved problems. Neither Romania is no exception, sustainable economic recovery we all want is (for now only hope. We have allowed the material to make some suggestions on how the economy might revive. We talked first about the vital need for revival of investment, supporting them through tax incentives to entrepreneurs. I then point the better absorption of European funds, the source of revival of the Romanian economy. Also advocate for greater accountability in spending public money, so terms like necessity, opportunity and social need not remain only in books, but to be used effectively in the allocation of budgetary resources. We detailed several times how I propose we approached the Romanian economy and revitalize major role essential, you must have it in technical and scientific economic recovery. The regret of not having experience in macroeconomics, in order to put more ideas on the table, still think that the detailed material could give thought to avid readers.

  5. Economic Impact of Food Safety Outbreaks on Food Businesses

    Malik Altaf Hussain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A globalized food trade, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing toward an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. Moreover, the volume of international food trade has increased to become very large. All of these factors are putting pressure on the food companies to meet global demand in order to be competitive. This scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient toward food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. The estimated cost of food safety incidents for the economy of the United States is around $7 billion per year which comes from notifying consumers, removing food from shelves, and paying damages as a result of lawsuits. Most other countries similarly have economic losses. Much of these losses represent lost markets, loss of consumer demand, litigation and company closures. Concrete steps are needed to improve safety of foods produced for local or overseas markets to avoid unexpected food scandals and economic losses.

  6. Economic impact on the Florida economy of energy price spikes

    A substantial disturbance in oil supplies is likely to generate a large price upsurge and a downturn in the level of economic activity. Each of these two effects diminishes demand by a certain amount. The specific price surge required to reduce demand to the lower level of supply can be calculated with an oil demand function and with empirical estimations of the association between price spikes and declines in economic activity. The first section presents an energy demand model for Florida, which provides the price and income elasticities needed. The second section includes theoretical explanations and empirical estimations of the relationship between price spikes and recessions. Based on historical evidence, it seems that Florida's and the nation's economic systems are very sensitive to oil price surges. As price spikes appear damaging to the economy, it could be expected that reductions in the price of oil are beneficial to the system. That is likely to be the case in the long run, but no empirical evidence of favorable short-term effects of oil price decreases was found. Several possible explanations and theoretical reasons are offered to explain this lack of association. The final section presents estimates of the effect of oil disruptions upon specific industries in Florida and the nation

  7. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  8. Distributional and regional economic impact of energy taxes in Belgium

    We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the microlevel is top–down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil excises across regions and households in Belgium. • Lower income groups gain if the revenue is used to raise welfare payments. • If labour taxes are reduced, the reform is only slightly regressive. • The differential impact across households is driven by factor price changes. • Sector composition is a crucial determinant for impact variation across regions

  9. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  10. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE FIRMS ASSISTED BY THE OKLAHOMA FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER

    Zimmerschied, Ann; Woods, Michael D.; Willoughby, Charles V.; Holcomb, Rodney B.; Tilley, Daniel S.

    2003-01-01

    An economic impact study of the Oklahoma Food and Agricultural Products Research and Technology Center was conducted to analyze the impact of the firms the Center has assisted and the impact of services provided by the Center. The economic impact of the firms assisted was calculated using an IMPLAN model.

  11. Science and the economic crisis impact on science, lessons from science

    Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book not only explores the ways in which the economic crisis and associated austerity policies have adversely impacted the physical and human infrastructure and conduct of scientific research, but also considers how science can help us to understand the crisis and provide original solutions. Starting with a detailed but accessible analysis of the scientific method and the nature of scientific prediction, the book proceeds to address the failure to forecast the economic crisis and the origins of the continuing inertia in economic policy and theory. Attention is drawn in particular to the shortcomings of neoclassical economics in terms of its description of the economic system as being mechanical in nature and characterized by equilibrium. This perspective mirrors the limitations and outdated ideas of nineteenth century physics, which the book contrasts with the insights offered by modern physics. The impact of neoliberal ideologies on scientific research is also discussed in detail, highlighting their sti...

  12. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  13. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998; ANNUAL

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico-FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The

  14. The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture : a ricardian approach

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane; Karanja, Fredrick K

    2007-01-01

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. The analysis is based on cross-sectional climate, hydrological, soil, and household level data for a sample of 816 households, and uses a seasonal Ricardian model. Estimated marginal impacts of climate variables suggest that global warming is harmful for agricultural productivity and that changes in temperature are much ...

