WorldWideScience
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Economic impact  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

Technology Transfer Department

2001-06-01

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3 CFR - Eligibility of the Economic Community of Central African States To Receive Defense Articles and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Eligibility of the Economic Community of...Receive Defense Articles and Defense...Eligibility of the Economic Community of...Receive Defense Articles and Defense...furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Economic Community...

2010-01-01

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Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

4

Economic impacts study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

1988-09-30

5

Hanford defense waste environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental impacts of three alternative methods for disposal of Hanford defense wastes were analyzed in an environmental impact statement (EIS), DOE/EIS-0013. A fourth alternative, no disposal action, was included to satisfy CEQ regulations. Hanford defense waste differ dramatically from commercial nuclear wastes. The fuel elements are irradiated to very low burnups (by commercial standards), the fuel has all been processed (in some cases several times) to extract uranium and plutonium, much of the strontium and cesium has been removed and concentrated in capsules, and the remaining wastes have been highly diluted by processing and by neutralizing salts. The activity per unit volume is ? 1/1000 that of commercial spent fuel. Hanford waste is currently stored in a variety of forms and locations. It was categorized into six classes for analysis. The major radionuclides by waste class are shown. Numerous alternatives were considered for treating Hanford defense wastes. Of those studied, four were considered to be reasonable for detailed analysis. A highly abbreviated description of their salient features is presented: (1) geologic disposal; (2) in-place stabilization and disposal; (3) reference (combination disposal); and (4) no disposal action

6

Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk as a dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

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DEFENSE AND SECURITY EFFECTS OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the end of the Cold War and the events at the beginning of the 21st century, the nature of the threats to national security has changed, the single arch-enemy being replaced by a multitude of shifting, sometimes faceless and unpredictable enemies in the form of terrorism, ethnic and religious disputes, trans-national crime etc. Since 2008, a new aspect has been added to the national security and defense, in the form of the negative effects the current economic crisis may have upon these areas.

Maria CONSTANTINESCU

2011-01-01

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DEFENSE AND SECURITY EFFECTS OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS  

OpenAIRE

Following the end of the Cold War and the events at the beginning of the 21st century, the nature of the threats to national security has changed, the single arch-enemy being replaced by a multitude of shifting, sometimes faceless and unpredictable enemies in the form of terrorism, ethnic and religious disputes, trans-national crime etc. Since 2008, a new aspect has been added to the national security and defense, in the form of the negative effects the current economic crisis may have upon t...

Constantinescu, Maria

2011-01-01

9

Economic impact of world mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

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Economic impact of PCI remedies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper first outlines the data base on which the economic evaluation is performed. It includes: modifications of the design of the fuel; preconditioning of the fuel; ramping limitations; in-core fuel management modifications. The economic assumptions on which the study is performed are also outlined. They are representative of a PWR situation. For what fuel design modifications are concerned, some have a minor cost impact (e.g. pellet density, pellet length to diameter ratio, gap size, etc...), while some others may have a quite large impact on the fissile material cost (e.g. duplex pellet), the fabrication cost (e.g. coating of the cladding ID) or the reprocessing cost (e.g. interlayer between pellet and cladding). The preconditioning of the fuel may require to run the reactor in a mode unrelated to the energy demand. This aspect can be minimized by a proper adjustment of in-core fuel management. The ramping limitation is the most usually adopted approach. Different cases are investigated and the impact on generating cost is discussed. The in-core fuel management can also contribute to a better ramping performance of the fuel. Exemplative cases show that this leads to a minimum cost penalty. (author)

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Defense R&D: Effects on Economic Growth and Social Welfare  

OpenAIRE

In the US, defense R&D share of GDP has decreased significantly since 1960. To analyze the implications on economic growth and welfare, we develop an R&D-based growth model that features the commonly discussed crowding-out and spillover effects of defense R&D on civilian R&D. The model also captures the important effects of defense technology on (a) national security and (b) aggregate productivity via the spin-off effect resembling consumption public goods and productive public goods respecti...

Chu, Angus C.; Lai, Ching-chong

2009-01-01

12

Supplemental environmental impact statement - defense waste processing facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document supplements the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE Issued in 1982 (DOE/EIS-0082) to construct and operate the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a major DOE installation in southwestern South Carolina. That EIS supported the decision to construct and operate the DWPF to immobilize high-level waste generated as a result of nuclear materials processing at SRS. The DWPF would use a vitrification process to incorporate the radioactive waste into borosilicate glass and seal it in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal at a permanent geologic repository. The DWPF is now mostly constructed and nearly ready for full operation. However, DOE has made design changes to the DWPF since the 1982 EIS to improve efficiency and safety of the facility. Each of these modifications was subjected to appropriate NEPA review. The purpose of this Supplemental EIS is to assist DOE in deciding whether and how to proceed with operation of the DWPF as modified since 1982 while ensuring appropriate consideration of potential environmental effects. In this document, DOE assesses the potential environmental impacts of completing and operating the DWPF in light of these design changes, examines the impact of alternatives, and identifies potential actions to be taken to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socioeconomresources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, and health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

13

Economics of defense high-level waste management in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense high-level wastes (DHLW) from U.S. defense activities using environmentally safe and cost-effective methods. In parallel with its technical programs, the DOE is performing economic studies to ensure that costs are minimized. To illustrate the cost estimating techniques and to provide a sense of cost magnitude, the DHLW costs for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are calculated. Since operations at SRP must be optimized within relatively fixed management practices, the estimation of incremental costs is emphasized. Treatment and disposal costs are shown to equally contribute to the incremental cost of almost $400,000/canister

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Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic wastes are evaluated by comparing the costs of reduction of the wastes with the savings possible in transportation and disposal. A general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings is developed, an initial set of cost data is established, conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste are developed. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled, newly generated and retrievably stored DOE transuranic wastes. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal and transportation savings, and volume reduction techniques and costs. Section IV contains the results and conclusions of the study. The major conclusions drawn from the study are: For DOE sites with a small amount of waste requiring disposal (< 1000 m/sup 3//year) the cost of volume reduction is greater than the transportation and disposal savings from volume reduction provided the waste requires little additional preparation to meet transportation and disposal criteria. Wastes that do not meet these criteria require site specific economic analysis outside the general evaluations of this study. For Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, incineration and metal shredding are cost-effective, provided a facility is to be constructed as a consequence of repackaging the fraction of stored waste which may require repackaging and immobilizing chemical process waste to meet disposal criteria.

Brown, C.M.

1982-03-01

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Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts

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77 FR 77078 - Economic Impact Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

...EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received...semiconductor manufacturing facility in Singapore. The U.S. exports will enable...

2012-12-31

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The economic impact of climate change  

OpenAIRE

I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates show that climate change initially improves economic welfare. However, these benefits are sunk. Impacts would be pr...

Tol, Richard S. J.

2008-01-01

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Defense-Waste-Processing Faclity, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC: Draft environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103 m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

19

Global economic impacts of severe Space Weather.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) strong enough to create electromagnetic effects at latitudes below the auroral oval are frequent events, and could have substantial impacts on electric power transmission and telecommunication grids. Modern society’s heavy reliance on these domestic and international networks increases our susceptibility to such a severe Space Weather event. Using a new high-resolution model of the global economy we simulate the economic impact of large CMEs for 3 different planetary orientations. We account for the economic impacts within the countries directly affected as well as the post-disaster economic shock in partner economies through international trade. For the CMEs modeled the total global economic impacts would range from US 380 billion to US 1 trillion. Of this total economic shock 50 % would be felt in countries outside the zone of direct impact, leading to a loss in global GDP of 0.1 - 1 %. A severe Space Weather event could lead to global economic damages of the same order as other weather disasters, climate change, and extreme financial crisis.

Schulte In Den Baeumen, Hagen; Cairns, Iver

20

Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis  

OpenAIRE

According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available techniques for quantitative economic impact assessment: partial budgeting, partial equilibrium analysis, input output analysis, and computable general equilibrium analysis. These techniques differ in ...

Soliman, T. A. A.; Mourits, M. C. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Werf, W.

2010-01-01

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Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project  

OpenAIRE

Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

Kannan, Srinivasan

2007-01-01

22

The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

2013-01-01

23

Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy. PMID:25480481

Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

2015-04-01

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Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

25

Defensive technology and welfare analysis of environmental quality change with uncertain consumer health impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measuring the ex post losses from environmental quality change is an important issue when environmental contamination creates health risks, liability is assigned, and private compensation efforts are required. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring the ex post welfare impact of environmental quality change using market behavior from defensive expenditures. Conditions under which a defensive technology can provide a bound on welfare estimates are identified

26

Economic impact of uranium mining in Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal economic impacts are the result of three flows of money from the industry into the remainder of the state's economy. These are: money paid to individuals (personal income); money paid to other businesses (business income); and money paid to state and local governments (government revenues). Growth has come in a largely rural, seven-county area that lies within the triangle formed by the Laredo, San Antonio, and Corpus Christi metropolitan areas. 4 refs

27

Broad economic impact of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision to adopt, expand or reject a nuclear programme has implications that go beyond economic considerations limited to the cost of electricity produced. This report attempts to illustrate the treatment of macroeconomic factors in the decision-making process of various countries, and discusses the macroeconomic impacts of nuclear power, such as employment, balance of payments, security of supply, as well as environmental, health and socio-cultural issues. 274 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs., 9 appendices

28

The Economic Impact of Merger Control Legislation  

OpenAIRE

We construct a unique dataset of legislative reforms in merger control legislation that occurred in nineteen industrial countries in the period 1987-2004, and investigate the economic impact of these changes on stock prices. In line with the hypothesis that merger control should challenge anticompetitive mergers and thus limit future monopolistic profits, we find that the strengthening of merger control decreases the stock prices of non-financial firms. In contrast, we find that bank stock pr...

Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Onega, Steven

2012-01-01

29

How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding changes in efficient firm boundaries as consequence of changes in uncertainty. The analysis suggests that we need to be more precise in describing the nature of the uncertainty that is assumed in the various theories. Moreover, allowing for changes in levels of uncertainty requires that we take the processes of boundary changes into account in the theory of firm boundaries.

Foss, Kirsten

2010-01-01

30

Economic impacts of deforestation in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assessments of the economic impacts of the deterioration of European forests are being made from two points of view - the marketing of wood products and the potential economic benefits which can possibly be derived from a healthy environment. This article considers the principal results of these studies and evaluates their limitations and usefulness. In reviewing some scientific aspects of current debate on the probable causes of deforestation, as well as, in examining government efforts towards air pollution abatement, the article makes reference to tabled data on deforestation in Europe. Overall, the results of economic impacts studies based on the use of simulation models indicate a significant reduction in local supplies to the European wood products industry thus resulting in a dramatic drop in world market share and consequent market instability. Economic losses due to the inability to capitalize on healthy forests are valued in the order of billions of dollars per year in terms of the loss of business in the wood products and commercial-recreational sectors. While pointing out the uncertainties involved in the formulation of these assessments, the article also suggests how their results can constitute useful guidelines in cost benefit analyses of proposed government interventions. A discussion is made of the efficacy of some of these interventions now being considered aimed at reforestation and air pollution abatement

31

Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

32

Economic Impact of FMD in Chazhoor Panchayath  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease is probably the most important livestock disease in the world in terms of economic impact. Of all the vesicular diseases prevalent in India, FMD remains the greatest and most feared scourge. In Chazhoor Panchayat, 62 animals were affected with FMD, out of which 28 were vaccinated. The economic loss was calculated taking into consideration milk loss, losses due to abortion and treatment charges. The total economic loss was calculated as Rs 313900/- out of which loss in milk production accounted for 80.68%. Cost of milk was calculated at the rate of Rs. 12/ litre, to assess the economic loss. Treatment cost includes vehicle charges and cost of medicine. An average loss of 8 hrs/day/ animal was calculated. Vaccination cost of Rs. 5/ animal was also considered. Towards the nursing of animal and disinfection of shed, loss of manpower of 2-hrs/ animals for 5 days was calculated. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 5-6

Litty Mathew and Deepa G Menon

2008-02-01

33

Stress and economic hardship: the impact on children and parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the impact of stress and family economic hardship on children, parents, and parenting. Specific topics covered include the long-term impact of toxic stress on children, the mechanisms through which stressors appear to impact children, the impact of economic hardship, the role of parental depression, and implications for pediatric dentists. PMID:24717747

Long, Nicholas

2014-01-01

34

The economic impacts of the tobacco settlement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent litigation against the major tobacco companies culminated in a master settlement agreement (MSA) under which the participating companies agreed to compensate most states for Medicaid expenses. Here the terms of the settlement are outlined and its economic implications analyzed using data from Massachusetts. The financial compensation to Massachusetts (and other states) under the MSA is substantial. However, this compensation is dwarfed by the value of the health impacts induced by the settlement. Specifically, Medicaid spending will fall, but only by a modest amount. More importantly, the value of health benefits ($65 billion through 2025 in 1999 dollars) from increased longevity is an order of magnitude greater than any other impacts or payments. The net efficiency implications of the settlement turn mainly on a comparison of the value of these health benefits relative to a valuation of the foregone pleasure of smoking. To the extent that the value of the health benefits is not offset by the value of the pleasure foregone, the economic impacts of the MSA will include a share of these health benefits. PMID:11887906

Cutler, David M; Gruber, Jonathan; Hartman, Raymond S; Landrum, Mary Beth; Newhouse, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B

2002-01-01

35

The Economic Impact of Venture Capital  

OpenAIRE

This paper attempts to evaluate the macroeconomic impact of venture capital (VC). We test the assumption that VC is similar in several respects to business R&D performed by large firms and therefore contributes to economic growth through two main channels: innovation and absorptive capacity. The quantitative results, based on a panel of 16 OECD countries from 1990 to 2001, show that the social return of VC is significantly higher than the social return of business or public R&D. An increased ...

Pottelsberghe La Potterie, Bruno; Romain, Astrid

2004-01-01

36

SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience  

Science.gov (United States)

Business interruption (BI) losses for the SAFRR tsunami scenario are derived from the forecasted physical damages of about 100 million at the Ports of Los Angeles (LA) and Long Beach (LB), and 700 million in marina damages, and 2 billion in inundated property damages along the California coast. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction in California's gross domestic product (GDP). The analysis involves several steps. First, estimates are made of immediate business interruption losses due to physical damage to facilities or to disruption of production. Second, total economic impacts (consisting of both direct and indirect effects) are measured by a general equilibrium (quantity and price multiplier effects) of lost production in other sectors through ripple effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. Third, many types of resilience are applied to demonstrate their potential reductions of the impacts. At the Ports of LA and LB, a two-day port shutdown, cargo losses, and additional terminal downtimes would expose 1.2 billion of trade (import and export) value associated with over 4 billion of BI losses. The sectors potentially most affected by trade disruptions are leather, metal, and motor vehicle manufacturing. Excess capacity, inventories, export conversion, and conservation could reduce the direct trade impacts by 85%. Production recapture alone (including clearing the backlog of waiting ships) could reduce BI losses by 85%. The Port of LA commercial fishing would be subject to damages to the fleet, perished fish that cannot be landed, and lost fishing days. Although BI losses are relatively small, the southern Californian fishing sector could incur a 4% drop in output. The impacts would depend on the speed at which boats are repaired and whether lost fishing days can be made up. Ship-building and repair could also be negatively affected, but these impacts would be offset somewhat by reconstruction. Effects on commercial fishing in other locations were not closely examined to assess the impacts. Extensive damages to marinas along the California coast could result in 30 million BI losses in terms of GDP. Interestingly, the service sectors including and relating to marinas (recreation, food services, and retail) indicate possible gains (of .02-1%) from price increases greater than the losses from quantity decreases. Sectors associated with development (residential construction, water and sewage, and health care) could suffer the most with losses of .03% or less. However, these sectors will likely also be bolstered by reconstruction. Economic hardships would be localized and the resilience of the marina sector would depend on alternative moorings and excess capacity elsewhere. Inundated coastal property damages could generate 1.7 billion of BI losses. Application of sector recapture factors (e.g., using overtime) alone could reduce these losses by 80%. For the overall set of loss categories, BI losses amount to 6 billion, and resilience strategies indicate the potential to reduce these economic impacts by 80-90%.

Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

2013-12-01

37

The Economic impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs  

OpenAIRE

Because ocean acidification has only recently been recognised as a problem caused by climate change, impact studies are still rare and estimates of the economic impact are absent. This paper estimates the economic impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs which are generally considered to be economically as well as ecologically important ecosystems. First, we conduct an impact assessment in which atmospheric concentration of CO2 is linked to ocean acidity causing coral reef area loss. Next...

Brander, Luke M.; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.; Beukering, Pieter J. H.

2009-01-01

38

Economic impacts of climate change in Australia: framework and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: There is growing interest in understanding the potential impacts of climate change in Australia, and especially the economic impacts of 'inaction'. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the possible economic impacts of future climate change in Australia is undertaken using ABARE's general equilibrium model of the global economy, GTEM. In order to understand the potential economy-wide economic impacts, the broad climatic trends that Australia is likely to experience over the next several decades are canvassed and the potential economic and non-economic impacts on key risk areas, such as water resources, agriculture and forests, health, industry and human settlements and the ecosystems, are identified. A more detailed analysis of the economic impacts of climate change are undertaken by developing two case studies. In the first case study, the economic impact of climate change and reduced water availability on the agricultural sector is assessed in the Murray-Darling Basin. In the second case study, the sectoral economic impacts on the Australian resources sector of a projected decline in global economic activity due to climate change is analysed. The key areas of required development to more fully understand the economy-wide and sectoral impacts of climate change are also discussed including issues associated with estimating both non-market and market impacts. Finally, an analytical framework for undertaking integrated assessment of climate change impacts ated assessment of climate change impacts domestically and globally is developed

39

Streamlining Administrative Procedures at the Defense Language Institute: The Strategic Impact Model in Action  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance at the Defense Language Institute was examined through the prism of human performance technology and the strategic impact model. This examination revealed performance deficiencies in the administrative realm that required mainly a noninstructional intervention. A systematic analysis showed that digitizing administrative procedures…

Oded, Yaniv; Su, Bude

2010-01-01

40

[Economic impact of healthcare-associated infections].  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthcare-associated infections are not only an important public health problem but also have a relevant socioeconomic impact. The overall estimated yearly costs vary between 3.5 billion euros in the United States to 1.3 billion euros in England. In Italy estimated costs are 2.5-5.0 billion euros/year with the cost of a single case ranging from 9,000 to 10,500 euros. The present study aimed to describe the type and distribution of hospital costs for healthcare-associated infections, the economic impact of prevention programs and models for cost effectiveness evaluation of prevention programs. A review of the existing published literature was conducted; studies were included in the review according to whether they had included a control group and to the number of subjects enrolled. Healthcare associated infections lead to increased direct, indirect and intangible costs. Most economic analyses that have been performed consider only direct costs, estimated by calculating the costs of extra days of admission. Surgical site and bloodstream infections were found to be the most costly types of infections, followed by lower respiratory tract and urinary tract infections. There was wide variation in costs between individual hospital departments and countries. Control and prevention strategies have been shown to be effective and efficient but should be evaluated within a specific local context. Prevention programs should therefore take into consideration the local situation. PMID:19188940

Agozzino, Erminia; Di Palma, Maria Antonia; Gimigliano, Alessandra; Piro, Alessandra

2008-01-01

41

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

42

The economic impacts of energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

43

Local economic impact of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The local economic impact of nuclear installations is examined and the conclusion reached that much of the subsequent area growth may be coincidental to the facility. Nuclear siting criteria favor proximity to a regional power grid, abundant water for cooling, and extensive vacant land with a major access road. These criteria coincide with the characteristics of commuter suburbs, centers for retirement, and recreation areas. Clustering of nuclear units introduces an extraordinary level of new construction, office requirements, and capital. Economic changes will occur at the start and completion of the construction stage and at the time of decommissioning the facility. Past experiences are detailed in terms of employment, payroll, housing, public services, and procurement. When construction is completed, employment falls to a relatively low level. Proximity to the plant offers no advantage in terms of local power rates. While nuclear facilities do not preclude other development in the area, there are restrictions on access, regulatory agencies may reject absorbing the cost of public use as a business expense in the rate structure, and security measures may constrain public use. There is pressure for tax equalization laws to compensate communities for the loss of potential property tax revenues. Some agencies (e.g., the Tennessee Valley Authority) make in-lieu-of-tax payments, while some plants have produced tax benefits large enough to effect significant public improvenough to effect significant public improvements. 8 references

44

Global Economic Slowdown: It's impact on employment in India  

OpenAIRE

The present global economic crisis has its roots in housing loans issued to many people, by the American financial companies,who have not the repaying capacity. First of all economic recession heated to American economy and after that the major economies of the world were destructed by it. The recession in the US market and the economic slowdown termed as Global recession have engulfed complete world economy with a varying degree of recessional impact.World over the impact has diversified an...

Shimpale, S. S.; Kadam, A. S.

2012-01-01

45

Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

2015-03-18

46

The Impact Of Economic News On Financial Markets  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyzes the impact of economic news, that is, the difference between economic announcements and what was anticipated, on financial markets. The three contributions of this paper are, first, the market expectation is derived from economic derivative prices that allow a full distribution for the market expectation to be derived. Economic derivatives data better predict financial market movements and also allow for testing whether there is information in the high moments of th...

