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1

Economic impact  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

Technology Transfer Department

2001-06-01

2

Impact of defense conversion and US response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conversion from military to civilian products due to defense conversion after the end of the Cold War takes a long as 20 years. In USA there are over 50 government programs funded to assist in defence conversion. This paper concentrates on the three major programs that will have the greatest impact on the economy, in the framework of the issues and needs of American industry. Federal government and US industry are making a considerable effort to transform how to do business today. One of the most important emerging themes in the federal program is international competitiveness. Large federal expenditures are made to support research and development that will increase productivity, thereby helping industry in global economic competition. This, in turn will play a key role in absorbing a large quantity od resources affected by the end of the Cold War

3

Defense Globalization: Impacts on the United States Defense Acquisition System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this MBA project is to examine the extent to which the Department of Defense has positioned itself to maximize the use of the global defense market. This report explores the recent history of commercialization and globalization initiative...

J. W. Bales, N. G. Feranec

2007-01-01

4

Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area.

Hemphill, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bassett, G.W. Jr. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics

1993-03-01

5

Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

6

Economic impacts study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

1988-09-30

7

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Science.gov (United States)

...defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market...DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May DOE transfer...defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair...

2010-01-01

8

Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk as a dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

9

DEFENSE AND SECURITY EFFECTS OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the end of the Cold War and the events at the beginning of the 21st century, the nature of the threats to national security has changed, the single arch-enemy being replaced by a multitude of shifting, sometimes faceless and unpredictable enemies in the form of terrorism, ethnic and religious disputes, trans-national crime etc. Since 2008, a new aspect has been added to the national security and defense, in the form of the negative effects the current economic crisis may have upon these areas.

Maria CONSTANTINESCU

2011-01-01

10

Impact of defensive hostility in cardiovascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the psychosocial factors that may influence the development, maintenance, and progression of cardiovascular disease, defensive hostility as a possible risk factor has received substantial empirical support in recent years. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between defensive hostility and cardiovascular response to stress situations, as a better predictor of cardiovascular functioning than hostility alone. The sample was composed of 130 female university students. The Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory (Ho) and the Spanish version (CRP) of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC) were used to measure defensive hostility. We used the registration system MP150 (Biopac) to measure the physiological variables throughout the 3 experimental phases (adaptation, task, and recovery). The stress task was a real exam. We expected cardiovascular responses, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure to be higher in subjects with high hostility and high defensiveness in all 3 phases. The results reflect that individuals with high hostility and high defensiveness present the highest values in the physiological variables, thus supporting the hypothesis that defensive hostility shows the greatest predictive power in relation to cardiovascular functioning in stressful situations. PMID:20801755

Guerrero, Cristina; Palmero, Francesc

2010-01-01

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Defense Spending and Economic Growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates the nexus between defense spending and economic growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan. The empirical analysis is based on integration and cointegration properties of data over the period 1988-2007. The long run relationship between defense spending, economic growth and public debt are identified in a cointegration framework. The paper finds bidirectional causality between economic growth and public debt in China and India; unidirectional causality from defense spending to economic growth in China and Nepal, unidirectional causality from public debt to defense spending in India, and unidirectional causality from economic growth to public debt in Pakistan. The panel Granger causality test, however, confirms the presence of bidirectional causality between public debt and economic growth. The cointegration test at the end suggests that defense spending of a particular country can affect the defense spending of other country.

Rudra Prakash Pradhan

2010-10-01

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77 FR 59397 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform...the process of reviewing its economic impact procedures. A draft of the proposed economic impact procedures can be accessed...

2012-09-27

13

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CULTURAL TOURISM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...

Zrinka Zadel; Sinisa Bogdan

2013-01-01

14

Economic impact of antimicrobial resistance.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One reason antimicrobial-drug resistance is of concern is its economic impact on physicians, patients, health-care administrators, pharmaceutical producers, and the public. Measurement of cost and economic impact of programs to minimize antimicrobial-drug resistance is imprecise and incomplete. Studies to describe and evaluate the problem will have to employ new methods and be of large scale to produce information that is broadly applicable.

Mcgowan, J. E.

2001-01-01

15

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CULTURAL TOURISM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and placed on the tourist market, i.e. cultural resources are transformed into cultural tourism products. The main objective is fulfilling tourists' needs, and achieving positive effects which includes economic effects. Identification of the economic impact of cultural tourism is important because cultural resources have an inestimable value for the local community. Tourism valorisation should be used in order to achieve the necessary maximum effects with minimum negative impacts which tourism may leave on cultural resources. The objective of the paper is to identify the economic contribution of cultural tourism in the Republic of Croatia and to propose a model of identification of economic impact of cultural tourism.

Zrinka Zadel

2013-12-01

16

Economic Impact of Tourism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due toover commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ byman. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact thedestination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable ...

Pa?dure, Gabriela; Turtureanu, Ion Adrian

2005-01-01

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Economic Impacts of Tourism Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is concerned with the economic impacts of tourism industry, especially in developing countries. Itinitially reviews the concept and using a model, it deals with the factors affecting the economic impactsassociated with tourism. The research findings indicated that with short-term and long-term strategic planningand using the specific abilities and tourism products of developing countries, which suffer from some indices asunemployment, limits in earning and...

Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

2011-01-01

18

Economic impact of world mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

19

Economic Impact of Tourism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due toover commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ byman. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact thedestination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable to simple tourist activities. On the road to development, tourism products have alsowitnessed some changes. As the world changed and developed, new necessities were identified. As people became more aware, the needs changedand new tourism products were developed to satisfy these new found needs. The last few years have seen the emergence of new areas in tourism like,special interest tourism, green tourism, eco tourism, social tourism and so on.

Gabriela P?DURE

2005-10-01

20

Economic Impacts of Tourism Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is concerned with the economic impacts of tourism industry, especially in developing countries. Itinitially reviews the concept and using a model, it deals with the factors affecting the economic impactsassociated with tourism. The research findings indicated that with short-term and long-term strategic planningand using the specific abilities and tourism products of developing countries, which suffer from some indices asunemployment, limits in earning and currency flows, inflation and other problems, most of their economicproblems can be solved.

Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
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78 FR 12316 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2013-02-22

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78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2013-01-30

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77 FR 77078 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-12-31

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78 FR 34660 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2013-06-10

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78 FR 39728 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2013-07-02

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78 FR 37539 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2013-06-21

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78 FR 11884 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2013-02-20

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77 FR 53201 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-08-31

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75 FR 48333 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...submit comments on this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue,...

2010-08-10

30

78 FR 67925 - Transfer of Real Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

...clarify the conditions regarding economic development and reuse of the...will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial...real property transfers for economic development. Because the...distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels...

2013-11-13

31

Supplemental environmental impact statement - defense waste processing facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document supplements the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE Issued in 1982 (DOE/EIS-0082) to construct and operate the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a major DOE installation in southwestern South Carolina. That EIS supported the decision to construct and operate the DWPF to immobilize high-level waste generated as a result of nuclear materials processing at SRS. The DWPF would use a vitrification process to incorporate the radioactive waste into borosilicate glass and seal it in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal at a permanent geologic repository. The DWPF is now mostly constructed and nearly ready for full operation. However, DOE has made design changes to the DWPF since the 1982 EIS to improve efficiency and safety of the facility. Each of these modifications was subjected to appropriate NEPA review. The purpose of this Supplemental EIS is to assist DOE in deciding whether and how to proceed with operation of the DWPF as modified since 1982 while ensuring appropriate consideration of potential environmental effects. In this document, DOE assesses the potential environmental impacts of completing and operating the DWPF in light of these design changes, examines the impact of alternatives, and identifies potential actions to be taken to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, and health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

32

Impact of solar-energy development. The aggregate impact on basic economic objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Two categories of incentives for the development of solar energy are described: those that increase the benefits associated with the ownership of a solar energy system and those that reduce the cost of the system. The impact of two alternative programs are presented. Short run and long run impacts expected to result from the installation of passive solar designs on existing housing rock are distinguished. Impacts associated with a program to deregulate natural gas and one combining tax credits and low interest loans are compared. The impacts of solar programs on seven basic economic goals are analyzed. The goals are full employment, price stability, economic efficienty, equitable distribution of income, economic growth, balancing the federal budget, and a strong national defense.

Parker, A.; Kirschner, C.; Roach, F.

33

Economics of defense high-level waste management in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense high-level wastes (DHLW) from U.S. defense activities using environmentally safe and cost-effective methods. In parallel with its technical programs, the DOE is performing economic studies to ensure that costs are minimized. To illustrate the cost estimating techniques and to provide a sense of cost magnitude, the DHLW costs for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are calculated. Since operations at SRP must be optimized within relatively fixed management practices, the estimation of incremental costs is emphasized. Treatment and disposal costs are shown to equally contribute to the incremental cost of almost $400,000/canister

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77 FR 29344 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-05-17

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75 FR 28021 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...submit comments on this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue,...

2010-05-19

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77 FR 21981 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-04-12

37

77 FR 68776 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-11-16

38

75 FR 24700 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...submit comments on this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue,...

2010-05-05

39

76 FR 28225 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...submit comments on this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue,...

2011-05-16

40

FEATURES IMPACT ASSESSMENT INFORMATION GLOBAL ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The methodology of assessment of information impacts on the global economic changes in international economic relations. The information is considered as a means of forming a new global configuration and the global economy marked by the excretion of basic indicators that reflect the impact of information on the processes of globalization and information society indicators in individual countries.

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2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
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77 FR 65686 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-10-30

42

77 FR 23247 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-04-18

43

77 FR 44614 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this application by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-07-30

44

77 FR 40612 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-07-10

45

76 FR 79679 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2011-12-22

46

77 FR 3772 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-01-25

47

75 FR 27778 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...submit comments on this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue,...

2010-05-18

48

77 FR 26277 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-05-03

49

77 FR 69453 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-11-19

50

77 FR 6563 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-02-08

51

76 FR 54467 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...submit comments on this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue,...

2011-09-01

52

77 FR 36536 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2012-06-19

53

75 FR 148 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...submit comments on this transaction by e-mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue,...

2010-01-04

54

78 FR 30920 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2013-05-23

55

75 FR 20993 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...submit comments on this transaction by e- mail to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue,...

2010-04-22

56

77 FR 47840 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue,...

2012-08-10

57

Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts

58

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

59

Defense-Waste-Processing Faclity, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC: Draft environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103 m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

60

Defense Waste Processing Facility: Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. Final environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Envgy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

 
 
 
 
61

Draft envirnmental impact statement: Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear matrials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103 m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

62

Global economic impacts of severe Space Weather.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) strong enough to create electromagnetic effects at latitudes below the auroral oval are frequent events, and could have substantial impacts on electric power transmission and telecommunication grids. Modern society’s heavy reliance on these domestic and international networks increases our susceptibility to such a severe Space Weather event. Using a new high-resolution model of the global economy we simulate the economic impact of large CMEs for 3 different planetary orientations. We account for the economic impacts within the countries directly affected as well as the post-disaster economic shock in partner economies through international trade. For the CMEs modeled the total global economic impacts would range from US 380 billion to US 1 trillion. Of this total economic shock 50 % would be felt in countries outside the zone of direct impact, leading to a loss in global GDP of 0.1 - 1 %. A severe Space Weather event could lead to global economic damages of the same order as other weather disasters, climate change, and extreme financial crisis.

Schulte In Den Baeumen, Hagen; Cairns, Iver

63

Regional economic impact of oil spills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An approach is demonstrated of coupling an environmental model to input-output analysis which aims to quantify the regional economic impact of an environmental accident. The model is implemented with the data of a potential oil spill interacting with the salmon aquaculture industry in Northern Norway. The production loss in salmon aquaculture and the regional income impact is computed and discussed. The approach used in this article could be a model for estimating the regional socio-economic impact of environmental factors like water and air pollution. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs

64

Defensiveness and metabolic syndrome: impact of sex and age.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association between defensiveness and metabolic burden, as well as the moderating effects of sex and age were evaluated in 199 healthy working men (N=81) and women (N=118), aged 20-64 years (M=41; S.D.=11.45). Defensiveness (Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale) and parameters of metabolic syndrome (MS; waist circumference, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, 24h ambulatory blood pressure) were obtained. In men, defensiveness was inversely related to MS burden (Beta=-.288; p=.001), as well as to individual measures of SBP, DBP, glucose and waist circumference (p<.05). In older women, high defensiveness was associated with a greater MS burden (p=.050) and glucose level (p=.005) while the reverse was true in younger women (p=.012). In conclusion, defensiveness was associated with a worse metabolic profile in older women but may be protective for men and younger women. Understanding the pathophysiological processes underlying these associations could elucidate sex and age differences and inform prevention efforts. PMID:19150480

Lévesque, Karine; Bureau, Sébastien; Moskowitz, D S; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lavoie, Joël; Dupuis, Gilles; D'Antono, Bianca

2009-03-01

65

Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

Kannan, Srinivasan

2007-01-01

66

The economic impact of renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

67

Serbian Torrent Flood Defense Practice - Modeling, observation, forecasting and impact  

Science.gov (United States)

Many areas in Europe have been affected by an increasing number of severe flood events in the past few years. Because of these floods numerous measures to improve the organization of disaster management have been taken. This includes the preparation of specific alarm plans for flood disaster events. Serbian Torrent Flood Defense methodology, combines observation by radar meteorology, torrential hydrology and new GIS techniques to enable quick determination and assessment of the detected situation in order to provide a sufficient time for the flood defense system to be put in operation. Alarm plans can be seen as one corner stone of disaster management but their practical use can still be optimized. For this end aims to support the risk analysis and risk communication process by improving the availability, reliability and communicability of hazard maps and alarm plans. The main focus will be on levels of population protection and critical infrastructure protection in respect to natural hazards. Paper presents Obtained results in the field of torrent defense in Serbia. Key words: Hydrology, Torrent Flood Analysis, Meteorology, Flood Defense

Gavrilovic, Zoran; Stefnovic, Milutin

2010-05-01

68

The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

2013-01-01

69

The Economic Impact of Colleges and Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay describes methodological approaches and pitfalls common to studies of the economic impact of colleges and universities. Such studies often claim local benefits that imply annualized rates of return on local investment exceeding 100 percent. We address problems in these studies pertaining to the specification of the counterfactual, the…

Siegfried, John J.; Sanderson, Allen R.; McHenry, Peter

2007-01-01

70

Economic Impact: Methodology and Overall Findings  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes five phases of a comprehensive Economic Impact Study conducted by the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics (NCSSM) from 2009-2011. The methodology and assumptions of those analyses is summarized for those wishing to conduct similar studies. The paper also documents highlighted results, such as the school's…

Dash, Karen

2012-01-01

71

Economic impact analysis: a theoretical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Where the traditional focus of local planning has been on access to health services, recent legislation and policy reflect an equally prominent concern for costs. Appropriate methodologies for collection and analysis of financial and economic data have been lacking. A particularly difficult problem, both theoretically and practically, is the economic impact of a capital investment by one provider on the rest of the local service system. In order to focus the attention of health service planners, economists and others on this issue, a preliminary theory of "economic impact analysis" is outlined here. Scope of concern and conditions of application ("ripple" and "spigot" models) are defined. Existing analytical tools are reviewed, and related philosophical issues raised. PMID:10242750

Johns, L

1977-01-01

72

Defensive technology and welfare analysis of environmental quality change with uncertain consumer health impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measuring the ex post losses from environmental quality change is an important issue when environmental contamination creates health risks, liability is assigned, and private compensation efforts are required. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring the ex post welfare impact of environmental quality change using market behavior from defensive expenditures. Conditions under which a defensive technology can provide a bound on welfare estimates are identified

73

Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

74

Modeling Regional Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters  

Science.gov (United States)

Common features of natural disasters are intense regional impacts and the need for assessing their economic impacts on the construction sectors. The years 2004 and 2005 were record-setting time for natural disasters with major disasters or catastrophic (Cat) events all around the world with dramatic consequences in human lives and economic losses around the world, affecting developed and developing countries. Although there is a large body of literature on assessing the impact of cat events, there is little available research on the quantification and modeling of the regional economic impact of such events on the cost and length of reconstruction. Current available econometric models have serious limitations because they need detailed information for modeling the complex interactions between the different stakeholders of the economy at a regional level that is generally not available. Also, very little research was performed for quantifying the demand surge, defined as the sudden increase in the cost of repairs due to amplified payments, following a hurricane or a series of hurricane events or other natural disasters. Demand surge is an important component of the overall economic impact of cat events and there is a need to better quantify it. This paper presents results of a research program that started after the 2004 and 2005 U.S. hurricane seasons. A large data set of economic and observed losses resulting from the hurricanes that affected Florida and the Gulf states in the US was collected at county level. This provided us with the basis for assessing the change in repair costs before and after these historical events, to quantify the demand surge (after removing the underlying baseline trends) at several dozens of locations across the areas affected, and to provide information on how the changes in demand surge vary spatially and temporally in affected areas for which the amount of structure losses were reported. A parallel research effort was undertaken for identifying and quantifying the main drivers behind the demand surge by conducting survey among the different stakeholders involved in the reconstruction. Results of this work were used for developing a relatively simple economic model that is dependent on information available at the county level that includes econometric metrics prior to the event and the losses following catastrophic events. These losses are either observed or modeled with physical models. The economic model was validated and tested with data collected from the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes. Historical reconstructions of economic losses from 1992 Andrew and other historical events were performed for different regions of the US. The goal is to develop an economic model that can include regional economic conditions at the time of the events for a better modeling of economic losses resulting from cat events that can be used for a better assessment of the risk.

Boissonnade, A.; Hallegate, S.; Muir-Wood, R.; Schlumberger, M.; Onur, T.

2007-05-01

75

The Economic Impact on Canada of Immigration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the simplest supply-and-demand textbook model of how immigration works in a market economy (Borjas, 1999, pp.89-93). While it may be oversimplified in that it assumes that all labour is homogeneous and that machinery and equipment, land, and other productive resources are fixed and that it ignores any dynamic impact of immigration, it is a good starting point for an analysis of the economic impacts of immigration in Canada. Using this model with parameters taken fr...

Grady, Patrick

2006-01-01

76

Broad economic impact of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision to adopt, expand or reject a nuclear programme has implications that go beyond economic considerations limited to the cost of electricity produced. This report attempts to illustrate the treatment of macroeconomic factors in the decision-making process of various countries, and discusses the macroeconomic impacts of nuclear power, such as employment, balance of payments, security of supply, as well as environmental, health and socio-cultural issues. 274 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs., 9 appendices

77

How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding changes in efficient firm boundaries as consequence of changes in uncertainty. The analysis suggests that we need to be more precise in describing the nature of the uncertainty that is assumed in the various theories. Moreover, allowing for changes in levels of uncertainty requires that we take the processes of boundary changes into account in the theory of firm boundaries.

Foss, Kirsten

2010-01-01

78

40 CFR 225.3 - Procedure for invoking economic impact.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Procedure for invoking economic impact. 225.3 Section 225.3 Protection of Environment...MATERIAL PERMITS § 225.3 Procedure for invoking economic impact. (a) When a District Engineer's...

2010-07-01

79

Increasing the Economic Impact of the Research Councils ...  

Accessibility | Media Enquiries ... Increasing the Economic Impact of the \\Research Councils ... This document sets out an action plan to demonstrate and \\increase the economic impact of the UK Research Councils as recommended in \\the ...

80

Economic, Social and Environmental Impacts of Energy Technologies  

Economic, Social and Environmental Impacts of Energy Technologies - NERN \\blog. ... Media Centre ... Brussels discussing the development of the \\environmental, economic and social impacts of energy technologies joint \\programme of EERA.

 
 
 
 
81

Study on the economic impact of the Research Councils - Research ...  

Accessibility | Media Enquiries ... Study on the economic impact of the Research \\Councils ... in their field in a one-off report, setting a baseline2 against which \\further economic impacts can be assessed and reported on an annual basis'.