  15. The Recession's Ongoing Impact on America's Children: Indicators of Children's Economic Well-Being through 2011

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2011-01-01

    Children throughout the United States continue to be negatively impacted by the lingering effects of the Great Recession, with children in some states more hard hit than others. The impact of the recession on children can be hard to see. Some economic statistics ignore children, while others come out with a long time delay. This updated issue…

  16. Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

    2012-12-01

    To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

  17. The Economic Impact of the Arts, Film, History and Tourism Industries in Connecticut

    Stanley McMillen; Troy Helming; Shadab Qaiser; Mark Sheridan; Victoria Finkle; Monoswita Saha

    2006-01-01

    This report contains four ecnomic impact studies corresponding to the four divisions (arts, film, historic preservation, and tourism) of the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism that commissioned them. There is an Executive Summar, the four industry studies, and a methodological overview that includes a discussion of the overall approach, economic impact multipliers, data sources, and an explanation of the conservative nature of the studies.

  18. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS ON THE KOREAN FARM AND NON-FARM SECTORS

    Han, Doo Bong

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to construct a macroeconomic model emphasizing agriculture and analyze the economic impacts of the financial crisis on the Korean farm and non-farm sectors. The simulation results show that financial shocks have great impacts on general economy and change the resource allocation within and between farm and non-farm sectors.

  19. The Social and Economic Impact of Native American Casinos

    Evans, William N.; Julie H. Topoleski

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1980s, a series of legal rulings favorable to tribes and the subsequent passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 legalized gaming operations on reservations in many states. Today, there are over 310 gaming operations run by more than 200 of the nations' 556 federally-recognized tribes. Of these operations, about 220 are Las Vegas' style casinos with slot machines and/or table games. We use a simple difference-in-difference framework where we compare economic outcomes be...

  20. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

    Sorin Toma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing within the crisis context for the retail sector.

  1. The Impact of Economic Crises on Changes in Corporate Governance

    Stanislaw Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 - 15 years significant changes took place in principal systems of corporate governance i.e. in the Anglo-Saxon and German systems. These changes were of similar or the same character. This was an effect of economic crises, mainly crises of 1997 – 1998 and 2007 – 2009. The crises have influenced the changes either directly through amendments in the so-called hard law of national systems of supervision or indirectly through recommendations on corporate governance issued by inte...

  2. The evolutionary strategies of plant defenses have a dynamic impact on the adaptations and interactions of vectors and pathogens

    Ordom Brian Huot; Punya Nachappa; Cecilia Tamborindeguy

    2013-01-01

    Plants have evolved and diversified to reduce the damages imposed by infectious pathogens and herbivorous insects.Living in a sedentary lifestyle,plants are constantly adapting to their environment.They employ various strategies to increase performance and fitness.Thus,plants developed cost-effective strategies to defend against specific insects and pathogens.Plant defense,however,imposes selective pressure on insects and pathogens.This selective pressure provides incentives for pathogens and insects to diversify and develop strategies to counter plant defense.This results in an evolutionary arms race among plants,pathogens and insects.The ever-changing adaptations and physiological alterations among these organisms make studying plant-vector-pathogen interactions a challenging and fascinating field.Studying plant defense and plant protection requires knowledge of the relationship among organisms and the adaptive strategies each organism utilize.Therefore,this review focuses on the integral parts of plant-vectorpathogen interactions in order to understand the factors that affect plant defense and disease development.The review addresses plant-vector-pathogen co-evolution,plant defense strategies,specificity of plant defenses and plant-vector-pathogen interactions.Improving the comprehension of these factors will provide a multi-dimensional perspective for the future research in pest and disease management.

  3. The Impact of Competition and Allelopathy on the Trade-Off between Plant Defense and Growth in Two Contrasting Tree Species

    Fernandez, Catherine; Monnier, Yogan; Santonja, Mathieu; Gallet, Christiane; Weston, Leslie A; Prévosto, Bernard; Saunier, Amélie; Baldy, Virginie; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e., allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under th...

  4. The impact of competition and allelopathy on the trade-off between plant defense and growth in two contrasting tree species

    Catherine eFERNANDEZ; Yogan eMONNIER; Mathieu eSANTONJA; Christiane eGALLET; Weston, Leslie A; Bernard ePREVOSTO; Amelie eSAUNIER; Virginie eBALDY; Anne eBOUSQUET-MELOU

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e. allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under thr...