Parker, John

2007-01-01

47

Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy recommendations are given for increasing the regional retention of rafting expenditures and for understanding both the beneficial and adverse impacts that accompany outdoor recreation in rural areas. PMID:17070647

Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

2007-10-01

48

Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the social and economic dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation in Italy. The ultimate aim of the paper is to provide policy makers and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with climate change impacts and adaptation from an economic perspective. In order to do so, first a conceptual and theoretical framework of the economic assessment of climate change impacts is presented and the state of the art about impact assessment studies is briefly analysed. Then, the Italian case is taken into account, by underlying the main impacts and adaptation challenges that are likely to be implied by climate change in the next decades. The analysis of the Italian case is particularly addressed through the description of the methodology and results of two case studies. The first one, dealing mainly with impact assessment, is carried out at the national level and is part of a EC funded project on Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). The second one is carried out at the local level and focuses on sea level rise impacts and adaptation in a plane south of Rome. The two case studies allow to propose simple and flexible methodologies for the economic impact assessment and the economic valuation of adaptation strategies

49

Study of domestic social and economic impacts of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume 1: Economic impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

The economic impacts associated with OTEC development are identified and they are quantified by national, regional, and industry levels. The effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of 25 and 50 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000 are focused on. Economic impact analysis was emphasized. A likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. The industries affected by OTEC development are identified and an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. The profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation was estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed.

1981-12-01

50

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

51

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

52

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1991-12-01

53

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

54

Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

Dovenmuehle, Timo R.H. von der [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

2013-07-01

55

Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

56

Impact of Higher Education on Economic Growth of Pakistan  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the returns of higher education on economic growth of Pakistan from 1972 to 2008 through the application of Cobb-Douglas production function. The prime objective of the study is to identify and establish a link between the higher education and economic growth of Pakistan. For this purpose the impact of higher education enrollment on economic growth is analyzed. An attempt is made, in this study, to analyze the educational trends, the strategies and challenges for highe...

Aziz, Babar; Khan, Tasneem; Aziz, Shumaila

2008-01-01

57

Modeling the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Biofuels  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides a general overview of the social, environmental, and economical issues related to biofuels and a review of economic modeling of biofuels. The increasing importance of biofuels is driven primarily by government policies since currently available biofuels are generally not economically viable in the absence of fiscal incentives or high oil prices. Also the environmental impacts of biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels are quite ambiguous. The literature review of the mo...

Janda, Karel; Kris?toufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David

2011-01-01

58

The Impact of economic crisis on HRM practices in Estonia  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT Department of Marketing and Management 13.10.2010 Master’s Thesis Helene Vösa THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON HRM PRACTICES IN ESTONIA Research Objectives The main objective of this study is to gain the overall picture of how the current economic crisis has impacted four areas of Human Resource Management: 1) recruiting and selection, 2) reward systems, 3) training and development, and 4) performance appraisal in Estonia. The case of Est...

Vo?sa, Helene

2010-01-01

59

The Impact of Fiscal Deficits on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study investigates the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth in Nigeria in 1970 – 2009. Budget deficit arises from fiscal operations of the government. Technically, a deficit would arise whenever expenditure surpasses revenues. In Nigeria, huge fiscal deficits had been recorded over the some years. To what extent have these impacted economic growth in Nigeria? In considering this question, this paper posits that the inter play of other variables such as broad money suppl...

Joseph Oboba Achegbulu; Abu Maji

2012-01-01

60

The Impact of Health Care Economics on Surgical Education  

OpenAIRE

Just like the world economy in 2012, health care is in a state of flux. The current economic environment will impact not only current colorectal surgery residents, but also future generations of surgical trainees. To understand the economic impact of the current health care environment on colorectal surgery residencies, we need to know the basics of graduate medical education (GME) funding for all residents. Since the 1960s with the initiation of Medicare, the federal government through the C...

Margolin, David A.

2012-01-01

61

The economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape province  

OpenAIRE

We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy) on South Africa's Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Northern Cape province. Data on biltong hunting were derived from a national survey conducted in 2007 and data on trophy hunting were derived from the Professional Hunting Association of South Africa (PHASA). The re...

Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville; Merwe, Petrus

2011-01-01

62

The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

2011-01-01

63

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1993-01-01

64

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

65

An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

Próchniak Mariusz

2014-10-01

66

Casper College Economic Impact Analysis, 1999-2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study conservatively estimated the tangible economic impact that Casper College (Wyoming) had on Natrona County and the state. These data are presented in Part 1 of the report. Findings include: (1) the direct impact of the college on Natrona's economy was estimated to be over $41 million; (2) for every dollar spent by county taxpayers in…

Gillum, F. E.

67

Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

68

Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects  

OpenAIRE

The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective ...

Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu, Tao; Ma, Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song, Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shiqiu

2006-01-01

69

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.

Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

How to cite this article: Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Ferreira, M., 2009, ‘The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park’, Koedoe 51(1, Art. #158, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.158

Madelien Ferreira

2009-01-01

70

Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ?2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789?919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015?12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of national economy, by having economic profit over all scenarios of construction costs. (2) Export A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation amounts to 899? 1,140 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 7,324?9,287 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Value added inducing effect amounts to 339?464 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 766?778 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Employment inducing effect amounts to 3,616?4,339 men for the 1st reactor export and to 29,471 ?35, 364 men for the 10th reactor export. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost-benefit of exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically non-profitable for the natural gas price less than or equal to 10.23 $/MMBtu over all scenarios on exporting number of the reactors and turns out to be economically profitable for the other price level from the exporting number of 4 or 6. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost-benefit and value added inducing effect, exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically profitable from the point of view of national economy for more than equal to 2nd reactor depending on the scenarios of the natural gas price. (3) Intangible Social Gains The intangible social gains of SMART Project by contributing to Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improving Korea's global standing in the science area amounts to 245?458 billion won

71

The Impact of ICT on Economic Sectors  

OpenAIRE

As the author could not find a reassuring mathematical and statistical method in the literature for studying the effect of information communication technology on enterprises, the author suggested a new research and analysis method that he also used to study the Hungarian economic sectors. The question of what factors have an effect on their net income is vital for enterprises. The highest increment of specific Gross Value Added was produced by the fields of ‘Manufacturing’, ‘Electricit...

Sasvari, Peter

2011-01-01

72

The health impact of economic sanctions.  

OpenAIRE

Embargoes and sanctions are tools of foreign policy. They can induce a decline in economic activity in addition to reducing imports and untoward health effects can supervene, especially among older persons and those with chronic illnesses. Often, violations of the rights of life, health, social services, and protection of human dignity occur among innocent civilians in embargoed nations. This paper examines the effects of embargoes and sanctions against several nations, and calls for studies ...

Garfield, R.; Devin, J.; Fausey, J.

1995-01-01

73

Turning climate change information into economic and health impacts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The PRUDENCE project has generated a set of spatially and temporally high-resolution climate data, which provides new opportunities for assessing the impacts of climate variability and. change on economic and human systems in Europe. In this context, we initiated the development of new approaches for linking climate change information and economic studies. We have considered a number of case studies that illustrate how linkages can be established between geographically detailed climate data and economic information. The case studies included wheat production in agriculture, where regional climate data has been linked to farm enterprise data in an integrated model of physical conditions, production inputs and outputs, and farm management practices. Similarly, temperature data were used to assess consequences of extreme heat and excess mortality in urban areas. We give an introduction of an analytical approach for assessing economic impacts of climate change and discuss how economic concepts and valuation paradigms can be applied to climate change impact evaluation. A number of methodological difficulties encountered in economic assessments of climate change impacts are described and a number of issues related to social and private aspects of costs are highlighted. It is argued that, in particular, detailed climate information matters in relation to understanding how private agents react to observed climate data.

Halsnćs, Kirsten; Kühl, J.

2007-01-01

74

Climate change impacts on forestry: Economic issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meteorological evidence indicates the likelihood of global climatic warming in the near future. A study was carried out of the economic effects of climate change on the Canadian forestry sector. The measurement of net economic benefits of climate change, and the complexities associated with such measurements are discussed. Assuming a productivity increase of 20% as a result of carbon dioxide doubling, Canada's potential harvests of timber would increase by a total of 7.5%, as a result of less but more productive forest land. An economic analysis was carried out of the shift in timber supply balances due to changes in the US forest sector due to climate change. A decline in US productivity is expected due to lower rainfall and increased desert conditions in many parts of the US. It is not clear whether Canada experiences a net gain or a net loss on account of the climate changes modelled, as in addition to the elasticities of supply and demand, it also depends on existing trade barriers and the extent to which timber production in other countries is affected by climate change. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

75

Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

Lesser, Jonathan A.

1992-07-01

76

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency`s far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE`s impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy.

Lansford, R.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Office of Energy, Science and Technology; Ben-David, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Economics

1996-08-01

77

Nicotine impact on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in HEMn-DP melanocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine is a compound of tobacco plants and is responsible for addictive properties of tobacco which is used by about one billion of smokers all over the world. Recently, nicotine has drawn even more attention due to its presumed neuroprotective and antioxidant features as far as common use in various forms of smoking cessation therapies. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn influence biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human melanocytes (HEMn-DP). Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was determined to be 2.52 mM. Nicotine modulated melanin biosynthesis in normal human melanocytes. Significant changes in hydrogen peroxide content and cellular antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx activities were stated in melanocytes exposed to nicotine, which indicates alterations of antioxidant defense system. The results obtained in vitro may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long-term exposition to nicotine. PMID:24942236

Delijewski, Marcin; Wrze?niok, Dorota; Otr?ba, Micha?; Beberok, Artur; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

2014-10-01

78

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts.

Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

1984-11-01

79

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts

80

Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

81

Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

1995-11-01

82

Economic impacts of ageing: an interindustry approach  

OpenAIRE

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of the evolution of consumption patterns associated with ageing on the relative importance of industries in Portugal. Design/Methodology/Approach - This paper uses data from the Family Spending Survey to disaggregate the Household column of the Portuguese Input-Output Table in different age groups, projecting their consumption, using the latest demographic projections made by Statistics Portugal (INE). Findings - The study ident...

Albuquerque, Paula; Lopes, Joa?o Carlos

2010-01-01

83

Evaluating the economic impact of casino liberalization in Macao.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to evaluate the economic impact after Macao decided to liberalize its gaming industry. By analysing both objective data of official statistics and subjective data of the perceptions of quality of life, we painted a picture of mixed blessings. Although objective indicators showed strong economic growth in terms of a rise in per capita GDP and public revenue as well as a decline in unemployment rate, subjective indicators revealed that local residents were less than optimistic about their own employment outlook and did not perceive any improvement in their overall economic situation. While casino liberalization brought forth tremendous economic gain, the general population did not subjectively feel the benefits. An integrative analysis of both objective and subjective indicators would therefore allow us to look closer how residents' lives in the micro-level could have been adversely affected by the prosperous economic outlook at the macro-level. PMID:21567164

Zheng, Victor; Hung, Eva P W

2012-09-01

84

Economic impact profiling of CBRN events: focusing on biological incidents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused by weaponized and non-weaponized materials. The suggested approach investigates the economic consequences of biological incidents according to two main dimensions: type of large-scale effect and persistence of effect. Biological incident economic impacts are analyzed taking into account the persistence of effect during time as short-term impact (i.e. immediately after the incident), medium-term impact (i.e. by a month) and long-term impact (i.e. by years). The costs due to preventive countermeasure against biological threats (e.g. prevention, protection and preparedness expenses) are not taken into account. To this purpose, information on the key features of past biological incidents can be used as case studies to try to build impact profiles taking into account the proposed two main dimensions. Consequence management and effect mitigation of CBRN emergencies and disasters may benefit from an ex ante definition of the impact profiling related to this kind of incidents. The final goal of this paper is to define an approach to organize information on possible biological events according to their impact profile for supporting more effective and efficient first responders' prompt actions and policy makers' strategic decisions after the event occurrence. PMID:25048832

Cavallini, Simona; Bisogni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Marco

2014-12-01

85

Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

86

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the so [...] cio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Madelien, Ferreira.

87

A cognitive and economic decision theory for examining cyber defense strategies.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cyber attacks pose a major threat to modern organizations. Little is known about the social aspects of decision making among organizations that face cyber threats, nor do we have empirically-grounded models of the dynamics of cooperative behavior among vulnerable organizations. The effectiveness of cyber defense can likely be enhanced if information and resources are shared among organizations that face similar threats. Three models were created to begin to understand the cognitive and social aspects of cyber cooperation. The first simulated a cooperative cyber security program between two organizations. The second focused on a cyber security training program in which participants interact (and potentially cooperate) to solve problems. The third built upon the first two models and simulates cooperation between organizations in an information-sharing program.

Bier, Asmeret Brooke

2014-01-01

88

Malaria and Climate Change: Discussion on Economic Impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Climate change is a global environmental change that is adversely affecting human health by causing various health impacts in countries throughout the world. Climate is the most influential driving force of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Changes in climate factors substantially affect reproduction, development, distribution and seasonal transmissions of malaria. Climate change increases the outbreak of malaria which causes adverse economic impacts in endemic regions. This study reviews literature related to economic impacts of malaria at different levels such as household and national level. The study also focuses on the impacts of malaria on the economic growth of various nations. Approach: Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Several electronic databases were searched for published literature in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to economic impacts of malaria illness. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Results: The literature review indicates that malaria causes great economic losses at household level through human morbidity and mortality and consequently lower labor productivity, disability and poverty. At the national level, malaria affects negatively the trade, investments, savings and tourism sector. Macroeconomic studies estimated that the annual growth rate of per capita GDP of malaria endemic countries was 0.25-1.3% points lower per year than that of non-malarious countries. Conclusion: Reducing the burden of malaria could help to break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty that contributes to economic growth of the endemic countries. Therefore, further research is urgently needed to ensure interventions for controlling the malaria disease more effectively in the advent of climate change.

Md. S. Mia

2011-01-01

89

THE CONCEPT OF "SMART DEFENSE" IN THE CONTEXT OF AN EFFICIENT DEFENSE PLANNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The international security environment is currently undergoing a series of fundamental changes becoming increasingly complex. Consequently, international actors need to find innovative ways to manage security and defense. The global financial and economic crisis has had a strong impact on military budgets, making it necessary for states and regional and international organizations concerned with such issues to streamline their defense planning and the more so because, in addition to the already consecrated risks and security threats, there are also new challenges. The concepts of “pooling and sharing” and “smart defense” have become, in this context, increasingly popular generating new initiatives in defense planning. However, despite some successes in this regard and their presentation as ideal solutions for managing defense in the current context, these concepts involve a number of difficulties to overcome that sometimes may translate into strategic political military and even economic disadvantages.

Teodor FRUNZETI

2012-01-01

90

Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

2014-01-01

91

Economic impact of oil and gas industry in British Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased exploration and production activities for natural gas are having an important impact on the British Columbia (BC) economy. Additionally, the geologic potential for natural gas may generate future economic growth, with an estimated 805 billion cubic metres of reserves of gas available. The purpose of this study was to develop 2 models of the economy and oil and gas sector in order to analyze the impacts of the oil and gas sector activity in the Northeastern region and provincial economy of BC. Two macro-economic models were created, taking into account interactions among industries, households, non-residents and governments. The models were calibrated to Statistics Canada's economic and demographic data, as well as data estimated for the Northeastern region model. Details of oil and gas industry performance from 1996-2002 were presented, including royalties. Economic indicators for the oil and gas industry included shares of attributable Gross Domestic Product; total impacts on the economy; gas well development and extraction; future oil and gas industry impacts; and employment. A detailed producer expenditure analysis was provided, with survey methodology, aggregates of industry expenditure patterns and an estimation of the value of expenditures. Activity shares of directly hired labour and purchased goods and services were presented, as well as service sector expenditures. Background material and report summaries of model methodologies were presented, as well as specifications and analytical results. 12 tabs., 11 figs.

Bhargava, A.; Bowers, B.; Timilsina, G.; Poliakov, J. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada); McManus, R. [R. McManus Consulting Ltd., (Canada); Stokes, E. [Centre for Spatial Economics, Milton, ON (Canada)

2004-11-01

92

ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON COUNTY ALBA HOTEL INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper, dominated by the global economic crisis effects is and continues to be a critical time for global tourism industry and for Romanian too. This study tries to play on a particular case, Park Hotel, located in Alba Iulia, the impact of this phenomenon over tourist hotel services.

MOISA Claudia Olimpia

2012-12-01

93

The economic impact of hunting: A regional approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT The core of South Africa tourism industry is based on wildlife tourism. Private game reserves and game farms which forms part of wildlife tourism constitute most of the wildlife products in South Africa. On these private reserves and game farms, hunting is one of the major income generators [...] for product owners. The aim of this study is to analyse the economic impact of hunting on the regional economies of three of South Africa's most important hunting provinces. The study used economic multipliers, input-output analysis, and related modelling processes through input-output (supply-use) tables and social accounting matrices (SAM). The results differed significantly for the three provinces, with Limpopo receiving the biggest impact (R2.6 billion) and the Free State having the highest multiplier (2.08). The geographical location of the game farms, the number of farms per province and the species available all influenced the magnitude of the economic impact of hunters over and above the traditional determinants of economic impact analysis. The implication of the research is that it will help product owners in the development of game farms or hunting products, contribute to policy formulation, especially for government decisions on what products to offer where, and how to create more jobs.

Petrus, van der Merwe; Melville, Saayman; Riaan, Rossouw.

2014-04-01

94

social and economic impact on the use of biofuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biofuels currently represent a potential source of renewable energy. As well as that could lead to major new markets for farmers. However, only some of the current biofuel programs are feasible, and most involve high social costs and environmental ironically. The economic, environmental and social impacts of biofuels are widely debated and needs to be carefully assessed before extending public support to programs of biofuels on a large scale.The country strategy on biofuels should be based on a thorough assessment of these opportunities and costs in the medium and long term. One factor to consider is that oil reserves will run out, experts say, in fifty years. This article presents the social and economic impact of biofuel production in industrialized countries and developing countries that are or could become, efficient producers in export markets and new social and economic rentablesmpacto use Biofuels

Luis Barrera Aguilar

2011-03-01

95

Defensive medicine or economically motivated corruption? A confucian reflection on physician care in China today.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contemporary China, physicians tend to require more diagnostic work-ups and prescribe more expensive medications than are clearly medically indicated. These practices have been interpreted as defensive medicine in response to a rising threat of potential medical malpractice lawsuits. After outlining recent changes in Chinese malpractice law, this essay contends that the overuse of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions cannot be attributed to malpractice concerns alone. These practice patterns are due as well, if not primarily, to the corruption of medical decision-making by physicians being motivated to earn supplementary income, given the constraints of an ill-structured governmental policy by the over-use of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. To respond to these difficulties of Chinese health care policy, China will need not only to reform the particular policies that encourage these behaviors, but also to nurture a moral understanding that can place the pursuit of profit within the pursuit of virtue. This can be done by drawing on Confucian moral resources that integrate the pursuit of profit within an appreciation of benevolence. It is this Confucian moral account that can formulate a medical care policy suitable to China's contemporary market economy. PMID:18027252

Chen, Xiao-Yang

2007-01-01

96

The Economic Impact of US Sanctions with Respect to Cuba  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a request last spring by the House of Representatives, the US International Trade Commission issued its report late last month on the economic impact of US sanctions towards Cuba. The comprehensive report presents an overview of US sanctions on Cuba; a description of the Cuban economy and its trade and investment trends; an analysis of the "historical impact of US sanctions on both the US and Cuban economies"; and an evaluation of the current impact of US sanctions on US - Cuba bilateral trade, investment, employment, and consumers. The report makes no recommendations concerning US policy towards Cuba and explicitly avoids anticipating any change in the current sanctions regime.

97

The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%.

Schade, B.; Rothengatter, W. [University of Karlsruhe, Institute for Policy Research, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2004-07-01

98

Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social entification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

99

Economic and Financial Crime and its Impact on the Economic Security of Ukraine ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National economy criminalization and shadow economic relations reproduction has a significant impact on the whole system of national economy at every stage of the historical development, and in particular on the economic security of the state. Shadow economic relations become an obstacle to effective structural reforms in the state. They prevent the state coping with the economic crisis, making the national economy trade and speculative raw material appendage of the global economy. Prerequisites for the development and growth of the shadow economy exist in the system itself. This means that the development and growth of the shadow economy depend on the way of solving the system’s contradictions, which under certain conditions can become destructive. Shadow economy is enormous in scale. However, it is not easy to accurately measure it. Shadow economy arises from the desire to avoid measurement, and a number of scientists use indirect methods to give it a relative measure.?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ????????????? ?????????, ? ? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????. ??? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????-????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????. ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ???????. ??? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????????. ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????. ??????? ????????? ????????? ??-?? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ?? ????????????? ??????.

Khavanov Artem V.

2012-12-01

100

Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program

101

Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.

1979-01-01

102

Socio-economic impact assessment. Proposed Winfrith power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to assess the local social and economic impacts of a proposed nuclear power station development at Winfrith in Dorset, close to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment (UKAEE) at Winfrith, where there is already a small operational nuclear reactor. Both PWR and AGR reactor designs are considered. Following an introduction, six sections of the report cover the approach used in the research and the limitations involved in such predictive exercises, the implications for direct employment, accommodation and local services and considerations of the wider economic effects. The findings are summarised in Section 7. (author)

103

The economic impact of obesity in the United States  

OpenAIRE

Ross A Hammond, Ruth LevineEconomic Studies Program, Brookings Institution, Washington DC, USAAbstract: Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US), more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at least four major categories of ec...