82

Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

83

National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America's Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The Association of American Universities (AAU) calls on the Administration, Congress, and academia, with the help of the business sector, to implement a 21st Century National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative aimed at meeting the economic and security challenges we will face over the next half-century. Government and America's…

Association of American Universities, 2006

2006-01-01

84

Economic Impact of FMD in Chazhoor Panchayath  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease is probably the most important livestock disease in the world in terms of economic impact. Of all the vesicular diseases prevalent in India, FMD remains the greatest and most feared scourge. In Chazhoor Panchayat, 62 animals were affected with FMD, out of which 28 were vaccinated. The economic loss was calculated taking into consideration milk loss, losses due to abortion and treatment charges. The total economic loss was calculated as Rs 313900/- out of which loss in milk production accounted for 80.68%. Cost of milk was calculated at the rate of Rs. 12/ litre, to assess the economic loss. Treatment cost includes vehicle charges and cost of medicine. An average loss of 8 hrs/day/ animal was calculated. Vaccination cost of Rs. 5/ animal was also considered. Towards the nursing of animal and disinfection of shed, loss of manpower of 2-hrs/ animals for 5 days was calculated. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 5-6

Litty Mathew and Deepa G Menon

2008-02-01

85

Economic impact of potential NORM regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil and gas field wastes and sites contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have quickly become a focus of substantial attention by regulators both at the state and federal level. Although currently regulated in a number of states, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has indicated a desire to develop federal regulations to address management and disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes. This paper provides a brief overview of current state NORM regulations, currently available technologies for managing and disposing NORM wastes, and the cost of employing these techniques. Based on these characterizations and alternative assumptions about the volume of NORM wastes, four alternative scenarios have been developed to bracket potential future NORM requirements. These scenarios have been used is the basis for an analysis of the potential economic and supply impacts of NORM requirements on the U.S. oil and gas industry. The results illustrate that a reasonable approach to regulation that focuses only on those NORM wastes that pose a risk and allows producers to use safe, low cost disposal methods (downhole or other) would have minimal economic impacts on the oil and gas industry. A very stringent regulatory approach that covered large volumes of wastes, required the use of higher cost disposal techniques, and required extensive site clean-up activities could have a substantial economic impact, resulting in a loss of up to 20 percent of U.S. oil pr a loss of up to 20 percent of U.S. oil production and 8 percent of U.S. gas production by 2000. The costs of compliance with these alternative approaches could range from $71 million to over $14 billion annually. Between these two cases lies the opportunity for regulators to develop requirements for management and disposal of NORM wastes that will address any environmental and human health risks posed at industry sites without imposing unnecessarily costly regulations on the U.S. oil and gas E ampersand P industry

86

Stress and economic hardship: the impact on children and parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the impact of stress and family economic hardship on children, parents, and parenting. Specific topics covered include the long-term impact of toxic stress on children, the mechanisms through which stressors appear to impact children, the impact of economic hardship, the role of parental depression, and implications for pediatric dentists. PMID:24717747

Long, Nicholas

2014-01-01

87

SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience  

Science.gov (United States)

Business interruption (BI) losses for the SAFRR tsunami scenario are derived from the forecasted physical damages of about 100 million at the Ports of Los Angeles (LA) and Long Beach (LB), and 700 million in marina damages, and 2 billion in inundated property damages along the California coast. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction in California's gross domestic product (GDP). The analysis involves several steps. First, estimates are made of immediate business interruption losses due to physical damage to facilities or to disruption of production. Second, total economic impacts (consisting of both direct and indirect effects) are measured by a general equilibrium (quantity and price multiplier effects) of lost production in other sectors through ripple effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. Third, many types of resilience are applied to demonstrate their potential reductions of the impacts. At the Ports of LA and LB, a two-day port shutdown, cargo losses, and additional terminal downtimes would expose 1.2 billion of trade (import and export) value associated with over 4 billion of BI losses. The sectors potentially most affected by trade disruptions are leather, metal, and motor vehicle manufacturing. Excess capacity, inventories, export conversion, and conservation could reduce the direct trade impacts by 85%. Production recapture alone (including clearing the backlog of waiting ships) could reduce BI losses by 85%. The Port of LA commercial fishing would be subject to damages to the fleet, perished fish that cannot be landed, and lost fishing days. Although BI losses are relatively small, the southern Californian fishing sector could incur a 4% drop in output. The impacts would depend on the speed at which boats are repaired and whether lost fishing days can be made up. Ship-building and repair could also be negatively affected, but these impacts would be offset somewhat by reconstruction. Effects on commercial fishing in other locations were not closely examined to assess the impacts. Extensive damages to marinas along the California coast could result in 30 million BI losses in terms of GDP. Interestingly, the service sectors including and relating to marinas (recreation, food services, and retail) indicate possible gains (of .02-1%) from price increases greater than the losses from quantity decreases. Sectors associated with development (residential construction, water and sewage, and health care) could suffer the most with losses of .03% or less. However, these sectors will likely also be bolstered by reconstruction. Economic hardships would be localized and the resilience of the marina sector would depend on alternative moorings and excess capacity elsewhere. Inundated coastal property damages could generate 1.7 billion of BI losses. Application of sector recapture factors (e.g., using overtime) alone could reduce these losses by 80%. For the overall set of loss categories, BI losses amount to 6 billion, and resilience strategies indicate the potential to reduce these economic impacts by 80-90%.

Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

2013-12-01

88

Statement of Expectation on Economic and Societal Impact ...  

RCUK logo. Accessibility | Media Enquiries ... Research Councils UK Mission for \\Social and Economic Impact provides for the first time a clear statement on its \\role in enhancing the economic and social wellbeing. It covers the activities and ...

89

Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi capaz de modificar o padrão dos mecanismos de defesa medidos pelo Defensive Style Questionnaire.

Maria Inês Lobato

2009-12-01

90

Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients / Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Id [...] entidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes). Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi capaz de modificar o padrão dos mecanismos de defesa medidos pelo Defensive Style Questionnaire. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity [...] Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.

Maria Inês, Lobato; Walter José, Koff; Tiago, Crestana; Camila, Chaves; Jaqueline, Salvador; Analídia Rodolpho, Petry; Esalba, Silveira; Alexandre Annes, Henriques; Fábio, Cervo; Eduardo Siam, Böhme; Raffael, Massuda.

91

The economic impacts of energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

92

Local economic impact of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The local economic impact of nuclear installations is examined and the conclusion reached that much of the subsequent area growth may be coincidental to the facility. Nuclear siting criteria favor proximity to a regional power grid, abundant water for cooling, and extensive vacant land with a major access road. These criteria coincide with the characteristics of commuter suburbs, centers for retirement, and recreation areas. Clustering of nuclear units introduces an extraordinary level of new construction, office requirements, and capital. Economic changes will occur at the start and completion of the construction stage and at the time of decommissioning the facility. Past experiences are detailed in terms of employment, payroll, housing, public services, and procurement. When construction is completed, employment falls to a relatively low level. Proximity to the plant offers no advantage in terms of local power rates. While nuclear facilities do not preclude other development in the area, there are restrictions on access, regulatory agencies may reject absorbing the cost of public use as a business expense in the rate structure, and security measures may constrain public use. There is pressure for tax equalization laws to compensate communities for the loss of potential property tax revenues. Some agencies (e.g., the Tennessee Valley Authority) make in-lieu-of-tax payments, while some plants have produced tax benefits large enough to effect significant public improvements. 8 references

93

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

94

The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a chronic incapacitating illness that affects between 400,000 and 800,000 Americans. Despite the disabling nature of this illness, scant research has addressed the economic impact of CFS either on those affected or on the national economy. Methods We used microsimulation methods to analyze data from a surveillance study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas, and derive estimates of productivity losses due to CFS. Results We estimated a 37% decline in household productivity and a 54% reduction in labor force productivity among people with CFS. The annual total value of lost productivity in the United States was $9.1 billion, which represents about $20,000 per person with CFS or approximately one-half of the household and labor force productivity of the average person with this syndrome. Conclusion Lost productivity due to CFS was substantial both on an individual basis and relative to national estimates for other major illnesses. CFS resulted in a national productivity loss comparable to such losses from diseases of the digestive, immune and nervous systems, and from skin disorders. The extent of the burden indicates that continued research to determine the cause and potential therapies for CFS could provide substantial benefit both for individual patients and for the nation.

Bouchery Ellen

2004-06-01

95

A look at local economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The benefits of mega-projects such as Hibernia and the Sable Offshore Energy Project on the local economies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were discussed. It was argued that most of the spin-off activities of such mega-projects are realized externally because the projects are driven by external interests and external funding, and are designed for external markets. Few of the short-term activities that can be done locally provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Studies have shown that the impact of mega-projects on smaller economies is mainly on the construction sector and related supplies industries. Another reason why mega-projects have limited real effects on the local economy is that foreign investors have traditional supply sources, often with affiliated companies. Local availability of appropriate skills is yet another potential limiting factor. Moreover, most mega-projects have social, environmental and political consequences that are often under-estimated and ignored. In this author's view, most mega-projects have limited long-term domestic spin-offs. The challenge is to maximize the net benefits, and to minimize the social and environmental costs

96

The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1) cost components included in the estimation; (2) the methodologies employed in wo...

Lertpitakpong Chanida; Yothasamut Jomkwan; Teerawattananon Yot; Thavorncharoensap Montarat; Chaikledkaew Usa

2009-01-01

97

Economic impact study of consumer product efficiencies. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic impact study of household appliance efficiencies is briefly reported. Task I, Direct Impact on Industry, contains 4 subtasks: materials, labor inputs, energy inputs, and investment. Task II, Direct Impact on Consumers, contains 3 subtasks: life-cycle cost to the consumer, usage patterns, and long-term demand forecast and analysis. The 2 subtasks in Task III, Energy Savings and Impact on Utilities, are residential energy savings and cost and impact on utility generating capacity.

1980-05-30

98

Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy recommendations are given for increasing the regional retention of rafting expenditures and for understanding both the beneficial and adverse impacts that accompany outdoor recreation in rural areas. PMID:17070647

Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

2007-10-01

99

Economic and Financial Crime and its Impact on the Economic Security of Ukraine ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

National economy criminalization and shadow economic relations reproduction has a significant impact on the whole system of national economy at every stage of the historical development, and in particular on the economic security of the state. Shadow economic relations become an obstacle to effective structural reforms in the state. They prevent the state coping with the economic crisis, making the national economy trade and speculative raw material appendage of the global economy. Prerequisi...

Khavanov Artem V.

2012-01-01

100

The economic impact of obesity in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ross A Hammond, Ruth LevineEconomic Studies Program, Brookings Institution, Washington DC, USAAbstract: Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US, more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at least four major categories of economic impact linked with the obesity epidemic: direct medical costs, productivity costs, transportation costs, and human capital costs. We review current evidence on each set of costs in turn, and identify important gaps for future research and potential trends in future economic impacts of obesity. Although more comprehensive analysis of costs is needed, substantial economic impacts of obesity are identified in all four categories by existing research. The magnitude of potential economic impact underscores the importance of the obesity epidemic as a focus for policy and a topic for future research.Keywords: obesity, economic impact, United States, economic cost

Ross A Hammond

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Impact of Public Expenditures on Economic Growth in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to examine the impact of the public expenditures on economic growth in Jordan during the time period (1993–2013, by determining the contribution of the current and capital expenditures on Education, Health, Economic Affairs, and Housing and community Utilities as a percent of the total public expenditures, and then examining the impact of each one of them on economic growth in Jordan. Two mathematical models have been designed to measure this impact, the first one measures the impact of current functional expenditures, and the second model measures the impact of capital functional expenditures on economic growth in Jordan. The empirical results show that the impact of current and capital expenditures on education has failed to enhance economic growth, and that is due to the high cost of education, especially higher education in the private sector in Jordan, as well as the growing rate of unemployment, and expenditures on health and economic affairs should be encouraged due to their positive impact on economic growth.

Ali Sulieman Al-Shatti

2014-09-01

102

GLOBAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UKRAINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.  

?.?. ???’??????

2012-03-01

103

The Economic Impact of Autism in Britain.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study estimated the economic consequences of autism in the United Kingdom based on published evidence and the reanalysis of data holdings at the Centre for the Economics of Mental Health. Annual societal cost was estimated to exceed 1 billion pounds. The individual lifetime cost exceeded 2.4 million pounds. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

Jarbrink, Krister; Knapp, Martin

2001-01-01

104

Economic trends and China's impact on world trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ministry of Economic Development has asked the NZIER to examine the impact of: [1] increased integration of the world economy i.e. the economic trends and how they impact on economic/business activity; and [2] China as a world economic power and how it is affecting globalisation trends. Are these trends accelerating and/or changing under China’s influence? How important is China’s influence compared with other influences? This paper is organised in a way that briefly canvasses each of...

Nixon, Chris

2005-01-01

105

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

106

Global Economic Slowdown: It's impact on employment in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present global economic crisis has its roots in housing loans issued to many people, by the American financial companies,who have not the repaying capacity. First of all economic recession heated to American economy and after that the major economies of the world were destructed by it. The recession in the US market and the economic slowdown termed as Global recession have engulfed complete world economy with a varying degree of recessional impact.World over the impact has diversified and its impact can be observed from the very fact of falling Stock market. In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction, a general slowdown in economic activity over a period of time.

Mr. S. S. Shimpale

2012-05-01

107

78 FR 66929 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

...Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis AGENCY: Policy and...intent to conduct a detailed economic impact analysis regarding a loan guarantee...therefore not subject to a detailed economic impact analysis. DATES: The...

2013-11-07

108

Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this envir...

J. L. Williams

1994-01-01

109

Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

110

Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

Dovenmuehle, Timo R.H. von der [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

2013-07-01

111

The Impact of economic crisis on HRM practices in Estonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Department of Marketing and Management 13.10.2010 Master’s Thesis Helene Vösa THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON HRM PRACTICES IN ESTONIA Research Objectives The main objective of this study is to gain the overall picture of how the current economic crisis has impacted four areas of Human Resource Management: 1) recruiting and selection, 2) reward systems, 3) training and development, and 4) performance appraisal in Estonia. The case of Est...

Vo?sa, Helene

2010-01-01

112

Modeling the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Biofuels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides a general overview of the social, environmental, and economical issues related to biofuels and a review of economic modeling of biofuels. The increasing importance of biofuels is driven primarily by government policies since currently available biofuels are generally not economically viable in the absence of fiscal incentives or high oil prices. Also the environmental impacts of biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels are quite ambiguous. The literature review of the mo...

Janda, Karel; Kris?toufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David

2011-01-01

113

The economic impact of Junkanoo in The Bahamas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the21st century culture has moved from the periphery of economic activity to the centre. In the Caribbean, festivals are important generators of revenue. The Bahamian festival of Junkanoo resembles the carnivals of the Caribbean, but unlike them has not yet placed any emphasis on the economic aspects of the festival. This paper summarizes the findings of a study into the economic impact of Junkanoo.

Bethel, Nicolette

2014-10-01

114

The Impact of Economic Growth on Employment in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nigeria has enjoyed a long period of sustained economic growth since 2001 and yet, there is rampant unemployment in the country. There are various studies that have supported that growth is a pathway to employment. Thus, this paper investigated the impact the economic growth in Nigeria had on employment generation. The Johansen vector- Error correction model was used in the investigation. The findings revealed that, although economic growth had positive relationship with employment, the relat...

Oloni, Elizabeth Funlayo

2013-01-01

115

The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

2011-01-01

116

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

117

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1993-01-01

118

RCUK Expectations for Societal and Economic Impact  

project definition, management, collaboration, participation, promotion and the ... \\demonstrate an awareness of the wider environment and context in which their \\research ... identify potential benefits and beneficiaries from the outset, and \\through the ... exploit results where appropriate, in order to secure social and \\economic ...

119

The economic impacts of air transport liberalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air transport liberalization constitutes a whole new level of globalization. The impacts it brings can be divided into direct, indirect, induced and catalytic. The magnitude of impacts is determined by various factors, including air transport liberalization multiplier, market saturation and the degree of liberalization of other sectors. Airlines profit from increased efficiency derived from economies of scale, economies of scope and density economies. On the demand side, the passengers enjoy ...

Grancay, Martin

2009-01-01

120

A cognitive and economic decision theory for examining cyber defense strategies.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyber attacks pose a major threat to modern organizations. Little is known about the social aspects of decision making among organizations that face cyber threats, nor do we have empirically-grounded models of the dynamics of cooperative behavior among vulnerable organizations. The effectiveness of cyber defense can likely be enhanced if information and resources are shared among organizations that face similar threats. Three models were created to begin to understand the cognitive and social aspects of cyber cooperation. The first simulated a cooperative cyber security program between two organizations. The second focused on a cyber security training program in which participants interact (and potentially cooperate) to solve problems. The third built upon the first two models and simulates cooperation between organizations in an information-sharing program.

Bier, Asmeret Brooke

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

2009-06-01

122

Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ?2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789?919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015?12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of national economy, by having economic profit over all scenarios of construction costs. (2) Export A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation amounts to 899? 1,140 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 7,324?9,287 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Value added inducing effect amounts to 339?464 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 766?778 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Employment inducing effect amounts to 3,616?4,339 men for the 1st reactor export and to 29,471 ?35, 364 men for the 10th reactor export. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost-benefit of exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically non-profitable for the natural gas price less than or equal to 10.23 $/MMBtu over all scenarios on exporting number of the reactors and turns out to be economically profitable for the other price level from the exporting number of 4 or 6. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost-benefit and value added inducing effect, exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically profitable from the point of view of national economy for more than equal to 2nd reactor depending on the scenarios of the natural gas price. (3) Intangible Social Gains The intangible social gains of SMART Project by contributing to Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improving Korea's global standing in the science area amounts to 245?458 billion won

123

Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

124

Climate change impacts on forestry: Economic issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meteorological evidence indicates the likelihood of global climatic warming in the near future. A study was carried out of the economic effects of climate change on the Canadian forestry sector. The measurement of net economic benefits of climate change, and the complexities associated with such measurements are discussed. Assuming a productivity increase of 20% as a result of carbon dioxide doubling, Canada's potential harvests of timber would increase by a total of 7.5%, as a result of less but more productive forest land. An economic analysis was carried out of the shift in timber supply balances due to changes in the US forest sector due to climate change. A decline in US productivity is expected due to lower rainfall and increased desert conditions in many parts of the US. It is not clear whether Canada experiences a net gain or a net loss on account of the climate changes modelled, as in addition to the elasticities of supply and demand, it also depends on existing trade barriers and the extent to which timber production in other countries is affected by climate change. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

125

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective ...

Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu, Tao; Ma, Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song, Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shiqiu

2006-01-01

126

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts.

Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

1984-11-01

127

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.

Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

How to cite this article: Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Ferreira, M., 2009, ‘The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park’, Koedoe 51(1, Art. #158, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.158

Madelien Ferreira

2009-01-01

128

Hypervelocity impact flash for missile-defense kill assessment and engagement analysis : experiments on Z.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kill assessment continues to be a major problem for the nation's missile defense program. A potential approach for addressing this issue involves spectral and temporal analysis of the short-time impact flash that occurs when a kill vehicle intercepts and engages a target missile. This can provide identification of the materials involved in the impact event, which will, in turn, yield the data necessary for target identification, engagement analysis, and kill assessment. This report describes the first phases of a project under which we are providing laboratory demonstrations of the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. We are using two major Sandia facilities, the Z-Pinch accelerator, and the two- and three-stage gas guns at the Shock Thermodynamics and Applied Research (STAR) facility. We have looked at the spectral content of impact flash at velocities up to 25 km/s on the Z-Pinch machine to establish the capability for spectroscopy for these types of events, and are looking at similar experiments at velocities from 6 to 11 km/s on the gas guns to demonstrate a similar capability for a variety of research-oriented and applied materials. The present report describes only the work performed on the Z machine.

Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Reinhart, William Dodd; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Kelly, Daniel P.

2005-07-01

129

The Economic Impact of Educational Opportunity  

Science.gov (United States)

New England colleges and universities impact their local and regional economies in many ways. They are often major employers and purchasers. They construct new facilities, attract visitors, provide cultural and intellectual enrichment for the community and boost property values. The knowledge produced by New England's higher education institutions…

Wilson, Blenda J.

2005-01-01

130

The economic impact of smoking in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking is a high-risk behaviour affecting health and economic welfare of society. Thus it is important to quantify the economic burden smoking places on social institutions in Germany. Approximately 33.4% of the male and 20.4% of the female population are current smokers. This study investigates the health care costs of smoking based on 1996 figures, focusing on the seven most frequent diseases associated with the inhalation of tobacco smoke: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, international classification of diseases (ICD) 490-491); lung cancer (ICD 162); stroke (ICD 434-438); coronary artery disease (ICD 410-414); cancer of the mouth and larynx (ICD 140-149, 161) and artherosclerotic occlusive disease (ICD 440). A data search was carried out on MEDLINE, the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information, and the Internet as well as in databases of health insurance companies and the German Federal institute of statistics. Direct and indirect costs were calculated separately. The results estimate the total smoking related health care costs (attributable fraction due to smoking) for COPD to be 5.471 billion EURO (73%), for lung cancer 2.593 billion EURO (89%), for cancer of the mouth and larynx 0.996 billion EURO (65%), for stroke 1.774 billion EURO (28%), for coronary artery disease 4.963 billion EURO (35%) and for atherosclerotic occlusive disease 0.761 billion EURO (28%). The economic burden of smoking related health care costs for Germany is 16.6 billion EURO. Smoking is therefore responsible for 47% of the overall costs of these diseases (35.2 billion EURO). In the view of the high costs for smoking, of which almost 50% are due to respiratory disease, pneumologists should enhance their effort in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. PMID:11028648

Ruff, L K; Volmer, T; Nowak, D; Meyer, A

2000-09-01

131

Turning climate change information into economic and health impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The PRUDENCE project has generated a set of spatially and temporally high-resolution climate data, which provides new opportunities for assessing the impacts of climate variability and. change on economic and human systems in Europe. In this context, we initiated the development of new approaches for linking climate change information and economic studies. We have considered a number of case studies that illustrate how linkages can be established between geographically detailed climate data and economic information. The case studies included wheat production in agriculture, where regional climate data has been linked to farm enterprise data in an integrated model of physical conditions, production inputs and outputs, and farm management practices. Similarly, temperature data were used to assess consequences of extreme heat and excess mortality in urban areas. We give an introduction of an analytical approach for assessing economic impacts of climate change and discuss how economic concepts and valuation paradigms can be applied to climate change impact evaluation. A number of methodological difficulties encountered in economic assessments of climate change impacts are described and a number of issues related to social and private aspects of costs are highlighted. It is argued that, in particular, detailed climate information matters in relation to understanding how private agents react to observed climate data.

Halsnæs, Kirsten

2007-01-01

132

Social and macro economic impact of closure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

133

The economic impact of obesity in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US), more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at least four major categories of economic impact linked with the obesity epidemic: direct medical costs, productivity costs, transportation costs, and human capital costs. We review current evidence on each set of costs in turn, and identify important gaps for future research and potential trends in future economic impacts of obesity. Although more comprehensive analysis of costs is needed, substantial economic impacts of obesity are identified in all four categories by existing research. The magnitude of potential economic impact underscores the importance of the obesity epidemic as a focus for policy and a topic for future research. PMID:21437097

Hammond, Ross A; Levine, Ruth

2010-01-01

134

Impact of venture capital on economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object of the research is public venture capital as a tool of venture capital market incentive, innovative business start-up financing, and state policy, which helps addressing imperfect/inefficient market situations where private venture capital does not access all market players. Purpose of the research is to reveal the importance of public venture capital to the national venture capital sector, its impact on the economy and, based on the experience of European countries, to create a hypoth...

Laurinavic?ius, Antanas

2014-01-01

135

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

136

Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

Lesser, Jonathan A.

1992-07-01

137

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

138

Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

139

Economics of Biofuels: An Overview of Policies, Impacts and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the economics of biofuels. It starts by describing the remarkable growth of the biofuel industry over the last decade, with emphasis on developments in the United States, Brazil and the European Union, and it identifies the driving role played by some critical policies. After a brief discussion of the motivations that are commonly argued in favor of biofuels and biofuel policies, the paper presents an assessment of the impacts of biofuels from the economics perspective. In particular, the paper explains the basic analytics of biofuel mandates, reviews several existing studies that have estimated the economic impacts of biofuels, presents some insights from a specific model, and outlines an appraisal of biofuel policies and the environmental impacts of biofuels. The paper concludes with an examination of several open issues and the future prospects of biofuels.

GianCarlo Moschini

2013-03-01

140

Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

radation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

 
 
 
 
141

The impact of economic crisis on the fiscal revenues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tries to evaluate the situation of the fiscal revenues in Romania in the context of economic and financial crisis, because the fiscal revenues are the major source of financing the public expenditure. The evolution of the level of fiscal revenue is very important because maintain the budget equilibrium. The article reveals the major trends of the fiscal revenues after EU enlargement and in the actual context of economic crisis and the impact on the budget deficit and...