  5. Economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes

    An attempt is made to broaden the purview of fiscal impact analysis to include impacts on the local private sector that may stem from local public sector changes. More specifically, attention is focused on the limiting case, in which new private sector development yields positive changes in fiscal capacity, but does not increase public service demands or interact with the local private sector. This phenomenon is termed a ''pure'' change in fiscal capacity, or, stated differently, pure tax revenue importation. Interest in this issue stems from an analysis of the local impacts of constructing and operating nuclear power stations. Nuclear power stations, like other electrical generating facilities, are characterized by large capital-labor ratios, implying that the impact of siting would be to increase local taxable capacity, via the property tax base, to a greater extent than local private sector activity, via new hirings. Moreover, a small labor force implies a modest change in the demand for local public services, and facilities of this nature by themselves demand few, if any, public services. A nuclear power station, however, may be distinguished from other electrical generating facilities through siting regulations that require locating in a low population density area, a fact which ensures the influence on the community will be substantial. The question of how and to what degree feedback effects from local public to local private sector may take place is described

  6. Economic Impacts of China's Accession to the World Trade Organization

    Ianchovichina, Elena; Martin, William

    2003-01-01

    Ianchovichina and Martin present estimates of the impact of accession by China and Chinese Taipei to the World Trade Organization. China is estimated to be the biggest beneficiary, followed by Chinese Taipei and their major trading partners. Accession will boost the labor-intensive manufacturing sectors in China, especially the textiles and apparel sector that will benefit directly from th...

  7. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF EDGE EFFECTS EXTERNALITIES ON LAND USE DECISIONS

    Parker, Dawn Cassandra

    1998-01-01

    Many land use conflicts are characterized by negative impacts whose severity declines with distance. This paper demonstrates how these "edge effects externalities" may contribute to sub-optimal patterns and scale of land use, therefore providing a strengthened rationale for coordinated land use planning.

  8. Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade.

    Anderson, Kym

    2010-11-30

    Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to boost food security in developing countries by offering higher incomes for farmers and lower priced and better quality food for consumers. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because the European Union and some other countries have implemented strict regulatory systems to govern their production and consumption of genetically modified (GM) food and feed crops, and to prevent imports of foods and feedstuffs that do not meet these strict standards. This paper analyses empirically the potential economic effects of adopting transgenic crops in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. It does so using a multi-country, multi-product model of the global economy. The results suggest the economic welfare gains from crop biotechnology adoption are potentially very large, and that those benefits are diminished only very slightly by the presence of the European Union's restriction on imports of GM foods. That is, if developing countries retain bans on GM crop production in an attempt to maintain access to EU markets for non-GM products, the loss to their food consumers as well as to farmers in those developing countries is huge relative to the slight loss that could be incurred from not retaining EU market access. PMID:20478422

  9. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products.

  10. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

  11. Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations

    Romuald I. Zalewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII, European Summary Innovative Index (SII, Ranking of Competitiveness of Nations (in a form of summary as well as subsidiary data and set of macro economy data (GDP, labor productivity, export, export of high-tech, R&D expenditure as [as % of GDP] etc as measures of economic growth. Various regression models: liner, curvilinear, planar or spatial with one or two dependent variables will be calculated and explained. In addition the appropriate 2 D and 3 D-graphs will be used and presented to strengthen verbal arguments and explanation. The main result of this paper is relationship between innovative activity, competitive ability and growth measured as GDP per capita. Such relationship is shown as fairy good linear span of countries. Only two of them: Luxemburg and Norway due to higher than average growth value are outliers. The valuable outcome of this paper is classification of nation into groups: highly innovative- highly competitive, highly competitive-non innovative, highly innovative- non competitive and non innovative – non competitive. The last group of nations fall into trap of low competitiveness.

  12. Socio-Economic Hazards and Impacts of Space Weather: The Important Range Between Mild and Extreme

    Schrijver, Carolus J.

    2015-09-01

    Society needs to prepare for more severe space weather than it has experienced in the modern technological era. To enable that we must both quantify extreme-event characteristics and analyze impacts of lesser events that are frequent yet severe enough to be informative. Exploratory studies suggest that economic impacts of a century-level space hurricane and of a century of lesser space weather "gales" may turn out to be of the same order of magnitude. The economic benefits of effective mitigation of the impacts of space gales may substantially exceed the required investments, even as these investments provide valuable information to prepare for the worst possible storms.

  13. Socio-economic hazards and impacts of space weather: the important range between mild and extreme

    Schrijver, Carolus J

    2015-01-01

    Society needs to prepare for more severe space weather than it has experienced in the modern technological era. To enable that, we must both quantify extreme-event characteristics and analyze impacts of lesser events that are frequent yet severe enough to be informative. Exploratory studies suggest that economic impacts of a century-level space hurricane and of a century of lesser space-weather "gales" may turn out to be of the same order of magnitude. The economic benefits of effective mitigation of the impacts of space gales may substantially exceed the required investments, even as these investments provide valuable information to prepare for the worst possible storms.