Hammond, Ross A.; Ruth Levine

2010-01-01

104

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the St. Lucie nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

105

Economic Impact of Nuclear Power Plant in The Operational  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study on economic impact of nuclear power plant in the operational stage, in Madura has been conducted. The object of the study is SMART technology which is coupled with desalination installation. The power capacity is 2 x 100 M We and the water production capacity is 4 x 10,000 m3/day. This technology has been developed by Korea, but until recently there is no units in construction or operation. Input-Output analysis model is applied as the methodology of this study. Economic sector is aggregated from 56 x 56 to 10 x 10. This aggregation is meant to reduce the uncertainty in long term projection. This study conclude that : (1) In the operational stage SMART Nuclear Power Desalination will give an output to local economic about Rp 908.12 billion per year. (2) Electricity and water production will provide output direct impact to Madura about Rp. 1,234 trillion and will give direct impact to Regional Product Domestic Bruto (PDRB) about Rp. 138.7 billion. (3) Output impact to the electricity sector and fresh water sector is about 5.37% and 1.57% compared to PDRB 2018. (author)

106

The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clesome economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

107

IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

2011-11-07

108

ASEAN Economic Cooperation: Trade Liberalization Impacts on the National Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the impact of trade liberalization by focusing on twelve priority industrial sectors in the ASEAN-5 (Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. The General Equilibrium Model based on Multi-country Input Output Data as provided by the GTAP is used to measure potential economic benefits of reducing tariffs on output, trade balance, welfare gain, and competitiveness. We compare the outcome of the CGE approach with the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results show that the outcomes of the CGE Model does not match those suggested by the AHP. However, they do support the findings of Falianty (2005, Achsani and Siregar (2010, Achsani and Partisiwi (2010, Nugroho and Yanfitri (2011. Our results suggest that taking non-economic but relevant factors from public opinion into account affects the robustness of CGE studies based purely on economic factors.

Sugiharso Safuan

2012-09-01

109

Deregulating energy markets in APEC. Economic and sectoral impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective in this study is to contribute to the assessment of the economic and sectoral implications of regulatory reform in APEC energy industries. This is done by providing quantitative analysis of the impacts of regulatory reform on key economic and energy variables. The study demonstrates that there could be significant economy wide benefits from regulatory reform, including enhanced productivity and higher gross domestic product. These in turn are likely to lead to higher energy consumption across APEC and more intense energy trading relationships. The study also indicates that energy market reform can contribute to meeting some of the key energy policy objectives endorsed by APEC Energy Ministers. These include the development of more efficient production, distribution and consumption of energy, the facilitation of open energy markets and the promotion of capital flows. Reform can also help APEC economics achieve their important policy objective of ensuring stable, secure and reliable energy supplies.

Fairhead, L.; Melanie, J.; Ye, Q.; Ahammad, H.; Schneider, K. [ABARE, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

2002-07-01

110

Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated. (author)

Kaiser, M.J.; Olatubi, W.O.; Pulsipher, A.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

2005-05-01

111

Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated

112

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

OpenAIRE

Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...

Rai, Shivani M.

2013-01-01

113

Global Wind Energy Market, Industry and Economic Impacts  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the global status of wind energy in order to establish a context for understanding the contemporary wind energy industry. It is discussed wind resources worldwide with the global wind distribution and mains concerns and how wind resources worldwide are spread globally. The world wind energy market outlook is shown; especially emphasis is given on global wind energy market by production side, wind energy converters manufacturers and economic impacts from wind energy industr...

Wagner Sousa de Oliveira; Antonio Jorge Fernandes

2012-01-01

114

Impacts of current global economic crisis on Asia's labor market  

OpenAIRE

The paper investigates the labor market and social impacts of the global financial and economic crisis in Asia and the Pacific as well as national policy responses to the crisis. It draws on recent macroeconomic, trade, production, investment, and remittances data to assess the employment and social consequences of the crisis, including falling demand for labor, rising vulnerable and informal employment, and falling incomes and their related pressures on the working poor. The paper provides s...

Huynh, Phu; Kapsos, Steven; Kim, Kee Beom; Sziraczki, Gyorgy

2010-01-01

115

Modelling for Pest Risk Analysis: Spread and Economic Impacts  

OpenAIRE

The introduction of invasive pests beyond their natural range is one of the main causes of the loss of biodiversity and leads to severe costs. Bioeconomic models that integrate biological invasion spread theory, economic impacts and invasion management would be of great help to increase the transparency of pest risk analysis (PRA) and provide for more effective and efficient management of invasive pests. In this thesis, bioeconomic models of management of invasive pests are ...

Carrasco Torrecilla, Luis Roman

2009-01-01

116

ASEAN Economic Cooperation: Trade Liberalization Impacts on the National Economy  

OpenAIRE

This study aims to analyse the impact of trade liberalization by focusing on twelve priority industrial sectors in the ASEAN-5 (Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines). The General Equilibrium Model based on Multi-country Input Output Data as provided by the GTAP is used to measure potential economic benefits of reducing tariffs on output, trade balance, welfare gain, and competitiveness. We compare the outcome of the CGE approach with the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) bas...

Sugiharso Safuan

2012-01-01

117

The social and economic impact of aquaculture : a European review  

OpenAIRE

This paper undertakes a preliminary evaluation of the social and economic impact of aquaculture from both empirical and theoretical standpoints. Drawing initially on background information collected for the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in a recent study by the European Association of Fisheries Economists (EAFE), a number of important indicators and trends (e.g. production, employment, market structure) are examined which indicate that aquaculture is of increasing significance ...

Neiland, A. E.; Shaw, S. A.; Bailly, Denis

1991-01-01

118

Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment.

Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik

2010-01-01

119

The economic impact of clean indoor air laws.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clean indoor air laws are easily implemented, are well accepted by the public, reduce nonsmoker exposure to secondhand smoke, and contribute to a reduction in overall cigarette consumption. There are currently thousands of clean indoor air laws throughout the Unites States, and the majority of Americans live in areas where smoking is completely prohibited in workplaces, restaurants, or bars. The vast majority of scientific evidence indicates that there is no negative economic impact of clean indoor air policies, with many studies finding that there may be some positive effects on local businesses. This is despite the fact that tobacco industry-sponsored research has attempted to create fears to the contrary. Further progress in the diffusion of clean indoor air laws will depend on the continued documentation of the economic impact of clean indoor air laws, particularly within the hospitality industry. This article reviews the spread of clean indoor air laws, the effect on public health, and the scientific evidence of the economic impact of implementation of clean indoor air laws. PMID:17989131

Eriksen, Michael; Chaloupka, Frank

2007-01-01

120

Impact of recent technical developments on upgrading economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabsn. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

121

The socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact [...] on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor's survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

Susan, Oberholzer; Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Elmarie, Slabbert.

122

Economic impacts from shifting cropland use from food to fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Without the availability of idle cropland, biomass energy crops will have to compete with other crops and pasture land use. In this paper, we investigate: (a) the economic feasibility of using cropland, traditionally used for pasture, hay and other commodity crops, for production of biomass crops to be used as an energy source for electric utilities; (b) the impact of biomass crop production on crop and livestock prices, farm income, and the cost of food to consumers. We find a $1-4 billion demand for biomass crops may result in a 2-12% impact on farm sector prices. This impact warrants further exploration into estimating the opportunity cost for biomass crop production when idle cropland is not available. (Author)

123

IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

2012-06-05

124

Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

125

The impact of physics assumptions on fusion economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of fusion promises a long term supply of energy with widespread resources and good safety and environmental properties. However the introduction of fusion into the future energy market will rely on the development of an economically viable fusion power plant. Although predictions of the likely cost of electricity produced by a future fusion power plant are uncertain, it is important that an assessment is made to ensure that the likely economics are not unreasonable. In this paper the impact of different physics (and other) constraints on the economics of fusion is considered. Comparison with the expected future cost of electricity from other sources must take account of the trends in the energy market, particularly at present towards sources with low external costs related to impact on human health and the natural environment. Although these costs depend on the country concerned, a range of expected future costs can be derived. Comparison with the expected range of fusion costs shows that fusion can contribute to the future energy market. (author)

126

Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) error correction framework to model oil demand in each economic sector separately. The results show that the dynamic panel data approach appears to give estimates consistent with the economic theory. The signs on the coefficients are correct and the magnitude of long-run responses is larger than that of the short-run responses. The single sector model approach yields similar but richer results. Since constant slopes are not imposed across sectors the characteristics and dynamics and responses can differ across sectors. The third part of my dissertation develops a simple Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model to investigate the economic consequences of the SPR for a "small oil-importing economy." This economy is subject to the risk of oil shocks. Government policy-makers attempt to mitigate the macroeconomic impacts of the shocks by establishing a SPR. The assigned values of the parameters in the model aim to reflect the basic characteristics of the Thai economy. The simulation results show that the impulse responses of key economic variables for different degrees of oil shocks follow the same pattern. When the degree of the shock increases, the magnitude of the stock drawdown increases, which helps lower the negative impact on economic welfare. I examine the welfare effects from alternative sizes of the SPR and the opportunity cost for the economy that result when it has to sacrifice additional resources to maintain and operate the SPR. This lowers the level of resources available for production and consumption in the long run. There exists a trade-off relationship between the sacrificed welfare in the long run and the less volatile welfare in the short run.

Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

127

The Impact of Economic Crises on the Perception and Knowledge Level of Students Regarding Economic and Financial Concepts  

OpenAIRE

Economic crisis, during the past two years, has an impact on Greek students of 17 years old. Elements of the crisis have intruded on their everyday life. Economic and financial concepts constitute part of their attempt to understand the world they live in and as a result affect their educational level. This paper is an exploratory attempt to study the effects of economic crisis in the economics knowledge of Greek students using a sample of 62 Senior High School (lyceum) students. Data analyze...

Iraklis Pliakis; Christos Digkas; Despoina Bousiou-Makridou; Stavros Tsopoglou

2013-01-01

128

Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialison the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental 'externalizations' and the effects of eco-taxes on the production costs of electricity and heat. In conclusion the presented method can be only used if there are specific laws that facilitate environmental protection. Economically speaking the indirect effect - energy tax is easier to establish. That means that it is much more easier and precise to determine the fuel consumption than emissions quantity in order to use it for carbon tax. The combined tax is a more accurate one. Establishment of the pollutant quantities for extraction, processing and transportation phases are more difficult because of the lack of information regarding the efficiencies and energy consumptions. (authors)

129

Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

2000-05-01

130

Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

131

The impact of health care economics on surgical education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Just like the world economy in 2012, health care is in a state of flux. The current economic environment will impact not only current colorectal surgery residents, but also future generations of surgical trainees. To understand the economic impact of the current health care environment on colorectal surgery residencies, we need to know the basics of graduate medical education (GME) funding for all residents. Since the 1960s with the initiation of Medicare, the federal government through the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has been the largest source of GME funding. There are two types of costs associated with GME. Direct GME (DME) funding covers costs directly attributed to the training of residents. These costs include residents' stipends, salaries, and benefits; cost of supervising faculty; direct program administration costs; overhead; and malpractice coverage. Indirect GME (IME) costs are payments to hospitals as an additional or add-on payment for the increased cost of care that is generally found in teaching hospitals. In 2010, President Barak Obama signed into law H.R. 3200, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). In 2011, the Supreme Court held that the majority of the PPACA is constitutional. Although the true impact of this bill is unknown, it will change the formula for Medicare GME reimbursement as well as shift unused residency positions to primary care. PMID:23997674

Margolin, David A

2012-09-01

132

The impact of economic recession on infection prevention and control.  

Science.gov (United States)

The economic recession that began in 2007 led to austerity measures and public sector cutbacks in many European countries. Reduced resource allocation to infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes is impeding prevention and control of tuberculosis, HIV and vaccine-preventable infections. In addition, higher rates of infectious disease in the community have a significant impact on hospital services, although the extent of this has not been studied. With a focus on quick deficit reduction, preventive services such IPC may be regarded as non-essential. Where a prevention programme succeeds in reducing disease burden to a low level, its very success can undermine the perceived need for the programme. To mitigate the negative effects of recession, we need to: educate our political leaders about the economic benefits of IPC; better quantify the costs of healthcare-associated infection; and evaluate the effects of budget cuts on healthcare outcomes and IPC activities. PMID:25639208

O'Riordan, M; Fitzpatrick, F

2015-04-01

133

Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can be applied to any product/processes combination.Bioethanol production was the case-study selected to high light the TESED framework. Two production processes using two different feedstocks, hardwood chips and cassava rhizome,have been analysed.

Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana

2014-01-01

134

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for nput-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model

135

Incidence and economic impact of ophthalmological occupational accidents in Greece  

OpenAIRE

Scope: This article seeks to assess the eco-nomic impact of industrial accidents with ref-erence to the incidence of opthalmological in-dustrial injuries occurring in the Thriacion Plain industrial zone in Greece during the period 1991-2000. Material and Methods: Data provided by 53 industrial units have been collected and classified. During the study period, 2,011 adults and juveniles out of the 15,600 people employed in the area (a 13% aggregate) suffered opthal-mological injuries occurring...

Kyriakos Souliotis; Yannis Tountas; Christina Golna; Michalis Angelou

2009-01-01

136

Global Wind Energy Market, Industry and Economic Impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the global status of wind energy in order to establish a context for understanding the contemporary wind energy industry. It is discussed wind resources worldwide with the global wind distribution and mains concerns and how wind resources worldwide are spread globally. The world wind energy market outlook is shown; especially emphasis is given on global wind energy market by production side, wind energy converters manufacturers and economic impacts from wind energy industry on economy which it is devoted special attention to the job creation by wind energy industry.

Wagner Sousa de Oliveira

2012-04-01

137

Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

138

Measuring the Impact of Fdi on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of FDI on Nigeria’s economic growth process. In an attempt to do this, the paper tests the validity of the modernization or depending hypothesis by employing various econometric tools such as Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF and Phillips Perron (PP tests, Johansen Cointegration test, the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM and Granger Causality test on time series data from 1970-2008. The results reveal that a long run relationship exists between the variables and a unidirectional causality from FDI to growth was also established. Thus, empirical findings support the modernization hypothesis that FDI is growth promoting in Nigeria.

M.S. Ogunmuyiwa

2012-09-01

139

ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CULTURAL FESTIVALS: THE CASE OF CALABAR CARNIVAL IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the economic impacts of the Calabar Carnival Festival in Nigeria. A convenience sample of 464 attendees was used for the study. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was employed in collecting relevant social and economic data from respondents. The result supported the claim that event tourism has positive economic impacts on the host community.

Bassey Benjamin Esu

2011-09-01

140

The Impact of Mobile Telephone Use on Economic Development of Households in Uganda  

OpenAIRE

We examine the impact of mobile telephone use on economic development of individual households. Unique cross-sectional data were collected in personal interviews with heads of households (N=196) in Uganda. Economic development is measured at the household level by the Progress out of Poverty Index. We find strong support that mobile phone use positively impacts economic development.

Blauw, S. L.; Franses, Ph H. B. F.

2011-01-01

141

Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

142

Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

2007-06-01

143

Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support  

Science.gov (United States)

A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a mitigation level of 3.7 W/m2, as well as consideration of different levels of climate sensitivity (2, 3, 4.5 and 6oC) and different initial conditions for addressing uncertainty. Since the CMIP 3 and CMIP5 protocols did not include this mitigation level or consider alternative levels of climate sensitivity, additional climate projections were required. These two cases will be discussed to illustrate some of the trade-offs made in development of methodologies for climate impact assessments that are intended for a specific user or audience, and oriented towards addressing a specific topic of interest and providing useable results. This involvement of stakeholders from the design phase of climate impacts methodology serves to both define the appropriate method for the question at hand and also to engage and inform the stakeholders of the myriad options and uncertainties associated with different methodology choices. This type of engagement should benefit decision making in the long run through greater stakeholder understanding of the science of future climate model projections, scenarios, the climate impacts sector models and the types of outputs that can be generated by each along with the respective uncertainties at each step of the climate impacts assessment process.

Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

2013-12-01

144

Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant thais being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the European literature as was feasible has been carried out, such a survey is certain to fall short of reviewing the full literature simply because the larger part of it is North American. The latter was being reviewed separately by the US team. However, in making recommendations as to what valuation methods or studies to use, the report draws on the substantial US experience. The whole issue of when a methodology or a particular study can be transferred from one context to another has never been fully addressed. This report makes some suggestions as to when this is may be appropriate although it is recognized that this is by no means a definitive discussion of that issue. Certainly, the fact that the fuel cycle analysis here is location-specific, rather than 'generic', in the sense of providing broad average costs of impacts caused by the use of certain fuels, makes the transferability of estimates more difficult. The report is structured as follows. Part I begins with a discussion of the nature of externalities and a more precise definition of what is being measured. Of particular importance in this context is the extent to which an environmental impact is or is not an 'externality'. Without going into the more complex aspects of the economic theory, the report offers some advice on when the issue is relevant and what criteria might be used to assess whether or not a particular environmental impact really is an externality. The remainder of Part I then deals with a number of general issues that are of practical importance in the context of valuing specific impacts. These are: the question of transferability discussed above; the time period or timescale over which the valuation is to take place; the treatment of uncertainty; the discounting of future costs; and the finally the issue of exactly what is being assumed constant when a particular valuation is being carried out. This is of special significance in the context of the valuation being undertaken here. Part II of the Report deals with nine specific environmental impact

145

Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Severprofessional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

146

Preferred drug lists: Potential impact on healthcare economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kimberly Ovsag, Sabrina Hydery, Shaker A MousaPharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, New York, USAObjectives: To analyze the implementation of Medicaid preferred drug lists (PDLs in a number of states and determine its impact on quality of care and cost relative to other segments of healthcare.Methods: We reviewed research and case studies found by searching library databases, primarily MEDLINE and EBSCOHost, and searching pertinent journals. Keywords initially included “drug lists,” “prior authorization,” “prior approval,” and “Medicaid.” We added terms such as “influence use of other healthcare services,” “quality of care,” and “overall economic impact.” We mainly used primary sources.Results: Based on our literature review, we determined that there are a number of issues regarding Medicaid PDLs that need to be addressed. Some issues include: (a the potential for PDLs to influence the utilization of other healthcare services, (b criteria used by Medicaid for determining acceptance of drugs onto a PDL, (c the effect of PDL implementation on compliance to new regimens, (d the potential effects of restricting medication availability on quality of care, (e administrative costs associated with PDLs, and (f satisfaction rates among patients and medical providers. This review highlighted expected short-term cost savings with limited degree of compromised quality of PDL implementation, but raised the concern about the potential long-term decline in quality of care and overall economic impact.Conclusions: The number of concerns raised indicates that further studies are warranted regarding both short-term cost benefits as well as potential long-term effects of Medicaid PDL implementation. Objective analysis of these effects is necessary to ensure cost-effectiveness and quality of care.Keywords: preferred drug lists, medicaid, healthcare costs, managed care

Kimberly Ovsag

2008-05-01

147

Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

148

The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic growth will follow the creation of stable and sizeable RE markets. Indeed, this is a highly attrac

Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

2013-06-15

149

Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Secondary Activities: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast growing literature on economic impacts of climate change is inclined to assessing the impacts on agricultural production and productivity and on human health. The economic impacts of climate change however, go beyond these sectors. In this paper, we attempted to review the scarcely available literature on the economic impacts of the change in the climate of the earth on some selected non-agricultural secondary and tertiary level of economic activities. It is attempted to summarize the ways through which the climate change can affect non-agriculture economic activities. The discussion on the literature can be synthesized as showing the impacts on secondary and tertiary level of economic activities are wide and complex and eventually may be larger than on the impacts on agriculture for those middle and high-income countries where the share of agriculture in national GDP is low.

Amsalu W. Yalew

2012-06-01

150

The socio-economic impact of the Tsitsikamma National Park / S. Oberholzer.  

OpenAIRE

The primary objective of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Tsitsikamma National Park. Secondly, to determine the relationship between the community's level of interest in the Tsitsikamma National Park (TNP) and their perceptions concerning the environmental, economic and social impacts of the TNP. By conducting a literature study, the first objective was achieved. The following tourism impacts were identified: environmental, economic and social. These...

Oberholzer, Susan

2010-01-01

151

Socio-economic impacts of community biogas plants in Nepal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A community biogas plant is defined as a group of people who share in part ownership of a biogas plant installation. For the success of community biogas plant there should be a great need of community biogas plant, the people in the community should be very cooperative and it should be an income generating projects. Failures lie with the implementors but not the community or the technology itself. So the programmes should be implemented only according to our planning. The responsibility in the operation and maintenance of the system should also be shared by its owners. If a larger sized and community biogas plant can be owned and if the gas used more commercially and for agricultural purposes, the socio-economic impacts of community biogas plant will be more attractive. (orig.).

Devkota, G.P.

1984-01-01

152

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

SHIVANI M. RAI

2013-11-01

153

Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

154

BASEL III: Long-term impact on economic performance and fluctuations  

OpenAIRE

We assess the long-term economic impact of the new regulatory standards (the Basel III reform), answering the following questions: 1) What is the impact of the reform on longterm economic performance? 2) What is the impact of the reform on economic fluctuations? 3) What is the impact of the adoption of countercyclical capital buffers on economic fluctuations? The main results are the following: 1) Each percentage point increase in the capital ratio causes a median 0.09 percent decline in the ...