Inceu Adrian; Cuceu Ionut; Achim Monica Violeta; Mara Eugenia Ramona

2009-01-01

142

Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant We...

Majdzadeh Reza; Yazdizadeh Bahareh; Salmasian Hojat

2010-01-01

143

Economic Impact Profiling of CBRN Events: Focusing on Biological Incidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused by weaponized and non-weaponized materials. The suggested approach investigates the economic consequences of biological incidents according to two main dimensions: type of large-scale effect and persistence of effect. Biological incident economic impacts are analyzed taking into account the persistence of effect during time as short-term impact (i.e. immediately after the incident), medium-term impact (i.e. by a month) and long-term impact (i.e. by years). The costs due to preventive countermeasure against biological threats (e.g. prevention, protection and preparedness expenses) are not taken into account. To this purpose, information on the key features of past biological incidents can be used as case studies to try to build impact profiles taking into account the proposed two main dimensions. Consequence management and effect mitigation of CBRN emergencies and disasters may benefit from an ex ante definition of the impact profiling related to this kind of incidents. The final goal of this paper is to define an approach to organize information on possible biological events according to their impact profile for supporting more effective and efficient first responders' prompt actions and policy makers' strategic decisions after the event occurrence. PMID:25048832

Cavallini, Simona; Bisogni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Marco

2014-12-01

144

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy

145

Evaluating the economic impact of casino liberalization in Macao.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to evaluate the economic impact after Macao decided to liberalize its gaming industry. By analysing both objective data of official statistics and subjective data of the perceptions of quality of life, we painted a picture of mixed blessings. Although objective indicators showed strong economic growth in terms of a rise in per capita GDP and public revenue as well as a decline in unemployment rate, subjective indicators revealed that local residents were less than optimistic about their own employment outlook and did not perceive any improvement in their overall economic situation. While casino liberalization brought forth tremendous economic gain, the general population did not subjectively feel the benefits. An integrative analysis of both objective and subjective indicators would therefore allow us to look closer how residents' lives in the micro-level could have been adversely affected by the prosperous economic outlook at the macro-level. PMID:21567164

Zheng, Victor; Hung, Eva P W

2012-09-01

146

The economic impacts of energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

147

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

1995-11-01

148

Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

149

The economic impact of a higher education institution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At present, the Portuguese government is trying to overcome the problem of the education level of the active population, one of the lowest registered in the OECD, and directly associated with the productivity rate. For that purpose, granting a larger state’s funding to the institutions with higher economic and educational impact is being considered. As such, the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to prove their value, by accurately quantifying that impact, in order ...

Fernandes, Joana; Cunha, Jorge; Oliveira, Pedro

2008-01-01

150

Economic comparison of centralizing or decentralizing processing facilities for defense transuranic waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study is part of a set of analyses under direction of the Transuranic Waste Management Program designed to provide comprehensive, systematic methodology and support necessary to better understand options for national long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste. The report summarizes activities to evaluate the economics of possible alternatives in locating facilities to process DOE-managed transuranic waste. The options considered are: (1) Facilities located at all major DOE TRU waste generating sites. (2) Two or three regional facilities. (3) Central processing facility at only one DOE site. The study concludes that processing at only one facility is the lowest cost option, followed, in order of cost, by regional then individual site processing

151

Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.

1979-01-01

152

24 CFR 570.401 - Community adjustment and economic diversification planning assistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and private-sector actions to implement...adjustments and economic diversification...Defense. (6) Economic diversification...public or private sector actions to change...physical, social, economic, and fiscal impacts...public and private sector actions needed...

2010-04-01

153

Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) Economic Impact Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In spring 2006, the Higher Education Council of Berks County (HECBC) conducted a study to measure the economic impact of the five colleges located in Berks County: Alvernia College, Albright College, Kutztown University, Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus (Penn State Berks) and Reading Area Community College (RACC). Although many higher…

Paff, L. A.; D'Allegro, M. A.

2007-01-01

154

A review of economic impact of targeted oral anticancer medications.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been a rapid increase in the use of targeted oral anticancer medications (OAMs) in the past decade. As OAMs are often expensive, economic consideration play a significant role in the decision to prescribe, receive or cover them. This paper performs a systematic review of costs or budgetary impact of targeted OAMs to better understand their economic impact on the healthcare system, patients as well as payers. We present our review in a summary table that describes the method and main findings, take into account multiple factors, such as country, analytical approach, cost type, study perspective, timeframe, data sources, study population and care setting when we interpret the results from different papers, and discuss the policy and clinical implications. Our review raises a concern regarding the role of sponsorship on findings of economic analyses as the vast majority of pharmaceutical company-sponsored studies reported cost advantages toward the sponsor's drugs. PMID:24378038

Shen, Chan; Chien, Chun-Ru; Geynisman, Daniel M; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Shih, Ya-Chen T

2014-02-01

155

The Economic Impact of US Sanctions with Respect to Cuba  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a request last spring by the House of Representatives, the US International Trade Commission issued its report late last month on the economic impact of US sanctions towards Cuba. The comprehensive report presents an overview of US sanctions on Cuba; a description of the Cuban economy and its trade and investment trends; an analysis of the "historical impact of US sanctions on both the US and Cuban economies"; and an evaluation of the current impact of US sanctions on US - Cuba bilateral trade, investment, employment, and consumers. The report makes no recommendations concerning US policy towards Cuba and explicitly avoids anticipating any change in the current sanctions regime.

156

The NASA Lewis Research Center: An Economic Impact Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), established in 1941, is one of ten NASA research centers in the country. It is situated on 350 acres of land in Cuyahoga County and occupies more than 140 buildings and over 500 specialized research and test facilities. Most of LeRC's facilities are located in the City of Cleveland; some are located within the boundaries of the cities of Fairview Park and Brookpark. LeRC is a lead center for NASA's research, technology, and development in the areas of aeropropulsion and selected space applications. It is a center of excellence for turbomachinery, microgravity fluid and combustion research, and commercial communication. The base research and technology disciplines which serve both aeronautics and space areas include materials and structures, instrumentation and controls, fluid physics, electronics, and computational fluid dynamics. This study investigates LeRC's economic impact on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures LeRC's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they 'ripple' throughout the economy. To fully explain LeRC's overall impact on the region, its contributions in the areas of technology transfer and education are also examined. The study uses a highly credible and widely accepted research methodology. First, regional economic multipliers based on input-output models were used to estimate the effect of LERC spending on the Northeast Ohio economy. Second, the economic models were complemented by interviews with industrial, civic, and university leaders to qualitatively assess LeRC's impact in the areas of technology transfer and education.

Austrian, Ziona

1996-01-01

157

Defensiveness in Female College Students and Its Impact on Their MAST and CAGE Scores  

Science.gov (United States)

This study found a statistically significant inverse relationship between defensiveness and female college students' Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (M. L. Selzer, 1971) and CAGE (J. A. Ewing, 198 ) scores. Female college students who produce negative screening scores were more defensive than those whose alcohol use screens were positive.…

Laux, John M.; Salyers, Kathleen M.; Jones, Amy L.

2007-01-01

158

Socio-economic impact of resource development: methods for assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large-scale industrial and energy-development projects are affecting the social and economic climate of rural areas across the nation. This creates a need for extensive planning information, both to prepare for the effects of such developments and to meet state and federal environmental-assessment requirements. This book examines alternative methods of modeling the economic, demographic, public-service, fiscal, and social impacts of major development projects. The authors provide a synthesis of the conceptual bases, estimation techniques, data requirements, and types of output available. They focus on models that address multiple impact dimensions and produce information at the county and subcounty levels. They also look at the kinds of data each model produces in each impact category. 366 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

Leistritz, F.L.; Murdock, S.H.

1981-01-01

159

The Impact Imperative: A Space Infrastructure Enabling a Multi-Tiered Earth Defense  

Science.gov (United States)

Impacting at hypervelocity, an asteroid struck the Earth approximately 65 million years ago in the Yucatan Peninsula a m . This triggered the extinction of almost 70% of the species of life on Earth including the dinosaurs. Other impacts prior to this one have caused even greater extinctions. Preventing collisions with the Earth by hypervelocity asteroids, meteoroids, and comets is the most important immediate space challenge facing human civilization. This is the Impact Imperative. We now believe that while there are about 2000 earth orbit crossing rocks greater than 1 kilometer in diameter, there may be as many as 200,000 or more objects in the 100 m size range. Can anything be done about this fundamental existence question facing our civilization? The answer is a resounding yes! By using an intelligent combination of Earth and space based sensors coupled with an infrastructure of high-energy laser stations and other secondary mitigation options, we can deflect inbound asteroids, meteoroids, and comets and prevent them &om striking the Earth. This can be accomplished by irradiating the surface of an inbound rock with sufficiently intense pulses so that ablation occurs. This ablation acts as a small rocket incrementally changing the shape of the rock's orbit around the Sun. One-kilometer size rocks can be moved sufficiently in about a month while smaller rocks may be moved in a shorter time span. We recommend that space objectives be immediately reprioritized to start us moving quickly towards an infrastructure that will support a multiple option defense capability. Planning and development for a lunar laser facility should be initiated immediately in parallel with other options. All mitigation options are greatly enhanced by robust early warning, detection, and tracking resources to find objects sufficiently prior to Earth orbit passage in time to allow significant intervention. Infrastructure options should include ground, LEO, GEO, Lunar, and libration point laser and sensor stations for providing early warning, tracking, and deflection. Other options should include space interceptors that will carry both laser and nuclear ablators for close range work. Response options must be developed to deal with the consequences of an impact should we move too slowly.

Campbell, Jonathan W.; Phipps, Claude; Smalley, Larry; Reilly, James; Boccio, Dona

2003-01-01

160

Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social entification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

 
 
 
 
161

Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper uses NREL's newest Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI II) model to assess economic impacts from alternative power technologies, with a focus on wind energy, for a variety of states.

Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M.

2007-06-01

162

Economic and Financial Crime and its Impact on the Economic Security of Ukraine ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National economy criminalization and shadow economic relations reproduction has a significant impact on the whole system of national economy at every stage of the historical development, and in particular on the economic security of the state. Shadow economic relations become an obstacle to effective structural reforms in the state. They prevent the state coping with the economic crisis, making the national economy trade and speculative raw material appendage of the global economy. Prerequisites for the development and growth of the shadow economy exist in the system itself. This means that the development and growth of the shadow economy depend on the way of solving the system’s contradictions, which under certain conditions can become destructive. Shadow economy is enormous in scale. However, it is not easy to accurately measure it. Shadow economy arises from the desire to avoid measurement, and a number of scientists use indirect methods to give it a relative measure.?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ? ? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????. ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????-????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????. ??? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????????. ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ??-?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ?? ????????????? ??????.

Khavanov Artem V.

2012-12-01

163

Economic crisis impact on Remittances and Migration level in Albania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remittances of international migrants as the second largest flow of incomes contribute to the well-being of their households of origin and also have an impact at macro-economic level. Out-migration is an effective means for low-income households to quickly overcome shortages of income. The sustenance of poor households might have been more difficult without such remittances. From a macro perspective, remittances contribute to the equalization of the income distribution among households having out-migrants. Remittances have enforced the Albanian economy since 1992 especially they had a positive and large contribution in consumption level, investment and GDP. But the economic crisis of 2008 has affected large sectors of the population in developed and developing nations and international immigrants have not been the exception because there have been an economic downturn. Remittances in Albania represent the second main source of incomes and this study documents the recent slowdown in workers’ remittances, the money that international immigrants send back home. Current data indicates that remittance flows have slowed for all regions of the globe. This paper tries to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on remittances level and also the negative impact of their slowdown in the Albanian economy.

Adela Shera

2014-07-01

164

The Impact of Fiscal Deficits on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The study investigates the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth in Nigeria in 1970 – 2009. Budget deficit arises from fiscal operations of the government. Technically, a deficit would arise whenever expenditure surpasses revenues. In Nigeria, huge fiscal deficits had been recorded over the some years. To what extent have these impacted economic growth in Nigeria? In considering this question, this paper posits that the inter play of other variables such as broad money supply along with fiscal deficits may give a better understanding of the budget deficit situation in Nigeria. The ordinary least square was carried out on the data to test the type of relationship between the variables whether positive or negative and to find out if the variables are significant or not. The finding, show that fiscal deficits positively affects economic growth in Nigeria and money supply is significant in explaining economic growth (GDP variation in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that government spending should be more in productive sectors of the economy and adequate monetary policy should be geared towards balancing the role money supply plays to both budget deficits and inflation.

Key words: Fiscal deficits; Economic growth; Government spending and budget deficits

Joseph Oboba Achegbulu

2012-05-01

165

The economic impact of wind industry development in Quebec  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impact of current and future development of wind power in Quebec was discussed. Key events were outlined, beginning with Hydro-Quebec's request for bids in 2003 for 1000 MW of wind power development. More than 4000 MW of power were filed under this call, where 8 projects were selected totalling 990 MW. Both direct and indirect economic impacts were attributed to start-up factories in the Gaspe region and elsewhere across the province. Energy capacity was increased in 2006 by 2,500 MW and is expected to reach more than 4,000 MW by 2015. It was noted that since the government of Quebec chose a non-traditional call for tender to support its emerging industry, it is difficult to attach an exact price tof wind energy, as the bid price included economic development costs associated with regional and provincial requirements. The second part of this document addressed the economic impact of wind industry development from 1997 to 2005, and the anticipated development from 2006 to 2015. Although the economic impact of wind energy development was small for the period 1997-2006, it was important for energy development in the Gaspe region, and established the groundwork for future development and the involvement of local wind tower manufacturers, engineering consulting firms, and the growth of local wind-related businesses in the region. It is anticipated that wind energy development will be very significant in terms of job creation. In addition, Quebec universities aeation. In addition, Quebec universities are dedicating more resources to training skilled turbine personnel and research in leading-edge fields to improve wind turbine design. It is estimated that $10 million will be paid annually in royalties to municipalities and landowners. In conclusion, from an environmental perspective, it is expected that 4,000 MW of wind capacity will annually produce about 12 TWh of electric energy, and displace an estimated 4 million tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) annually. 17 refs., 16 tabs

166

The economic impact of obesity in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ross A Hammond, Ruth LevineEconomic Studies Program, Brookings Institution, Washington DC, USAAbstract: Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US), more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at least four major categories of ec...

Hammond, Ross A.; Ruth Levine

2010-01-01

167

Chasing helminths and their economic impact on farmed ruminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global agriculture will be required to intensify production from a shrinking natural resource base. Helminth infections of ruminants are a major constraint on efficient livestock production. The current challenge is to develop diagnostic methods that detect the production impact of helminth infections on farms in order to target control measures and contribute to the global challenge of preserving food security. We review here our understanding of the effects of helminth infections and control practices on productivity and the diagnostic tools that can inform on this. By combining advances in helminth laboratory diagnostics and animal health economics, sustainable management of helminth infections can be integrated into the whole-farm economic context. PMID:24888669

Charlier, Johannes; van der Voort, Mariska; Kenyon, Fiona; Skuce, Philip; Vercruysse, Jozef

2014-07-01

168

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the St. Lucie nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

169

Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

170

Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This transportation study assumes that defense high-level waste is stored in three locations (the Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls plants) and may be disposed of in (1) a commercial repository or (2) a defense-only repository, either of which could be located at one of the five candidate sites; also documented is a preliminary analysis of the costs and risks of transporting defense high-level waste from the three storage sites to the five potential candidate repository sites. 17 references, 4 figures, 27 tables

171

Economic impacts from energy efficiency programs - Variations in multiplier effects by program type and region. Volume 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research indicates that the value of omitted program effects - specifically non-energy benefits (NEBs) - represent a significant share of overall program impacts. One of the largest components of societal benefits is the direct and indirect economic and job creation effects stimulated by the investment in conservation on behalf of the program. The literature has indicated that the valuations assigned to this category of these categories can be large, but much of the literature overstates the impact of economic NEBs. We conducted extensive research to develop reliable and defensible estimates of these benefits categories. This study used input-output analysis to update the economic multipliers for NEBs in several ways. Net: Developed 'net' estimates of the multipliers (rather than 'gross' factors)Variations by Region: Estimated multipliers for multiple states and for the entire US; Variations by Program Type: Developed estimates based on different types or categories of programs (e.g weatherization vs. new construction vs. appliance programs, etc.), Variations in Baseline Assumptions: Different assumptions about where the expenditures are transferred 'from' for the net analysis (e.g. from 'generation', from a mixed market basket, etc.); and Variations over Time: Used data from multiple time periods to examine changes in the size of multipliers over time. We examined the results by state, by program type, and over time and found dramatic differences in the economic impa dramatic differences in the economic impacts by program type and territory under consideration. The results provide estimates of the economic impacts derived from the program; however, for communities or utilities with economic development goals, the results can be used to help select between program alternatives. The results are new, and the revised figures have been used to compute more reliable and tailored estimates of economic non-energy benefits that can be applied in regulatory tests

172

IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

2012-06-05

173

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

174

ASEAN Economic Cooperation: Trade Liberalization Impacts on the National Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the impact of trade liberalization by focusing on twelve priority industrial sectors in the ASEAN-5 (Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. The General Equilibrium Model based on Multi-country Input Output Data as provided by the GTAP is used to measure potential economic benefits of reducing tariffs on output, trade balance, welfare gain, and competitiveness. We compare the outcome of the CGE approach with the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results show that the outcomes of the CGE Model does not match those suggested by the AHP. However, they do support the findings of Falianty (2005, Achsani and Siregar (2010, Achsani and Partisiwi (2010, Nugroho and Yanfitri (2011. Our results suggest that taking non-economic but relevant factors from public opinion into account affects the robustness of CGE studies based purely on economic factors.

Sugiharso Safuan

2012-09-01

175

Global Wind Energy Market, Industry and Economic Impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the global status of wind energy in order to establish a context for understanding the contemporary wind energy industry. It is discussed wind resources worldwide with the global wind distribution and mains concerns and how wind resources worldwide are spread globally. The world wind energy market outlook is shown; especially emphasis is given on global wind energy market by production side, wind energy converters manufacturers and economic impacts from wind energy industr...

Antonio Jorge Fernandes; Wagner Sousa de Oliveira

2012-01-01

176

ASEAN Economic Cooperation: Trade Liberalization Impacts on the National Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to analyse the impact of trade liberalization by focusing on twelve priority industrial sectors in the ASEAN-5 (Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines). The General Equilibrium Model based on Multi-country Input Output Data as provided by the GTAP is used to measure potential economic benefits of reducing tariffs on output, trade balance, welfare gain, and competitiveness. We compare the outcome of the CGE approach with the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) ...

Sugiharso Safuan

2012-01-01

177

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

2009-07-01

178

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...

Rai, Shivani M.

2013-01-01

179

Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

180

Understanding the economic impacts of disruptions in water service.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, there has been much attention focused on community readiness for catastrophic emergency events, such as major natural disasters or terrorist attacks. However, though the economic costs associated with experiencing such an event are high, the probability of such events occurring is quite low. At the same time, less catastrophic events that temporarily disrupt essential services to local areas, such as water and electricity, are quite common. However, there is little research that documents residents' actual economic costs when their water service is disrupted. In this paper, we contribute to the growing literature assigning economic value to residential water service by documenting the economic costs residents report from routine, small-scale water disruptions through focus groups and in-person interviews. We find that residential impacts ranged from over $1400 in savings (from working more hours than usual and eating out less than usual) to a cost of over $1000, with an overall average of $93.96. These costs, particularly when multiplied over a substantial population, become quite significant and demonstrate the importance of studying the economic costs of such events. PMID:24950018

Heflin, Colleen; Jensen, Jennifer; Miller, Kathleen

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Economic impacts from shifting cropland use from food to fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Without the availability of idle cropland, biomass energy crops will have to compete with other crops and pasture land use. In this paper, we investigate: (a) the economic feasibility of using cropland, traditionally used for pasture, hay and other commodity crops, for production of biomass crops to be used as an energy source for electric utilities; (b) the impact of biomass crop production on crop and livestock prices, farm income, and the cost of food to consumers. We find a $1-4 billion demand for biomass crops may result in a 2-12% impact on farm sector prices. This impact warrants further exploration into estimating the opportunity cost for biomass crop production when idle cropland is not available. (Author)

182

The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1 cost components included in the estimation; (2 the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies.

Lertpitakpong Chanida

2009-11-01

183

Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

184

The Impact of FDIs Flows on the Nigerien Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Niger, since the 70s has always adopted an approach that makes the IDE a major component of its development plan. It `s so, a series of measures have been taken to make the country more attractive to Foreign direct investment FDI This policy has guaranteed the country a few annual flow between the period 1970 to 2008.The aim of this paper is to try to study the impact of FDI on economic growth in Niger. Observe the literature study on FDI in Niger, however, it is also becoming important to see the between FDI and economic performance since it has not been addressed specifically yet. While it is still unclear of whether there is any relationship between FDI and economic growth in Niger, especially as regard to the causality within the relationship.The theory and the current empirical literature on the relationship between FDI and growth have provided ambiguous results. Using VAR (Vector Autoregressive model, this paper explores the causal relationship between FDI and economic growth for the period 1970-2008 in Niger. With in the Granger causality framework, this study finds a long-term relationship between FDI and economic growth. This finding is a long-term relationship between variables but failed to establish the direct correlation between each variable. This can be explained by the fact that low volume flows of FDI in Niger have major consequences on the economic system, particularly on employment, inflation and GDP. More, this weakness is emphasized by the insignificance of the volume of capital flows (domestic and foreign circulating in the Nigerian economy and domestic savings.

Ousseini Hamadou

2011-07-01

185

Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) error correction framework to model oil demand in each economic sector separately. The results show that the dynamic panel data approach appears to give estimates consistent with the economic theory. The signs on the coefficients are correct and the magnitude of long-run responses is larger than that of the short-run responses. The single sector model approach yields similar but richer results. Since constant slopes are not imposed across sectors the characteristics and dynamics and responses can differ across sectors. The third part of my dissertation develops a simple Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model to investigate the economic consequences of the SPR for a "small oil-importing economy." This economy is subject to the risk of oil shocks. Government policy-makers attempt to mitigate the macroeconomic impacts of the shocks by establishing a SPR. The assigned values of the parameters in the model aim to reflect the basic characteristics of the Thai economy. The simulation results show that the impulse responses of key economic variables for different degrees of oil shocks follow the same pattern. When the degree of the shock increases, the magnitude of the stock drawdown increases, which helps lower the negative impact on economic welfare. I examine the welfare effects from alternative sizes of the SPR and the opportunity cost for the economy that result when it has to sacrifice additional resources to maintain and operate the SPR. This lowers the level of resources available for production and consumption in the long run. There exists a trade-off relationship between the sacrificed welfare in the long run and the less volatile welfare in the short run.

Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

186

75 FR 46904 - Request for Proposals: Fiscal Year 2010 Funding Opportunity for Research on the Economic Impact...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Opportunity for Research on the Economic Impact of Cooperatives (REIC) AGENCY...conduct research on the national economic impact of all types of cooperatives...Opportunity Title: Research on the Economic Impact of Cooperatives....

2010-08-04

187

Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental 'externalizations' and the effects of eco-taxes on the production costs of electricity and heat. In conclusion the presented method can be only used if there are specific laws that facilitate environmental protection. Economically speaking the indirect effect - energy tax is easier to establish. That means that it is much more easier and precise to determine the fuel consumption than emissions quantity in order to use it for carbon tax. The combined tax is a more accurate one. Establishment of the pollutant quantities for extraction, processing and transportation phases are more difficult because of the lack of information regarding the efficiencies and energy consumptions. (authors)

188

Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

2000-05-01

189

The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico--FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The impact of SNL activities on Central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the Central New Mexico Region includes: Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance Counties (Figure 1). Total impact represents both direct and indirect resending by business, including induced effects (resending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico.

Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

1999-08-09

190

The impact of health care economics on surgical education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Just like the world economy in 2012, health care is in a state of flux. The current economic environment will impact not only current colorectal surgery residents, but also future generations of surgical trainees. To understand the economic impact of the current health care environment on colorectal surgery residencies, we need to know the basics of graduate medical education (GME) funding for all residents. Since the 1960s with the initiation of Medicare, the federal government through the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has been the largest source of GME funding. There are two types of costs associated with GME. Direct GME (DME) funding covers costs directly attributed to the training of residents. These costs include residents' stipends, salaries, and benefits; cost of supervising faculty; direct program administration costs; overhead; and malpractice coverage. Indirect GME (IME) costs are payments to hospitals as an additional or add-on payment for the increased cost of care that is generally found in teaching hospitals. In 2010, President Barak Obama signed into law H.R. 3200, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). In 2011, the Supreme Court held that the majority of the PPACA is constitutional. Although the true impact of this bill is unknown, it will change the formula for Medicare GME reimbursement as well as shift unused residency positions to primary care. PMID:23997674

Margolin, David A

2012-09-01

191

Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

192

Understanding and Reducing the Impact of Defensiveness on Management Learning: Some Lessons from Neuroscience  

Science.gov (United States)

The neurosciences have expanded our understanding of the role of the "old" brain in generating defensive reactions to threat. Because the learning and practice of management skills pose various forms of threat to would-be practitioners, the question of how individuals respond to threat and how this affects their ability to learn has also…

Holmer, Leanna L.

2014-01-01

193

78 FR 68028 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the Proposed Fiscal Year 2015 Annual Materials Plan AGENCY...of the proposed Fiscal Year 2015 National Defense Stockpile Annual...Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979, as amended (the...material in its proposed FY 2015 Annual Materials Plan....

2013-11-13

194

The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.  

Science.gov (United States)

As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

O'Malley, Mary P; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B

2013-01-01

195

Development Application - Terra Nova Development - Socio-Economic Impact Statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Socio-Economic Impact Statement contained in this volume is part of the overall application for approval of the the development of the Terra Nova Field, prepared and submitted by Petro-Canada on behalf and in cooperation with its co-proponents. It describes the baseline conditions for, and the effects of the Terra Nova Development on the fishery, industry, employment, demography, housing, social infrastructure and services, public infrastructure, and municipal government. A description of the scope of the assessment and the methodology employed is complemented by a 10-page glossary and a 36-item bibliography

196

Epidemiology and economic impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity has become a major public health concern in the United States and the rest of the world. This disease carries significant health risks that encompass several organ systems. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major comorbidity of obesity that predisposes patients to significant end-organ damage. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes is increasing worldwide, and the economic impact of these diseases currently assumes a significant portion of health care expenditure. These factors mandate implementation of therapeutic medical and surgical strategies that target prevention and treatment of obesity and its related medical conditions. PMID:22054146

Shamseddeen, Hazem; Getty, Jorge Zelada; Hamdallah, Isam N; Ali, Mohamed R

2011-12-01

197

Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

198

Economic impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and familial Mediterranean fever  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study was to determine the economical impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) in Turkey. A total of 100 patients (69 F/31 M) with JIA and 100 with FMF (68 F/32 F) who were consecutively seen in the outpatient clinic of the pediatric rheumatology department at Cerrahpasa Medical School between August 2008 and January 2009 were studied. Cost data were collected through a questionnaire filled out by the parents. The mean age (JIA: 11 ?...

Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Seyahi, Emire; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Arisoy, Nil

2012-01-01

199

Global Wind Energy Market, Industry and Economic Impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the global status of wind energy in order to establish a context for understanding the contemporary wind energy industry. It is discussed wind resources worldwide with the global wind distribution and mains concerns and how wind resources worldwide are spread globally. The world wind energy market outlook is shown; especially emphasis is given on global wind energy market by production side, wind energy converters manufacturers and economic impacts from wind energy industry on economy which it is devoted special attention to the job creation by wind energy industry.

Wagner Sousa de Oliveira

2012-04-01

200

Comparison of potential health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative assessment has been performed of the potential long- and short-term health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes. Conservative models and assumptions were used. The assessment suggests that considerations of health and safety will not be significant in choosing among disposal options, primarily because of the need to meet stringent standards in all cases. Rather, the ease and cost of assuring compliance of a particular disposal option with health and safety standards may be a more important factor. 11 references

 
 
 
 
201

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model.

Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

1999-08-05

202

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for nput-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model

203

The defense of marriage act (DOMA): its impact on those seeking same sex marriages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognition of same-sex marriage has been a goal of many in the gay rights movement. With the passage of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), same-sex relationships will not be afforded the same opportunities as heterosexual relationships. This paper will discuss the process leading to the passage of the DOMA, and will argue that the passage of this piece of legislation was a misuse of Article IV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, "Full Faith and Credit". The Defense of Marriage Act represents an extraordinary act of Congress, as they have rarely passed legislation under this mandate and have never passed legislation that curtails full faith and credit. Strategies that can be utilized to overcome the constraints of the DOMA will also be included. PMID:15774352

Clarkson-Freeman, Pamela A

2004-01-01

204

Interjurisdictional waste disposal: Legal issues, economic framework and environmental impact  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interjurisdictional waste transport (IWT) for disposal purposes is generating growing conflict, as richer political entities look to poorer or low-population regions for waste-disposal sites. In City of Philadelphia v. State of New Jersey, decided in 1978, the US Supreme Court laid the foundation for subsequent decisions governing IWT. The Court declared that waste shipments constitute interstate commerce even though the waste itself is valueless and hazardous. Since the Constitution under Article 1 allocates sole power over interstate commerce to the Congress, the Court has overturned laws enacted by states or localities that ban or regulate waste import. Significant economic incentives to IWT exist. In addition to highway subsidies and the developed world's lowest fuel taxes, waste disposal charges, set at the local level, vary from $20 to over $150 per ton. Furthermore, Federal legislation regulating waste-disposal sites generally leaves enforcement to states, which may not apportion sufficient resources to adequately enforce legislation. Partnerships between rail firms and local businesses to construct and operate landfills generate a growing proportion of income of rail carriers. The growing dependency of railroads upon income from IWT may impact incentives for localities to strictly monitor such shipments, and may reduce incentives for recycling and waste reduction at source. Geological, hydrological and economic data for the Kim-Stan landfill of rural western Virginia will document the adverse environmental and social impact such activity may pose.

McConnell, R.L. (Mary Washington Coll., Fredericksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Geology)

1993-03-01

205

Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

206

Technical and economic impact of crosswell technology: Progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conoco's Crosswell Reservoir Characterization (CRC) team is using Decision and Risk Analysis (D and RA) to evaluate the potential economic impact of the authors' projects. D and RA can be a useful tool for refining the direction of a project and communicating the value of information in economic terms. Initial studies show that CRC has high potential economic value. Three steps were used to analyze the value of the CRC project. A high-level, industry-wide model was developed to look at the technical, application, and commercialization success of the technology. The team considered an infill drilling decision in shallow shelf carbonates as a detailed case. For that case, fully integrating crosswell information with supporting data (well logs, cores, production information, etc.) leads to a three-fold increase in expected value. The third step, a portfolio analysis of all crosswell applications, was initiated, but not completed. Given the potential broad application of CRC and the value obtained by the one detailed case, the technology is expected to have a very high value

207

Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support  

Science.gov (United States)

A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a mitigation level of 3.7 W/m2, as well as consideration of different levels of climate sensitivity (2, 3, 4.5 and 6oC) and different initial conditions for addressing uncertainty. Since the CMIP 3 and CMIP5 protocols did not include this mitigation level or consider alternative levels of climate sensitivity, additional climate projections were required. These two cases will be discussed to illustrate some of the trade-offs made in development of methodologies for climate impact assessments that are intended for a specific user or audience, and oriented towards addressing a specific topic of interest and providing useable results. This involvement of stakeholders from the design phase of climate impacts methodology serves to both define the appropriate method for the question at hand and also to engage and inform the stakeholders of the myriad options and uncertainties associated with different methodology choices. This type of engagement should benefit decision making in the long run through greater stakeholder understanding of the science of future climate model projections, scenarios, the climate impacts sector models and the types of outputs that can be generated by each along with the respective uncertainties at each step of the climate impacts assessment process.

Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

2013-12-01

208

Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

2007-06-01

209

Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the European literature as was feasible has been carried out, such a survey is certain to fall short of reviewing the full literature simply because the larger part of it is North American. The latter was being reviewed separately by the US team. However, in making recommendations as to what valuation methods or studies to use, the report draws on the substantial US experience. The whole issue of when a methodology or a particular study can be transferred from one context to another has never been fully addressed. This report makes some suggestions as to when this is may be appropriate although it is recognized that this is by no means a definitive discussion of that issue. Certainly, the fact that the fuel cycle analysis here is location-specific, rather than 'generic', in the sense of providing broad average costs of impacts caused by the use of certain fuels, makes the transferability of estimates more difficult. The report is structured as follows. Part I begins with a discussion of the nature of externalities and a more precise definition of what is being measured. Of particular importance in this context is the extent to which an environmental impact is or is not an 'externality'. Without going into the more complex aspects of the economic theory, the report offers some advice on when the issue is relevant and what criteria might be used to assess whether or not a particular environmental impact really is an externality. The remainder of Part I then deals with a number of general issues that are of practical importance in the context of valuing specific impacts. These are: the question of transferability discussed above; the time period or timescale over which the valuation is to take place; the treatment of uncertainty; the discounting of future costs; and the finally the issue of exactly what is being assumed constant when a particular valuation is being carried out. This is of special significance in the context of the valuation being undertaken here. Part II of the Report deals with nine specific environmental impacts, namely: crops, forests, biodiversity, n

210

Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

211

The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic growth will follow the creation of stable and sizeable RE markets. Indeed, this is a highly attrac

Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

2013-06-15

212

Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widespread adoption of genetically modified crops in many countries, heated controversies about their advantages and disadvantages continue. Especially for developing countries, there are concerns that genetically modified crops fail to benefit smallholder farmers and contribute to social and economic hardship. Many economic studies contradict this view, but most of them look at short-term impacts only, so that uncertainty about longer-term effects prevails. We address this shortcoming by analyzing economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. Building on unique panel data collected between 2002 and 2008, and controlling for nonrandom selection bias in technology adoption, we show that Bt has caused a 24% increase in cotton yield per acre through reduced pest damage and a 50% gain in cotton profit among smallholders. These benefits are stable; there are even indications that they have increased over time. We further show that Bt cotton adoption has raised consumption expenditures, a common measure of household living standard, by 18% during the 2006-2008 period. We conclude that Bt cotton has created large and sustainable benefits, which contribute to positive economic and social development in India. PMID:22753493

Kathage, Jonas; Qaim, Matin

2012-07-17

213

Modelling the economic impacts of addressing climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Power Point report presents highlights of the latest economic modelling of Canada's Kyoto commitment to address climate change. It presents framework assumptions and a snapshot under 4 scenarios. The objective of this report is to evaluate the national, sectoral, provincial and territorial impacts of the federal reference case policy package in which the emissions reduction target is 170 Mt from a business-as-usual scenario. The reference case policy package also includes 30 Mt of sinks from current packages of which 20 Mt are derived from the forestry sector and the remainder from agricultural sector. The report examined 4 scenarios based on 2 international carbon prices ($10 and $50) per tonne of carbon dioxide in 2010. The scenarios were also based on the fiscal assumptions that climate change initiatives and revenue losses would directly affect the governments' balances, or that the government balances are maintained by increasing personal income tax. A comparison of impacts under each of the 4 scenarios to 2010 was presented. The model presents impacts on GDP, employment, disposable income per household, and energy prices. 4 tabs., 4 figs

214

Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President�������¢����������������s commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and greenhouse gas emissions at the global level. In principle, these benefits can be measured as a return on research investments, with appropriate consideration of time lags to research outcomes and attribution to private as well as public expenditure. With appropriate metrics, the same could be true for benefits to public health, environmental quality, and food productivity and security. Federal funding of research leads to the development of human capital that is deployed in a variety of occupations with economic and social impacts. Research also produces information that is used in formal (e.g., regulatory and judicial) and informal (e.g., firm and consumer) decision making processes. In addition to reviewing the range of work (by academics, consultants, and research agencies themselves) that has been done in measuring research outcomes and providing a forum to discuss their methods, this report also considers the different methodologies used across fields of research (e.g., agriculture and energy research) to identifies which are applicable to a range of federal S&T funding.

Olson, S; Merrill, S

2011-08-31

215

Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to endogenize air pollution impacts within the EPPA model, allowing us to study potential economic effects and feedbacks. We find strong interaction between air pollution and economies, although precise estimates of the effects require further investigation and refined resolution of the urban scale chemistry model.

Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

2003-12-01

216

Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

217

Institutional Strategies for Capturing Socio-Economic Impact of Academic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of socio-economic impact is an emerging theme for publicly-funded academic research. Within this context, the paper suggests that the concept of institutional research capital be expanded to include the capture and evaluation of socio-economic impact. Furthermore, it argues that understanding the typology of impacts and the tracking…

Scoble, Rosa; Dickson, Keith; Hanney, Steve; Rodgers, G. J.

2010-01-01

218

Economic impact of biofouling on a naval surface ship.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the overall economic impact of hull fouling on a mid-sized naval surface ship (Arleigh Burke-class destroyer DDG-51) has been analyzed. A range of costs associated with hull fouling was examined, including expenditures for fuel, hull coatings, hull coating application and removal, and hull cleaning. The results indicate that the primary cost associated with fouling is due to increased fuel consumption attributable to increased frictional drag. The costs related to hull cleaning and painting are much lower than the fuel costs. The overall cost associated with hull fouling for the Navy's present coating, cleaning, and fouling level is estimated to be $56M per year for the entire DDG-51 class or $1B over 15 years. The results of this study provide guidance as to the amount of money that can be reasonably spent for research, development, acquisition, and implementation of new technologies or management strategies to combat hull fouling. PMID:21161774

Schultz, M P; Bendick, J A; Holm, E R; Hertel, W M

2011-01-01

219

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

SHIVANI M. RAI

2013-11-01

220

Economic impacts of the ShakeOut scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

For the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario, we estimate $68 billion in direct and indirect business interruption (BI) and $11 billion in related costs in addition to the $113 billion in property damage in an eight-county Southern California region. The modeled conduits of shock to the economy are property damage and lifeline service outages that affect the economy’s ability to produce. Property damage from fire is 50% greater than property damage from shaking because fire is more devastating. BI from water service disruption and fire each represent around one-third of total BI losses because of the long duration of service outage or long restoration and reconstruction periods. Total BI losses are 4.3% of annual gross output in the affected region, an impact far larger than most conventional economic recessions. These losses are still much lower than they potentially could be due to the resilience of the economy.

Rose, A.; Wei, D.; Wein, A.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TSUNAMI ON TAMIL NADU – AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper examine to the Indian Ocean Tsunami on 26 December 2004 has left coastal lands flattened and billions of dollars worth infrastructure, economic assets and materials were devastated. It had severe impacts on coastal fishing communities in Tamil Nadu destroying houses, boats, fishing gear, agricultural land and etc. The livelihood security of lakhs of costal rural folk who are directly dependent on marine fisheries has been shattered by destruction of their dwelling and more importantly their only means of earnings, namely, the craft and gear. The Andaman & Nicobar islands were the worst affected and among the coastal areas. Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry suffered the worst damage, some parts of Kerala and south Andhra Pradesh also experienced loss of human lives and property in India

T. Sherley Gnana Sathiya

2014-04-01

222

Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable.

223

EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

Boehringer, Christoph, E-mail: boehringer@uni-oldenburg.d [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

2009-07-01

224

EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

2009-07-01

225

Economic Impact of Forest Damage in an Alpine Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the situation regarding the main types of damage to forests and their respective economic consequences, with reference to a case study in the Italian Alps (Trentino province. Each kind of damage (wind and snow, defoliation, fire and tillage has been analysed in terms of its impact on four forest functions (production, protection, tourism-recreation and carbon sequestration and evaluated in monetary terms. Market value was used to estimate the production and carbon sequestration functions, replacement cost method for protection, and contingent valuation for tourism-recreation. Applying desk research on damage caused by the main biotic and abiotic factors to this particular case study led us to estimate a annual damage of about € 1,624,921 equal to 4.71 € per hectare. This can be considered a lower bound estimate of possibly greater damage. Another interesting result that emerged from the evaluation exercise is that the wealth of information produced through monitoring and scientific research in the last twenty years does not readily lend itself to economic analysis.

PALETTO, Alessandro

2009-01-01

226

An approach to evaluating the economic impact of emissions trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The command-and-control system to air quality controls is a mixture of technology-forcing standards for existing sources and offset for new sources. More stringent controls are required to achieve the ambient air quality standards in non-attainment urban areas which have been conformed with burgeoning economic growth. Due to the economy of scale and locale of polluting sources, some sources can implement these controls in a more cost-effective manner than others. In order to minimize the control costs of regulated sources, trading of emissions has been stipulated and has occurred among power plants to curb acid rain at the national level. Southern California is currently embarking on the trading of oxides of nitrogen, reactive organic compounds, and oxides of sulfur among existing and new stationary sources. New economic opportunities for entrepreneurs with advances control technology will arise under emissions trading. Trading will also result in the redistribution of emissions geographically and across industries. Through the linkage of a linear-programming trading model, a regional econometric model, and an urban airshed model, the impact of trading on the Southern California economy can thus be examined. This paper describes a framework which can be used to compare and contrast RECLAIM with the command-and-control system; and discusses a few issues which may arise in a trading market and how these issues can be dealt with are also examinedare also examined

227

IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the construction market, while in Eastern European countries the majority is held by the civil and non-residential constructions. In addition, in the West the medium budget per capita spent on construction is 3-4 times higher than that spent in Eastern countries. But, according to previsions in the coming years the countries that will witness a growth, albeit small, will be the Eastern ones. The paper highlights the impact of the economic and financial crisis in the construction industry on a European and national level, as the sustainable constructions that may represent the sector’s future.

Cristina PLOSCARU

2010-01-01

228

Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Secondary Activities: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast growing literature on economic impacts of climate change is inclined to assessing the impacts on agricultural production and productivity and on human health. The economic impacts of climate change however, go beyond these sectors. In this paper, we attempted to review the scarcely available literature on the economic impacts of the change in the climate of the earth on some selected non-agricultural secondary and tertiary level of economic activities. It is attempted to summarize the ways through which the climate change can affect non-agriculture economic activities. The discussion on the literature can be synthesized as showing the impacts on secondary and tertiary level of economic activities are wide and complex and eventually may be larger than on the impacts on agriculture for those middle and high-income countries where the share of agriculture in national GDP is low.

Amsalu W. Yalew

2012-06-01

229

Selective Chemical Inhibition of agr Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus Promotes Host Defense with Minimal Impact on Resistance  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial signaling systems are prime drug targets for combating the global health threat of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections including those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is the primary cause of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and the quorum sensing operon agr is causally associated with these. Whether efficacious chemical inhibitors of agr signaling can be developed that promote host defense against SSTIs while sparing the normal microbiota of the skin is unknown. In a high throughput screen, we identified a small molecule inhibitor (SMI), savirin (S. aureus virulence inhibitor) that disrupted agr-mediated quorum sensing in this pathogen but not in the important skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mechanistic studies employing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and a novel AgrA activation reporter strain revealed the transcriptional regulator AgrA as the target of inhibition within the pathogen, preventing virulence gene upregulation. Consistent with its minimal impact on exponential phase growth, including skin microbiota members, savirin did not provoke stress responses or membrane dysfunction induced by conventional antibiotics as determined by transcriptional profiling and membrane potential and integrity studies. Importantly, savirin was efficacious in two murine skin infection models, abating tissue injury and selectively promoting clearance of agr+ but not ?agr bacteria when administered at the time of infection or delayed until maximal abscess development. The mechanism of enhanced host defense involved in part enhanced intracellular killing of agr+ but not ?agr in macrophages and by low pH. Notably, resistance or tolerance to savirin inhibition of agr was not observed after multiple passages either in vivo or in vitro where under the same conditions resistance to growth inhibition was induced after passage with conventional antibiotics. Therefore, chemical inhibitors can selectively target AgrA in S. aureus to promote host defense while sparing agr signaling in S. epidermidis and limiting resistance development. PMID:24945495

Sully, Erin K.; Malachowa, Natalia; Elmore, Bradley O.; Alexander, Susan M.; Femling, Jon K.; Gray, Brian M.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Otto, Michael; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Sklar, Larry A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Hall, Pamela R.; Gresham, Hattie D.

2014-01-01

230

Impact of Economic Reform on the Nigerian Telecommunications Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the early days of nationalization, it seemed axiomatic that price and quality standards could be better managed by State Owned Enterprises (SOE. Subsequent experience, however demonstrates that public ownership and control are different as the challenges of imposing effective public interests over nationalized enterprise had proved intractable. This study tests the causal and reciprocal relationships between investment in telecommunications and GDP during the transitional period between 1985 an 2003 in addition to the impact of the reforms on the performance of the firms in the telecommunications sector. The research reveals strong and positive relationship between economic reform and firms’ revenue and profit. The regression analysis shows that the telecommunications sector is statistically insignificant in explaining the GDP. Also, the impact of investment in telecommunications was found to be an insignificant predictor of GDP and vice versa even when the investment was lagged by one year. This paper recommends the provision of supporting infrastructure including electricity and the building of public data networks (PDNs in concert with private telecommunications operators. The derailed privatisation of NITEL should also be concluded. Finally, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC should address the issue of poor quality of service of the telecommunications service providers.