  14. Economic perspectives on the impact of climate variability and change: A summary report

    A summary is presented of a collection of papers on the economic methodologies applicable to studies of the impact of global climate variability and change. The research was sponsored by the Canadian Climate program and was conducted as part of a project investigating the potential impacts on various sectors of the Canadian economy of climate warming due to the greenhouse effect. Topics of the papers include microeconomic analysis, benefit/cost analysis, input-output analysis, policy options regarding water levels in the Great Lakes, the scenario approach to assessing socio-economic sensitivities to climate change in the agri-food sector, and analysis of weather impacts. Several analytical tools are seen to be readily applicable to economic analyses of the effects of climate change, and issues of future water supply and demand are seen as central to climate impact assessment, and of particular concern to Canada

  15. Policy instruments to limit negative environmental impacts from increased international transport: An economic perspective

    Van Dender, Kurt; Crist, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Transport activities have adverse environmental and health impacts, of which local and regional air pollution, climate change, and noise impacts are the most important. This paper is a non-comprehensive overview of existing and potential policies to deal with these negative impacts, with a focus on “international transport”. We define “international transport” as those transport activities that are mainly derived from the globalization of economic activity, not as cross-border transport flows...

  16. The Depreciation Impact of the Profit and Activity Development Carried out by an Economic Operator

    Dobrota, Gabriela; Chirculescu, Felicia Maria

    2008-01-01

    It's interesting how an economic operator decides to depreciate its depreciable fixed assets, because depreciation is an expense input from the taxable profit in accordance with the laws in force, thus contributing to diminishing the operating profit/loss and implicitly the gross and net earnings, without real impact on profitability and especially without any impact on the self-funding capacity. But the impact given by the depreciation expenses may be influenced by the organization policy...

  17. Increasing the impact of economic evaluations on health care decision-making

    Douglas Coyle

    1993-01-01

    Although there is a substantial amount of literature recording the increasing number of economic evaluations of health care interventions, there is little discussion of the level of impact such studies have had on decision-making. In this paper the evidence relating to impact which does exist is examined. The implication from this is that social science research has made little direct impact on health care decision-making. Theories relating to the process of research utilisation in decision-m...

  18. Financial Crisis:Its Impacts on International Economic System and Geopolitics

    2009-01-01

    Global financial crisis is ongoing. The crisis has not only impacted the mode of the world economy that further called for reform of international economic system, but also exerted far-reaching impact on the transformation of the international political system and geopolitics. China, undergoing a critical period of reform anddevelopment, is obliged to probe the essence of the crisis and its prospective impacts, to discern the direction of the transforming international political system and geopolitics, and ...

  19. Economic assessment of environmental impact in the course of oil field development and production

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Kupriyanova, O. S.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers the variety of impacts that oil exploration and production operations have on the environment at different stages of the process. To provide accurate economic assessment, an oil field development project was designed, with various development options. These options being analyzed, the strategy with the minimal environmental impact was identified. This has allowed preparation of a guideline on how to prevent deterioration of the environment and to reduce the negative environmental impact

  20. The emergence of New Economic Governance and its impact on Services of General Economic Interest

    Legnaioli Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of austerity measures on national social protection mechanisms and on the European Social Model. The study is based on an in-depth analysis of austerity measures adopted in Italy and Portugal and the evolution of several indicators, such as unemployment rates and the percentage of citizens at risk of poverty.

  1. Economic impacts of reducing NOx emissions in Norway

    Using a multisector computable general equilibrium model for the Norwegian economy, the impacts on main macroeconomic indicators of reducing NOx emissions are analyzed. Seven specific technical measures regarding passenger cars, trucks, ships and industrial processes are studied. The measures have somewhat different impacts on the macroeconomy. Especially the measure pertaining to light and heavy duty trucks leads to an increase in GDP, because of higher income from indirect taxes. However, the sum of value added in the production sectors is reduced. The other measures cause a decrease in GDP. All in all, it is found that the costs, in terms of reductions in GDP and private consumption, incurred from the introduction of additional NOx emissions control measures are quite small. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  2. Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries

    The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia. 46 refs

  3. The Socio Economic Impact of Renewable Energy Technologies

    Hayley Miles

    1998-01-01

    Early rural electrification programmes, relying upon grid connected power, were once hailed as the catalytic drivers of rural development. However experience has shown that their impact upon indigenous rural growth has been minimal and the associated benefits have not been forthcoming. Alternatively, the advent of commercially available renewable energy technologies has injected renewed optimism into the RE camp. Because they are able to devolve many of the income and employment opportunities...

  4. Potential Economic Impacts of Avian Influenza in LAC

    César Falconi

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discuses bird flu in two different related scenarios: as a disease that could affect the Poultry Sector and as a disease that could cause a Human Pandemic. The paper includes an analysis on what's at stake, risks and probabilities, costs, impacts and ways of prevention, as well as a series of conclusions. This presentation was created for the Seminar "The Mass Media and the Threat of Avian Influenza in Latin America" held in August of 2006.