Angelini, Paolo; Clerc, Laurent; Cu?rdia, Vasco; Gambacorta, Leonardo; Gerali, Andrea; Locarno, Alberto; Motto, Roberto; Roeger, Werner; Den Heuvel, Skander; Vle?cek, Jan

2011-01-01

155

EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

156

Economic Impact of Forest Damage in an Alpine Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the situation regarding the main types of damage to forests and their respective economic consequences, with reference to a case study in the Italian Alps (Trentino province. Each kind of damage (wind and snow, defoliation, fire and tillage has been analysed in terms of its impact on four forest functions (production, protection, tourism-recreation and carbon sequestration and evaluated in monetary terms. Market value was used to estimate the production and carbon sequestration functions, replacement cost method for protection, and contingent valuation for tourism-recreation. Applying desk research on damage caused by the main biotic and abiotic factors to this particular case study led us to estimate a annual damage of about € 1,624,921 equal to 4.71 € per hectare. This can be considered a lower bound estimate of possibly greater damage. Another interesting result that emerged from the evaluation exercise is that the wealth of information produced through monitoring and scientific research in the last twenty years does not readily lend itself to economic analysis.

PALETTO, Alessandro

2009-01-01

157

IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the construction market, while in Eastern European countries the majority is held by the civil and non-residential constructions. In addition, in the West the medium budget per capita spent on construction is 3-4 times higher than that spent in Eastern countries. But, according to previsions in the coming years the countries that will witness a growth, albeit small, will be the Eastern ones. The paper highlights the impact of the economic and financial crisis in the construction industry on a European and national level, as the sustainable constructions that may represent the sector’s future.

Cristina PLOSCARU

2010-01-01

158

EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

159

An approach to evaluating the economic impact of emissions trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The command-and-control system to air quality controls is a mixture of technology-forcing standards for existing sources and offset for new sources. More stringent controls are required to achieve the ambient air quality standards in non-attainment urban areas which have been conformed with burgeoning economic growth. Due to the economy of scale and locale of polluting sources, some sources can implement these controls in a more cost-effective manner than others. In order to minimize the control costs of regulated sources, trading of emissions has been stipulated and has occurred among power plants to curb acid rain at the national level. Southern California is currently embarking on the trading of oxides of nitrogen, reactive organic compounds, and oxides of sulfur among existing and new stationary sources. New economic opportunities for entrepreneurs with advances control technology will arise under emissions trading. Trading will also result in the redistribution of emissions geographically and across industries. Through the linkage of a linear-programming trading model, a regional econometric model, and an urban airshed model, the impact of trading on the Southern California economy can thus be examined. This paper describes a framework which can be used to compare and contrast RECLAIM with the command-and-control system; and discusses a few issues which may arise in a trading market and how these issues can be dealt with are also examinedare also examined

160

The Impacts of Uranium and Thorium on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Viscosity Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) vitrifies high level liquid waste (HLLW) into borosilicate glass for stabilization and permanent disposal. The viscosity of the borosilicate glass melt as a function of temperature is the single most important variable affecting the melt rate and pour ability of the glass. The viscosity determines the rate of melting of the raw feed, the rate of glass bubble release (foaming and fining), the rate of homogenization, the adequacy of heat transfer, the devitrification rate, and thus, the quality (in terms of glass homogeneity) of the final glass product. If the viscosity is too low, excessive convection currents can occur during melting, increasing corrosion/erosion of the melter materials of construction (refractory and electrodes) and making control of the melter more difficult. The lowest glass viscosities allowed in the DWPF melter have, therefore, been determined to be approximately 20 poise. DWPF glasses must pour continuously into a large steel canister for ultimate storage in a geologic repository, but glasses with a viscosity greater than or equal to 500 poise do not readily pour. Moreover, too high a viscosity can reduce product quality by causing voids in the final glass. A conservative range of 20-110 poise at a melt temperature, Tmelt or Tm, of 1150 degrees C was, therefore, established for DWPF production. In summary, a uranium term is not needed in the DWPF viscosity model as lon needed in the DWPF viscosity model as long as the U3O8 concentrations of the glasses being melted are less than or equal to 5.76 wt percent, the maximum value examined in this study. The fact that a U-plus-6 term is not needed in the DWPF viscosity model is consistent with the fact that U-plus-6 has four bridging and two non-bridging oxygen bonds. Therefore, the impact of the number of bridging and non-bridging oxygens is approximately equal at U3O8 concentrations of less than or equal to 5.76 wt percent. Uranium may not have an impact at higher U3O8 concentrations but this would have to be demonstrated since the effects of the 0.66:0.33 BO to NBO ratio may become more significant as the U3O8 content increases. While U-plus-6 appears to have little to no impact on glass viscosity, this may or may not be true for U-plus-4 and U-plus-5 in glass since these species were not examined in this study. This is of especial note since the DWPF is currently operating at a REDOX target of 0.2 where 45 percent of the uranium is U-plus-6, 45 percent is U-plus-5, and 10 percent is U-plus-4. An additional 26 glasses for which 98 viscosity-temperature measurements were available indicate disparate roles for ThO2 depending on the U3O8 concentration and the Al2O3 concentration of the glasses measured. For the data generated on three DWPF glasses at SRNL where the ThO2 content and U3O8 content were each in the 2.5-3.0 wt percent range, the presence of ThO2 made the melts more fluid. This is consistent with what is known from the literature about the coordination chemistry of Th-plus-4 in glass, e.g. that it may act as a weak network modifier. However, twenty two West Valley mixed uranium-thorium glasses with U3O8 approximately 0.6-0.7 wt percent and ThO2 of 3.5-3.6 wt percent, demonstrate a trend toward more polymerized melts (higher viscosities). The West Valley glasses are much higher in Al2O3 than the glasses measured at SRNL although they are in the range of the DWPF viscosity model. This indicates that there may be a synergistic interaction between ThO2, U3O8, and Al2O3 that needs further investigation

161

Impact of a delay in the completion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of an analysis and evaluation of a delay in completion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP). The report describes the precipitate hydrolysis problem, which is causing fouling on the hydrolysis reactor coils, and lists several solutions SRP personnel are researching. Estimates on the cost and timeline implications range from several hundred thousand dollars and a few months to a hundred million dollars and several years

162

When can economic impact be positive? Nine conditions that explain why smaller sports can have bigger impacts  

OpenAIRE

This explanatory research reviews the economic impact literature to identify the conditions that would theoretically allow any sport, large or small, to generate positive economic effects. Nine conditions are identified that, when present, could allow a community to experience a positive economic impact from a team or stadium. The nine conditions are then used to explain the discrepancy in known empirical outcomes in Major and Minor League Baseball. It appears as if major league teams are ...

Agha, Nola; Rascher, Daniel

2013-01-01

163

THE TAXES IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF EUROPEAN UNION  

OpenAIRE

This paper is studying the impact of taxes and social contributions on the economic growth. We have development a model of economic growth under the incidence of tax revenues, using econometrical analysis (the Pool Data Model). With this mathematical relation we have quantified the connections intensity between taxes and economic growth in the case of European Union 25.

Mutas?cu, Mihai Ioan; Crasneac, Alexandru Ocatavian; Da?nulet?iu, Dan-constantin

2007-01-01

164

The Economic Impact of Universities in Non-Metropolitan Areas of the Great Plains, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Public universities cite their economic impact to help justify state financial support, but the literature offers no comprehensive theory that can guide analysis of such claims. This research used qualitative methodology to complement the ubiquitous economic impact studies, and showed that mission, leadership and geography determine how public…

Falconer, John

2007-01-01

165

Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production of hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group. PMID:24510140

Stucken, Karina; Koch, Robin; Dagan, Tal

2013-01-01

166

Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production o [...] f hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group.

Karina, Stucken; Robin, Koch; Tal, Dagan.

167

A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II are widely used for the economic impact assessments. The current paper will review economic impact studies in the c conference - MICE tourism related events and then discusses the issues related to the I-O model and general equilibrium models framework

Kumar J.

2014-01-01

168

Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Cropping Systems  

OpenAIRE

Modelling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some preliminary attempts made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision suppor...

Bohanec, M.; Dzeroski, S.; Znidarsic, M.; Messe?an, A.; Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J. H. H.

2004-01-01

169

Climate change impacts and adaptation strategies in Italy: An economic assessment  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, the economic value of the impacts of climate change is assessed for different Italian economic sectors and regions. Sectoral and regional impacts are then aggregated to provide a macroeconomic estimate of variations in GDP induced by climate change in the next decades. Autonomous adaptation induced by changes in relative prices and in stocks of natural and economic resources is fully taken into account. The model also considers international trade effects. Results show that in ...

Carraro, Carlo; Sgobbi, Alessandra

2008-01-01

170

The Potential Economic Impact of an Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Canada  

OpenAIRE

The possibility of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease is of concern to Canada's livestock industry due to the resulting economic consequences. The primary economic impact of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak would arise from the trade embargo placed on Canadian exports of animals and animal products to countries free of the disease. Agriculture Canada's Food and Agriculture Regional Model was used to estimate the economic impact of such a trade embargo. Two scenarios, a small and large out...

Krystynak, Ronald H. E.; Charlebois, Pierre A.

1987-01-01

171

Impact of technological changes and economic liberalization on agricultural labor employment and Productivity  

OpenAIRE

Egypt has passed dramatic economic changes over the last two decades. Such program has different impacts on agricultural sector performance, including the mechanization, expansion and substitutability for human labor. Therefore the objectives of this study are to assess the impacts of technological changes and economic liberalization on agricultural labor employment and Productivity. The analytical procedure is the estimation of crop production function for rice before and after the econom...

Soliman, Ibrahim; Ewaida, Osama

1996-01-01

172

Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-ŕ-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

N. Sudarsan

2013-02-01

173

Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system.

174

The impact of the British model on economic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

Simon György Jr.

2007-01-01

175

On the economic impact of international sport events: Microevidence from survey data at the EURO 2008  

OpenAIRE

Using firm-level data for up to 707 Swiss hotels and restaurants we evaluate the economic impact of the EURO 2008 soccer championship. Although aggregated macro data reveal no economic impact, we report an overall negative effect based on the surveyed companies. Notably the reported effects of the individual firms are very heterogeneous. For instance, hotels in cities benefitted from the tournament as they were able to raise prices and thereby increase profits. Looking at the long-run impact ...

Lamla, Michael J.; Straub, Martin; Girsberger Seelaus, Esther M.

2012-01-01

176

[The impact of health economics: a status report].  

Science.gov (United States)

"Health is not everything, but without health, everything is nothing" (cited from Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, 1788-1860). The relationship between medicine and economics could not have been put more precisely. On the one hand there is the need for a maximum of medical care and on the other hand the necessity to economize with scarce financial resources. The compatibility of these two aspects inevitably leads to strains. How to approach this challenge? From medicine to economics or from economics to medicine? The present article intends to raise awareness to regard the "economization of medicine" not just as a threat, but also as an opportunity. Needs for economic action are pointed out, and insights as well as future perspectives for the explanatory contribution for health economics are given. PMID:22108908

Tunder, R

2011-12-01

177

Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

1986-02-01

178

Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose

179

Incidence and economic impact of ophthalmological occupational accidents in Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scope: This article seeks to assess the eco-nomic impact of industrial accidents with ref-erence to the incidence of opthalmological in-dustrial injuries occurring in the Thriacion Plain industrial zone in Greece during the period 1991-2000. Material and Methods: Data provided by 53 industrial units have been collected and classified. During the study period, 2,011 adults and juveniles out of the 15,600 people employed in the area (a 13% aggregate suffered opthal-mological injuries occurring at the workplace. Results: The highest percentage of injuries were due to trauma (61% of adults, 67% of juveniles, followed by chemical burns. In the majority of cases (75% of adults and 50% of juveniles treatment was provided at the local IKA (Social Security Fund health care unit, in the town of Elefsis. It was estimated that a total of 10,192 working days were lost, with compensation costs (benefit payments alone amounting to approximately € 118,000.00, not allowing for in-direct employer costs such as loss of produc-tivity, substitution and replacement costs. Con-clusions: The high incidence of industrial acci-dents in combination with the high percentage of child labor in the area of Thriacion Industrial Plain were striking and contributed significantly to high- er rates of work-related injuries of ocular interest in Greece. The latter were shown to result in a sig- nificant deterioration of the employees’ health status, with the majority of the accidents being due to the lack of safety precautions at the work-place at a considerable financial burden on the social security system in direct benefit payments. The social security system needs to press for tighter work safety regulations and their proper implementation if to minimize the burden these accidents impose on its budget.

Kyriakos Souliotis

2009-12-01

180

The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic in...

Amir Najafi; Hossein Askari

2012-01-01

181

The impact of high-fat diet on metabolism and immune defense in small intestine mucosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved procedures for sample preparation and proteomic data analysis allowed us to identify 7700 different proteins in mouse small intestinal mucosa and calculate the concentrations of >5000 proteins. We compared protein concentrations of small intestinal mucosa from mice that were fed for two months with normal diet (ND) containing 34.4% carbohydrates, 19.6% protein, and 3.3% fat or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 25.3% carbohydrates, 24.1% protein, and 34.6% fat. Eleven percent of the quantified proteins were significantly different between ND and HFD. After HFD, we observed an elevation of proteins involved in protein synthesis, protein N-glycosylation, and vesicle trafficking. Proteins engaged in fatty acid absorption, fatty acid ?-oxidation, and steroid metabolism were also increased. Enzymes of glycolysis and pentose phosphate cycle were decreased, whereas proteins of the respiratory chain and of ATP synthase were increased. The protein concentrations of various nutrient transporters located in the enterocyte plasma membrane including the Na(+)-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1, the passive glucose transporter GLUT2, and the H(+)-peptide cotransporter PEPT1 were decreased. The concentration of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, which turned out to be the most strongly expressed enterocyte transporter, was also decreased. HFD also induced concentration changes of drug transporters and of enzymes involved in drug metabolism, which suggests effects of HFD on pharmacokinetics and toxicities. Finally, we observed down-regulation of antibody subunits and of components of the major histocompatibility complex II that may reflect impaired immune defense and immune tolerance in HFD. Our work shows dramatic changes in functional proteins of small intestine mucosa upon excessive fat consumption. PMID:25285821

Wi?niewski, Jacek R; Friedrich, Alexandra; Keller, Thorsten; Mann, Matthias; Koepsell, Hermann

2015-01-01

182

The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

Hossein Askari

2012-09-01

183

Technical Report on the Impact of MgO on Defense Waste Processing Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect(s) of removing MgO from DWPF frits to assess the impact on liquidus temperature and the durability of the glass product. Removal of MgO from the frit was hypothesized to lead to a decrease in liquidus temperature and thereby allow increased waste loading

184

The Impact of Economic Crises on the Perception and Knowledge Level of Students Regarding Economic and Financial Concepts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic crisis, during the past two years, has an impact on Greek students of 17 years old. Elements of the crisis have intruded on their everyday life. Economic and financial concepts constitute part of their attempt to understand the world they live in and as a result affect their educational level. This paper is an exploratory attempt to study the effects of economic crisis in the economics knowledge of Greek students using a sample of 62 Senior High School (lyceum students. Data analyzed consists of a 30 question exam based on the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL developed by the National Council on Economic Education (NCEE and a questionnaire which was given at the end of the exam. The survey was conducted in two different periods in 2010-2011 & 2011-2012. Results indicate that students level of knowledge of economic and financial concepts, concerning the crisis, is considerably high compared with quantitative results from the U.S. national norming sample of the TEL.

Iraklis Pliakis

2013-07-01

185

Clinical and economic impact of aliskiren in uncontrolled hypertensive patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: the majority of hypertensive patients do not achieve adequate blood pressure (BP control and thus remain at risk of cardio-cerebrovascular events. Aliskiren, a novel antihypertensive drug acting as direct renin inhibitor, was authorized in Italy for the treatment of hypertension in patients who remain uncontrolled and at risk despite the use of at least two antihypertensive drugs. It was subject to an AIFA web-based monitoring registry. Results of the registry show a decrease of 20.8/9.2 mmHg in systolic/diastolic BP, within 6 months, when aliskiren is added to current therapy.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the clinical and economic impact of such BP reduction in terms of avoidable cardio-cerebrovascular events.METHODS: an Excel-based Markov model compared aliskiren plus current antihypertensive treatment to current antihypertensive treatment alone over a 5-year horizon. Patients’ baseline characteristics and BP-reduction were taken from the AIFA registry and literature. Using Wilson and Anderson risk equations, the model simulated patient’s transitions from Pre-Event to Post-Event and Death, calculating the number of those who experience an event. Unit costs were assigned to treatments, events and follow-up. Sensitivity analyses considered: efficacy variability and societal costs of events.RESULTS: 2.47% of patients treated with aliskiren added-on to their antihypertensive therapy were expected to avoid an event. As observed in the AIFA registry, 19.8% of patients remained treated only with aliskiren whereas others reduced the number of antihypertensive treatments, leading to a 38.6% reduction of monthly concomitant antihypertensive treatment cost. Considering events and follow-up cost reduction, the per-patient annual incremental cost of aliskiren is calculated at € 187 and generates 0.042 QALYs over 5 years. The ICER was € 22,062 per QALY (€ 16,845 to € 30,771 for an efficacy range of ± 25%. Considering societal costs ICER was € 20,094 per QALY.Conclusions: AIFA registry real-world data confirmed aliskiren’s efficacy in uncontrolled hypertensive patients. Together with reaching their BP goals, patients consumed less medication from other antihypertensive drug classes and are expected to avoid cardio-cerebrovascular events. The ICER remained within acceptable thresholds, confirming that aliskiren represents a good investment in terms of health benefit.

Ezio Degli Esposti

2012-03-01

186

State and local economic impacts from wind energy projects: Texas case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to estimate economic impacts from 1398 MW of wind power development in four counties in west Texas. Project-specific impacts are estimated at the local level (i.e., within a 100-mile radius around the wind farms) and at the state level. The primary economic policy question addressed is how investment in wind energy affects the state and local communities where the wind farms are built. During the four-year construction phase approximately 4100 FTE (full time equivalents) jobs were supported with turbine and supply chain impacts accounting for 58% of all jobs generated. Total lifetime economic activity to the state from the projects equated to more than $1.8 billion, or $1.3 million per MW of installed capacity. The total economic activity to the local communities was also substantial, equating to nearly $730 million over the assumed 20-year life cycle of the farms, or $0.52 million per MW of installed capacity. Given the current level of impacts observed, and the potential for increased impacts via greater utilization of instate manufacturing capacity and the development of trained wind industry specific laborers, Texas appears to be well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development. - Highlights: ? We use the JEDI model to assess economic impacts from wind development in west Texas. ? Total lifetime economic impact from 1398 MW wind equated to more than $1.8 billion. equated to more than $1.8 billion. ? Texas is well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development.

187

The impact of the economic environment on financial reports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Financial reporting represents a current issue of economic environment, given globalization and the recent economic crisis. Accounting -as profession - along with the investors and state institutions have started a comprehensive project of accounting convergence designed to improve the comparability of accounting information released by financial statements synthesis. The success of the project can only be provided by taking into account several constraints imposed by the economic environment, and not only. Therefore, attention must be paid to the voice of capital markets and large multinational corporations regarding the future development of financial reporting.

Valentin Burc?

2011-06-01

188

Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

2013-08-01

189

Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

2011-08-01

190

The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan  

OpenAIRE

This paper empirically investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Sudan for the period 1982-2009 by using a simultaneous equation model that links human capital i.e. school attainment; and investment in education and health to economic growth, total productivity, foreign direct investment, and human development index. Based on three-stage least squares technique, the empirical results of the paper show that quality of the education has a determinant role in the economic gr...

Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi; Suliman Zakaria Suliman Abdalla

2013-01-01

191

Economic analysis of the health impacts of housing improvement studies: a systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Background: Economic evaluation of public policies has been advocated but rarely performed. Studies from a systematic review of the health impacts of housing improvement included data on costs and some economic analysis. Examination of these data provides an opportunity to explore the dif?culties and the potential for economic evaluation of housing. Methods: Data were extracted from all studies included in the systematic review of housing improvement which had rep...

Fenwick, E.; Macdonald, C.; Thomson, H.

2013-01-01

192

Economic impact analysis of terrorism events: Recent methodological advances and findings  

OpenAIRE

National security is a basic responsibility of national governments, but it is also intangible. What can economic analysis contribute? Benefit-cost analysis has rarely been applied because of the ambiguous and commons nature of the benefits. Our group at the University of Southern California's Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism (CREATE) has worked to elaborate and apply economic impact analysis to describe the expected losses from various hypothetical terrorist attacks. Our in...

Gordon, Peter; Moore, James E.; Richardson, Harry W.

2008-01-01

193

A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry  

OpenAIRE

Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest v...

Mohsen Pourkhosravani; Mohammad Reza Iravani

2012-01-01

194

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-06-01

195

Progressive decommissioning of French nuclear power plants: economic and geopolitical impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyzes the french energy safety in the next twenty years. The first part is devoted to the electric production park structure in 2020, with a presentation of the electric power economy, the carbon cost introduction and the economic choices in the deregulation system. The second part discusses the economical and geopolitical impacts of a gas-nuclear substitution. (A.L.B.)

196

Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

Goldberg, M.

2013-12-31

197

The Impact Of Voter Initiatives On Economic Activity  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies have claimed that states with initiatives systems of legislation use this more direct from of democracy to improve productive resource allocation. This paper compares the economic performance of states with initiatives to states that do not have initiatives. We first construct a simple growth model to identify the channel through which initiatives play an important role in determining economic activity; we then test the implications of this model using data for the 48 contiguou...