Onakoya Adegbemi Babatunde

2013-05-01

231

The Economic Impact of Computer virus - A case of Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today's information technology world, Viruses are a huge problem for anyone who uses computers. Computer viruses and worms, a program that can spread across computers and networks has gone from being a nuisance to being the cause of the loss of millions of dollars worth of data, and loss of productivity. The writers of these programmes are becoming more adept at it day by day. Corporate viruses are a major problem which costs businesses billions of dollars every year.The aim of this paper is to interrogate the economic impact of computer viruses and worms attack on institutions and industries, particularly in Ghana. In achieving this, the study examined the effects of the computer viruses and worms on the financial standing of organizations by assessing the cost in terms of lost productivity through the inability to use the infected computers, the restoring of adversely affected files and the re-installing of the networks involved.The study confirmed the negative financial impact of such malicious programs on institutions. Cleaning up after a virus attack cost some Ghanaian firms $122,280, over a period of twenty one productive days.

Henry Osborn Quarshie

2012-08-01

232

RCUK launches survey to examine the economic impact of PhD ...  

Accessibility | Media Enquiries ... RCUK launches survey to examine the \\economic impact of PhD graduates ... the achievements of PhD researchers, \\including their impact on society and the economy, is a key objective across \\RCUK. Having ...

233

Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

234

Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

1978-05-01

235

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE CONVERSION: AN EVALUATION METHODOLOGY  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and application of a methodology for evaluating the environmental and economic impacts of placing marginal, submarginal, and Soil Bank land in crop production is described. Environmental impacts were measured by quantifying the increased environmental loadings of ...

236

Economic impacts of proposed wind farm developments in southeast Alberta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Economic Development Alliance (EDA) of southeast Alberta attracts new investment to southeast Alberta in an effort to promote business growth and increase wealth throughout the region. The energy sector is among the key targeted sectors along with value-added agriculture, knowledge based enterprises, manufacturing and tourism. This presentation discussed the potential for southeast Alberta to attract wind farms. The first major wind farm development was the Wild Rose Wind Farm. The South Eastern Energy Developers (SEED) are developers within the EDA who are working to develop wind power facilities in the region and to tie into upgraded transmission lines. SEED members have expressed an interest in developing 1,650 MW of wind capacity over the next 5 years. The EDA contracted the Conference Board of Canada in 2006 to assess the potential economic impact of the construction and operation of proposed wind development projects in southeast Alberta. The purpose was to help municipalities to better understand the direct and induced financial benefits of wind farm development in the region. A map indicating potential wind farm areas in southeast Alberta was presented along with tables of capital cost assumptions, annual expenditures and employment. It was concluded that the construction phase of 1,650 MW of wind farms would support direct employment of 1,757 jobs for local residents. Municipal taxes and charges over the entire construction phase of the project were estimated at $16.5 M, along with a $526.7 M gross domestic product. The EDA will now focus on a reinforced 240 kV transmission line in southeast Alberta, and removal of the 900 MW reliability threshold on wind energy. tabs., figs.

Matthews, J. [Economic Development Alliance of Southeast Alberta, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

237

77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...projects to develop new materials for the stockpile. Section...acquisitions and disposals of materials from the stockpile...The Committee must also balance market impact concerns...process, or consume the materials stored in or of...

2012-03-20

238

75 FR 54852 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...strategic and critical materials to supply the military...acquisitions and disposals of materials from the stockpile...The Committee must also balance market impact concerns...process, or consume the materials contained in the...

2010-09-09

239

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biomass-based hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to assess the political, economic and environmental impacts of producing hydrogen from biomass. Hydrogen is a promising renewable fuel for transportation and domestic applications. Hydrogen is a secondary form of energy that has to be manufactured like electricity. The promise of hydrogen as an energy carrier that can provide pollution-free, carbon-free power and fuels for buildings, industry, and transport makes it a potentially critical player in our energy future. Currently, most hydrogen is derived from non-renewable resources by steam reforming in which fossil fuels, primarily natural gas, but could in principle be generated from renewable resources such as biomass by gasification. Hydrogen production from fossil fuels is not renewable and produces at least the same amount of CO{sub 2} as the direct combustion of the fossil fuel. The production of hydrogen from biomass has several advantages compared to that of fossil fuels. The major problem in utilization of hydrogen gas as a fuel is its unavailability in nature and the need for inexpensive production methods. Hydrogen production using steam reforming methane is the most economical method among the current commercial processes. These processes use non-renewable energy sources to produce hydrogen and are not sustainable. It is believed that in the future biomass can become an important sustainable source of hydrogen. Several studies have shown that the cost of producing hydrogen from biomass is strongly dependent on the cost of the feedstock. Biomass, in particular, could be a low-cost option for some countries. Therefore, a cost-effective energy-production process could be achieved in which agricultural wastes and various other biomasses are recycled to produce hydrogen economically. Policy interest in moving towards a hydrogen-based economy is rising, largely because converting hydrogen into useable energy can be more efficient than fossil fuels and has the virtue of only producing water as the by-product of the process. Achieving large-scale changes to develop a sustained hydrogen economy requires a large amount of planning and cooperation at national and international alike levels. (author)

Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Mehmet [Sila Science and Energy Unlimited Company, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-05-15

240

Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

1986-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose

242

76 FR 29008 - Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and on Beneficiary...  

Science.gov (United States)

...connection with the 20th report on the economic impact of the Caribbean Basin Economic...of each reporting year on the economic impact of the Act on U.S. industries...and the President regarding the economic impact of the Act on U.S....

2011-05-19

243

Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)

Duarte, Carlos Henrique; Schaeffer, Roberto [Energy Planning Program - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, CT, C-211, Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)

2010-10-15

244

Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)

245

Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

N. Sudarsan

2013-02-01

246

The economic impact of adolescent health promotion policies and programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescence is a critical period in the human lifecycle, a time of rapid physical and socioemotional growth and a time when individuals establish lifestyle habits and health behaviors that often endure into and have lasting effects in adulthood. Adolescent health promotion programs play a critical role in helping youth establish healthy lifestyles. In this article, we present a socio-ecological model as a framework for identifying effective policy and program areas that have a positive impact on adolescent health behaviors. Our discussion focuses on 4 key areas: reproductive health; obesity prevention; mental health and substance use, including smoking; and injury and violence prevention. We proceed with an overview of the current status of state-led adolescent health promotion policies and programs from a newly created policy database and then examine the evidence on the cost of preventable adolescent health problems and the cost-effectiveness of health promotion programs and policies. We conclude by discussing the threat posed to adolescent health promotion services and state-led policy initiatives by proposed and implemented federal and state-level budget cuts and examine the possible health and economic repercussions of reducing or eliminating these programs. PMID:22423456

Aratani, Yumiko; Schwarz, Susan Wile; Skinner, Curtis

2011-12-01

247

Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system.

248

Comparing economic and environmental impacts of propane, CNG, methanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

How well does propane stack up as a motor fuel against CNG, methanol, ethanol, and gasoline? This question has been addressed -- indirectly -- in various studies made by David Gushee over the period of time since the Congress first began seriously considering the advocacy of alternative fuels as a means of improving urban air quality, increasing energy security, reducing oil imports, increasing domestic content of transportation fuels, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. A brief overview of the comparative advantages and disadvantages of the various alternative motor fuels, with particular emphasis on propane, was presented by Gushee at the NPGA Governmental Affairs Conference in Washington, DC in October. Subsequently, at BPN's request, he supplied copies of the slides he showed on that occasion, together with copies of certain presentations he has made in the past based upon his studies. The following is a paraphrased and abridged rewrite -- in the interest of saving space -- of a presentation made by Gushee at a meeting of the National Conference of State Legislatures. In his address, Gushee analyzed the impacts of the various fuels on both the economics of transportation and the environment

249

The Economic Impact of San Juan College on San Juan County, New Mexico, 1991-92.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted of the economic impact of San Juan College (SJC) in Farmington, New Mexico, on businesses and employment in San Juan County during fiscal year (FY) 1991-92. The five components used to measure the college's tangible economic impact on the local community were SJC's total expenditures in FY 1991-92 used to buy goods and…

Clark, Mary Jo

250

78 FR 47317 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF THE UNITED STATES Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public that...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2013-08-05

251

78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public that...may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact@exim.gov or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue...

2013-11-20

252

The Economic Impact of Dickinson College on Carlisle and Cumberland County, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of Dickinson College represents an unusually complete, detailed, and balanced study of the local and regional economic impact of an academic institution. Among other features, it includes estimates of the college's positive and negative effects on local government, local as well as county wide economic impact estimates, and a relatively…

Bellinger, William; Bybel, Alexandra; de Cabrol, Charles; Frankel, Zachary; Kosta, Elizabeth; Laffey, Thomas; Letko, Lauren; Pehlman, Robert; Peterson, Eric; Roderick, Benjamin; Rose, Leo; Schachter, Andrew; Wang, Jue; Wood, Matthew

2010-01-01

253

The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

Falconer, John

2007-01-01

254

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.

2014-01-01

255

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

2014-01-01

256

The NASA Lewis Research Center's Expendable Launch Vehicle Program: An Economic Impact Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the economic impact of the Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) Expendable Launch Vehicle Program (ELVP) on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures ELVP's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they "ripple" throughout the economy. The study uses regional economic multipliers based on input-output models to estimate the effect of ELVP spending on the Northeast Ohio economy.

Austrian, Ziona

1996-01-01

257

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Mid-Atlantic region.

Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.

2014-01-01

258

Understanding the impact of the economic crisis on child and maternal health among the poor: Opportunities for South Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic crisis hit many countries in 2007 and the effects are still being felt, especially in poorer developing nations. Much of the debate surrounding the economic crisis and its impacts has focused on the financial and economic aspects - import/export impacts, economic growth losses, labor force cutbacks, and fiscal imbalances. The social impact, especially on poor and vulnerable groups, has received less mention. Yet, if countries are to address the overall impacts of the economic cri...

Abdul Cader, Azra; Perera, Lakwimashi

2011-01-01

259

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT SECTORIAL EXPENDITURE ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Government expenditures remain the bedrock of Nigeria’s economic growth. Hence the need to criticallyevaluate the impact of expenditures’ some priority sectors on the economic growth. A Cochrane-Orcutt and ECM method was adopted to measure the long run effect of selected macroeconomic variables economic growth. The result shows that expenditure on telecommunication, Defence and security, Education and Health Sector have made positive impact on Nigeria’s economic growth. But transportation and agricultural expenditures have impacted negatively in the economic growth in Nigeria. The conclusion therefore is that the level of government expenditures for transportation and agricultural development is still not adequate to build the much need capacity in the sectors to impact positively to economic growth

Ebiringa

2012-11-01

260

Impact of Innovation on Economic Growth in the Economic Modeling on the Example of Special Economic Zones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This publication is dedicated to innovative investment role of innovation in the modeling of economic growth The publication is entered major economic models containing in itself a solu- tion comparable to the intellectual capital and technological investments in the perspective of the last hundred years, with particular emphasis on micro-economic, such as special economic zones On the basis of the model P Warr, estimating the efficiency of the SEZ, based on the latest conc...

Pastusiak, Rados?aw

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

48 CFR 222.101-3-70 - Impact of labor disputes on defense programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements. For guidance on determining the degree of impact, see PGI 222.101-3-70(a). (b) Each contracting activity...L(AR)1153 and must include the information specified at PGI 222.101-3-70(b). [71 FR 18670, Apr. 12,...

2010-10-01

262

Technical Report on the Impact of MgO on Defense Waste Processing Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect(s) of removing MgO from DWPF frits to assess the impact on liquidus temperature and the durability of the glass product. Removal of MgO from the frit was hypothesized to lead to a decrease in liquidus temperature and thereby allow increased waste loading

263

The Economic Impact on the Dominican Republic of Baseball Player Exports to the USA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper pulls together into one practical model two strands of economic theory to assess the impact of baseball player exports on the aggregate economic performance of the Dominican Republic. On one hand, foreign trade theory predicts a strong correlation between a country’s exports and economic performance measured as per capita income. On the other hand, microeconomic research finds a positive, but statistically insignificant, impact of sports activities on local economies....

Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

2006-01-01

264

Actions to alleviate the mental health impact of the economic crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of the economic crisis can be offset by various policy measures. This paper aims to outline how countries can safeguard and support mental health in ...

Wahlbeck, Kristian; Mcdaid, David

2012-01-01

265

The impact of the British model on economic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

Simon György Jr.

2007-01-01

266

User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we examine the impacts of building new coal, gas, or wind plants in three states: Colorado, Michigan, and Virginia. Our findings indicate that local/state economic impacts are directly related to the availability and utilization of local industries and services to build and operate the power plant. For gas and coal plants, the economic benefit depends significantly on whether the fuel is obtained from within the state, out of state, or some combination. We also find that the taxes generated by power plants can have a significant impact on local economies via increased expenditures on public goods.

Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M.

2006-06-01

267

Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), crop management techniques are applied to stimulate reproductive development in order to obtain high seed yields. These include a low plant density, manipulation of canopy size to avoid lodging and shading of fruiting organs, synchronization of flowering with pollinating insects as well as controlling pests. High seed yield is correlated to inflorescence density and seed yield per inflorescence, traits which should be selected for in breeding populations as moderate to high heritability has been found. However, seed yield is a genetically complex trait and in the perennial, insect-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve the economic impacts of modern plant breeding for a better livelihood and environment.

Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette

2015-01-01

268

Incidence and economic impact of ophthalmological occupational accidents in Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scope: This article seeks to assess the eco-nomic impact of industrial accidents with ref-erence to the incidence of opthalmological in-dustrial injuries occurring in the Thriacion Plain industrial zone in Greece during the period 1991-2000. Material and Methods: Data provided by 53 industrial units have been collected and classified. During the study period, 2,011 adults and juveniles out of the 15,600 people employed in the area (a 13% aggregate suffered opthal-mological injuries occurring at the workplace. Results: The highest percentage of injuries were due to trauma (61% of adults, 67% of juveniles, followed by chemical burns. In the majority of cases (75% of adults and 50% of juveniles treatment was provided at the local IKA (Social Security Fund health care unit, in the town of Elefsis. It was estimated that a total of 10,192 working days were lost, with compensation costs (benefit payments alone amounting to approximately € 118,000.00, not allowing for in-direct employer costs such as loss of produc-tivity, substitution and replacement costs. Con-clusions: The high incidence of industrial acci-dents in combination with the high percentage of child labor in the area of Thriacion Industrial Plain were striking and contributed significantly to high- er rates of work-related injuries of ocular interest in Greece. The latter were shown to result in a sig- nificant deterioration of the employees’ health status, with the majority of the accidents being due to the lack of safety precautions at the work-place at a considerable financial burden on the social security system in direct benefit payments. The social security system needs to press for tighter work safety regulations and their proper implementation if to minimize the burden these accidents impose on its budget.

Kyriakos Souliotis

2009-12-01

269

Impact of economic models on European Union economies development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The horizon of 2050 is projected a new vision of the economy, supported by a coordination of economic policies in order to generate sustainable growth, employment levels, social cohesion, which would contribute to economic and financial recovery of European Union.Challenges facing the Union are higher than before the recession, while the margin of maneuver is limited. Enhanced role of Union demonstrate increasingly economic and politic power of emerging countries.

Cristina BURGHELEA

2013-04-01

270

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives the largest contribution to GRDP in Province of Archipelago of Riau. This can be understood that the contribution is more than 72.0% not only based on GRDP at current prices, but also based on GRDP at constant prices. Economic growth rate in regions in Province of Archipelago of Riau is higher than national economic growth rate. The model fits well because the coefficient of determination R2 is more than 85%. There are only 3 worse models, i.e. based on building construction in Batam (with R2= 59.6%, in Tanjungpinang (with R2=74.0%, and based on transportation and communication in Tanjungpinang (with R2=37.1%.

Susanti Linuwih

2010-08-01

271

DIRECT FOREING INVESMENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a society the attention is preponderantly attracted by the economic growth (an essential fact when we have in view the economic development) and by the resources that lies at the basis of the economy, but the standard of living, the quality of life of the population during that process should not be overviewed.

MIHAELA IONECI

2009-01-01

272

DIRECT FOREING INVESMENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a society the attention is preponderantly attracted by the economic growth (an essential fact when we have in view the economic development and by the resources that lies at the basis of the economy, but the standard of living, the quality of life of the population during that process should not be overviewed.

MIHAELA IONECI

2009-05-01

273

State Investment in Universities: Rethinking the Impact on Economic Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

Does investing taxpayer money in higher education lead to major payoffs in economic growth? State legislators and policy makers say yes. They routinely advocate massive appropriations for university education and research, even in poor economic times, on the grounds that taxpayers will be rewarded many times over. The investment of federal funds…

Schalin, Jay

2010-01-01

274

Economic Impact of Miami-Dade Community College.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines Miami-Dade Community College's (M-DCC) (Florida) economic benefits to the community. The Beacon Council lists M-DCC as the eighth largest public sector employer in Miami-Dade County. Economic benefits can occur in many ways, one of which is when vendors who sell to M-DCC provide jobs and income for residents who are not…

Vorp, Ron

275

Socio-economic impact assessment and community engagement to reduce conflict over mine operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The broad aim of this project was to assist coal mining companies develop effective processes for engaging with their communities and developing impact assessment and planning processes that can be agreed by their stakeholders. The range of project outcomes have been summarised in a series of reports, as follows. Report 1. Overview of social and economic issues associated with the Bowen Basin coal industry; Report 2. A review of environmental impact assessments (EIA) for coal mine developments and the use of economic and social impact assessment in the Bowen Basin - tools and trends; Report 3. Accounting for social and economic impacts in annual sustainability reporting; Report 4. Regional Economic impact assessment: an overview of the input-output methods; Report 5. The impact of coal industry development projects on the Central Highlands, Fitzroy and Queensland economies: An application of input-output method; Report 6. Regional Economic impact assessment: factors influencing workforce mobility to regional mining towns; Report 7. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the township of Blackwater; Report 8. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the Bauhinia Shire (Springsure and Rolleston); Report 9. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (Blackwater); Report 10. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (the Bauhinia Shire); and Report 11. Summary and Recommendations. This report includes a number of summary findings about the social and economic impacts of coal mining on the communities in the Bowen Basin. The approaches used are outlined and briefly discussed.

John Rolfe; Stewart Lockie [Central Queensland University, Qld. (Australia)

2007-09-15

276

Economic impact of area closures and effort reduction measures in ...  

reduction measures that result in reduced fishing mortality of juvenile cod (and \\hence reduce ... The analysis also considers the impact of removal of fishing \\effort to .... impact of changes in fleet composition on catch rates would be equally\\.

277

Economic impact analysis for the printing and publishing neshap. Final report, May 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The affected industries for which economic impacts were calculated were a sample of those that use two types of printing processes - flexography and gravure. Price and production quantity changes for 22 final products (publications, packaging, and printed products) were calculated using the economic analysis model. Affected firms must control HAP emissions by the level of control required in the standard. Several types of economic impacts, among them price and output changes for affected products, and employment impacts, were computed for the selected regulatory alternatives.

NONE

1996-05-01

278

The Impact of Membrane Lipid Composition on Macrophage Activation in the Immune Defense against Rhodococcus equi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nutritional fatty acids are known to have an impact on membrane lipid composition of body cells, including cells of the immune system, thus providing a link between dietary fatty acid uptake, inflammation and immunity. In this study we reveal the significance of macrophage membrane lipid composition on gene expression and cytokine synthesis thereby highlighting signal transduction processes, macrophage activation as well as macrophage defense mechanisms. Using RAW264.7 macrophages as a model system, we identified polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA of both the n-3 and the n-6 family to down-regulate the synthesis of: (i the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?; (ii the co-stimulatory molecule CD86; as well as (iii the antimicrobial polypeptide lysozyme. The action of the fatty acids partially depended on the activation status of the macrophages. It is particularly important to note that the anti-inflammatory action of the PUFA could also be seen in case of infection of RAW264.7 with viable microorganisms of the genera R. equi and P. aeruginosa. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that PUFA from both the n-3 and the n-6 family down-regulate inflammation processes in context of chronic infections caused by persistent pathogens.

Julia Schumann

2011-11-01

279

Clinical and economic impact of aliskiren in uncontrolled hypertensive patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: the majority of hypertensive patients do not achieve adequate blood pressure (BP control and thus remain at risk of cardio-cerebrovascular events. Aliskiren, a novel antihypertensive drug acting as direct renin inhibitor, was authorized in Italy for the treatment of hypertension in patients who remain uncontrolled and at risk despite the use of at least two antihypertensive drugs. It was subject to an AIFA web-based monitoring registry. Results of the registry show a decrease of 20.8/9.2 mmHg in systolic/diastolic BP, within 6 months, when aliskiren is added to current therapy.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the clinical and economic impact of such BP reduction in terms of avoidable cardio-cerebrovascular events.METHODS: an Excel-based Markov model compared aliskiren plus current antihypertensive treatment to current antihypertensive treatment alone over a 5-year horizon. Patients’ baseline characteristics and BP-reduction were taken from the AIFA registry and literature. Using Wilson and Anderson risk equations, the model simulated patient’s transitions from Pre-Event to Post-Event and Death, calculating the number of those who experience an event. Unit costs were assigned to treatments, events and follow-up. Sensitivity analyses considered: efficacy variability and societal costs of events.RESULTS: 2.47% of patients treated with aliskiren added-on to their antihypertensive therapy were expected to avoid an event. As observed in the AIFA registry, 19.8% of patients remained treated only with aliskiren whereas others reduced the number of antihypertensive treatments, leading to a 38.6% reduction of monthly concomitant antihypertensive treatment cost. Considering events and follow-up cost reduction, the per-patient annual incremental cost of aliskiren is calculated at € 187 and generates 0.042 QALYs over 5 years. The ICER was € 22,062 per QALY (€ 16,845 to € 30,771 for an efficacy range of ± 25%. Considering societal costs ICER was € 20,094 per QALY.Conclusions: AIFA registry real-world data confirmed aliskiren’s efficacy in uncontrolled hypertensive patients. Together with reaching their BP goals, patients consumed less medication from other antihypertensive drug classes and are expected to avoid cardio-cerebrovascular events. The ICER remained within acceptable thresholds, confirming that aliskiren represents a good investment in terms of health benefit.