  5. Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees

    Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

  6. The global economic crisis and migrant workers : impact and response

    Awad, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Analyses the actual and potential impact of the global crisis on international migrant workers through a focus on four issue areas. These are the employment and migration opportunities available to migrant workers, including changes in the demand for migrant labour and possible return to countries of origin; the volume of financial remittances sent by migrant workers to their families; situations of discrimination and xenophobia that may confront migrant workers along with their conditions of...

  7. Economic Impact of Religious Tourism in Mardin, Turkey

    Istvan Egresi; Fatih Kara; Büşra Bayram

    2012-01-01

    Following a worldwide trend, the number of religious tourists to the province of Mardin, in Southeastern Turkey has increased continuously during the last decade. Using a combination of methods this study aimed to assess the impact of religious tourism development on the local community and economy. We found that the effect is mainly positive. The hotels have high occupancy rates throughout the year and many new hotels have been built during the last five years. Also most visitors eat in loca...

  8. Regional scale socio-economic and ecological impacts

    Acreman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The SCENES project has sought to develop likely future state of Europe’s waters. Because the future is uncertain we have developed a range of possible scenarios that are dependent on two aspects. First aspect is changes to the climate particularly alterations to precipitation and temperature that affect evaporation. These changes will have direct impacts on the overall water resource in Europe and its availability for domestic supply, agriculture and industry and supporting the important serv...

  9. THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON ROMANIA'S ECONOMICAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    DIANA-MIHAELA POCIOVĂLIȘTEANU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Free movement for people is one of the most fundamental freedoms guaranteed by European Union law and it is a necessary precondition for building a single market. Greater adaptability on the part of workers through migration process is also a key element in making Europe Union more competitive at a global level, and at an individual level enabling employees to raise their skills levels and their employability, income and career prospects. In this paper I’m trying to review several aspects regarding the Romanian labour market, the causes that determined the labour force to emigrate in European Union’s member states, as well as migrations’ effects on the supply and demand on the labour market. Migration can have both positive and negative effects on economical and social life from the origin country.

  10. THE IMPACT OF CREDIT AND CAPITAL SUPPORTS ON ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Bernardus Bala de Rosari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

  11. Economic impact of multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders.

    Borduin, Charles M; Dopp, Alex R

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the economics of multisystemic therapy for problem sexual behaviors (MST-PSB), a family-based treatment that has shown promise with juvenile sexual offenders. We evaluated the cost and benefits of MST-PSB versus usual community services using arrest data obtained in an 8.9-year follow-up from a randomized clinical trial with 48 juvenile sexual offenders, who averaged 22.9 years of age at follow-up (Borduin, Schaeffer, & Heiblum, 2009). The net benefit of MST-PSB over usual community services was calculated in terms of (a) the value to taxpayers, which was based on measures of criminal justice system expenses (e.g., police and sheriff's offices, court processing, community supervision); and (b) the value to crime victims, which was based on measures of both tangible (e.g., property damage and loss, health care, lost productivity) and intangible (e.g., pain, suffering, reduced quality of life) losses. Lower rates of posttreatment arrests in the MST-PSB versus usual community services conditions were associated with lasting reductions in expenses for both taxpayers and crime victims, with an estimated total benefit of $343,455 per MST-PSB participant. Stated differently, every dollar spent on MST-PSB recovered $48.81 in savings to taxpayers and crime victims over the 8.9-year follow-up. These findings demonstrate that a family-based treatment such as MST-PSB can produce lasting economic benefits with juvenile sexual offenders. Policymakers and public service agencies should consider these findings when making decisions about interventions for this challenging clinical population. PMID:26075740

  12. Quantifying the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand

    This paper attempts to quantify the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand (in addition to income, price, and fuel efficiency) by estimating the demand relationship for oil transport for 1960-2007 using the structural time series model. From this, the relative impact on UK transport oil demand from income, price, and efficiency are quantified. Moreover, the relative impact of the non-economic factors is also quantified, based on the premise that the estimated stochastic trend represents behavioural responses to changes in socio-economic factors and changes in lifestyles and attitudes. The estimated elasticities for income, price and efficiency are 0.6, -0.1, and -0.3, respectively, and it is shown that for efficiency and price the overall contribution is relatively small, whereas the contribution from income and non-economic factors is relatively large. This has important implications for policy makers keen to reduce transport oil consumption and associated emissions, but not willing to reduce the trend rate of economic growth. Taxes and improved efficiency only have a limited impact; hence, a major thrust of policy should perhaps be on educating and informing consumers to persuade them to change their lifestyle and attitudes and thus reduce their consumption through the non-economic instruments route.