Blomberg, S. Brock; Hess, Gregory D.; Weerapana, Akila

2001-01-01

198

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives the largest contribution to GRDP in Province of Archipelago of Riau. This can be understood that the contribution is more than 72.0% not only based on GRDP at current prices, but also based on GRDP at constant prices. Economic growth rate in regions in Province of Archipelago of Riau is higher than national economic growth rate. The model fits well because the coefficient of determination R2 is more than 85%. There are only 3 worse models, i.e. based on building construction in Batam (with R2= 59.6%, in Tanjungpinang (with R2=74.0%, and based on transportation and communication in Tanjungpinang (with R2=37.1%.

Susanti Linuwih

2010-08-01

199

Estimating the Economic Impact of a College or University on a Nonlocal Economy. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents an expanded methodology for economic impact analysis to measure the impact of a community college, South Plains College (SPC), Texas, on a specified nonlocal economy. The research had four parts. First an economic impact study was conducted for SPC and its impact on the local economy of Hockley County, where the college is…

Johnson, Troy

200

University Economic Impact Analysis: Applying microeconomic tools and concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

This service-learning impact analysis project had students look in detail at the current employment and purchasing practices and policies of the University of Vermont. Unlike traditional impact analyses that attempt to calculate the total impact of an institution on the local economy, this project attempted to identify where the University could change policies and practices to increase positive local impacts both from an efficiency and equity perspective. Students worked with a 14-person advisory committee from the University, local and state government and local non-profits.

Nancy Brooks

201

Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth Based on Spatial Economic Perspective  

OpenAIRE

This article studies on bind of different country’s human capital and its economic growth by means of spatial econometric model. Firstly, this study construct spatial model of the Cobb-Douglas production function with human capital factors and expansion spatial Benhabib and Spiegel model and then use these two models to discuss human capital and its spatial lag’s contribution to economic growth. The empirical results show that, even in considering the case of spatial elements, studying hu...

Xiao Zhen; Song Fen

2013-01-01

202

Impacts of Different Water Pollution Sources on Antioxidant Defense Ability in Three Aquatic Macrophytes in Assiut Province, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of surface water pollution with wastes coming from sewage effluents (Site 2, agricultural runoff (Site 4 and oils and detergents factory (Site 3 on the stability of leaf membrane (measured as injury %, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, ascorbic acid (Asc A, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll (Chl content, soluble sugars (SS, soluble proteins (SP and total free amino acids (TAA of Cyperus alopeucroides, Persicaria salicifolia and Echinochloa stagnina. Concentration of H2O2, MDA and TAA were higher in the three plants collected from polluted sites as compared with those of plants grown in control Nile site (Site1. The opposite was true for Asc A, SS and SP where their concentrations reduced significantly in response to water pollution. Leaf membrane was more damaged (high injury % in plants exposed to wastes from different sources than in plants growing at control site. The results of this study indicated that water pollution reduced the oxidative defense abilities in the three plants through reduction of Asc A activities, enhancement of H2O2 production and increasing MDA accumulation. In addition it impaired the metabolic activity through lowering the SS and SP contents and enhancement of TAA accumulation and increase membrane injury. The over production of hydrogen peroxide by the studied aquatic plants under water pollution could be used as an oxygen source needed to oxidize the more resistant organic and inorganic pollutants and used for pollution control and municipal and industrial wastewater treatment.

Mohamed A.A. Gadallah

2014-08-01

203

he Impact of Economic Paradoxes on the Pharmaceutical Market Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The population’s health represents the most important economic resource in a society. The social-economic role of heath protection is determined by the proper allocation of public financial resources but also partially, by the allocation of the populations own income. The general law of demand can be applied to the drugdemand. The well-knowneconomic paradoxes R. Giffen, T. Veblen and A. Rugina canbefound on the pharmaceuticalmarket and determine the elasticity of drug demand. The quantity of drugs needed to assure the populations health presents insignificant modifications to the price fluctuations, to the populations’ income, the resources allocated by the state and by each patient.

Doina MARGARITTI

2012-11-01

204

REVERSIBLE IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS AND THE IMPACT ON ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic performance is an essential objective of economic entities activating in the energy sector. The profit and loss account provides relevant information for performance analyzes, but evaluating the factors which determined the modification of the financial result demands detailed analyzes based on specific techniques. This paper develops and implements an econometric model that analyses the relation between gross profit and the reversible impairment of assets. The results of the analysis have shown that, in the energy sector, there is a significant connection between those two variables.

MIRON VASILE-CRISTIAN-IOACHIM

2015-03-01

205

The Impact of Economic Freedom on Per Capita Real GDP: A Study of OECD Nation  

OpenAIRE

This study of the impact of economic freedom on per capita real GDP among OECD nations over the 2003-2006 period, with each OECD nation during this time frame being treated as a de facto “economic region” within the OECD, finds strong initial support for the hypothesis proffered here that the higher the degree of economic freedom, the higher the level of economic activity and hence the higher the per capita real GDP level. In particular, the per capita real GDP level in each of the 30 nat...

Cebula, Richard; Clark, J. R.; Mixon, Franklin

2012-01-01

206

Shift in tax burden and its impact on economic growth in the European Union  

OpenAIRE

This article deals with a tax burden in the European Union in as financial and economic crisis has impacted also on tax systems in the European Union. Governments´ tax measure aims to consolidate public finance and promote an economic growth. The article provides empirical evidence on a shift in a tax burden and its structure and analyzes the effects of shift in tax burden on economic growth in the EU. It is used the Eurostat definition to categorize tax burden by economic functions and impl...

Szarowska, Irena

2013-01-01

207

The Recession's Ongoing Impact on America's Children: Indicators of Children's Economic Well-Being through 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Children throughout the United States continue to be negatively impacted by the lingering effects of the Great Recession, with children in some states more hard hit than others. The impact of the recession on children can be hard to see. Some economic statistics ignore children, while others come out with a long time delay. This updated issue…

Isaacs, Julia B.

2011-01-01

208

The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan  

OpenAIRE

Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

Mohamed, Issam A. W.

2010-01-01

209

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financial and cost accounting methods to reflect efforts of organizations towards sustainability and to provide management with information needed to make sustainable business decisions have been broadly recognized. Information on environmental performance of organizations might be available to some extent, but, decision-makers of internal company, as well as those in public authorities, are seldom able to link environmental information to economic variables and are crucially lacking environmental cost information. As a consequence, decision makers fail to recognize the economic value of natural resources as assets, and the business and financial value of good environmental performance. Beyond “goodwill” initiatives, a few market-based incentives exist to integrate environmental concerns in decision-making. This paper gives an overview of the approaches of environmental management accounting and we analyze environmental cost in condition by actual economic crisis.

Sorin BRICIU

2010-01-01

210

The economic impact of telecommunications diffusion on UK productivity growth  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure competition, investment and productivity. Using econometric modelling and input-output economics, the analysis examines and measures the extent to which telecommunications has contributed to national and sectoral productivity performance. The main findings from this paper suggests that most industries have benefited from the incorporation of advances of telecommunications technology, which might have, amongst o...

Correa, Lisa

2003-01-01

211

Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

212

The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Sport  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current economic crisis is the worst one in decades; it is surely the worst one the world has experienced since the Great Depression in the 1930s. Although it has affected countries with different positions in the global village in different ways and to different degrees, it has had worldwide consequences in most sub-systems of societies, including sport. These are hot issues in management and in everyday practice; still, relatively little attention has been paid to them within the social sciences. The objective of this paper is to close this gap by studying how the recent global economic crisis has affected sport. Two spheres of sport have been selected for analysis: mega sport events and grassroots sports. These two fields were chosen because of their social importance and because there is little scientific evidence about how they face and answer the challenges coming from the economic crisis. The topic is discussed from the theoretical perspective of the nexus of economy, politics, society, and culture. The methodological considerations refer to the lack of reliable sources for economic data related to sport. The results indicate that mega sport events have suffered less from the recession: there might be new actors, but the show goes on. The true loser is grassroots sport. Household impoverishment might lead to a decreased willingness of the individual practitioners to pay for sports goods and services and to a decreased contribution of volunteers working in sport. The funding models vary across countries, but generally both public and private funding has been reduced. In conclusion, it is underlined that no fields of sport have been left untouched by the current global economic crisis, but grassroots sports have suffered the most from it.

Szabó Földesi Gyöngyi

2014-09-01

213

Mitigation Costs and Economic Impacts of Climate Change in a Probabilistic Integrated Assessment of Optimal Policies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we use a probabilistic chain methodology in an integrated assessment framework to take into account the uncertainties from the economy and from the climate. First, a random sampling of scenarios is generated covering the range of uncertainties of the socio-economic challenges of mitigation and adaptation and the uncertainty about the delay in the policy action. Then, an economic growth model is used to produce optimal future emission paths in a cost-effectiveness analysis with respect to an extensive range of carbon budgets and to compute the distribution of cost estimates for the mitigation of climate change. A reduced complexity climate model, calibrated from past observation using inverse Bayesian technique, computes probabilistic temperatures projections from the emissions. Finally, The distribution of economic impacts of climate change is produced, by combining the temperatures with impact estimates coming from previous studies. The results show that the distribution of the mitigation costs is right-skewd and that the mitigation costs increase with the delay of policy inaction. In 2050, the economic impacts of climate change are rather positive, but, in 2100, if no stringent policy is applied, the economic impact distribution have a very long tail towards potential high negative impacts. In the Figure, when the two cost distributions are combined, mitigation costs and economic impacts, a stringent policy will lead more likely to a higher loss of GDP than a less stringent policy, however the confidence interval of GDP loss for less stringent policies is much larger. Join distributions of mitigation costs and economic impacts costs per delay of inaction (in rows) and per probability to stay below the 2°C temperature increase (in columns), in 2050 and 2100. The red dot represent the median of the distribution. The y-axis is truncated at -50% of GDP.

Drouet, L.; Bosetti, V.; Tavoni, M.

2013-12-01

214

Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth Based on Spatial Economic Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article studies on bind of different country’s human capital and its economic growth by means of spatial econometric model. Firstly, this study construct spatial model of the Cobb-Douglas production function with human capital factors and expansion spatial Benhabib and Spiegel model and then use these two models to discuss human capital and its spatial lag’s contribution to economic growth. The empirical results show that, even in considering the case of spatial elements, studying human capital as a common element of production inputs, the role of human capital in the country and neighboring countries on the country’s per capita income growth is not significant; there is a certain spatial relationship between the human capital and economic growth; the capability of independent innovation based on human capital and advanced technology absorptive capacity are significantly which will boost the economy.

Xiao Zhen

2013-01-01

215

The economic impact of NASA R and D spending: Executive summary  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of the economic impact of NASA research and development programs is made. The methodology and the results revolve around the interrelationships existing between the demand and supply effects of increased research and development spending, in particular, NASA research and development spending. The INFORUM Inter-Industry Forecasing Model is used to measure the short-run economic impact of alternative levels of NASA expenditures for 1975. An aggregate production function approach is used to develop the data series necessary to measure the impact of NASA research and development spending, and other determinants of technological progress, on the rate of growth in productivity of the U. S. economy. The measured relationship between NASA research and development spending and technological progress is simulated in the Chase Macroeconometric Model to measure the immediate, intermediate, and long-run economic impact of increased NASA research and development spending over a sustained period.

Evans, M. K.

1976-01-01

216

Economic perspectives on the impact of climate variability and change: A summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is presented of a collection of papers on the economic methodologies applicable to studies of the impact of global climate variability and change. The research was sponsored by the Canadian Climate program and was conducted as part of a project investigating the potential impacts on various sectors of the Canadian economy of climate warming due to the greenhouse effect. Topics of the papers include microeconomic analysis, benefit/cost analysis, input-output analysis, policy options regarding water levels in the Great Lakes, the scenario approach to assessing socio-economic sensitivities to climate change in the agri-food sector, and analysis of weather impacts. Several analytical tools are seen to be readily applicable to economic analyses of the effects of climate change, and issues of future water supply and demand are seen as central to climate impact assessment, and of particular concern to Canada

217

local people perceptions toward social,economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Kermanshah (Iran)  

OpenAIRE

This study examines local people perceptions about social, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in the cultural heritage destination of Kermanshah in Iran. The study focused on residents in the vicinity of popular heritage attractions in the region. According to the survey, a high percentage of the answers, emphasizes the positive impacts of tourism toward local people. Besides, social aspects of tourism impacts are found to be the strongest and most favorable perceptions. The Findin...

mostafa mohammadi

2010-01-01

218

Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

219

The environmental and economic impacts of the climate change agreements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The climate change agreements (CCAs) in the UK were negotiated with a number of energy-intensive industrial sectors, and offered a reduction in the rate of the climate change levy (CCL), provided that negotiated energy efficiency targets were met. Through modelling and by analysis of the results of the first target period, this paper analyses the stringency of the targets, and the economic and environmental implications of the CCAs. It concludes that, while the targets in themselves were not stringent, and were in the main met well before the due date, the CCAs appear to have had an 'awareness effect' in stimulating energy savings. This has resulted in overall environmental benefits above those which would have derived from the imposition of a flat-rate tax with no rebate and no CCAs, and economic benefits for the sectors and companies with which CCAs were negotiated. (author)

220

ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OPERATING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed the need to reform international financial institutions and new global financial architecture. Changes in their structure and operation should lead to global economic stability. Members of the Euro zone are faced with a new attitude towards the international financial institutions, particularly the International Monetary Fund. Proclaimed missions of International Monetary Fund and World Bank clearly differ in theory, but with the passage of time their activities have become increasingly intertwined.

Slobodan Cerovic

2013-06-01

221

The economic impact of EPAs in SADC countries  

OpenAIRE

The Cotonou Agreement introduces new fundamental principles with respect to trade between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries relative to the Lomé Convention: in particular non-reciprocal preferential market access for ACP economies will only last until 1 January 2008. After that date, it will be replaced by a string of Economic Partnership Agreements meant to progressively liberalise trade in a reciprocal way. The progressive removal of barriers to trade is expec...

Keck, Alexander; Piermartini, Roberta

2005-01-01

222

The Global Economic Crisis: Impact on Indian Outward Investment  

OpenAIRE

Indian outward FDI flows have declined in 2008 and the first half of 2009. The global financial and economic crisis appears to have seriously dented overseas investment plans of emerging Indian multinationals. This paper looks at the trends and patterns of Indian OFDI flows in the current crisis period, what led to its slowdown, how Indian multinationals have fared, and what is their revival prospect.

Pradhan, Jaya Prakash

2009-01-01

223

Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wagsupply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

224

The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South Africa's unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, [...] the question therefore is how to make best use of the country's available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water shortages, a condition exacerbated by climate change and the presence of invasive alien plant species. In this paper we address the question of sectoral water allocation by applying a macro-economic comparative static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model using an integrated database comprising South Africa's Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) and sectoral water use balances. We refer to AsgiSA, the South African Government's Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa, and conclude that introducing the proposed programmes in a business-as-usual and water-intensive manner will strengthen the current growth in the demand for water. This will bring forward, or accelerate, the need for introducing water rationing among sectors. The importance of this conclusion cannot be emphasised enough. Water is essential, and recognised in as much in the preamble to the National Water Act of 1998, with regards to livelihoods, health and from a socio-economic development perspective since there are no substitutes for it. While water rationing is imminent, the reality thereof has not yet led to a rethink of macro-economic policies. This delayed effect can create a degree of comfort and ill-founded complacency leading to non-action, whereas there is an urgent need for proactive measures towards water conservation.

James, Blignaut; Jan, van Heerden.

2009-07-01

225

IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the ...

Ploscaru, Cristina; Nistorescu, Tudor

2010-01-01

226

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS  

OpenAIRE

Environmental management accounting serves as a mechanism for identifying and measuring the full spectrum of environmental costs of current production processes and the economic benefits of pollution prevention or cleaner processes, and to integrate these costs and benefits into day-to-day business decision-making. For the last decade, corporate environmental accounting has gained in-creased importance in practice, of which cost accounting receives most attention. Limits of traditional financ...

Briciu, Sorin; Betianu, Leontina

2010-01-01

227

The global economic crisis: Impact on India and policy responses  

OpenAIRE

India's financial sector is not deeply integrated with the global financial system, which spared it the first round adverse effects of the global financial crisis and left Indian banks mostly unaffected. However, as the financial crisis morphed in to a full-blown global economic downturn, India could not escape the second round effects. The global crisis has affected India through three distinct channels: financial markets, trade flows, and exchange rates. The reversal in capital inflows, whi...

Kumar, Rajiv; Vashisht, Pankaj

2009-01-01

228

Quantifying the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper attempts to quantify the impact of exogenous non-economic factors on UK transport oil demand (in addition to income, price, and fuel efficiency) by estimating the demand relationship for oil transport for 1960-2007 using the structural time series model. From this, the relative impact on UK transport oil demand from income, price, and efficiency are quantified. Moreover, the relative impact of the non-economic factors is also quantified, based on the premise that the estimated stochastic trend represents behavioural responses to changes in socio-economic factors and changes in lifestyles and attitudes. The estimated elasticities for income, price and efficiency are 0.6, -0.1, and -0.3, respectively, and it is shown that for efficiency and price the overall contribution is relatively small, whereas the contribution from income and non-economic factors is relatively large. This has important implications for policy makers keen to reduce transport oil consumption and associated emissions, but not willing to reduce the trend rate of economic growth. Taxes and improved efficiency only have a limited impact; hence, a major thrust of policy should perhaps be on educating and informing consumers to persuade them to change their lifestyle and attitudes and thus reduce their consumption through the non-economic instruments route. (author)

229

Economic impacts of illness in older workers: quantifying the impact of illness on income, tax revenue and government spending  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Long term illness has far reaching impacts on individuals, and also places a large burden upon government. This paper quantifies the indirect economic impacts of illness related early retirement on individuals and government in Australia in 2009. Methods The output data from a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, was analysed. Health&WealthMOD is representative of the 45 to 64 year old Australian population in 2009. The average weekly total income, total government sup...

Passey Megan E; Percival Richard; Shrestha Rupendra N; Schofield Deborah J; Kelly Simon J; Callander Emily J

2011-01-01

230

Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin

Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

2012-04-01

231

Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

Wallace Tyner

2012-05-30

232

78 FR 26392 - Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: Impact on U.S. Industries and Consumers and on Beneficiary...  

Science.gov (United States)

...usitc.gov) Country and Regional Analysis...Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA...President regarding the economic impact of the Act on U...the beneficiary countries. Section 215...operations of the firm supplying the...

2013-05-06

233

The Impact of External Events on the Emergence of Collective States of Economic Sentiment  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the impact of the environment (i.e. the impact of socio-political and socio-economic exogenous events) on the emergence of ordered phases of locally interacting individual economic sentiment variables (consumer confidence, business confidence etc.). The sentiment field is modeled as a (non-critical) Ising field with nearest-neighbor interactions on a (two-dimensional) square lattice. The environment is modeled as an external ``field of events'', randomly fluctuating over time, stochastically impacting the Ising field of individual variables. The external events can be frequent or rare, have a lasting impact or a non-lasting impact. The field is not homogeneous, as individual actors might fail to perceive external events. We find that if events are sufficiently ``strong'' and/or perceived by a sufficiently large proportion of agents, collective states of pessimism/optimism can not occur, even for strong inter-agent interactions.

Hohnisch, M; Pittnauer, S; Hohnisch, Martin; Stauffer, Dietrich; Pittnauer, Sabine

2006-01-01

234

Haemophilia B : impact on patients and economic burden of disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Worldwide, haemophilia is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder. The incidence of haemophilia B, however, is considerably less than haemophilia A and consequently appears to have received less attention in the research literature. This article aims to summarise the available evidence documenting the patient and economic burden associated with haemophilia B and current methods of disease management. Both the immediate and long-term clinical consequences of haemophilia B can have significant implications for patients in terms of functional limitations and diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Evidence demonstrates that primary prophylaxis is the optimal strategy for replacing missing clotting factor IX (FIX) and managing haemophilia B. Use of recombinant FIX (rFIX) over plasma-derived FIX (pd-FIX) is also generally preferred for safety reasons. Prophylaxis using currently available rFIX products, however, requires a demanding regimen of intravenous infusions 2–3 times a week which may have significant implications for adherence and ultimately the long-term efficacy of such regimens. Only limited assessments of the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic versus on-demand FIX treatment regimens have been conducted to date. Prophylaxis, however, is generally more costly as greater quantities of FIX are consumed. Any reduction in FIX replacement dosing frequency is expected to improve patient adherence and contribute to improved clinical outcomes, further supporting the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. Although a rare disease, as economic constraints for healthcare increase, generating further information regarding the key clinical, patient and economic outcomes associated with haemophilia B will be essential for supporting improvements in care for people with haemophilia B.

Gater, Adam; Thomson, Thomas

2011-01-01

235

THE IMPACT OF CREDIT AND CAPITAL SUPPORTS ON ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

Bernardus Bala de Rosari

2014-07-01

236

Review of existing studies and unresolved problems associated with socio-economic impact of nuclear powerplants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques

237

The socio-economic impact of human Salmonella enteritidis infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent government and public concern about the recorded increase in human salmonellosis in the UK and abroad has stimulated investigations of both the causes and consequences of these infections. This paper discusses the framework for economic analysis of food-borne disease and problems associated with the estimation of costs. A brief review of the literature in this area is given and the results of a national study of the costs of human salmonellosis in England and Wales are presented and used to estimate the likely costs of S. enteritidis infection. PMID:8155469

Roberts, J A; Sockett, P N

1994-01-01

238

The Impact of Current Economic Crisis on Community Colleges  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of the study was to examine the impact of the recession on (1) community college funding, (2) community college student support services, and (3) on student enrollment. This study relied on data from document analysis and interview of community college personnel and students. The current crisis has resulted in a steep budget reduction to…

Okpala, Comfort O.; Hopson, Linda; Okpala, Amon O.