Ezio Degli Esposti

2012-03-01

280

The Impact of Economic Crises on the Perception and Knowledge Level of Students Regarding Economic and Financial Concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic crisis, during the past two years, has an impact on Greek students of 17 years old. Elements of the crisis have intruded on their everyday life. Economic and financial concepts constitute part of their attempt to understand the world they live in and as a result affect their educational level. This paper is an exploratory attempt to study the effects of economic crisis in the economics knowledge of Greek students using a sample of 62 Senior High School (lyceum students. Data analyzed consists of a 30 question exam based on the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL developed by the National Council on Economic Education (NCEE and a questionnaire which was given at the end of the exam. The survey was conducted in two different periods in 2010-2011 & 2011-2012. Results indicate that students level of knowledge of economic and financial concepts, concerning the crisis, is considerably high compared with quantitative results from the U.S. national norming sample of the TEL.

Iraklis Pliakis

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

supply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

282

Predicted versus actual psycho-socio-economic impacts of mining and infrastructure projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the accuracy of predicted psycho-socio-economic impacts resulting from mining and infrastructure projects is investigated by comparing it to impacts shown to actually occur. A systems theoretical approach was followed in conjunction with a qualitative methodology in order to conceptualise impacts in the social systems they occur. Data was collected through a document review (which included a total of 17 documents pertaining to predicted impacts, and 24 documents pertaining to a...

Lotter, Karien

2013-01-01

283

State and local economic impacts from wind energy projects: Texas case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to estimate economic impacts from 1398 MW of wind power development in four counties in west Texas. Project-specific impacts are estimated at the local level (i.e., within a 100-mile radius around the wind farms) and at the state level. The primary economic policy question addressed is how investment in wind energy affects the state and local communities where the wind farms are built. During the four-year construction phase approximately 4100 FTE (full time equivalents) jobs were supported with turbine and supply chain impacts accounting for 58% of all jobs generated. Total lifetime economic activity to the state from the projects equated to more than $1.8 billion, or $1.3 million per MW of installed capacity. The total economic activity to the local communities was also substantial, equating to nearly $730 million over the assumed 20-year life cycle of the farms, or $0.52 million per MW of installed capacity. Given the current level of impacts observed, and the potential for increased impacts via greater utilization of instate manufacturing capacity and the development of trained wind industry specific laborers, Texas appears to be well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development. - Highlights: ? We use the JEDI model to assess economic impacts from wind development in west Texas. ? Total lifetime economic impact from 1398 MW wind equated to more than $1.8 billion. equated to more than $1.8 billion. ? Texas is well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development.

284

Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

2013-08-01

285

Impacts of nuclear and hydroelectric great projects: economical, technological, environmental and social aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some studies about the Great Impacts of Energy Sources, mainly nuclear power plant and hydroelectric power plant, in Brazil are presented. The technological, economical, social and environmental aspects are described

286

Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

2011-08-01

287

University Economic Impact Analysis: Applying microeconomic tools and concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

This service-learning impact analysis project had students look in detail at the current employment and purchasing practices and policies of the University of Vermont. Unlike traditional impact analyses that attempt to calculate the total impact of an institution on the local economy, this project attempted to identify where the University could change policies and practices to increase positive local impacts both from an efficiency and equity perspective. Students worked with a 14-person advisory committee from the University, local and state government and local non-profits.

Brooks, Nancy

288

The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998; ANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico-FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The impact of SNL activities on Central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the Central New Mexico Region includes: Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance Counties (Figure 1). Total impact represents both direct and indirect resending by business, including induced effects (resending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico

289

Opportunity and/or necessity entrepreneurship? The impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few studies have tried to identify the impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs on their opportunity-necessity positioning. Based on a sample of 538 entrepreneurs, we point out that individuals who get involved in an entrepreneurial process, have encountered a situation of necessity and/or opportunity and that the latter can take various forms. We point out the impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs on the alignment of their project with a necessity...

Giacomin, Olivier; Janssen, Frank; Guyot, Jean-luc; Lohest, Olivier

2011-01-01

290

A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest v...

Mohsen Pourkhosravani; Mohammad Reza Iravani,

2012-01-01

291

The study of infectious intestinal disease in England: socio-economic impact.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess the socio-economic impact of infectious intestinal disease (IID) on the health care sector, cases and their families, cases of IID ascertained from a population cohort component and those presenting to general practices were sent a socio-economic questionnaire 3 weeks after the acute episode. The impact of the illness was measured and the resources used were identified and costed. The duration, severity and costs of illness linked to viruses were less than those linked to bacteria. ...

Roberts, J. A.; Cumberland, P.; Sockett, P. N.; Wheeler, J.; Rodrigues, L. C.; Sethi, D.; Roderick, P. J.; Infectious Intestinal Disease Study Executive, I. I. D.

2003-01-01

292

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-06-01

293

Economic impact analysis for the printing and publishing NESHAP. Draft report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An economic analysis of the industries affected by the Printing and Publishing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) was completed in support of the proposed standard. The affected industries for which economic impacts were calculated were a sample of those that use two types of printing processes - flexography and gravure. Price and production quantity changes for 22 final products (publications, packaging, and printed products) were calculated using the economic analysis model.

NONE

1995-03-01

294

Impact of demographic features on economic development of India from 2001 - 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Impact of demographic features on economic development of India from 2001 - 2010 By Dr. Bhawna Rathore Population of a country is closely related to its economic growth. After the distraction caused by second world war in Germany and Japan, the efficient hard working educated and healthy population of these countries has contributed to a large extent to the rapid economic growth and reconstruction of these c...

Dr Bhawna, Rathore

2012-01-01

295

The economic impact of Olympic tourism: When, who and how much?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No Olympics could do without exact measuring. In the 100 m sprint race, milliseconds separate winners from losers. But when it comes to measuring the economic benefits of Olympic tourism, figures vary by several billion. How can we get a grip on the economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympics?

Martin Mueller

2010-01-01

296

Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

Goldberg, M.

2013-12-31

297

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financial and cost accounting methods to reflect efforts of organizations towards sustainability and to provide management with information needed to make sustainable business decisions have been broadly recognized. Information on environmental performance of organizations might be available to some extent, but, decision-makers of internal company, as well as those in public authorities, are seldom able to link environmental information to economic variables and are crucially lacking environmental cost information. As a consequence, decision makers fail to recognize the economic value of natural resources as assets, and the business and financial value of good environmental performance. Beyond “goodwill” initiatives, a few market-based incentives exist to integrate environmental concerns in decision-making. This paper gives an overview of the approaches of environmental management accounting and we analyze environmental cost in condition by actual economic crisis.

Sorin BRICIU

2010-01-01

298

The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

Mohamed, Issam A. W.

2010-01-01

299

The Impact of Economic Cycles on Technical Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research findings indicate that trends in technical education appear to be cyclical and that there is an observable similarity between these trends and the phases of the Kondratieff Wave. It appears that technical education is directly responsive to economic trends. (CT)

Bleyer, Dorothy

1981-01-01

300

The economic impact of telecommunications diffusion on UK productivity growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure competition, investment and productivity. Using econometric modelling and input-output economics, the analysis examines and measures the extent to which telecommunications has contributed to national and sectoral productivity performance. The main findings from this paper suggests that most industries have benefited from the incorporation of advances of telecommunications technology, which might have, amongst o...

Correa, Lisa

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth Based on Spatial Economic Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article studies on bind of different country’s human capital and its economic growth by means of spatial econometric model. Firstly, this study construct spatial model of the Cobb-Douglas production function with human capital factors and expansion spatial Benhabib and Spiegel model and then use these two models to discuss human capital and its spatial lag’s contribution to economic growth. The empirical results show that, even in considering the case of spatial elements, studying human capital as a common element of production inputs, the role of human capital in the country and neighboring countries on the country’s per capita income growth is not significant; there is a certain spatial relationship between the human capital and economic growth; the capability of independent innovation based on human capital and advanced technology absorptive capacity are significantly which will boost the economy.

Xiao Zhen

2013-01-01

302

Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

2012-12-01

303

The Recession's Ongoing Impact on America's Children: Indicators of Children's Economic Well-Being through 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Children throughout the United States continue to be negatively impacted by the lingering effects of the Great Recession, with children in some states more hard hit than others. The impact of the recession on children can be hard to see. Some economic statistics ignore children, while others come out with a long time delay. This updated issue…

Isaacs, Julia B.

2011-01-01

304

Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

305

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Southeast Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Southeast (defined here as Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia).

2013-07-01

306

The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Sudan for the period 1982-2009 by using a simultaneous equation model that links human capital i.e. school attainment; and investment in education and health to economic growth, total productivity, foreign direct investment, and human development index. Based on three-stage least squares technique, the empirical results of the paper show that quality of the education has a determinant role in the economic growth; health quality factor has a positive impact on economic growth as expected and total factor productivity which mainly represents the state of technology has adverse effect on economic growth and human development due to the obsolete and old fashion technology.

Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi

2013-06-01

307

THE IMPACT OF PROPERTY RIGHTS FREEDOM ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE OECD NATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study empirically investigates of the impact on per capita real economic growth of property rights freedom. After controlling for nominal long term interest rates, net exports, a measure of political stability, and other factors, panel least squares as well as panel two stage least squares estimations using a four-year panel data set for the OECD nations as a group reveal that higher levels of property rights freedom lead to an increased rate of per capita real economic growth. Furthermore, it is found that whereas higher nominal long term interest rates lead to diminished economic growth net export growth and greater political stability enhance economic growth

Richard J. Cebula

2011-02-01

308

Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

309

The environmental and economic impacts of the climate change agreements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The climate change agreements (CCAs) in the UK were negotiated with a number of energy-intensive industrial sectors, and offered a reduction in the rate of the climate change levy (CCL), provided that negotiated energy efficiency targets were met. Through modelling and by analysis of the results of the first target period, this paper analyses the stringency of the targets, and the economic and environmental implications of the CCAs. It concludes that, while the targets in themselves were not stringent, and were in the main met well before the due date, the CCAs appear to have had an 'awareness effect' in stimulating energy savings. This has resulted in overall environmental benefits above those which would have derived from the imposition of a flat-rate tax with no rebate and no CCAs, and economic benefits for the sectors and companies with which CCAs were negotiated. (author)

310

ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OPERATING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed the need to reform international financial institutions and new global financial architecture. Changes in their structure and operation should lead to global economic stability. Members of the Euro zone are faced with a new attitude towards the international financial institutions, particularly the International Monetary Fund. Proclaimed missions of International Monetary Fund and World Bank clearly differ in theory, but with the passage of time their activities have become increasingly intertwined.

Slobodan Cerovic

2013-06-01

311

The Impact of Fiscal Policy to the Kosovo Economical Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is defining and finding fiscal politics in the function of thedevelopment of our economy in this transition phase as well as identifying the fiscal measures tooverpass the existing difficulties within future development framework of the country. The papercontains very important data regarding the level of economic charges with taxes, comparison of fiscalcharge of some important economies of Europe and world with fiscal charges of our economy.General conclusion from this ...

Gani Asllani

2011-01-01

312

The Global Economic Crisis: Impact on Indian Outward Investment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indian outward FDI flows have declined in 2008 and the first half of 2009. The global financial and economic crisis appears to have seriously dented overseas investment plans of emerging Indian multinationals. This paper looks at the trends and patterns of Indian OFDI flows in the current crisis period, what led to its slowdown, how Indian multinationals have fared, and what is their revival prospect.

Pradhan, Jaya Prakash

2009-01-01

313

The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South Africa's unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, [...] the question therefore is how to make best use of the country's available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water shortages, a condition exacerbated by climate change and the presence of invasive alien plant species. In this paper we address the question of sectoral water allocation by applying a macro-economic comparative static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model using an integrated database comprising South Africa's Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and sectoral water use balances. We refer to AsgiSA, the South African Government's Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa, and conclude that introducing the proposed programmes in a business-as-usual and water-intensive manner will strengthen the current growth in the demand for water. This will bring forward, or accelerate, the need for introducing water rationing among sectors. The importance of this conclusion cannot be emphasised enough. Water is essential, and recognised in as much in the preamble to the National Water Act of 1998, with regards to livelihoods, health and from a socio-economic development perspective since there are no substitutes for it. While water rationing is imminent, the reality thereof has not yet led to a rethink of macro-economic policies. This delayed effect can create a degree of comfort and ill-founded complacency leading to non-action, whereas there is an urgent need for proactive measures towards water conservation.

James, Blignaut; Jan, van Heerden.

314

Exploiting entrepreneurial opportunities: the impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge is recognized as an important ingredient for economic growth in addition to physical capital and labor. While transforming knowledge into products and processes it is exploited commercially. Nevertheless, the existing knowledge stock and the absorptive capacity of actors like employees at firms and researchers at universities and research institutions are conditional for the ability to produce, identify, and exploit knowledge. Since incumbent firms do not exploit new knowledge to th...

Mueller, Pamela

2005-01-01

315

The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa’s unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, the question therefore is how to make best use of the country’s available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water sh...

Blignaut, James Nelson; Heerden, J. H.

2009-01-01

316

Economic Impact of Food Safety Outbreaks on Food Businesses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A globalized food trade, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing toward an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. Moreover, the volume of international food trade has increased to become very large. All of these factors are putting pressure on the food companies to meet global demand in order to be competitive. This scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient toward food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. The estimated cost of food safety incidents for the economy of the United States is around $7 billion per year which comes from notifying consumers, removing food from shelves, and paying damages as a result of lawsuits. Most other countries similarly have economic losses. Much of these losses represent lost markets, loss of consumer demand, litigation and company closures. Concrete steps are needed to improve safety of foods produced for local or overseas markets to avoid unexpected food scandals and economic losses.

Malik Altaf Hussain

2013-12-01

317

Economic impact on the Florida economy of energy price spikes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substantial disturbance in oil supplies is likely to generate a large price upsurge and a downturn in the level of economic activity. Each of these two effects diminishes demand by a certain amount. The specific price surge required to reduce demand to the lower level of supply can be calculated with an oil demand function and with empirical estimations of the association between price spikes and declines in economic activity. The first section presents an energy demand model for Florida, which provides the price and income elasticities needed. The second section includes theoretical explanations and empirical estimations of the relationship between price spikes and recessions. Based on historical evidence, it seems that Florida's and the nation's economic systems are very sensitive to oil price surges. As price spikes appear damaging to the economy, it could be expected that reductions in the price of oil are beneficial to the system. That is likely to be the case in the long run, but no empirical evidence of favorable short-term effects of oil price decreases was found. Several possible explanations and theoretical reasons are offered to explain this lack of association. The final section presents estimates of the effect of oil disruptions upon specific industries in Florida and the nation

318

Socio-economic impact management: programme design and implementation considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While larger mineral-resource development projects offer new jobs and provide a stimulus to the economy of the area where they are sited, they may also pose problems in rural areas associated with rapid population growth. The purpose of an impact management program is to anticipate and alleviate project effects that are generally perceived as undesirable and to enhance effects that are beneficial to site-area communities. While the effective management of project effects is the end towards which all impact assessment efforts are directed, an integrated approach to impact management has been notably lacking. This paper suggests a systems framework for meeting this need by: (1) reviewing the need for impact management efforts; (2) discussing the objectives of, and considerations in, designing impact management programs; (3) presenting a conceptual framework for, and key components of, such a program; and (4) suggesting an approach for implementing such a system as an integral part of the project development process. 34 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Leistritz, F.L. (North Dakota State Univ., Fargo); Halstead, J.M.; Chase, R.A.; Murdock, S.H.

1982-12-01

319

Mitigation Costs and Economic Impacts of Climate Change in a Probabilistic Integrated Assessment of Optimal Policies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we use a probabilistic chain methodology in an integrated assessment framework to take into account the uncertainties from the economy and from the climate. First, a random sampling of scenarios is generated covering the range of uncertainties of the socio-economic challenges of mitigation and adaptation and the uncertainty about the delay in the policy action. Then, an economic growth model is used to produce optimal future emission paths in a cost-effectiveness analysis with respect to an extensive range of carbon budgets and to compute the distribution of cost estimates for the mitigation of climate change. A reduced complexity climate model, calibrated from past observation using inverse Bayesian technique, computes probabilistic temperatures projections from the emissions. Finally, The distribution of economic impacts of climate change is produced, by combining the temperatures with impact estimates coming from previous studies. The results show that the distribution of the mitigation costs is right-skewd and that the mitigation costs increase with the delay of policy inaction. In 2050, the economic impacts of climate change are rather positive, but, in 2100, if no stringent policy is applied, the economic impact distribution have a very long tail towards potential high negative impacts. In the Figure, when the two cost distributions are combined, mitigation costs and economic impacts, a stringent policy will lead more likely to a higher loss of GDP than a less stringent policy, however the confidence interval of GDP loss for less stringent policies is much larger. Join distributions of mitigation costs and economic impacts costs per delay of inaction (in rows) and per probability to stay below the 2°C temperature increase (in columns), in 2050 and 2100. The red dot represent the median of the distribution. The y-axis is truncated at -50% of GDP.

Drouet, L.; Bosetti, V.; Tavoni, M.

2013-12-01

320

Economic perspectives on the impact of climate variability and change: A summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is presented of a collection of papers on the economic methodologies applicable to studies of the impact of global climate variability and change. The research was sponsored by the Canadian Climate program and was conducted as part of a project investigating the potential impacts on various sectors of the Canadian economy of climate warming due to the greenhouse effect. Topics of the papers include microeconomic analysis, benefit/cost analysis, input-output analysis, policy options regarding water levels in the Great Lakes, the scenario approach to assessing socio-economic sensitivities to climate change in the agri-food sector, and analysis of weather impacts. Several analytical tools are seen to be readily applicable to economic analyses of the effects of climate change, and issues of future water supply and demand are seen as central to climate impact assessment, and of particular concern to Canada

 
 
 
 
321

Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs

322

The Impact of the Economic Downturn in the Travel Catering Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report aims to identify the impacts of the current economic downturn in the travel catering industry. During the ITCA Trade Show and Conference in Barcelona, Spain February 11-13, 2009, TCRC conducted 90 face-to-face interviews with attending practitioners from all over the world. The respondents are also representations of all sectors of the travel catering industry: Operators, Caterers, and Food and Non-food Suppliers. The impacts across sectors and regions, along impacts within sec...

Johan, N.; Jones, P.

2009-01-01

323

Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

Wallace Tyner

2012-05-30

324

Economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to broaden the purview of fiscal impact analysis to include impacts on the local private sector that may stem from local public sector changes. More specifically, attention is focused on the limiting case, in which new private sector development yields positive changes in fiscal capacity, but does not increase public service demands or interact with the local private sector. This phenomenon is termed a ''pure'' change in fiscal capacity, or, stated differently, pure tax revenue importation. Interest in this issue stems from an analysis of the local impacts of constructing and operating nuclear power stations. Nuclear power stations, like other electrical generating facilities, are characterized by large capital-labor ratios, implying that the impact of siting would be to increase local taxable capacity, via the property tax base, to a greater extent than local private sector activity, via new hirings. Moreover, a small labor force implies a modest change in the demand for local public services, and facilities of this nature by themselves demand few, if any, public services. A nuclear power station, however, may be distinguished from other electrical generating facilities through siting regulations that require locating in a low population density area, a fact which ensures the influence on the community will be substantial. The question of how and to what degree feedback effects from local public to local private sector may take place is described

325

Economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt is made to broaden the purview of fiscal impact analysis to include impacts on the local private sector that may stem from local public sector changes. More specifically, attention is focused on the limiting case, in which new private sector development yields positive changes in fiscal capacity, but does not increase public service demands or interact with the local private sector. This phenomenon is termed a ''pure'' change in fiscal capacity, or, stated differently, pure tax revenue importation. Interest in this issue stems from an analysis of the local impacts of constructing and operating nuclear power stations. Nuclear power stations, like other electrical generating facilities, are characterized by large capital-labor ratios, implying that the impact of siting would be to increase local taxable capacity, via the property tax base, to a greater extent than local private sector activity, via new hirings. Moreover, a small labor force implies a modest change in the demand for local public services, and facilities of this nature by themselves demand few, if any, public services. A nuclear power station, however, may be distinguished from other electrical generating facilities through siting regulations that require locating in a low population density area, a fact which ensures the influence on the community will be substantial. The question of how and to what degree feedback effects from local public to local private sector may take place is described.

Bjornstad, D.J.

1978-01-01

326

The impact of organizational and economic factors on tourism development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism sector remains under- analyzed by economists and specifically there is a need to develop a model which allows clarifying the impact of government policy in transition countries on this sector. This paper aims to analyze the influence of currency liberalization on the volume of services in tourism from 1995 to 2009.

Bahodir Turaev

2010-10-01

327

Haemophilia B : impact on patients and economic burden of disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Worldwide, haemophilia is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder. The incidence of haemophilia B, however, is considerably less than haemophilia A and consequently appears to have received less attention in the research literature. This article aims to summarise the available evidence documenting the patient and economic burden associated with haemophilia B and current methods of disease management. Both the immediate and long-term clinical consequences of haemophilia B can have significant implications for patients in terms of functional limitations and diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Evidence demonstrates that primary prophylaxis is the optimal strategy for replacing missing clotting factor IX (FIX) and managing haemophilia B. Use of recombinant FIX (rFIX) over plasma-derived FIX (pd-FIX) is also generally preferred for safety reasons. Prophylaxis using currently available rFIX products, however, requires a demanding regimen of intravenous infusions 2–3 times a week which may have significant implications for adherence and ultimately the long-term efficacy of such regimens. Only limited assessments of the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic versus on-demand FIX treatment regimens have been conducted to date. Prophylaxis, however, is generally more costly as greater quantities of FIX are consumed. Any reduction in FIX replacement dosing frequency is expected to improve patient adherence and contribute to improved clinical outcomes, further supporting the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. Although a rare disease, as economic constraints for healthcare increase, generating further information regarding the key clinical, patient and economic outcomes associated with haemophilia B will be essential for supporting improvements in care for people with haemophilia B.