  13. Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report

    This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  14. National culture and economic performance: a cross-cultural study of culture’s impact on economic performance across the 27 member countries of the European Union

    Grenness, Tor

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of national culture on variations in economic performance among the European Union countries. In order to explain differences in economic performance we have used two data sets: The scores of the EU countries on Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions, and the scores on economic performance from The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) presented by The World Economic Forum. What we found was that countries with high scores on Power Distance and Uncerta...

  15. Solar power satellites: Commercialization and socio-economic impacts

    Commercialization prospects for solar power satellites are assessed with reference to their possible impacts on the viability of the fossil fuel market and on international energy and environmental policies. The technical aspects which are examined include: solar panel sizing in relation to solar cell efficiency; the development of point-contact solar cell technology; the feasibility of the use of lunar materials; microwave transmission from the moon; optimum satellite positioning; the use of robots for in-space satellite assembly; satellite transmitted power for hydrogen production and storage; marketable product estimated development time

  16. The Economic Impact of the Syrian Migration to Europe

    Raygada, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The present concern of most member countries in the EU is the short and long term impact of the influx of the Syrian refugees on their economy. The crisis in the Syrian territory has caused citizens to seek refuge and safety in nearby countries, thus creating an imbalance in the micro and macroeconomic activities of the receiving countries.The quality as well as the quantity of labor an economy can access has a direct influence on its GDP growth. An influx of labor to an economy as a result o...

  17. The Economic Impact of Olympic Games : Evidence from Stock Markets

    Dick, Christian D.; Wang, Qingwei

    2008-01-01

    By means of an event study of stock market reactions to the announcement of the Olympic Games host cities, we find a significant and positive announcement effect of hosting the Summer Games, with a cumulative abnormal return of about 2% within a few days. We do not find any significant results for the Winter Games. Neither do we detect a significant impact when bidders lose the competition. Our results differ from those of a similar study by Mirman and Sharma (2008), who find that the Winter ...

  18. Economic Impact of Religious Tourism in Mardin, Turkey

    Istvan Egresi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, the number of religious tourists to the province of Mardin, in Southeastern Turkey has increased continuously during the last decade. Using a combination of methods this study aimed to assess the impact of religious tourism development on the local community and economy. We found that the effect is mainly positive. The hotels have high occupancy rates throughout the year and many new hotels have been built during the last five years. Also most visitors eat in local restaurants at least once a day and patronize local shops and businesses. The development of religious tourism has also led to the creation of many new jobs.

  19. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  20. SME-s and their economic impact Albanian Case

    Denada Topuzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is made an attempt to discover some of the factors that influence the creation and the thrift of small and large businesses on credit. Credit problems are analyzed in countries in transition, and in particular in Albania. Also the macroeconomic situation constitutes a significant factor in the accumulation of bad loans. Despite many other factors that affect the quality indicators of the loan portfolio, macroeconomic factors have played an important role. Meanwhile, the consolidation of ties and quantitative results, without any doubt will support future analysis and research in the field of banking supervision. In this point of view it will be emphasized the fact that despite the relative indicators that are applied in the analysis above, there should not be overlooked the absolute ones. Through this paper I will perform the role of credit research and its impact on business performance. This study is focused on four important aspects of credit and its impact on the progress of business, which contributes on the atmosphere of doing business and especially its financing, such as: comprehensiveness, the development of a cooperative spirit, the establishment of motivation and cultivation of values and partnership.

  1. Green jobs? Economic impacts of renewable energy in Germany

    The labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) are analyzed in this text. Although a growing RE industry can be observed in Germany the overall effect of large increases of RE based electricity and heat generating technologies on the German economy require a careful model based analysis. The applied model PANTA RHEI has been used among others to evaluate the German energy concept in 2010. It takes positive and negative impacts of RE into account. The paper shows the overall effects under different assumptions for fossil fuel prices, domestic installations and international trade. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the development of RE world markets and German exports to these markets. Almost all of these scenarios exhibit positive net employment effects. Under medium assumptions net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. Only with assumptions for German RE exports below today's level, net impacts are slightly negative. Gross employment will increase from 340 thousand in 2009 to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) in Germany. ► It shows the overall effects under different assumptions. ► The development of world markets and German RE exports are very important. ► Net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. ► Gross employment will increase to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030.

  2. Impact of Mental Poverty on Rural Economic Development

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition of mental poverty and the status quo of mental poverty in China’s rural areas.Mental poverty in China’s rural areas embodies the following aspects:the sense of parochialism is serious;the small farmer consciousness is strong;there is misgiving about identity.This paper analyses the reason of mental poverty influencing farmers’ behaviour model and rural economic development.Mental poverty influences the farmers’ changing current situation;mental poverty influences the rural population structure;mental poverty influences the rural normal order.The countermeasures and proposals are put forward to obviate mental poverty in rural areas as follows:first,strengthen farmers’ consciousness of main body,and improve farmers’ psychological feeling;second,coordinate urban-rural development,and strengthen farmers’ social identity degree;third,increase inputs into cultural building,and promote farmers’ quality;fourth,open up mind,and encourage the outflow of labour forces.