2011-01-01

239

Economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to broaden the purview of fiscal impact analysis to include impacts on the local private sector that may stem from local public sector changes. More specifically, attention is focused on the limiting case, in which new private sector development yields positive changes in fiscal capacity, but does not increase public service demands or interact with the local private sector. This phenomenon is termed a ''pure'' change in fiscal capacity, or, stated differently, pure tax revenue importation. Interest in this issue stems from an analysis of the local impacts of constructing and operating nuclear power stations. Nuclear power stations, like other electrical generating facilities, are characterized by large capital-labor ratios, implying that the impact of siting would be to increase local taxable capacity, via the property tax base, to a greater extent than local private sector activity, via new hirings. Moreover, a small labor force implies a modest change in the demand for local public services, and facilities of this nature by themselves demand few, if any, public services. A nuclear power station, however, may be distinguished from other electrical generating facilities through siting regulations that require locating in a low population density area, a fact which ensures the influence on the community will be substantial. The question of how and to what degree feedback effects from local public to local private sector may take place is described

240

Defense Waste Processing Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The information contained in this report is intended to supplement the original Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Since the original EIS in 1982, alterations have been made to he conceptual process that reduce the impact to the groundwater. This reduced impact is documented in this report along with an update of the understanding of seismology and geology of the Savannah River Site. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Haselow, J.S.; Wilhite, E.L.; Stieve, A.L.

1990-05-01

241

Analysis: Economic Impacts of Wind Applications in Rural Communities; June 18, 2004 -- January 31, 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to compile completed studies on the economic impact of wind farms in rural communities and then to compare these studies. By summarizing the studies in an Excel spreadsheet, the raw data from a study is easily compared with the data from other studies. In this way, graphs can be made and conclusions drawn. Additionally, the creation of a database in which economic impact studies are summarized allows a greater understanding of the type of information gathered in an economic impact study, the type of information that is most helpful in using these studies to promote wind energy development in rural communities, and the limitations on collecting data for these studies.

Pedden, M.

2006-01-01

242

Impact of Foreign Aid on Economic Development in Jordan (1990-2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the impact of foreign aid on economic development, suggest that poor countries have to relay on the foreign aid as a resource to fill the deficit. There are many form of foreign resources like Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, External Loans and Credit, Technical Assistance, Project and non Project Aid and many other forms. But most of under developed countries where Jordan one of them don't have the investment friendly situation. So in one way or the other have to relay on foreign aid and debt rather than other form of financial foreign resources. This study analyses the trend and impact of foreign aid on the economic development of Jordan during the period 1990-2005 using for this purpose different statistical techniques. From the analysis of the related data of Jordan it is clear that the foreign capital flow has a direct impact on the economic development of Jordan.

Mwafaq D. Al-Khaldi

2008-01-01

243

Transmission Line Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are freely available, user-friendly tools that estimate the potential economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The Transmission Line JEDI model can be used to field questions about the economic impacts of transmission lines in a given state, region, or local community. This Transmission Line JEDI User Reference Guide was developed to provide basic instruction on operating the model and understanding the results. This guide also provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data contained in the model.

Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-10-01

244

Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to boost food security in developing countries by offering higher incomes for farmers and lower priced and better quality food for consumers. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because the European Union and some other countries have implemented strict regulatory systems to govern their production and consumption of genetically modified (GM) food and feed crops, and to prevent imports of foods and feedstuffs that do not meet these strict standards. This paper analyses empirically the potential economic effects of adopting transgenic crops in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. It does so using a multi-country, multi-product model of the global economy. The results suggest the economic welfare gains from crop biotechnology adoption are potentially very large, and that those benefits are diminished only very slightly by the presence of the European Union's restriction on imports of GM foods. That is, if developing countries retain bans on GM crop production in an attempt to maintain access to EU markets for non-GM products, the loss to their food consumers as well as to farmers in those developing countries is huge relative to the slight loss that could be incurred from not retaining EU market access. PMID:20478422

Anderson, Kym

2010-11-30

245

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

246

Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080  

OpenAIRE

A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in co...

Fischer, Gu?nther; Shah, Mahendra; N Tubiello, Francesco; Velhuizen, Harrij

2005-01-01

247

The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the countries of South East Europe. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced during the transition period have enabled countries to cope with external shocks such as those associated with the recent global economic crisis. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variabl...

Bartlett Will; Prica Ivana

2012-01-01

248

Impact of the Economic Crisis on the Institutional Sectors of the Czech Economy  

OpenAIRE

The article analyzes institutional sectors of the Czech economy since 2000 with respect to the year 2009 when impacts of economic crisis were felt. It is an empirical analysis based on data of the national accounts. The sense was to show the different influence of this crisis on the sector of nonfinancial corporations, sector offinancial institutions, government sector and household sector. Initially, the economic crisis hit significantly mainly nonfinancial corporations in sphere of their pe...

Drahomíra Dubská

2011-01-01

249

Economic impact analysis of energy facilities with particular reference to the Hartsville, Tennessee, area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study focuses on the economic impacts of construction of the Hartsville, Tennessee, nuclear power plant. Four reactor units are now under construction. Investigated are the consequences likely to be felt in a six-county region, including the site and the city of Nashville. Estimates were made by applying to the construction and operating requirements of the plant an economic multiplier which yields an estimate of the induced and indirect effects of the power plant

250

EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGER  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Niger from 1961 to 2010 by using, Unit root test and Co-integration test and the Vector Error correction Model. The results obtained below show that FDI has small, and not a statistically significant effect, on the economic growth. The results seem to sustain the statement that FDI in the extractive area might not be growth enhancing as much as manufacturing FDI.

Amadou Maiga Ousseini; Professor Xiaojuan Hu; Badamassi Aboubacar

2011-01-01

251

2008 Global Economic Crisis and Its Impact on India's Exports and Imports  

OpenAIRE

After the introduction of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization by the name of economic reforms Indian economy has been integrated with the global economy. This integration enabled India to move on high growth path but that integration exposed Indian economy to adverse impacts from the world economy. India’s share in the world trade is less than 2 per cent. India’s vision in the world trade is not only earning foreign exchange but also to induce the economic growth and developme...

Sivakumar, Marimuthu

2012-01-01

252

Financial and Economical Crisis - the Impact on the EU as a Global Actor  

OpenAIRE

This project analyses the question of ‘can the European Union (EU) continue as a global actor after being struck by the financial and economic crises’. The analysis is made with main focus on the impact on EU’s role on the international scene. The project considers the crisis through an analysis of the decision-making patterns of the EU, using historical, sociological and discourse-integration theories. Through the analysis of the three types of institutionalism and the economical refo...

Arabadzhieva, Ivayla; Komleva, Jekaterina; Hansen, Helle H.

2012-01-01

253

The ghost of development past :the impact of economic security policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems  

OpenAIRE

To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was...

Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Ims, Rolf A.; Birgitte Ulvevadet; Johnny-Leo Jernsletten; Elisabeth Pedersen; Torkild Tveraa; Per Fauchald; Hausner, Vera H.; Kari Anne. Brĺthen

2011-01-01

254

Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health: A Systematic Review  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles a...

Luis Rajmil; María-José Fernandez de Sanmamed; Imti Choonara; Tomas Faresjö; Anders Hjern; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Lucas, Patricia J.; Hein Raat; Louise Séguin; Nick Spencer; David Taylor-Robinson; on Behalf of the International Network for Research in Inequalities in Child Health (INRICH)

2014-01-01

255

Economic impact analysis of energy facilities with particular reference to the Hartsville, Tennessee, area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study focuses on the economic impacts of construction of the Hartsville, Tennessee, nuclear power plant. Four reactor units are now under construction. Investigated are the consequences likely to be felt in a six-county region, including the site and the city of Nashville. Estimates were made by applying to the construction and operating requirements of the plant an economic multiplier which yields an estimate of the induced and indirect effects of the power plant.

Isard, W.; Reiner, T. A.; Van Zele, R.

1979-05-01

256

The Impact of Economic Integration on Employment - An Assessment in the Context of EU Enlargement  

OpenAIRE

This paper is motivated by the idea that the enlargement of the European Union is only one part of an overall process, known as economic integration, which characterizes the involvement of European economies into the global division of labor. Therefore, the paper aims at providing a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the impact of economic integration on employment and labor market dynamics in current EU-member and candidate countries. The ultimate aim of this analysis is the provisio...

Fertig, Michael

2003-01-01

257

Assessing the impact of one aspect of globalization on economic growth in Africa  

OpenAIRE

Using panel data, this paper explores the effects of openness to international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth. Fixed-effect and adjusted fixedeffect (regional-effect) estimations yield results consistent with the hypothesis of conditional convergence. FDI has a significant positive impact on economic growth in all specifications. However, openness to trade does not seem to enhance growth in poor countries. The empirical findings fail to substantiate the propositi...

Baliamoune, Mina N.

2002-01-01

258

Economic Impact Assessment for Technology: The Case of Improved Soybean Varieties in Southwest Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The Study on economic impact assessment for the production of improved soybean varieties in Nigeria was carried out in Nigeria using the agronomic data on yield of the nationally coordinated soybean research from two major zones namely the southwest and the middle belt.The study assesses the economic returns due to improved soybean varieties. Primary data were collected with the use of structured and validated questionnaires. A sample of 288 respondents was drawn from four states namely Oyo, ...

Ogunsumi, L. O.; Adegbite, A. A.; Oyekan, P. O.

2007-01-01

259

Impact of the 2008 Economic and Financial Crisis on Child Health : A Systematic Review  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to provide an overview of studies in which the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on child health was reported. Structured searches of PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge, were conducted. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting health outcomes on children, published since 2007 and related to the 2008 economic crisis were included. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were synthesised as a narrative review. Five hundred and six titles a...

Rajmil, Luis; Fernandez Sanmamed, Maria-jose; Choonara, Imti; Faresjo?, Tomas; Hjern, Anders; L Kozyrskyj, Anita; Lucas, Patricia J.; Raat, Hein; Seguin, Louise; Spencer, Nick; Taylor-robinson, David

2014-01-01

260

Impact of management scenarios and fishing gear selectivity on the potential economic gains from Namibian hake  

OpenAIRE

This paper develops a model for Namibian hake, which incorporates the biology, gear selectivity and the economies of the hake fisheries in a framework that allows the analysis of fishing gear impacts on the potential economic gains from the resource. The objective is to produce quantitative results on the key variables of the fishery, namely economic rent, standing biomass and catch levels, that will support the optimal sustainable management of one of Namibia's most valuable fishery resource...

Sumaila, Ussif Rashid

1999-01-01

261

Direct and indirect economic impacts of drought in the agri-food sector in the Ebro River basin (Spain)  

OpenAIRE

The economic evaluation of drought impacts is essential in order to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation strategies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of a drought event on the agricultural sector and measure how they are transmitted from primary production to industrial output and related employment. We fit econometric models to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water storage. The direct impacts of drought on agricultur...

Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Herna?ndez-mora, N.

2013-01-01

262

Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia. 46 refs

263

Economic impacts of reducing NOx emissions in Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a multisector computable general equilibrium model for the Norwegian economy, the impacts on main macroeconomic indicators of reducing NOx emissions are analyzed. Seven specific technical measures regarding passenger cars, trucks, ships and industrial processes are studied. The measures have somewhat different impacts on the macroeconomy. Especially the measure pertaining to light and heavy duty trucks leads to an increase in GDP, because of higher income from indirect taxes. However, the sum of value added in the production sectors is reduced. The other measures cause a decrease in GDP. All in all, it is found that the costs, in terms of reductions in GDP and private consumption, incurred from the introduction of additional NOx emissions control measures are quite small. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

264

Regional scale socio-economic and ecological impacts  

OpenAIRE

The SCENES project has sought to develop likely future state of Europe’s waters. Because the future is uncertain we have developed a range of possible scenarios that are dependent on two aspects. First aspect is changes to the climate particularly alterations to precipitation and temperature that affect evaporation. These changes will have direct impacts on the overall water resource in Europe and its availability for domestic supply, agriculture and industry and supporting the important se...

Acreman, Mike

2011-01-01

265

Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

266

Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

1996-08-01

267

Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

268

Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). Part I. Sectoral Analysis of Climate Impacts in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on the results of the research work carried out by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) within the WISE project. This project aims at investigating the effects and the impacts of extreme weather events, particularly very warm summers, mild winters and storms, on the socio-economic systems of European countries. The output consists of a series of empirical studies, both of quantitative and qualitative descriptive nature. The work of FEEM in the WISE project covers the quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate extremes on the socio-economic system in Italy and the analysis of individuals' perception of climate extremes based on results from individuals' surveys. In this paper is presented the statistical modelling of the impact of weather, through quantitative analysis of activity time series. In particular, the core sectors analysed include fires, health, energy use, tourism and agriculture

269

The Impact of Debt on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

The paper is the first attempt to analyse the impact of debt on economic growth in the context of Indonesia by combining the application of wavelet and non-linear techniques. Our results tend to indicate that there are complex lead-lag dynamic interactions between external debt-to-GDP ratio and GDP growth. Debt is shown to be inversely related with economic growth in a shorter scale, while it is not in the longer scale. Nonetheless, positive contribution of debt on economic growth is very res...

Swastika, Purti; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Masih, Mansur

2013-01-01

270

An Assessment of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Economic Growth: The Case of Kenya  

OpenAIRE

HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa has been closely associated with adverse economic effects, and could thwart the success of poverty reduction initiatives. HIV/AIDS is fast eroding the health benefits, which Kenya gained in the first two decades of independence. The paper explores the different channels through which HIV/AIDS affects economic growth in a low-income country like Kenya. Within this framework, the paper attempts to analyse the impact of HIV/AIDS on Kenya?s economic growth by way of s...

Were, Maureen; Nafula, Nancy N.

2003-01-01

271

Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report uses the offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model and provides four case studies of potential offshore deployment scenarios in different regions of the United States: the Southeast, the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Researchers worked with developers and industry representatives in each region to create potential offshore wind deployment and supply chain growth scenarios, specific to their locations. These scenarios were used as inputs into the offshore JEDI model to estimate jobs and other gross economic impacts in each region.

Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Miles, J.; Zammit, D.; Loomis, D.

2015-02-01

272

Economic impact of using refractory metals for fusion reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of this study indicate that the use of refractory metals in the first wall, blanket, and header region of a fusion reactor offer economic advantage over stainless steel and titanium, provided they have modestly longer life or permit moderately a higher peak coolant temperature. If this use is expanded beyond the header, out through the primary coolant loop, the cost of electricity is significantly increased. This increase in cost is only recovered, relative to the use of stainless steel or titanium for a very narrow set of operating conditions. Therefore, it appears that the use of refractory metals should be restricted to the first wall, blanket, and header region only and stainless steel or titanium be used for the primary coolant loop

273

The Economic Crisis and its Humanitarian Impact on Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

The economic crisis that continues to affect countries across the world has taken a hard toll on humanitarian organizations in Europe. In October 2009, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) released this 20-page report on just that subject. The report looks at 52 countries across the region (including several in Central Asia), and it is primarily focused on presenting findings from long-form interviews, rather than large statistical data sets. The report has some troubling findings, including the observation that "there seems to be an increasing trend of insecurity, leading to increases in mental health problems, alcohol and substance abuse, social isolation and generalized stress." Visitors will appreciate the fact that the report draws on a number of case studies and the first-hand observations of social service providers and administrators.

274

Health care: economic impact of caring for geriatric patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

National health care expenditures constitute a continuously expanding component of the US economy. Health care resources are distributed unequally among the population, and geriatric patients are disproportionately represented. Characterizing this group of individuals that accounts for the largest percentage of US health spending may facilitate the introduction of targeted interventions in key high-impact areas. Changing demographics, an increasing incidence of chronic disease and progressive disability, rapid technological advances, and systemic market failures in the health care sector combine to drive cost. A multidisciplinary approach will become increasingly necessary to balance the delicate relationship between our constrained supply and increasing demand. PMID:25459539

Rich, Preston B; Adams, Sasha D

2015-02-01

275

Economic Impact of Religious Tourism in Mardin, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, the number of religious tourists to the province of Mardin, in Southeastern Turkey has increased continuously during the last decade. Using a combination of methods this study aimed to assess the impact of religious tourism development on the local community and economy. We found that the effect is mainly positive. The hotels have high occupancy rates throughout the year and many new hotels have been built during the last five years. Also most visitors eat in local restaurants at least once a day and patronize local shops and businesses. The development of religious tourism has also led to the creation of many new jobs.

Istvan Egresi

2012-12-01

276

DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

Constantin PREDA

2012-01-01

277

Social and economic impacts of electrification in Ethiopia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study traces the history of electrification in Ethiopia and its contribution to the national, regional, and local economy in arms of electricity supply and its significance to the supply of materials and services, to employment, and to the level of living. It presents present-day impacts on households, industrial and commercial establishments, and public institutions concerned with infrastructure, services, and planning and development, on the basis of in-depth field interviews in October-December 1990. In addition, it studies problems and opportunities related to electricity supply to consumers, on the basis of information from the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority (EELPA). As a frame of reference, it has used past studies related to electrification in Ethiopia and abroad. The study indicates the need for a demand forecast and impact model for Ethiopia, including the cross effects of electrification in the large and small industrial, commercial and other service, and domestic sectors. Some of the data required would have to be generated.

Mustanoja, U.M.; Worku, A.; Aregahgne, Z.

1991-12-31

278

The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth: Case Study of OECD Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of individual types of taxes on the economic growth by utilizing regression analysis on the OECD countries for the period of 2000–2011. The impact of taxation is integrated into growth models by its impact on the individual growth variables, which are capital accumulation and investment, human capital and technology. The analysis in this paper is based on extended neoclassical growth model of Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992, and for the verification of relation between taxation and economic growth the panel regression method is used. The taxation rate itself is not approximated only by traditional tax quota, which is characteristic by many insufficiencies, but also by the alternative World Tax Index which combines hard and soft data. It is evident from the results of both analyses that corporate taxation followed by personal income taxes and social security contribution are the most harmful for economic growth. Concurrently, in case of the value added tax approximated by tax quota, the negative impact on economic growth was not confirmed, from which it can be concluded that tax quota, in this case as the indicator of taxation, fails. When utilizing World Tax Index, a negative relation between these two variables was confirmed, however, it was the least quantifiable. The impact of property taxes was statistically insignificant. Based on the analysis results it is evident that in effort to stimulate economic growth in OECD countries, economic-politic authorities should lower the corporate taxation and personal income taxes, and the loss of income tax revenues should be compensated by the growth of indirect tax revenues.

Macek Rudolf

2015-01-01

279

The Economic Consequences of IFRS: The Impact of IAS 32 on Preference Shares in the Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

The consequences of international accounting standards are likely to reach beyond the impact on financial statements. This paper demonstrates one of the economic implications of international standards. We focus on the impact of the IFRS regulation on preference shares (IAS 32) in the Netherlands. IAS 32 causes most preference shares to lose their classification as equity and these shares will hence be classified as liabilities. We document that for Dutch firms with preferred stock outstandin...

Jong, A.; Rosello?n, M. A.; Verwijmeren, P.

2006-01-01

280

Where artisanal mines and forest meet: Socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin  

OpenAIRE

While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape covering Cameroon, the Central African Republic and Republic of the Congo. This paper captures the socio-economic and environmental impacts of small-scale mining in the TNS. Using structured questi...

Ingram, V.; Tieguhong, J. C.; Schure, J.; Nkamgnia, E.; Tadjuidje, M. H.

2011-01-01

281

Impact of the economic crisis on the Italian public healthcare expenditure  

OpenAIRE

The global financial crisis, beginning in 2008, took an historic toll on national economies around the world. Following equity market crashes, unemployment rates rose significantly in many countries: Italy was among those. What will be the impact of such large shocks on Italian healthcare finances? An empirical model for estimating the impact of the crisis on Italian public healthcare expenditure is presented. Based on data from epidemiological studies related to past econom...

Castellana, Carlo

2012-01-01

282

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly...

ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY; Madueme, Dr I. S.

2012-01-01

283

Predicting the economic impact of the 2010 FIFA World Cup on South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The impact of the sporting industry on economic decision making has increased dramatically since the global media explosion in the 1980s. Tourism and advertising revenues generated by mega-events such as World Cups or Olympic Games have become a major boost to the economies of hosting nations. In addition, globalisation has placed great emphasis on the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), especially to developing countries. This paper seeks to examine the impact of the 2010 FIFA Wor...

Bohlmann, H. R.; Heerden, J. H.

2008-01-01

284

The economic impact of uncertain tourism demand in Hawaii: risk in a computable general equilibrium model  

OpenAIRE

This thesis estimates the economic impact of uncertain tourism demand in Hawaii. It does this by incorporating risk into a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. CGE models have been used to investigate a wide range of policy issues. To date, none have investigated how uncertainty regarding future tourism demand impacts on an economy. The context in which this research is set is the US State of Hawaii. The economy of Hawaii is heavily dependent on tourism as a source of income and a...

Pratt, Stephen A.