Gater, Adam; Thomson, Thomas

2011-01-01

328

Assessing future economic impacts of acidic deposition on the recreational fishery of eastern Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to assess the socio-economic impacts and net economic value effects related to potential reduction in acidic deposition on the sports fishery of eastern Canada. Impacts and net economic effects that would have occurred from 1950 to 1985 if emission/deposition controls were in place are measured. Impacts and net economic effects that will occur from 1986 to 2021 if controls are put in place in the future are also measured. The study incorporated the latest data describing the relationship of acidic deposition to lake pH levels and ultimate impact on fish survival, and applies a spatial analysis system to model changes in sport fish availability with respect to pH changes and fish survival responses. It was found that if emission controls were put in place beginning in 1950 the Canadian economy would have accrued $4.3 billion in net economic value from 1950 to 1985 inclusive. The 1986 value of the historical stream of losses that occurred because controls were not put in place is $24 billion assuming a 10% rate of return. If controls were put in place in the future, net economic value to Canada due to increased angler activity would be $4.2 billion for the period 1986-2021. The value in 1986 would be $925 million. 9 figs., 34 tabs

329

Quantifying the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper attempts to quantify the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand (in addition to income, price, and fuel efficiency) by estimating the demand relationship for oil transport for 1960-2007 using the structural time series model. From this, the relative impact on UK transport oil demand from income, price, and efficiency are quantified. Moreover, the relative impact of the non-economic factors is also quantified, based on the premise that the estimated stochastic trend represents behavioural responses to changes in socio-economic factors and changes in lifestyles and attitudes. The estimated elasticities for income, price and efficiency are 0.6, -0.1, and -0.3, respectively, and it is shown that for efficiency and price the overall contribution is relatively small, whereas the contribution from income and non-economic factors is relatively large. This has important implications for policy makers keen to reduce transport oil consumption and associated emissions, but not willing to reduce the trend rate of economic growth. Taxes and improved efficiency only have a limited impact; hence, a major thrust of policy should perhaps be on educating and informing consumers to persuade them to change their lifestyle and attitudes and thus reduce their consumption through the non-economic instruments route. (author)

330

Quantifying the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper attempts to quantify the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand (in addition to income, price, and fuel efficiency) by estimating the demand relationship for oil transport for 1960-2007 using the structural time series model. From this, the relative impact on UK transport oil demand from income, price, and efficiency are quantified. Moreover, the relative impact of the non-economic factors is also quantified, based on the premise that the estimated stochastic trend represents behavioural responses to changes in socio-economic factors and changes in lifestyles and attitudes. The estimated elasticities for income, price and efficiency are 0.6, -0.1, and -0.3, respectively, and it is shown that for efficiency and price the overall contribution is relatively small, whereas the contribution from income and non-economic factors is relatively large. This has important implications for policy makers keen to reduce transport oil consumption and associated emissions, but not willing to reduce the trend rate of economic growth. Taxes and improved efficiency only have a limited impact; hence, a major thrust of policy should perhaps be on educating and informing consumers to persuade them to change their lifestyle and attitudes and thus reduce their consumption through the non-economic instruments route.

331

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing within the crisis context for the retail sector.

Sorin Toma

2010-12-01

332

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

333

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products.

334

Impact of Qualitative Components on Economic Growth of Nations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to theory, innovative activity gives a chance to increase a competitiveness and economic growth of nation. The purpose of this paper is validation of that assumption using the latest data available for EU countries. Data set of indicators include: global innovation index, (GII, European Summary Innovative Index (SII, Ranking of Competitiveness of Nations (in a form of summary as well as subsidiary data and set of macro economy data (GDP, labor productivity, export, export of high-tech, R&D expenditure as [as % of GDP] etc as measures of economic growth. Various regression models: liner, curvilinear, planar or spatial with one or two dependent variables will be calculated and explained. In addition the appropriate 2 D and 3 D-graphs will be used and presented to strengthen verbal arguments and explanation. The main result of this paper is relationship between innovative activity, competitive ability and growth measured as GDP per capita. Such relationship is shown as fairy good linear span of countries. Only two of them: Luxemburg and Norway due to higher than average growth value are outliers. The valuable outcome of this paper is classification of nation into groups: highly innovative- highly competitive, highly competitive-non innovative, highly innovative- non competitive and non innovative – non competitive. The last group of nations fall into trap of low competitiveness.

Romuald I. Zalewski

2011-06-01

335

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

Demirbas, Ayhan [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-11-15

336

Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin

Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

2012-04-01

337

The Impact of External Events on the Emergence of Collective States of Economic Sentiment  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the impact of the environment (i.e. the impact of socio-political and socio-economic exogenous events) on the emergence of ordered phases of locally interacting individual economic sentiment variables (consumer confidence, business confidence etc.). The sentiment field is modeled as a (non-critical) Ising field with nearest-neighbor interactions on a (two-dimensional) square lattice. The environment is modeled as an external ``field of events'', randomly fluctuating over time, stochastically impacting the Ising field of individual variables. The external events can be frequent or rare, have a lasting impact or a non-lasting impact. The field is not homogeneous, as individual actors might fail to perceive external events. We find that if events are sufficiently ``strong'' and/or perceived by a sufficiently large proportion of agents, collective states of pessimism/optimism can not occur, even for strong inter-agent interactions.

Hohnisch, M; Pittnauer, S; Hohnisch, Martin; Stauffer, Dietrich; Pittnauer, Sabine

2006-01-01

338

Economic impacts of reducing NOx emissions in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a multisector computable general equilibrium model for the Norwegian economy, the impacts on main macroeconomic indicators of reducing NOx emissions are analyzed. Seven specific technical measures regarding passenger cars, trucks, ships and industrial processes are studied. The measures have somewhat different impacts on the macroeconomy. Especially the measure pertaining to light and heavy duty trucks leads to an increase in GDP, because of higher income from indirect taxes. However, the sum of value added in the production sectors is reduced. The other measures cause a decrease in GDP. All in all, it is found that the costs, in terms of reductions in GDP and private consumption, incurred from the introduction of additional NOx emissions control measures are quite small. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

339

Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia. 46 refs

340

Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

 
 
 
 
341

Impact of International Economic Policies on National Level Business  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research defines how economists apply Gross Domestic Product to observe the national income in a country. This research will also identify the problems related with GDP to observe the national wealth and how can these issues be controlled. This research will also describe how a country can implement monetary and fiscal policy to impact the level of national income in the financial system in the short run. National income is the complete value of national output of all services and goods ...

Ahsan, Lubna; Qazi, Burhan; Hashmi, Shahabuddin

2014-01-01

342

Economic impact of reduced high-voltage equipment life  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In May, 1989, the Western Area Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation published a report entitled Replacements: Units, Service Lives, Factors. This report showed that equipment lives have significantly shortened for substation and switchyard equipment and for the associated supervisory control and communication networks since the last study was published in August, 1981. This paper reports that a shortened service life has a simple resulting impact - increased revenues are required to replace retiring hydropower plant equipment

343

Impact of economic and financial crime commission on the economic development of Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Corruption had been in Nigeria since the country got her independence in 1960 and lots of effort had been put in place by president to reduce the level of corruption in Nigeria but all these effort proof abortive until the year 2003 when General Olusegun Obasanjo undertake some reforms program in the country part of it is what led to the establishment of Economic and Financial Crime commission to help in curbing financial crime rate in the country. The objective of the study was to identif...

Oladapo, Zainab Ajoke

2014-01-01

344

Green lights : quantifying the economic impacts of drought  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt is made to estimate the global cost of drought.

Fisker, Peter Kielberg

2014-01-01

345

The Impact of Fiscal Policy to the Kosovo Economical Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is defining and finding fiscal politics in the function of thedevelopment of our economy in this transition phase as well as identifying the fiscal measures tooverpass the existing difficulties within future development framework of the country. The papercontains very important data regarding the level of economic charges with taxes, comparison of fiscalcharge of some important economies of Europe and world with fiscal charges of our economy.General conclusion from this paper results on that the fiscal system constructed to our country and theleaded fiscal politics should be based on the market economy and to implement modern concepts oftaxation which have to be in the full compliance with the rules of European Union and best advancedinternational standards.

Gani Asllani

2011-02-01

346

The Economic Crisis and its Humanitarian Impact on Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

The economic crisis that continues to affect countries across the world has taken a hard toll on humanitarian organizations in Europe. In October 2009, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) released this 20-page report on just that subject. The report looks at 52 countries across the region (including several in Central Asia), and it is primarily focused on presenting findings from long-form interviews, rather than large statistical data sets. The report has some troubling findings, including the observation that "there seems to be an increasing trend of insecurity, leading to increases in mental health problems, alcohol and substance abuse, social isolation and generalized stress." Visitors will appreciate the fact that the report draws on a number of case studies and the first-hand observations of social service providers and administrators.

347

Economic impact of price forecasting inaccuracies on self-scheduling of generation companies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper studies the economic impact of using inaccurate price forecasts on self-scheduling of generation companies (GenCos) in a competitive electricity market. Four alternative sets of price forecasts are used in this study which have different levels of accuracy. The economic impact of price forecast inaccuracies is calculated by comparing the economic benefits of the GenCos in two self-scheduling scenarios. In the first scenario, electricity market price forecasts are used to optimally schedule the GenCos' next day operation. In the second scenario, perfect price forecasts, i.e., actual market prices, are used for self-scheduling of the GenCos. Two indices are utilized to quantify the differences in the economic benefits of the GenCos under the two scenarios. Simulation results are provided and discussed for two typical and inherently different GenCos, i.e., a hydro-based producer and a thermal-based producer. (author)

348

Impacts of Management Practices on Economic Performance of Firms Located in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Management practices employed by a firm can have direct impacts on its economic performance in the market. This research focused on how economic performance of two banks located in the City of Riyadh is affected by their management practices. These two banks were Samba Financial Group and Saudi British Bank. It was realized that management skills applied by an organization would pose direct effects on the economic performance of that firm. Samba Financial Group has designed management practices that are meant to offer customers what they need in the best manner possible. On the other hand, most of the management practices of Saudi British Bank have always been focusing on motivating employees. In both cases, it is clear that the approach taken by the management will have direct impact on a firm’s economic performance.

Shahnaz Hamid

2014-02-01

349

Hanford defense waste studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

350

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly on economic growth than their expenditureon transport and communication. Increased expenditure on all sectors was recommended especially on engineering construction. In addition policy modifications are needed to ensure that government expenditure on the transportation and communication sector achieve greater impacts on economic growth.

ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY

2012-04-01

351

Analysis: Economic Impacts of Wind Applications in Rural Communities; June 18, 2004 -- January 31, 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to compile completed studies on the economic impact of wind farms in rural communities and then to compare these studies. By summarizing the studies in an Excel spreadsheet, the raw data from a study is easily compared with the data from other studies. In this way, graphs can be made and conclusions drawn. Additionally, the creation of a database in which economic impact studies are summarized allows a greater understanding of the type of information gathered in an economic impact study, the type of information that is most helpful in using these studies to promote wind energy development in rural communities, and the limitations on collecting data for these studies.

Pedden, M.

2006-01-01

352

Impact of Foreign Aid on Economic Development in Jordan (1990-2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the impact of foreign aid on economic development, suggest that poor countries have to relay on the foreign aid as a resource to fill the deficit. There are many form of foreign resources like Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, External Loans and Credit, Technical Assistance, Project and non Project Aid and many other forms. But most of under developed countries where Jordan one of them don't have the investment friendly situation. So in one way or the other have to relay on foreign aid and debt rather than other form of financial foreign resources. This study analyses the trend and impact of foreign aid on the economic development of Jordan during the period 1990-2005 using for this purpose different statistical techniques. From the analysis of the related data of Jordan it is clear that the foreign capital flow has a direct impact on the economic development of Jordan.

Mwafaq D. Al-Khaldi

2008-01-01

353

Transmission Line Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are freely available, user-friendly tools that estimate the potential economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The Transmission Line JEDI model can be used to field questions about the economic impacts of transmission lines in a given state, region, or local community. This Transmission Line JEDI User Reference Guide was developed to provide basic instruction on operating the model and understanding the results. This guide also provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data contained in the model.

Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-10-01

354

The impact of real exchange rate volatility on economic growth: Kenyan evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of real exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Kenyan. The study employed the Generalized Autoregressive Condition of Heteroscedasticity (GARCH and computation of the unconditional standard deviation of the changes to measure volatility and Generalized Method Moments (GMM to assess the impact of the real exchange rate volatility on economic growth for the period January 1993 to December 2009. Data for the study was collected from Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Kenya and International Monetary Fund Data Base by taking monthly frequency. The study found that RER was very volatility for the entire study period. Kenya’s RER generally exhibited a appreciating and volatility trend, implying that in general, the country’s international competitiveness deteriorated over the study period. The RER Volatility reflected a negative impact on economic growth of Kenya.

Ganesh P. Pokhariyal

2012-10-01

355

Economic impact analysis of energy facilities with particular reference to the Hartsville, Tennessee, area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study focuses on the economic impacts of construction of the Hartsville, Tennessee, nuclear power plant. Four reactor units are now under construction. Investigated are the consequences likely to be felt in a six-county region, including the site and the city of Nashville. Estimates were made by applying to the construction and operating requirements of the plant an economic multiplier which yields an estimate of the induced and indirect effects of the power plant

356

A framework to investigate the economic growth impact of sea level rise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reviews the channels through which sea level rise can affect economic growth, namely the loss of land, the loss of infrastructure and physical capital, the loss of social capital, the additional cost from extreme events and coastal floods, and the increased expenditure for coastal protection. It discusses how existing studies on the direct impact of sea level rise could be used to investigate the resulting consequences on economic growth, emphasizes research needs on this question, and discusses consequences on migration. (letter)

357

2008 Global Economic Crisis and Its Impact on India's Exports and Imports  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After the introduction of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization by the name of economic reforms Indian economy has been integrated with the global economy. This integration enabled India to move on high growth path but that integration exposed Indian economy to adverse impacts from the world economy. India’s share in the world trade is less than 2 per cent. India’s vision in the world trade is not only earning foreign exchange but also to induce the economic growth and developme...

Sivakumar, Marimuthu

2012-01-01

358

A framework to investigate the economic growth impact of sea level rise  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the channels through which sea level rise can affect economic growth, namely the loss of land, the loss of infrastructure and physical capital, the loss of social capital, the additional cost from extreme events and coastal floods, and the increased expenditure for coastal protection. It discusses how existing studies on the direct impact of sea level rise could be used to investigate the resulting consequences on economic growth, emphasizes research needs on this question, and discusses consequences on migration.

Hallegatte, Stéphane

2012-03-01

359

Hazardous waste management in South African mining : a CGE analysis of the economic impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is no doubt that an improved hazardous waste management in mining and mineral processing will reduce environmental and health risks in South Africa. However, skeptics fear that waste reduction, appropriate treatment and disposal are not affordable within the current economic circumstances, neither from an economic nor from a social point of view. This paper mainly deals with the first aspect and touches upon the second. It investigates the short-run and long-run sectoral impacts of an e...

Wiebelt, Manfred

1999-01-01

360

Changes of foreign investors’ involvement in Poland – impact of economic crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent economic slowdown had a major influence on foreign direct investors activity in Poland, therefore the aim of this article is to assess the impact of recent economic crisis on changes in the structure of FDI in Poland. The inflow of FDI has decreased and its structure has changed since 2008. But it was not due to the major deterioration of investment climate in Poland, but mostly due to the conservative policy of multinationals. Not only did they limit new international e...

K?ysik-uryszek, Agnieszka

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The Economic Impact of Olympic Games: Evidence from Stock Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By means of an event study of stock market reactions to the announcement of the Olympic Games host cities, we find a significant and positive announcement effect of hosting the Summer Games, with a cumulative abnormal return of about 2% within a few days. We do not find any significant results for the Winter Games. Neither do we detect a significant impact when bidders lose the competition. Our results differ from those of a similar study by Mirman and Sharma (2008), who find that the Winter ...

Dick, Christian D.; Wang, Qingwei

2008-01-01

362

Green jobs? Economic impacts of renewable energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) are analyzed in this text. Although a growing RE industry can be observed in Germany the overall effect of large increases of RE based electricity and heat generating technologies on the German economy require a careful model based analysis. The applied model PANTA RHEI has been used among others to evaluate the German energy concept in 2010. It takes positive and negative impacts of RE into account. The paper shows the overall effects under different assumptions for fossil fuel prices, domestic installations and international trade. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the development of RE world markets and German exports to these markets. Almost all of these scenarios exhibit positive net employment effects. Under medium assumptions net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. Only with assumptions for German RE exports below today's level, net impacts are slightly negative. Gross employment will increase from 340 thousand in 2009 to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030. - Highlights: ? This paper analyzes labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) in Germany. ? It shows the overall effects under different assumptions. ? The development of world markets and German RE exports are very important. ? Net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. ? Gross employment will increase to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030.

363

Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). Part I. Sectoral Analysis of Climate Impacts in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on the results of the research work carried out by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) within the WISE project. This project aims at investigating the effects and the impacts of extreme weather events, particularly very warm summers, mild winters and storms, on the socio-economic systems of European countries. The output consists of a series of empirical studies, both of quantitative and qualitative descriptive nature. The work of FEEM in the WISE project covers the quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate extremes on the socio-economic system in Italy and the analysis of individuals' perception of climate extremes based on results from individuals' surveys. In this paper is presented the statistical modelling of the impact of weather, through quantitative analysis of activity time series. In particular, the core sectors analysed include fires, health, energy use, tourism and agriculture

364

Economic Impacts from Indiana's First 1,000 Megawatts of Wind Power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The magnitude of Indiana's available wind resource indicates that the development of wind power infrastructure has the potential to support millions of dollars of economic activity in the state. The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are tools used to estimate some of the economic impacts of energy projects at the state level. JEDI calculates results in the form of jobs, earnings, and economic output in three categories: project development and onsite labor, local revenue and supply chain, and induced impacts. According to this analysis, the first 1,000 MW of wind power development in Indiana (projects built between 2008 and 2011): supported employment totaling more than 4,400 full-time-equivalent jobs in Indiana during the construction periods; supports approximately 260 ongoing Indiana jobs; supported nearly $570 million in economic activity for Indiana during the construction periods; supported and continues to support nearly $40 million in annual Indiana economic activity during the operating periods; generates more than $8 million in annual property taxes; generates nearly $4 million annually in income for Indiana landowners who lease their land for wind energy projects.

Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Hauser, R.

2014-08-01

365

Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

366

Economic impacts of noxious facilities: Incorporating the effects of risk aversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developing new sites for noxious facilities has become a complex process with many potential pitfalls. In addition to the need to negotiate conditions acceptable to the host community, siting success may depend on the facility proposer`s ability to identify a candidate site that not only meets technical requirements, but that is located in a community or region whose population is not highly averse to the risks associated with the type of facility being proposed. Success may also depend on the proposer accurately assessing potential impacts of the facility and offering an equitable compensation package to the people affected by it. Facility impact assessments, as typically performed, include only the effects of changes in population, employment and economic activity associated with facility construction and operation. Because of their scope, such assessments usually show a short-run, net economic benefit for the host region, making the intensely negative public reaction to some types and locations of facilities seem unreasonable. The impact component excluded from these assessments is the long-run economic effect of public perceptions of facility risk and nuisance characteristics. Recent developments in psychological and economic measurement techniques have opened the possibility of correcting this flaw by incorporating public perceptions in projections of economic impacts from noxious facilities.

Nieves, L.A.

1993-09-01

367

Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

1996-08-01

368

An Economic Assessment of the 1999 Drought: Agricultural Impacts are Locally Severe, but Limited Nationally  

Science.gov (United States)

This new Issues Center report from the United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) (last mentioned in the May 7, 1999 Scout Report) offers a concise economic assessment of the agricultural impact of the recent drought. The report includes an overview; background on the drought; an examination of the roles played by crop mixing, irrigation, and crop insurance; and information on defining drought regions and modeling drought impacts. The report offers links to a number of charts and external sources for related information.

1999-01-01

369

A farm-level analysis of economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential economic and agronomic impacts of gradual climate warming are examined at the farm level. Three models of the relevant climatic, agronomic, and economic processes are developed and linked to address climate change impacts and agricultural adaptability. Several climate warming severity. The results indicate that grain farmers in southern Minnesota can effectively adapt to a gradually changing climate (warmer and either wetter or drier) by adopting later maturing cultivars, changing crop mix, and altering the timing of field operations to take advantage of a longer growing season resulting from climate warming

370

The economic impact of shale gas development on state and local economies: benefits, costs, and uncertainties.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies. PMID:23552649

Barth, Jannette M

2013-01-01

371

The formation and economic impact of perceptions of risk surrounding nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the results of an investigation of factors determining the nature of risk perceptions associated with eleven nuclear facilities and their impact on local economic development. The paper indicates that the nature of risk perceptions depends primarily on the level of communication by plant officials within the local community, the track record of the facility operator, the process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, and the level of economic links each facility has with the local community. The research indicates that adverse risk perceptions have not affected economic development

372

An Assessment of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Economic Growth: The Case of Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa has been closely associated with adverse economic effects, and could thwart the success of poverty reduction initiatives. HIV/AIDS is fast eroding the health benefits, which Kenya gained in the first two decades of independence. The paper explores the different channels through which HIV/AIDS affects economic growth in a low-income country like Kenya. Within this framework, the paper attempts to analyse the impact of HIV/AIDS on Kenya?s economic growth by way of s...

Were, Maureen; Nafula, Nancy N.

2003-01-01

373

The impact of public policies on economic empowerment of women in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject of this article is the possibilities and ways in which public policies can effect economic empowerment of women. In this paper the social and historical factors that influence the development of gender-based economic inequalities and economic status of women in Serbia are presented. Additionally, the paper offers critical review of strategic documents and specific public policies in Serbia that address the improvement of the status of women from a gender aspect, and assess their potential impact on changes regarding gender inequality.

Brankovi?-?undi? Maja

2014-01-01

374

THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the socio economic lives of people. It was found out that the activities of microfinance institutions resulted in increased social interaction and socio economic sustainability.

MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA

2011-01-01

375

The economic impact of obesity. Building bridges with managed care.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, at least one third of adults older than age 20 are overweight, and the prevalence of obesity has increased to more than 20% in American adults. Currently, obesity is a risk factor in 4 of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States and is also a risk factor for a number of chronic conditions, including gallbladder disease, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Aggregate costs related to obesity--the associated health risks and effects on productivity--have grown to more than $99 billion per year, representing 5.7% of US healthcare expenditures. Loss of as little as 5% to 10% of body weight can be expected to change the onset of several comorbid conditions associated with obesity (e.g., coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, stroke, and osteoarthritis), resulting in significant health and economic benefits. The increasing effectiveness of obesity management and the latest evidence that weight loss reduces the direct and indirect costs of obesity can favorably influence reimbursement decisions. PMID:19667566

Wolf, A M

2001-06-01

376

Community Perceptions toward Economic and Environmental Impacts of Tourism on Local Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the community perceptions toward economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Shiraz, Iran. Special focus is on the differences in perceptions between the Old and New Districts of Shiraz. The study demonstrates that there are broadly similar views among the community leaders and community residents from both districts of Shiraz. In fact, a high percentage of the answers obtained highlighted positive aspects environmental and economic impacts of tourism toward local communities. According to the survey, the strongest and favourable perceptions toward tourism impacts are found to be linked with environmental aspects and while economic matters are found to be the least favourable in terms of the perceived impacts on tourism. T-test analysis of the study indicates that there is no significant difference between community leaders' perceptions in both districts of Shiraz City. Results drew from discussion with the target group show that the community residents have positive perceptions toward economic and environmental impacts of tourism with only minor differences with each other.

Fariborz Aref

2009-06-01

377

Downscaling the CRED Model: Climate Impacts and Economic Development at the Sub-Regional Level | Projects at SEI  

... Downscaling the CRED Model: Climate Impacts and Economic Development at the Sub-Regional Level | Projects at SEI Downscaling the CRED Model: Climate Impacts and Economic Development at the Sub-Regional Level | Projects at SEI GLOBAL STOCKHOLM YORK OXFORD TALLINN US ASIA AFRICA Home ...SEI Projects Projects Projects SEI Contact: Frank Ackerman Downscaling the CRED Model: Climate Impacts and Economic Development at the Sub-Regional Level This project extends and enriches SEI's CRED model of climate and development economics, providing projections of costs, benefits, climate impacts, and investment ...

378

Radiological and economic impact of decommissioning charged particle accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the real radiological and economic consequences of future dismantling of particle accelerators, only insufficient information was available in literature or even at the individual accelerator facilities themselves. DGXI of the European Commission hence launched a project with focus on gathering quantitative and scientifically sound data on the number of accelerators in the EU, on the status of activation of the different facilities, on the awareness of the possible problems at dismantling and on cost evacuations for full scale decommissioning. The project was granted to the VUB with subcontracts to NIRAS/ONDRAF, MAN and CEA-Saclay. With the replies received to an extensive questionnaire, a database was set up with the necessary data for evaluating the decommissioning problems to be expected at the different facilities. From this database three accelerators were chosen as reference cases (VUB medium energy cyclotron, IRMM 200 MeV electron linear accelerator and the 6 GeV proton synchrotron Saturne in Saclay). Extensive sampling of their concrete shieldings (more than 200 drill cores) and metal parts of accelerator and infrastructure, followed by accurate ?-spectrometric analysis and custom designed 3D interpolation, yield data on the 3D distribution of the activity in the different rooms of the installations. In addition to the ?-spectrometric analysis, an analysis of the tritium content of the concrete was performed by measuring the water liberated from heating ground concrete samples. These specific activity distributions allow evaluation of both immediate and deferred decommissioning costs using different scenarios (different clearance levels, different waste management prices, different labor costs and different decommissioning techniques) based on real situations in France, Germany and Great Britain. Several important conclusions and recommendations with respect to decommissioning both existing and future accelerator facilities will be presented. Finally some options for prevention of activation of concrete and metal parts are discussed. (author)

379

The economical impact of a nuclear renunciation in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite De France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value for its shareholders. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (authors)

380

Impact of the economic crisis on the Italian public healthcare expenditure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global financial crisis, beginning in 2008, took an historic toll on national economies around the world. Following equity market crashes, unemployment rates rose significantly in many countries: Italy was among those. What will be the impact of such large shocks on Italian healthcare finances? An empirical model for estimating the impact of the crisis on Italian public healthcare expenditure is presented. Based on data from epidemiological studies related to past econom...

Castellana, Carlo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

382

Where artisanal mines and forest meet: socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape covering Cameroon, the Central African Republic and Republic of the Congo. This paper captures the socio-economic and environmental impacts of small-scale mining in the TNS. Using structured questi...

Ingram, V.; Tieguhong, J. C.; Schure, J.; Nkamgnia, E.; Tadjuidje, M. H.

2011-01-01

383

Sustainability and Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism Development in Jakobstad - Kalajoki  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tourism is not always about business. It can also affect the society in various other ways. There are socio-economic impacts of tourism for both host community and travelers’ community. These impacts can be positive as well as negative. By upholding tourism, a certain area can become financially solvent and the host community can endorse a better lifestyle. The aim of this research was to examine the tourism situation and future prospects of the chosen touristic destinations in forms of...

Salmela, Joel; Rahman, Mohammad Mohibur

2014-01-01

384

Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying economic conditions.

Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

2012-12-01

385

Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The constraints of conventional cross-breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale, contrary to the situation in ornamentals. Thermal neutrons, X-rays or gamma rays have yielded commercial mutants, with only isolated cases of success with chemical mutagens or chronic irradiation. The latter method often results in severe cumulative injury to plants. The main method followed in the mutation breeding of tree fruits has been acute irradiation of the meristematic multicellular buds. Chimera formation and reversion present serious problems. Selection is usually performed in the second vegetatively propagated progeny, mV2, in an attempt to overcome chimerism. Some induced mutants have already been used as parents in conventional cross-breeding programmes. Future targets for mutation breeding will probably not deviate essentially from those formulated in the past, although more emphasis will have to be placed on easily selectable simple traits and the problem of reversion. 83 refs, 2 tabs

386

Guidelines for studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS  

Science.gov (United States)

This 64-page document from UNAIDS is part of the Best Practice Collection of guideline manuals. The purpose of this set of guidelines is to "place socioeconomic impact studies in the planning process in a systematic way" especially in a number of sectors including agriculture and education. The guide is divided into three main chapters. The first chapter is a wonderful introduction to the socioeconomic impact of the HIV/AIDS virus. Part two offers a clear set of guidelines for assessing the socioeconomic impact of this virus, including types of data to be gathered and how to analyze data in economic and social impact studies. The third part contains information on the conceptual framework of the guidelines including the study of the impact of AIDS/HIV in specific sectors. The conclusion explains the limitations of these impact studies, especially the lack of simple technical solutions. Guidelines for studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS gives a clear framework for conducting impact studies on this disease.

387

Long-Term Economic Benefits of Preschool Services and the Potential Impact of Privatization.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the importance of a high quality preschool education for children living in poverty, the long-term effects of such an educational experience, the long-term economic benefits to the children enrolled and their families, and the potential impact of privatization on preschool services. The cost-effectiveness and cost-benefits of…

Kendall, Earline D.

388

Challenges to socio-economic impact modeling: lessons from the Alaska OCS Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurately assessing the socio-economic impacts of large-scale resource developments is a complex undertaking which must take account of the conditions under which development is occurring, including the local environmental, economic, social, and cultural conditions. Such impact assessments and modeling efforts are also affected by the policy context of model development. Thus, such factors as the characteristics of the project, the diversity of potential information demands, population and settlement densities, the local economic structure, and the demographic and socio-cultural uniqueness of the affected area all influence the accuracy and usefulness of assessments. This paper examines the context that has surrounded the development and use of models for assessing the socio-economic impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) petroleum development on rural villages in Alaska - a setting which posed major challenges for impact modelling because of its unique characteristics. It thus provides both a description of the pragmatic steps and an example of the general principles necessary to design and use such models effectively.

Leistritz, F.L.; Chase, R.A.; Ekstrom, B.L.; Knapp, G.; Huskey, L.; Murdock, S.H.; Scott, M.J.

1985-12-01

389

Economic Impacts of the Category 3 Marine Rule on Great Lakes Shipping  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a scenario-based economic assessment of the impacts of EPA?s Category 3 Marine Diesel Engines Rule on certain cargo movements in the Great Lakes shipping network. During the proposed phase of the rulemaking, Congress recommended that EPA conduct such a study, and EPA wil...

390

The Impact of the Economic Crisis on Elementary and Secondary Education Funding: Ontario  

Science.gov (United States)

In Fall 2008, the Ontario government's ability to maintain and enhance a school system was tested as the economy suffered one of its most extreme downturns. This paper discusses the action adopted by the government. The unique measures undertaken by the government to lessen the impact of the economic crisis on students' learning is highlighted.

Jefferson, Anne L.

2010-01-01

391

Making an Economic Impact: Higher Education and the English Regions. Research Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first published study of the impact of the higher education sector on the English regions. This study presents key economic features of UK higher education in the academic year 2007/08 and those aspects of its contribution to the nine English regions that can be readily measured. The sector is analysed as a conventional industry,…

Kelly, Ursula; McLellan, Donald; McNicoll, Iain

2010-01-01

392

Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

Ward, Frank A.

2014-01-01

393

Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

2014-01-01

394

Money Talks: Documenting the Economic Impact of Extension Personal Finance Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Money 2000, an extension program to teach saving money, included a longitudinal behavioral monitoring component over an extended period of time, computerized financial analysis, and individual financial counseling. The personal finance programs and evaluation procedures enabled staff to document almost $2 million of economic impact on the lives of…

O'Neill, Barbara

1998-01-01

395

Is Economic Impact a Good Way of Justifying the Inclusion of Foreign Students at Local Universities?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the debate surrounding the costs and benefits of having foreign students at South African universities, the financial contributions of foreign students to their host economies is sometimes cited. This article reports the results of a comparison between the economic impact on the Grahamstown economy of the spending of foreign and local students…

Snowball, J. D.; Antrobus, G. G.

2006-01-01

396

The Economic Impact of AIDS Treatment: Labor Supply in Western Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Using longitudinal survey data collected in collaboration with a treatment program, this paper estimates the economic impacts of antiretroviral treatment. The responses in two outcomes are studied: (1) labor supply of treated adult AIDS patients; and (2) labor supply of individuals in patients' households. Within six months after treatment…

Thirumurthy, Harsha; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Goldstein, Markus

2008-01-01

397

Show Me the Money! Why Higher Ed Should Help K-12 Do Economic Impact Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

In education, economic impact studies have been largely the product of higher education institutions. Colleges and universities have recognized that they can cultivate public, political and financial support by effectively demonstrating their high return-on-investment value. For more than a decade, all types of higher education institutions have…

Alam, Nadia

2010-01-01

398

The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

Barreca, Alan I.

2010-01-01

399

ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued e-fluent guidelines and limitations for the Metal Finishing Industry in June 1983. This report estimates the economic impact of pollution control costs in terms of price changes, effects profitability, potential plant closures, unem...

400

The Economic Impact of New England Higher Education ... and K-12  

Science.gov (United States)

Economists and business leaders have recognized the role played by colleges and universities in driving economic development through their purchasing and employment (to say nothing of their longer-term contributions to workforce development and knowledge creation) and the institutions often promote that impact in order to gain public and political…

Ludes, Jacob, III; Alam, Nadia; Kampits, Eva

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

The distribution of economic impacts among rural households: A general equilibrium evaluation of regional water policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e relatively with agricultural price and demand decreases. The inclusion of secondary impacts allows decision makers to asses the income effects of a project across a wider segment of the population, while the incorporation of short-and longer-run economic frameworks allows policy makers to assess both immediate and future income changes

402

Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

2010-01-01

403

Field veterinary survey on clinical and economic impact of Schmallenberg virus in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

We implemented a questionnaire-based methodology targeting veterinary field practitioners to evaluate clinical and economic impact of Schmallenberg virus in Belgium. First suspicious cases were detected as soon as July 2011. The mean cost for individual symptomatic treatment was 65 or 107 Euros, in case of fatal outcome or apparent recovery, respectively. PMID:23279714

Martinelle, L; Dal Pozzo, F; Gauthier, B; Kirschvink, N; Saegerman, C

2014-06-01

404

Counting Jobs and Economic Impacts from Distributed Wind in the United States (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference poster describes the distributed wind Jobs and Economic Development Imapcts (JEDI) model. The goal of this work is to provide a model that estimates jobs and other economic effects associated with the domestic distributed wind industry. The distributed wind JEDI model is a free input-output model that estimates employment and other impacts resulting from an investment in distributed wind installations. Default inputs are from installers and industry experts and are based on existing projects. User input can be minimal (use defaults) or very detailed for more precise results. JEDI can help evaluate potential scenarios, current or future; inform stakeholders and decision-makers; assist businesses in evaluating economic development impacts and estimating jobs; assist government organizations with planning and evaluating and developing communities.

Tegen, S.

2014-05-01

405

Impact of Development and Efficiency of Financial Sector on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of development and efficiency of financial sector on economic growth of a group of selected developing countries using a cross-country data averaged over the period 2005-2009. The results show that the impact of financial sector efficiency on economic growth is significantly positive for developing countries. For a sample of 50 developing countries the effect of financial sector development and financial sector efficiency is positive and highly significant. The sensitivity analysis also shows that the relationship remain positive and significant no matter what combination of the omitted variables are used in the basic model. Thus, our findings support the core idea that development and efficiency of financial sector stimulates economic growth.

Najia SAQIB

2013-06-01

406

CAPITAL ACCOUNT CONVERTIBILITY IN INDIA: THE IMPACT OF CAPITAL INFLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH, EXPORTS AND IMPORTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capital Account Convertibility increases inflows of foreign capital in the country and these inflows have got far reaching impact on the economy. In this article an attempt is made to study the impact of foreign capital inflows on macro economic variables of the Indian economy such as IIP, Exports, and Imports. Using co-integration and Error Correction Models we find that the inflow of foreign capital (INFK and FPI cause positively the change in the Index of Industrial production (IIP i.e. economic growth in India. The study also reveals that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between inflows of capital and imports; there is an evidence for economic growth influencing the inflows of FDI but not vice versa and Inflows of foreign capital causing an increase in exports. In view of these findings some policy measures relating capital inflows are suggested.

Laila Memdani

2012-04-01

407

Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed by several types of market participants, ranging from residential customers to large-scale project developers and utilities. Each type of market participant frequently uses a different economic performance metric to characterize PV value because they are looking for different types of returns from a PV investment. This report finds that different economic performance metrics frequently show different price thresholds for when a PV investment becomes profitable or attractive. Several project parameters, such as financing terms, can have a significant impact on some metrics [e.g., internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio] while having a minimal impact on other metrics (e.g., simple payback time). As such, the choice of economic performance metric by different customer types can significantly shape each customer's perception of PV investment value and ultimately their adoption decision.

Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

2011-10-01

408

local people perceptions toward social,economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Kermanshah (Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines local people perceptions about social, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in the cultural heritage destination of Kermanshah in Iran. The study focused on residents in the vicinity of popular heritage attractions in the region. According to the survey, a high percentage of the answers, emphasizes the positive impacts of tourism toward local people. Besides, social aspects of tourism impacts are found to be the strongest and most favorable perceptions. The Findings in Semi structured interviews with residents supported the survey results.

mostafa mohammadi

2010-10-01

409

Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

2013-12-01

410

Economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This economic study examines the economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of the Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant, measured in terms of the global income that generated the ending of the Nuclear Power Plant activity, on the territory. To this end, we will take into account the total investment that has been necessary to complete the process of decommissioning. The economic impact is calculated using the Input- Output methodology. Briefly, the Input-Output model defines a group of accounting relationships that reflect the links taking place within the production system. The Input-Output model is based on the assumption that given an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector, this sector should produce more (less) to satisfy this new demand. At the same time, this will lead to demand more (less) intermediate consumption goods from the remainder sectors of the economy. Then, these sectors should produce more (less) and use more (less) intermediate inputs, and so on. Therefore, an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector multiplies the effect throughout the economy, following the interdependency relationships that exist among the productive activities. We will start by collecting an exhaustive economic information. This information covers the whole decommissioning process and the whole economic and productive activity of the province of Tarragona. Next, this information is used with the objective of building an Input-Output tablebjective of building an Input-Output table of the province that will serve as a base to establish the global economic impact of Vandellos I. The incomes and employment generation has been evaluated in the province of Tarragona that, following the main assumptions, correspond to the global effects of the decommissioning. In addition, we have evaluated the income and employment generation within the region where the nuclear power plant is located. The total income impacts show a high multiplier effect due to the investment carried out during the decommissioning

411

Impact of Financial Liberalization on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have tried to explore the link between financial liberalization index (FLI and economic growth in Pakistan by using annual data for 1971- 2007. The Phillips Perron unit root test is utilized to verify the level of integration and Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL technique for obtaining long run and short run coefficients. The empirical finding indicates that FLI and economic growth are positively linked in the short run. On the other hand, FLI is statistically insignificant in the long run, while the impact of real interest rate (RIR on economic growth is negative and significant. This means that one unit increase in the RIR causes GDP to decline by Rs. 1.03 million. Our investigation recommends that SBP and the GOP should pursue financial liberalization policies that are consistent with economic growth.

Qazi Muhammad Adnan Hye

2013-02-01

412

The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the countries of South East Europe. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced during the transition period have enabled countries to cope with external shocks such as those associated with the recent global economic crisis. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variable impact across countries is assessed. Several types of institutions are examined, including the degree to which countries have adopted the acquis communautaire, determined by the extent of their EU integration, progress with transition, and the broad institutional environment measured through the quality of governance. The paper asks whether countries with a more flexible economy due to faster progress with transition reforms were better able to adjust to the impact of external shocks. It concludes that the variable impact of the global crisis in the region can be explained mainly by their degree of integration into the global economy, and that the institutional reforms that were introduced during the boom times have made countries more integrated into the global economy, and therefore more vulnerable to the impact of the global economic crisis.

Bartlett Will

2011-01-01

413

Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

2010-07-15

414

Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

415

The socio-economic impact assessment for nuclear fuel waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste will undergo public scrutiny as it is examined under the Canadian Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP). This process presents a number of challenges in preparing the socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) component of an Environment Impact Statement. These challenges relate to defining the scope of the SEIA, adapting site-specific methodologies to an assessment of a concept, and addressing evolving public concerns and issues. This paper reports that in meeting these challenges a generic process-oriented SEIA has been developed that emphasizes the importance of defining policies and processes to manage socio-economic impacts. In addition, public involvement and attitude research has facilitated the assessment of the concept at the societal level

416

Regional studies program. Forecasting the local economic impacts of energy resource development: a methodological approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emphasis is placed on the nature and magnitude of socio-economic impacts of fossil-fuel development. A model is described that identifies and estimates the magnitude of the economic impacts of anticipated energy resource development in site-specific areas and geographically contiguous areas of unspecified size. The modeling methodology was designed to assist industries and government agencies complying with recent federal and state legislation requiring subregional impact analyses for individual facilities. The model was designed in light of the requirements for accuracy, expandability, and exportability. The methodology forecasts absolute increments in local and regional growth on an annual or biennial basis and transforms these parameters into estimates of the affected area's ability to accommodate growth-induced demands, especially demands for public services. (HLW)

Stenehjem, E.J.

1975-12-01

417

Economic impacts of climate change: Methods of estimating impacts at an aggregate level using Hordaland as an illustration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses methods for calculating economic impacts of climate change, and uses Hordaland county in Norway as an illustrative example. The calculations are based on estimated climate changes from the RegClim project. This study draws from knowledge of the relationship between economic activity and climate at a disaggregate level and calculates changes in production of and demand for goods and services within aggregate sectors, which are specified in the county budget for Hordaland. Total impacts for the county thus are expressed through known values from the national budget, such as the county's ''national product'', total consumption, and investments. The estimates of impacts of climate changes at a disaggregate level in Hordaland are quantified only to small degree. The calculations made in this report can thus only be considered appropriate for illustrating methods and interpretations. In terms of relative economic significance for the county, however, it is likely that the hydropower sector will be the most affected. Increased precipitation will result in greater production potential, but profitability will largely depend on projected energy prices and investment costs associated with expansion. Agriculture and forestry will increase their production potential, but they are relatively small sectors in the county. Compared with the uncertainty about how climate change will affect production, however, the uncertainty about changes in demand is far greater. The demand for personal transportation and construction in particular can have significant consequences for the county's economy. (author)

418

Impact of economic crimes on the financing of development: Case of developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, many studies have showed that weak institutions and the extent of economic crimes in developing countries are one of the deep causes of their poor economic performances. Debt crises which are among other consequences of a low of public levies are accentuated in developing countries, in particular with the development of what is generally known as shadow economy. This research aims to study the potential link existing between economic crimes and the financing of development in developing countries. The economic crimes sector, which is an essential component of the underground economy has a negative effect on the tax mobilization, by cons, the quality of governance is a positive factor in favor of state budgets. This sector is an important fiscal centre which unfortunately for both social and political reasons, sometimes bears fiscal charges beyond its real contributory capacities. This study aims in particularly to investigate the impact of economic crimes on Financing for Development in approximately one hundred developing countries through the channel of public resource mobilization. The main results of empirical analyses using data covering the period 1996-2012 confirm that, it is better for developing countries to fight against economic crimes playing on improving the quality of institutional governance to ensure economic growth sustainability.

Tarik TALII

2013-07-01

419

Economic Impact of the Hawaii State Public Library System (HSPLS) on the Business and Tourism Industries Study: Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Ryan Information Management conducted a return on investment (ROI) study of the economic value of the Hawaii State Public Library System (HSPLS) and identified potential additional sources of operating revenue. HSPLS economic value was examined from four viewpoints, HSPLS: direct economic impact, market value, peer comparison and value to library…

Ryan, Joe; McClure, Charles R.

2003-01-01

420

Evaluation on the impacts of the implementation of civil building energy efficiency standards on Chinese economic system and environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, in contrast to the usual rough estimation, we present a model to simulate and evaluate the direct, indirect economic and environmental impacts of the implementation of building energy efficiency standards on Chinese economic system and environment by 12 indicators in two scenarios. Four indicators are used to evaluate the direct economic impact degree, five indicators are used to evaluate the direct environmental impact degree, three indicators are used to evaluate the indirect economic impact degree of 34 sectors and the whole Chinese economic system. This research makes it possible to link developments in the implementation of building energy efficiency standards with environmental and economic structure change. The most important finding is that the implementation of building energy efficiency standards can reduce a large amount of pollutants emissions and increase the GDP at the same time. (author)

Liu, Xiuli; Wang, Shouyang [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun East Road No. 55, Beijing 100190 (China); Hewings, Geoffrey J.D. [Regional Economics Applications Laboratory, University of Illinois, 607 South Mathews, 318, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2009-10-15

 
 
 
 
421