  3. The Impact of External Events on the Emergence of Collective States of Economic Sentiment

    Hohnisch, M; Pittnauer, S; Hohnisch, Martin; Stauffer, Dietrich; Pittnauer, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the environment (i.e. the impact of socio-political and socio-economic exogenous events) on the emergence of ordered phases of locally interacting individual economic sentiment variables (consumer confidence, business confidence etc.). The sentiment field is modeled as a (non-critical) Ising field with nearest-neighbor interactions on a (two-dimensional) square lattice. The environment is modeled as an external ``field of events'', randomly fluctuating over time, stochastically impacting the Ising field of individual variables. The external events can be frequent or rare, have a lasting impact or a non-lasting impact. The field is not homogeneous, as individual actors might fail to perceive external events. We find that if events are sufficiently ``strong'' and/or perceived by a sufficiently large proportion of agents, collective states of pessimism/optimism can not occur, even for strong inter-agent interactions.

  4. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses this...... be increased at a rate sufficient to compensate for continual growth in the volume of housing stock. A further elaboration of the topic at an ontological level leads to the conclusion that continual economic growth and long-term environmental sustainability can hardly be combined....... question from the position of critical realism. An empirical study focusing on the housing sector is conducted, indicating that housing stock growth and economic growth have been, at best, weakly decoupled from environmental impacts. In the long run, it seems implausible that the degree of decoupling can...

  5. Economic impact of price forecasting inaccuracies on self-scheduling of generation companies

    This paper studies the economic impact of using inaccurate price forecasts on self-scheduling of generation companies (GenCos) in a competitive electricity market. Four alternative sets of price forecasts are used in this study which have different levels of accuracy. The economic impact of price forecast inaccuracies is calculated by comparing the economic benefits of the GenCos in two self-scheduling scenarios. In the first scenario, electricity market price forecasts are used to optimally schedule the GenCos' next day operation. In the second scenario, perfect price forecasts, i.e., actual market prices, are used for self-scheduling of the GenCos. Two indices are utilized to quantify the differences in the economic benefits of the GenCos under the two scenarios. Simulation results are provided and discussed for two typical and inherently different GenCos, i.e., a hydro-based producer and a thermal-based producer. (author)

  6. Review of existing studies and unresolved problems associated with socio-economic impact of nuclear powerplants

    Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques

  7. Social and economic impact of Chernobyl in Turkey

    The radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in terms of doses to individuals in the various countries covered a wide range. The specific features of the release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl accident, particularly its relatively large duration and altitude reached by the radioactive plume, caused a widespread distribution of activity across Europe. Meteorological conditions and wind regimes during the period of release were the contributing factors. The varying distances from the source of release and long duration of the release in different directions resulted in uneven ground and foodchain contamination. Also, variable meteorological situation, characterized by frequent and localized heavy precipitation contributed to uneven deposition differs sometimes by one or two orders of magnitude between localities situated few tens of kilometers apart. In these circumstances, the doses to the individuals of critical groups appeared to be higher than the average individual dose over whole population

  8. The Climate Change and Economic Impacts of Food Waste in the United States

    Venkat, Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the climate change and economic impacts of food waste in the United States. Using loss-adjusted national food availability data for 134 food commodities, it calculates the greenhouse gas emissions due to wasted food using life cycle assessment and the economic cost of the waste using retail prices. The analysis shows that avoidable food waste in the US exceeds 55 million metric tonnes per year, nearly 29% of annual production. This waste produces life-cycle greenhouse gas ...

  9. The impact of demographical development on the economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa

    Matějčková, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on the impact of demographic development on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The influence is analyzed by using appropriate demographic variable - total fertility rate and economic variable - GNI per capita, in 45 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. These endogenous variables have been selected based on theoretical overview and theirs influence has been analyzed by simultaneous econometric model. Endogenous variables are explained by exogenous variables, for examp...

  10. Modelling economic impacts of deficit irrigated maize in Brazil with consideration of different rainfall regimes

    Rodrigues, Gonçalo C.; Martins, Juliano D.; Silva, Francisco G. da; Carlesso, Reimar; L. S. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Deficit irrigation is often required to cope with droughts and limited water availability. However, to select an appropriate irrigation management, it is necessary to assess when economic impacts of deficit irrigation are acceptable. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate economic water productivity for maize submitted to various levels of water deficits and different irrigation systems. The study was based on two different experiments conducted in Southern Brazil, o...