2009-01-01

285

The impact of changes in asset prices on real economic activity : a cointegration analysis for Germany  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews theoretical and empirical evidence of asset price movements impact on the real economic activity. A key channel is the wealth effect on consumption. Fluctuations in stock prices and housing prices influence the households wealth and could have important impacts on households consumption. In addition, stock prices may affect corporate sector investments and property prices may affect building activity. Here, the method of cointegration is used to estimate the wealth effect a...

Nastansky, Andreas; Strohe, Hans Gerhard

2010-01-01

286

Impact of Oil Price and Shocks on Economic Growth of Pakistan: Multivariate Analysis  

OpenAIRE

Oil is becoming the most prominent indicator of economic growth in Pakistan with increase of its demand. Also oil prices are doing their main contribution to impact the GDP of Pakistan including different shock dummies in data. In this study, Cobb-Douglas production function has used to construct model by introducing total oil consumption and Pakistan’s oil price variable to investigate the impact on GDP. ADF (1979), Johansen Maximum Likelihood method of cointegration (1988) and Granger cau...

Nazir, Sidra; Qayyum, Abdul

2014-01-01

287

The Role Of Contested And Uncontested Passes In Evaluating Defensive Basketball Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global economic impact of basketball is measured in tens of billions of dollars and requires the efficient use of resources to maximize success on and off the court. Today, coaches, players, investors, and owners need to take full advantage of modern analytical methods and digital video software capabilities to make the most efficient use of a team’s resources. This research is the first in a series that makes full use of modern analytic methods and begins to define new defensive and offensive criteria to supplement the decades old game box score performance information. Data envelopment analysis and statistical methods are used to evaluate two new defensive performance metrics on defensive efficiency. The two new defensive metrics are contested and uncontested passes that are fully defined in the article’s appendix. Future research will expand the sample size and allow for more comprehensive models of basketball team defensive efficiency.

James T. Bartholomew

2011-11-01

288

Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. PMID:23246069

Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

2013-02-01

289

Estimating the economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to develop a framework through which these regional economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization can be analyzed. Two models comprise the basis of this framework - a national input/output model and an interregional econometric model, the National-Regional Impact Evaluation System (NRIES). These models are used to convert projected sales of solar energy systems to gross output concepts, and to evaluate the impacts associated with these sales. Analysis is provided for the nine census regions and 50 states and the District of Columbia for the years 1980 through 1990. Impacts on major economic aggregates such as output, employment, income, and population are described. The methodology used in this study is described. The economic and demographic impacts of solar technology commercialization on US regions and states are presented. The major conclusions of the study are summarized, and direction is provided for further research. Detailed tables of regional and state solar energy expenditures and their impacts appear in the Appendix.

Kort, J.R.

1980-12-01

290

Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: Inpatient health impacts and economic valuation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). - Highlights: • Transboundary smoke haze is an annual phenomenon in Malaysia. • No evidence of seasonal factors in smoke haze related inpatient cases. • Inpatient rates during a haze event increased by 31% relative to normal days. • Annual economic loss due to inpatient health impact of haze valued at $91,000. • Present value of economic loss estimated at $1.1 million to $1.7 million. - Inpatient rates soared by 31% while economic loss valued at USD91,000 annually

291

Guidelines for studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS  

Science.gov (United States)

This 64-page document from UNAIDS is part of the Best Practice Collection of guideline manuals. The purpose of this set of guidelines is to "place socioeconomic impact studies in the planning process in a systematic way" especially in a number of sectors including agriculture and education. The guide is divided into three main chapters. The first chapter is a wonderful introduction to the socioeconomic impact of the HIV/AIDS virus. Part two offers a clear set of guidelines for assessing the socioeconomic impact of this virus, including types of data to be gathered and how to analyze data in economic and social impact studies. The third part contains information on the conceptual framework of the guidelines including the study of the impact of AIDS/HIV in specific sectors. The conclusion explains the limitations of these impact studies, especially the lack of simple technical solutions. Guidelines for studies of the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS gives a clear framework for conducting impact studies on this disease.

292

Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in crop productivity, producers in some regions face adaptation costs through either intensification or spatial expansion of agricultural production. Impacts are relatively small in the first half of the century, but intensify later. Additional adaptation options are investigated through the use of different levels of trade liberalization in the model (Schmitz et al. 2012). MAgPIE results also have been compared to other global agro-economic models in AgMIP. Third, climate-induced changes are aggregated for major world regions as the sum of producer and consumer surplus across spatial units. Different equity weighting schemes are investigated based on Frankhauser et al. (1997), in order to take spatial differences in population density and economic wealth into account. Finally, agricultural damages are implemented into the macro-economic framework of ReMIND-R. This approach of a detailed study of climate change impacts along the effect chain from bio-physical impacts to economic assessment is an important next step in the development of damage assessments with regard to long-term climate change. It will be extended in the future to other impact areas. The separate models involved have benefitted from checks for robustness in the course of AgMIP and other model intercomparison exercises.

Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

2012-12-01

293

Radiological and economic impact of decommissioning charged particle accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the real radiological and economic consequences of future dismantling of particle accelerators, only insufficient information was available in literature or even at the individual accelerator facilities themselves. DGXI of the European Commission hence launched a project with focus on gathering quantitative and scientifically sound data on the number of accelerators in the EU, on the status of activation of the different facilities, on the awareness of the possible problems at dismantling and on cost evacuations for full scale decommissioning. The project was granted to the VUB with subcontracts to NIRAS/ONDRAF, MAN and CEA-Saclay. With the replies received to an extensive questionnaire, a database was set up with the necessary data for evaluating the decommissioning problems to be expected at the different facilities. From this database three accelerators were chosen as reference cases (VUB medium energy cyclotron, IRMM 200 MeV electron linear accelerator and the 6 GeV proton synchrotron Saturne in Saclay). Extensive sampling of their concrete shieldings (more than 200 drill cores) and metal parts of accelerator and infrastructure, followed by accurate ?-spectrometric analysis and custom designed 3D interpolation, yield data on the 3D distribution of the activity in the different rooms of the installations. In addition to the ?-spectrometric analysis, an analysis of the tritium content of the concrete was performed by measuring the water liberated from d by measuring the water liberated from heating ground concrete samples. These specific activity distributions allow evaluation of both immediate and deferred decommissioning costs using different scenarios (different clearance levels, different waste management prices, different labor costs and different decommissioning techniques) based on real situations in France, Germany and Great Britain. Several important conclusions and recommendations with respect to decommissioning both existing and future accelerator facilities will be presented. Finally some options for prevention of activation of concrete and metal parts are discussed. (author)

294

The economic impact of giving up nuclear power in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite de France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value and would penalize its shareholders, the State. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas-price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially-amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclearore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (author)

295

Show Me the Money! Why Higher Ed Should Help K-12 Do Economic Impact Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

In education, economic impact studies have been largely the product of higher education institutions. Colleges and universities have recognized that they can cultivate public, political and financial support by effectively demonstrating their high return-on-investment value. For more than a decade, all types of higher education institutions have…

Alam, Nadia

2010-01-01

296

The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

Barreca, Alan I.

2010-01-01

297

Economic and fiscal impacts of large-scale development projects: implications for nuclear waste repositories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the local economic and fiscal implications of siting high-level nuclear waste repositories in rural areas. The economic and fiscal effects of repository development fall into two categories: (1) standard impacts similar to those that would be associated with developing any large-scale industrial facility in an isolated area; (2) special impacts that result from the hazardous nature of the nuclear materials stored and from federal ownership of the facility. Standard economic and fiscal impacts include employment effects (direct and secondary), local income changes, alterations in community price structures, effects on community services, and changes in revenues and costs for local jurisdictions. Special impacts include the possibility of diminished activity in other basic economic sectors, negative effects on the area's long-term growth prospects and a consequent dampening of investment in the local trade an service sectors, additional costs for local jurisdictions (e.g., for preparing evacuation plans), and limited local tax revenues resulting from the tax-exempt status of the facility. These special effects are difficult to quantify and require additional analysis. 47 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

298

Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

2010-01-01

299

Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

2014-01-01

300

Phenomenological Characteristics, Social Problems, and the Economic Impact Associated with Chronic Skin Picking  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the authors collected data on the demographic characteristics, phenomenology, and social and economic impact of skin picking. A total of 92 participants completed an anonymous, Internet-based survey through a link to the Trichotillomania Learning Center's home page. Results indicated that skin pickers experienced social,…

Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.

2006-01-01

301

Making an Economic Impact: Higher Education and the English Regions. Research Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first published study of the impact of the higher education sector on the English regions. This study presents key economic features of UK higher education in the academic year 2007/08 and those aspects of its contribution to the nine English regions that can be readily measured. The sector is analysed as a conventional industry,…

Kelly, Ursula; McLellan, Donald; McNicoll, Iain

2010-01-01

302

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) User Reference Guide: Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guide -- the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model User Reference Guide -- was developed to assist users in operating and understanding the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model. The guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and data sources used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model estimates local (e.g., county- or state-level) job creation, earnings, and output from total economic activity for a given fast pyrolysis biorefinery. These estimates include the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the construction and operation phases of biorefinery projects.Local revenue and supply chain impacts as well as induced impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from the IMPLAN software program. By determining the local economic impacts and job creation for a proposed biorefinery, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model can be used to field questions about the added value biorefineries might bring to a local community.

Zhang, Y.; Goldberg, M.

2015-02-01

303

The Impact of Economic Shocks on Quality of Life and Social Capital in Small Towns  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic shocks are sudden events causing a significant impact on the local economy. Disaster community literature predicts that community outcomes from shocks will depend on the kind of shock. Consensus crisis shocks will be followed by increases in social capital and quality of life. Corrosive community shocks will result in declines in these…

Besser, Terry L.; Recker, Nicholas; Agnitsch, Kerry

2008-01-01

304

The Economic Impact of AIDS Treatment: Labor Supply in Western Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Using longitudinal survey data collected in collaboration with a treatment program, this paper estimates the economic impacts of antiretroviral treatment. The responses in two outcomes are studied: (1) labor supply of treated adult AIDS patients; and (2) labor supply of individuals in patients' households. Within six months after treatment…

Thirumurthy, Harsha; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Goldstein, Markus

2008-01-01

305

The Impact of the Economic Crisis on Elementary and Secondary Education Funding: Ontario  

Science.gov (United States)

In Fall 2008, the Ontario government's ability to maintain and enhance a school system was tested as the economy suffered one of its most extreme downturns. This paper discusses the action adopted by the government. The unique measures undertaken by the government to lessen the impact of the economic crisis on students' learning is highlighted.

Jefferson, Anne L.

2010-01-01

306

78 FR 69669 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

...Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public...aircraft that will be operated by an airline in Russia, which will provide...seat capacity within the U.S. airline industry. The aircraft in this...

2013-11-20

307

78 FR 47317 - Intent To Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

...Conduct a Detailed Economic Impact Analysis This notice is to inform the public...wide-body passenger aircraft to an airline in China, which will provide passenger...seat capacity within the U.S. airline industry. The aircraft in this...

2013-08-05

308

Auxins in defense strategies.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 69, ?. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

?arná, Mária; Repka, V.; Sk?pa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

2014-01-01

309

Hanford Defense waste studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PNL is assisting DOE in preparation of a programmatic environmental documentation on the potential strategies for managing Hanford Defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is performing the subtasks of developing guidance on allowable amounts of residual environmental contamination and calculating potential public health and safety impacts from proposed operations

310

Economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This economic study examines the economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of the Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant, measured in terms of the global income that generated the ending of the Nuclear Power Plant activity, on the territory. To this end, we will take into account the total investment that has been necessary to complete the process of decommissioning. The economic impact is calculated using the Input- Output methodology. Briefly, the Input-Output model defines a group of accounting relationships that reflect the links taking place within the production system. The Input-Output model is based on the assumption that given an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector, this sector should produce more (less) to satisfy this new demand. At the same time, this will lead to demand more (less) intermediate consumption goods from the remainder sectors of the economy. Then, these sectors should produce more (less) and use more (less) intermediate inputs, and so on. Therefore, an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector multiplies the effect throughout the economy, following the interdependency relationships that exist among the productive activities. We will start by collecting an exhaustive economic information. This information covers the whole decommissioning process and the whole economic and productive activity of the province of Tarragona. Next, this information is used with the objective of building an Input-Output tablebjective of building an Input-Output table of the province that will serve as a base to establish the global economic impact of Vandellos I. The incomes and employment generation has been evaluated in the province of Tarragona that, following the main assumptions, correspond to the global effects of the decommissioning. In addition, we have evaluated the income and employment generation within the region where the nuclear power plant is located. The total income impacts show a high multiplier effect due to the investment carried out during the decommissioning

311

local people perceptions toward social,economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Kermanshah (Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines local people perceptions about social, economic and environmental impacts of tourism in the cultural heritage destination of Kermanshah in Iran. The study focused on residents in the vicinity of popular heritage attractions in the region. According to the survey, a high percentage of the answers, emphasizes the positive impacts of tourism toward local people. Besides, social aspects of tourism impacts are found to be the strongest and most favorable perceptions. The Findings in Semi structured interviews with residents supported the survey results.

mostafa mohammadi

2010-10-01

312

Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensuP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

313

The estimation of economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of a release parameters and metrorological data. According to the cost estimation for the basic scenarios, the population dependent cost is dominant. The cost for the protective actions such as evacuation and relocation have a small portion in the total cost and show little variation from scenario to scenario. The economic cost estimation for the seasonal scenarios show very similar trend as that for the basic scenarios. There are little or small variation in the economic cost for the different scenarios for each season except for the season-5 scenario. The health effect value shows maximum in Summer and minimum in Fall. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum in Fall and minimum in Summer. The result will be used as basic data in the establishment of effective emergency response and in the cost/benefit analysis in developing optimum risk reduction strategies

314

Economic impact analysis of final effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance for the offshore oil and gas industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document is an economic impact analysis prepared in support of the promulgation of effluent limitations guidelines and standards of performance for drilling and production wastes for the offshore oil and gas industry. The report analyzes the economic impact of alternative regulatory options considered for drilling fluids, drill cuttings, produced water, produced sand, and treatment, workover, and completion fluids

315

Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

316

Defense and attack of complex and dependent systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A framework is constructed for how to analyze the strategic defense of an infrastructure subject to attack by a strategic attacker. Merging operations research, reliability theory, and game theory for optimal analytical impact, the optimization program for the defender and attacker is specified. Targets can be in parallel, series, combined series-parallel, complex, k-out-of-n redundancy, independent, interdependent, and dependent. The defender and attacker determine how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human, and symbolic values, subjectively assessed by the defender and attacker. A contest success function determines the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the investments by the defender and attacker into each target, and on characteristics of the contest. The defender minimizes the expected damage plus the defense costs. The attacker maximizes the expected damage minus the attack costs. Each agent is concerned about how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Interdependent systems are analyzed where the defense and attack on one target impacts all targets. Dependent systems are analyzed applying Markov analysis and repeated games where a successful attack on one target in the first period impacts the unit costs of defense and attack, and the contest intensity, for the other target in the second period.iod.

317

Economic impacts of climate change: Methods of estimating impacts at an aggregate level using Hordaland as an illustration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses methods for calculating economic impacts of climate change, and uses Hordaland county in Norway as an illustrative example. The calculations are based on estimated climate changes from the RegClim project. This study draws from knowledge of the relationship between economic activity and climate at a disaggregate level and calculates changes in production of and demand for goods and services within aggregate sectors, which are specified in the county budget for Hordaland. Total impacts for the county thus are expressed through known values from the national budget, such as the county's ''national product'', total consumption, and investments. The estimates of impacts of climate changes at a disaggregate level in Hordaland are quantified only to small degree. The calculations made in this report can thus only be considered appropriate for illustrating methods and interpretations. In terms of relative economic significance for the county, however, it is likely that the hydropower sector will be the most affected. Increased precipitation will result in greater production potential, but profitability will largely depend on projected energy prices and investment costs associated with expansion. Agriculture and forestry will increase their production potential, but they are relatively small sectors in the county. Compared with the uncertainty about how climate change will affect production, however, the uncertainty about changes in demand is far greaternty about changes in demand is far greater. The demand for personal transportation and construction in particular can have significant consequences for the county's economy. (author)

318

Assessing the impact of the Nitrate Directive on farming systems using a bio-economic modelling chain  

OpenAIRE

Bio-economic models can be used to assess the impact of policy and environmental measures through economic and environmental indicators. Focusing on agricultural systems, farmers’ decisions in terms of cropping systems and the associated crop management at field scale are essential in such studies. The objective of this paper is to present a study using a bio-economic model to assess the impact of the Nitrate Directive in the Midi-Pyrenees region (France) by analyzing, at the farm scale, fa...

Belhouchette, H.; Louhichi, K.; Therond, O.; Mouratiadou, I.; Wery, J.; Ittersum, M. K.; Flichman, G.

2011-01-01

319

An Investigation of the Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper posits to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria. A study of this nature is necessary because foreign direct investment is an important component of private investment which is widely believed to be the engine of economic growth in any modern economy. In order to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria and the causal relationship between them, liner regression and granger causality test were used. The data used were from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin (2006 and national account of Nigeria (2007. The study has shown that foreign direct investment has a positive impact on gross domestic product in Nigeria and we therefore accept the alternative hypothesis. It is recommended that there is the need to put in place concrete policies to engender a positive and competitive enabling environment that would attract more foreign investors. There must also be relentless wars against corruption and insecurity in order to give confidence to investors.

Key words: Domestic investment; Foreign direct investment; Capital formation and economic growth

Abu Maji

2011-09-01

320

Impact of Economic Crisis on Changes in Motivation of Employees in Woodworking Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the motivation of employees of a woodworking enterprise and analyses the level of individual motivation before (2004 and after the economic crisis and its effects in Slovakia (2012. The aim of the paper is to identify the most important motivation factors for employees and to consider the impact of financial crisis on the change in perception of individual motivation factors and their economic and social impact on employees. A questionnaire, as a method of inquiry, was used to acquire relevant data. Descriptive and testing statistics were used for data processing. Significance level p was computed for individual motivation factors for the year 2004 and 2012 by means of T-test. The objective of this paper is to define significant change of average rate of individual motivation factors and to compare the order of importance of motivation factors before and after the economic crisis. Based on our research it can be stated that the world economic crisis has no impact on the level of employee motivation in the selected enterprise.

Miloš Hitka

2014-04-01

321

The Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Laws on Restaurants and Bars in 9 States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Smoke-free air laws in restaurants and bars protect patrons and workers from involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, but owners often express concern that such laws will harm their businesses. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between local smoke-free air laws and economic outcomes in restaurants and bars in 8 states without statewide smoke-free air laws: Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, Texas, and West Virginia. A secondary objective was to examine the economic impact of a 2010 statewide smoke-free restaurant and bar law in North Carolina. Methods Using quarterly data from 2000 through 2010, we estimated dynamic panel data models for employment and sales in restaurants and bars. The models controlled for smoke-free laws, general economic activity, cigarette sales, and seasonality. We included data from 216 smoke-free cities and counties in the analysis. During the study period, only North Carolina had a statewide law banning smoking in restaurants or bars. Separate models were estimated for each state. Results In West Virginia, smoke-free laws were associated with a significant increase of approximately 1% in restaurant employment. In the remaining 8 states, we found no significant association between smoke-free laws and employment or sales in restaurants and bars. Conclusion Results suggest that smoke-free laws did not have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in any of the states studied; they provided a small economic benefit in 1 state. On the basis of these findings, we would not expect a statewide smoke-free law in Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, or West Virginia to have an adverse economic impact on restaurants or bars in those states.

Brett R. Loomis, MS

2013-08-01

322

Impact of production strategies and animal performance on economic values of dairy sheep traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to carry out a sensitivity analysis on the impact of various production strategies and performance levels on the relative economic values (REVs) of traits in dairy sheep. A bio-economic model implemented in the program package ECOWEIGHT was used to simulate the profit function for a semi-extensive production system with the Slovak multi-purpose breed Improved Valachian and to calculate the REV of 14 production and functional traits. The following production strategies were analysed: differing proportions of milk processed to cheese, customary weaning and early weaning of lambs with immediate sale or sale after artificial rearing, seasonal lambing in winter and aseasonal lambing in autumn. Results of the sensitivity analysis are presented in detail for the four economically most important traits: 150 days milk yield, conception rate of ewes, litter size and ewe productive lifetime. Impacts of the differences in the mean value of each of these four traits on REVs of all other traits were also examined. Simulated changes in the production circumstances had a higher impact on the REV for milk yield than on REVs of the other traits investigated. The proportion of milk processed to cheese, weaning management strategy for lambs and level of milk yield were the main factors influencing the REV of milk yield. The REVs for conception rate of ewes were highly sensitive to the current mean level of the trait. The REV of ewe productive lifetime was most sensitive to variation in ewe conception rate, and the REV of litter size was most affected by weaning strategy for lambs. On the basis of the results of sensitivity analyses, it is recommended that economic values of traits for the overall breeding objective for dairy sheep be calculated as the weighted average of the economic values obtained for the most common production strategies of Slovak dairy sheep farms and that economic values be adjusted after substantial changes in performance levels of the traits. PMID:22436223

Krupová, Z; Wolfová, M; Krupa, E; Oravcová, M; Da?o, J; Huba, J; Polák, P

2012-03-01

323

Economic impacts of illness in older workers: quantifying the impact of illness on income, tax revenue and government spending  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Long term illness has far reaching impacts on individuals, and also places a large burden upon government. This paper quantifies the indirect economic impacts of illness related early retirement on individuals and government in Australia in 2009. Methods The output data from a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, was analysed. Health&WealthMOD is representative of the 45 to 64 year old Australian population in 2009. The average weekly total income, total government support payments, and total taxation revenue paid, for individuals who are employment full-time, employed part-time and not in the labour force due to ill health was quantified. Results It was found that persons out of the labour force due to illness had significantly lower incomes ($218 per week as opposed to $1167 per week for those employed full-time, received significantly higher transfer payments, and paid significantly less tax than those employed full-time or part-time. This results in an annual national loss of income of over $17 billion, an annual national increase of $1.5 billion in spending on government support payments, and an annual loss of $2.1 billion in taxation revenue. Conclusions Illness related early retirement has significant economic impacts on both the individual and on governments as a result of lost income, lost taxation revenue and increased government support payments. This paper has quantified the extent of these impacts for Australia.