  11. The Economic Impact of Inbound Tourism in Kenya: A CGE Analysis

    Eric

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is an economic activity of immense significance for both developed and developing countries. In recent years, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models have been widely used to investigate the economic effects of tourism. In this paper a tourism CGE model is applied to estimate the impact of growth in the tourism sector on national welfare in Kenya.The model is neoclassical in structure. Its main features involve profit maximization by producers, utility maximization by households, ...

  12. Economic Evidence on the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Europe

    Guy Hutton; Bettina Menne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In responding to the health impacts of climate change, economic evidence and tools inform decision makers of the efficiency of alternative health policies and interventions. In a time when sweeping budget cuts are affecting all tiers of government, economic evidence on health protection from climate change spending enables comparison with other public spending. METHODS The review included 53 countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Literature was obtained u...

  13. 2008 Global Economic Crisis and Its Impact on India's Exports and Imports

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu

    2012-01-01

    After the introduction of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization by the name of economic reforms Indian economy has been integrated with the global economy. This integration enabled India to move on high growth path but that integration exposed Indian economy to adverse impacts from the world economy. India’s share in the world trade is less than 2 per cent. India’s vision in the world trade is not only earning foreign exchange but also to induce the economic growth and development. ...

  14. THE IMPACT OF CREDIT UNION FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: A MULTI-COUNTRY ANALYSIS

    Michael Adusei; Samuel Kofi Afrane

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between credit union (CU) financial intermediation and economic growth using seventeen-year data (1995-2011) from 12 CU countries. Using the panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimation technique, the study finds that there is a statistically significant positive relationship between CU financial intermediation and economic growth. On the strength of this evidence, the paper concludes that CU financial intermediation has a positive impact on eco...

  15. Estimating the Impact of Gubernatorial Partisanship on Policy Settings and Economic Outcomes: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    Andrew Leigh

    2007-01-01

    Using panel data from US states over the period 1941-2002, I measure the impact of gubernatorial partisanship on a wide range of different policy settings and economic outcomes. Across 32 measures, there are surprisingly few differences in policy settings, social outcomes and economic outcomes under Democrat and Republican Governors. In terms of policies, Democratic Governors tend to prefer slightly higher minimum wages. Under Republican Governors, incarceration rates are higher, while welfar...

  16. The Variable Impact of the Global Economic Crisis in South East Europe

    Bartlett Will; Prica Ivana

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the countries of South East Europe. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced during the transition period have enabled countries to cope with external shocks such as those associated with the recent global economic crisis. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variabl...

  17. The Nationwide Economic and Environmental Impacts of Tourism: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach for Thailand

    Anan Wattanakuljarus

    2006-01-01

    Thai economic conditions considerably depend on the performance of tourism sectors. More than half of the Thai industries are directly and indirectly interdependent with tourism sectors. Given these large economic dependences upon tourism, any internal or external changes that affect Thai tourism could have substantial economy-wide impacts on resource allocation, sectoral outputs, income distribution, macroeconomic variables and the environment. Using computable general equilibrium (CGE) mode...

  18. The regional economic impacts of biofuels: A review of multisectoral modelling techniques and evaluation of applications

    Grant Allan

    2012-01-01

    The regional economic impact of biofuel production depends upon a number of interrelated factors: the specific biofuels feedstock and production technology employed; the sector’s embeddedness to the rest of the economy, through its demand for local resources; the extent to which new activity is created. These issues can be analysed using multisectoral economic models. Some studies have used (fixed price) Input-Output (IO) and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) modelling frameworks, whilst a nas...

  19. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Adjustment of Agricultural Structure on Agricultural Economic Growth in Xinjiang

    Li, Shi-Peng; Luo, Shuai

    2012-01-01

    We conduct empirical analysis of the contribution of various sectors of agriculture in Xinjiang to agricultural economic growth, and the impact of adjustment of these sectors on agriculture economic growth The results show that the growth of farming has the greatest force to drive the growth of total agricultural output in Xinjiang, followed by animal husbandry; the rate of contribution of these two production sectors, farming and animal husbandry, not only shows high-frequency fluctuation, b...

  20. The Local Economic Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing and Determinants of Dutch Disease

    Peter Maniloff; Ralph Mastromonaco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we quantify the local economic impacts of the development of unconventional shale oil and gas reserves through the controversial extraction procedure known as hydraulic fracturing or ``fracking'' and assess the possibility of the boom creating a ``resource curse'' for resource-rich counties. First, using government local economic data matched to highly detailed national oil and natural gas panel data, we estimate the effect that new ``fracking'' installations have on local job g...