Passey Megan E

2011-06-01

324

Economic Impact Assessment of Climate Change: A Multi-gas Investigation with WIAGEM-GTAPEL-ICM  

OpenAIRE

Climate change is a long-term issue due to the long lifespan of greenhouse gases and the delayed response of the climate system. This paper investigates the long-term economic consequences of both climate change impacts and mitigation efforts by applying the multiregional, multi-sectoral integrated assessment model WIAGEM based on GTAP-EL coupled with the reduced-form multi-gas climate model ICM. We investigate emissions reduction paths to reach a radiative forcing target of 4.5 w /m . Econom...

Kemfert, Claudia; Truong, Truong Phuoc; Bruckner, Thomas

2005-01-01

325

Positive Impact of Art as a Communication Instrument on Economical Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many factors that affect economical productivity like climate, or like raw materials or like international relationships or like physchology of employers. Professional organisations or companies use different instruments to increase producticity on economy. Spiritual conditions of employers and employees are especially regarded for economical productivity recently. Though economy is mostly a concrete area, main component of economy is human and human need spiritual support and impacts in his life. It is known that spiritual support always feed human and provide him much energy. Employers or companies who are interested in art and who participate in artistic activities become more productive than others and attract people to their productions.

Sedat Cereci

2013-08-01

326

EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Niger from 1961 to 2010 by using, Unit root test and Co-integration test and the Vector Error correction Model. The results obtained below show that FDI has small, and not a statistically significant effect, on the economic growth. The results seem to sustain the statement that FDI in the extractive area might not be growth enhancing as much as manufacturing FDI.

Amadou Maiga Ousseini

2011-10-01

327

Economic and environmental impacts of a PV powered workplace parking garage charging station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging station located in a workplace parking garage. • Emissions from the power grid. • Economic analysis. • Parametric analysis for parking rates, installed capacities to show benefits to vehicle and garage owner. - Abstract: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) have high potential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and for providing a way to utilize renewable energy sources for the transportation sector. On the other hand, charging millions of PEVs could overload the power grid, increase emissions and significantly alter economic characteristics. A day-time photovoltaic (PV) based, plug-in electric vehicle charging station located in a workplace parking garage is considered in this research. The results show the impact of PV based workplace charging on the economics and emissions from the power grid. An optimal charge scheduling strategy is compared with an uncontrolled charging case to perform the economics and emissions analysis. Two locations (Columbus, OH and Los Angeles, CA) are selected such that the analysis includes different scenarios of yearly variation of solar radiation and finance structure. A high fidelity hourly simulation model for energy economic analysis is developed considering different types of vehicles, statistical data for driving distances, parking time, installation cost, tax rebates and incentives. An incremental parking rate for accessing the charging facility is considered for economic analysis for the garage owner and the vehicle owner. The analysis is extended to consider the impact of carbon tax implementation on the driver economics and shows the feasibility of such PV based charging stations. Parametric analysis for different parking rates and installed capacities show (i) the feasibility of a PV based workplace charging facility, (ii) benefits to the vehicle owner and the garage owner, and (iii) the need for an optimal charging controller

328

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

329

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Oconee case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Oconee nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

330

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: D. C. Cook case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the D. C. Cook nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

331

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Surry case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

332

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

333

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

334

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

335

Economic Impact Analyses of Interdisciplinary Multi-hazard Scenarios: ShakeOut and ARkStorm  

Science.gov (United States)

U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are using an interdisciplinary strategy to develop and analyze multi-hazard scenarios to help communities enhance resilience to natural hazard disasters. Two such scenarios are the southern California ShakeOut earthquake and the California ARkStorm winter storm. Both scenarios are multi-hazard: Shakeout ground motions trigger landslides and liquefaction and ARkStorm involves wind, flood, landslide, and coastal hazards. A collaborative scenario-process engages partners and stakeholders throughout the development and use of the scenarios, In doing so, community resilience is enhanced by educating communities about hazards and hazard interdependencies, building networks from scientists to decision makers, exercising emergency management strategies, identifying emergency management issues, and motivating solutions prior to an event. In addition, interdisciplinary scenarios stimulate research on the various steps of analysis (e.g., natural hazard processes, physical damages, societal consequences, and policy connections). In particular, USGS scientists have collaborated with economists to advance methods to estimate the economic impacts (business interruption losses) of disasters. Our economic impact analyses evolved from the economic module in the Federal Emergency Management Agency's loss-estimation tool, HAZUS-MH, to a more encompassing input-output analysis for ShakeOut, to a more sophisticated Computable General Equilibrium model for ARkStorm. The analyses depend on physical damage and restoration time estimates from engineers and geographic analyses of economic assets in hazard zones. Economic resilience strategies are incorporated to represent resourcefulness and ingenuity that avoids potential losses during and after an event. Such strategies operate at three levels of the economy: micro (e.g., ability to catch up on lost production time), meso (e.g., coordination within a sector to share resources), and macro (e.g., price adjustments to redistribute scarce resources). A sensitivity analysis of the ARkStorm economic impact model explores the effects of 1) the magnitude of the shocks (e.g., flood damages to buildings and infrastructure, agricultural productivity, and lifeline service disruptions), 2) the sustainability of the economic resilience strategies, and 3) the amount, timing, and source of reconstruction funds. The inclusion of an economic analysis in ShakeOut and ARkStorm broadens the range of interest in the scenario results. For example, the relative contribution of ShakeOut economic shocks to business interruption losses emphasized the need to reduce the impacts of fire following earthquake and water service disruption. Based on the magnitude and duration of the economic impacts for the ARkStorm scenario, policy experts surmised that business interruption policy time elements would be exceeded and business interruptions would be largely unfunded calling attention to the need for innovative funding solutions. Finally, economic impact analyses inform the question of paying now to mitigate or paying more later to recover.

Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

2011-12-01

336

Impact of Nuclear Power and Desalination Plant Construction Toward National and East Java Economic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to determine the economic impacts of the construction of the nuclear power plant 2 x 100 MW(e) SMART type with desalination 4 x 10,000 m3 which would conduct in years 2008 to 2017 in Madura Island, East Java. The predicted IO tables of 2008-2017 have been created by the application of dynamic IO projection. The economic impact was estimated through multiplier effect which covers direct impact and indirect impact as well as the induced effect. The expenditures of SMART nuclear power and desalination plant to the domestic contractors is estimated to amount to 88.2 million US dollar or 25.6 % of the whole expenditures. The total impact of the project to the national economy would be Rp. 6,329,347 million, Rp. 8,439,130 million, and Rp. 12,658,695 million for each scenario of the exchange rate as high as Rp. 7,500/US dollar, Rp. 10,000/US dollar, Rp. 15,000/US dollar, respectively for the scenario of dynamic growth. The total impact of the project to the provincial economy of East Java would be as much as Rp. 3,253,498 million, Rp. 4,337,997 million, and Rp. 6,506,995 million for each scenario of the exchange rate as high as Rp. 7,500/US dollar, Rp. 10,000/US dollar, Rp. 15,000/US dollar, respectively under the former scenario. Cumulative direct impact since pre-construction to construction period had been calculated as much as US dollar 101.8 million for sectors number 48.52 and 62. This have brought much impact on other sectors have brought much impact on other sectors in national or provincial levels of economy. (author)

337

Economism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

P. Simons

2010-07-01

338

Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth of Nigeria: A Time Series Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines the impact of tax reforms on the economic growth of Nigeria from 1994 to 2009. To achieve the objective of the study, relevant secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin, Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS, Office of the Accountant General of the Federation, and other relevant government agencies. The data collected were analysed using relevant descriptive statistics and econometric models such as White test, Ramsey RESET test, Breusch Godfrey test, Jacque Berra test, Augmented Dickey Fuller test, Johansen test, and Granger Causality test. The results from the various test shows that tax reforms is positively and significantly related to economic growth and that tax reforms granger cause economic growth. On the basis of the findings, the study concluded that tax reforms improves the revenue generating machinery of government to undertake socially desirable expenditure that will translate to economic growth in real output and per capita basis. However, it was recommended that sustainable economic growth cannot be attained with tax reform processes except obsolete tax laws and rates are reviewed in line with macro economic objectives, corrupt-free and efficient tax administrative machinery with personnel’s and accountability and transparency of government officials in the management of tax revenue.

G.N. Ogbonna

2012-02-01

339

Economism  

OpenAIRE

Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism), but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism). The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of peopl...

Simons, P.

2010-01-01

340

Economic Impacts of Wind Turbine Development in U.S. Counties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective is to address the research question using post-project construction, county-level data, and econometric evaluation methods. Wind energy is expanding rapidly in the United States: Over the last 4 years, wind power has contributed approximately 35 percent of all new electric power capacity. Wind power plants are often developed in rural areas where local economic development impacts from the installation are projected, including land lease and property tax payments and employment growth during plant construction and operation. Wind energy represented 2.3 percent of the U.S. electricity supply in 2010, but studies show that penetrations of at least 20 percent are feasible. Several studies have used input-output models to predict direct, indirect, and induced economic development impacts. These analyses have often been completed prior to project construction. Available studies have not yet investigated the economic development impacts of wind development at the county level using post-construction econometric evaluation methods. Analysis of county-level impacts is limited. However, previous county-level analyses have estimated operation-period employment at 0.2 to 0.6 jobs per megawatt (MW) of power installed and earnings at $9,000/MW to $50,000/MW. We find statistically significant evidence of positive impacts of wind development on county-level per capita income from the OLS and spatial lag models when they are applied to the full set of wind and non-wind counties. The total impact on annual per capita income of wind turbine development (measured in MW per capita) in the spatial lag model was $21,604 per MW. This estimate is within the range of values estimated in the literature using input-output models. OLS results for the wind-only counties and matched samples are similar in magnitude, but are not statistically significant at the 10-percent level. We find a statistically significant impact of wind development on employment in the OLS analysis for wind counties only, but not in the other models. Our estimates of employment impacts are not precise enough to assess the validity of employment impacts from input-output models applied in advance of wind energy project construction. The analysis provides empirical evidence of positive income effects at the county level from cumulative wind turbine development, consistent with the range of impacts estimated using input-output models. Employment impacts are less clear.

J., Brown; B., Hoen; E., Lantz; J., Pender; R., Wiser

2011-07-25

341

A simulation of the economic impact of renewable energy development in Morocco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we identify the renewable energy source (RES) demand scenarios for Morocco, the needs of RES installed capacity according to those scenarios and the detailed investment plans needed to achieve such installed capacity supply. Then, using a dynamic variant input–output model, we simulate the macroeconomic impact of the foreign investment inflows needed to make available these Moroccan RES generation capacity plans in the medium and long term. The use of concentrated solar plants, photovoltaic generation and wind power farms are considered and compared in the simulation. - Highlights: ? An evaluation of RES economic impact in Morocco from 2010 to 2040 is simulated. ? Different scenarios about import dependency and energy exports have been considered. ? The impact on GDP range from 1.21% to 1.99%. ? The impact on employment range from 269 to 499 thousand jobs. ? The alternative that produces most benefits would be the installation of windmills.

342

The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

343

The Impact of Information and Communication Technology Availability on Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study studies the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT availability on economic growth in different countries and regions of the world. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT access index (as measured by the fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants, mobile cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, international internet bandwidth per Internet user, proportion of households with a computer and proportion of households with Internet access at home for 142 countries over the world. This study also finds that ICT access in the high income group has a higher effect on economic growth than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT access.

Maryam Farhadi

2014-02-01

344

Economic and Financial Integration of CEECs: The Impact of Financial Instability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent financial crisis had a powerful impact upon the European countries' economies, in particular on those from Central and Eastern Europe, with some small exceptions. Thus, applying a panel data approach for a large sample of CEECs, we demonstrate that financial instability negatively influences these countries economic and financial integration. If instability is measured by means of a financial instability index, we have used two classical indicators for the economic integration, namely trade openness and trade intensity index. Indicators such as the interest rates co-movement and the asset share of foreign-owned banks were chosen to calculate financial integration. We highlight the fact that the crisis events hinder the process of CEECs' integration into the EU, deepening the economic gaps between more and less developed EU members.

Claudiu T. Albulescu

2011-03-01

345

The Economic and Social Impacts of Electronic Commerce: Preliminary Findings and Research Agenda  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic Commerce has been in existence for little more than three years, but due to its enormous capacity to affect "economic activities and social environments," it has already had a huge impact on retail, finance, and communications, representing 30 percent of GDP. This 156-page report from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development examines the past and potential impact that e-commerce promises to have on business and the economy. The report is broken into five chapters, which need to be downloaded separately, including "Growth of electronic commerce: present and potential," "Electronic commerce, jobs and skills," and "Societal implications of electronic commerce," each with its own set of charts and graphs. A report summary is also included.

346

A social work study to measure the impact of socio-economical factors of tourism industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourism plays an important role on development of economy especially in developing countries. The proposed study of this paper studies the impact of tourism on developing economic factors such as average income, real estate prices, etc. We have distributed 110 questionnaires among different people who are involved in various positions in the regions and analyzed the data. The survey is looking for the impact of tourism industry in terms of economical and social factors for one of the oldest villages in Iran named Maymand. The results indicate that there is a strong positive relationship, 0.873, between developing economy and tourism. In other word, developing tourism industry will help create more jobs, increase land prices, increase people's income and flourish environment. There is also a positive correlation, 0.854, between social development and tourism industry. This means we could expect a better health care system as well as medical treatment facilities, which helps prevent immigration to big cities.

Mohsen Pourkhosravani

2012-04-01

347

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model Geothermal User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Geothermal Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an Excel-based user-friendly tools that estimates the economic impacts of constructing and operating hydrothermal and Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) power generation projects at the local level for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Model Geothermal User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in using and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted.

Johnson, C.; Augustine, C.; Goldberg, M.

2012-09-01

348

Assessing the economic impact of a rapid on-site malaria diagnostic test.  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of three models has been developed for assessing the economic impact of existing and new malaria diagnostic technology, specifically microscopy of blood slides and rapid on-site diagnostic tests (RDT). The models allow for phased introduction of the new technology in targeted areas. The derived computer software program facilitates evaluation of costs to the supplier, to the consumer and aggregate costs, with comparison among the three models to give relative costs of progressive transition from blood slides to RDT technology. The models and the related software program can assist planners in the health sector in determining costs of current programs and assessing the potential economic impact of introducing rapid on-site diagnosis. Details of the models and the operational software program are available on request. PMID:9279979

Kaewsonthi, S; Harding, A G; Kidson, C; Indaratna, K

1996-06-01

349

Community-based ecotourism: Its socio-economic impacts at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a lacuna in literature from Western Africa on how issue of participation influence socio-economic impacts at ecotourism destinations. This paper investigates the socio-economic impacts of ecotourism based on Boabeng- Fiema Monkey Sanctuary in Ghana. The paper is based on primary data generated from Boabeng and Fiema communities. Seventy mainly opened-ended questionnaires were administered face-to-face to purposively selected residents from the two communities, alongside, in-depth interviews with the management of the Sanctuary and focus group with purposively selected individuals from Boabeng and Fiema. The study reveals that the residents of the communities face burgeoning challenges such as shrinking livelihood options, inadequate involvement of community in the ecotourism, poor state of the visitor centre, inadequate government support and poor roads.

Eshun Gabriel

2014-12-01

350

Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). PMID:24682070

Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Ahmad, Md Khadzir Sheikh

2014-06-01

351

Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

2010-06-01

352

Community leaders' perspectives on socio-economic impacts of power-plant development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary focus of this research effort was to identify and measure the socioeconomic impacts of power plant development on non-metropolitan host communities. A mail survey, distributed to community leaders in 100 power plant communities east of the Mississippi River, was utilized to gather information from 713 respondents. Community leaders were questioned as to the plant's impact on (a) community groups, (b) aspects of community life, (c) overall community acceptance and (d) attitudes toward power plant development. Overall, the trends and patterns of plant impact on the host communities were found to be largely positive. Specifically, local employment opportunities were generally enhanced with the advent of the power plant. Directly related to power plant development was the overall improvement of the local economic situation. Off-shoots from such in the economic area included related general improvements in the community quality of life. While the vast majority of community leaders responded with positive comments on power plant presence, adverse impacts were also mentioned. Negative comments focused on environmental problems, deterioration of roads and traffic conditions, and the possibility of nuclear accidents. Despite these negative impacts, almost two-thirds of the community leaders would definitely support the reconstruction of the same energy facility. Power plant development, therefore, is generally perceived as both a positive and beneficial asset for tboth a positive and beneficial asset for the host area. (author)

353

Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 39 papers contained in Vol. 3, 3 were inputted to INIS. They deal with the use of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers in the determination of building material contamination by toxic elements, with underground waste repositories and ground water contamination, and the impact of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the hydrosphere and other environmental components. (Z.S.)

354

Modeling the economic impact of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a theoretical approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David S Cobden1, Louis W Niessen2, Frans FH Rutten1, W Ken Redekop11Department of Health Policy and Management, Section of Health Economics – Medical Technology Assessment (HE-MTA, Erasmus MC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USAAims: While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis.Methods: We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM and oral (OAD medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1 and one which incorporated it (analysis 2. Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Results: In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY. This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM.Conclusions: Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be ­considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health ­economic outcomes, and validation of different approaches to modeling adherence, is warranted.Keywords: economics, modeling, adherence, diabetes, cost-effectiveness

David S Cobden

2010-08-01

355

Health Impacts and Economic Evaluations of Maternal and Child Health Programs in Developing Countries  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation is motivated by two of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): MDG 4, focused on reducing child mortality, and MDG 5, which aims to improve maternal health. My three papers evaluate the health and economic impact, and cost-effectiveness, of interventions to improve maternal and child health in three areas of the developing world using methods from decision sciences and statistics. In paper 1, I use a decision-analytic model that simulates the natural history ...

Carvalho, Natalie

2012-01-01

356

The Impact of Tribal Colleges in the Economic Development of Tribal Communities: A Case Study  

OpenAIRE

The essay examines a fairly new phenomenon in American Education: Tribal Colleges. As unique institutions of higher learning, established to specifically address educational and cultural needs of American Indians, they play a pivotal role in individual student and tribal community empowerment. It will be illustrated in-depth how one particular Tribal College – Salish Kootenai College – positively impacts and greatly contributes to the economic development of its tribal community.

Grob, Anne

2009-01-01

357

[The impact of the economic crisis on health systems of OECD countries].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes measures adopted by OECD countries in the health sector in response to the economic crisis which began in 2008: increase and diversification of revenues collected for health, increases in user charges, reductions in staff, salaries and prices of health goods and services; and policies aiming to increase health systems efficiency. It then reviews the impact of these policies on health spending trends. PMID:25311027

Paris, Valérie

2014-10-01

358

The impact of the economic and financial crisis on the foreign trade in metallurgical products  

OpenAIRE

The manifestation of the global financial crisis severely affected the foreign trade worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the financial and economic crisis on foreign trade at the level of countries and groups ofcountries that have global leadership in the area, with an emphasis on the metallurgical products. The analysis results show that this branch was affected to a higher percentage compared to the amount of the value of the trade in goods.

Ca?runtu, C.; Dobrota?, G.

2013-01-01

359

The impact of the economic and financial crisis on the foreign trade in metallurgical products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The manifestation of the global financial crisis severely affected the foreign trade worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the financial and economic crisis on foreign trade at the level of countries and groups ofcountries that have global leadership in the area, with an emphasis on the metallurgical products. The analysis results show that this branch was affected to a higher percentage compared to the amount of the value of the trade in goods.

C. C?runtu

2013-10-01

360

Modelling of an industrial NGL-Recovery unit considering environmental and economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, an integrated model is presented that identifies key areas in the operation of a cryogenic NGL-recovery unit. This methodology sets out to provide deep understanding of various interrelationship across multiple plant operating factors including reliability, which could be essential for substantial improvement of process performance. The integrated model has been developed to predict the economic and environmental impacts of a real cryogenic unit (600 MMCUF/D) during normal operation, and has been built in Aspen TM. (Author)

Sharratt, P. N.; Hernandez-Enriquez, A.; Flores-Tlacuahuac, A.

2009-07-01

361

Modelling of an industrial NGL-Recovery unit considering environmental and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an integrated model is presented that identifies key areas in the operation of a cryogenic NGL-recovery unit. This methodology sets out to provide deep understanding of various interrelationship across multiple plant operating factors including reliability, which could be essential for substantial improvement of process performance. The integrated model has been developed to predict the economic and environmental impacts of a real cryogenic unit (600 MMCUF/D) during normal operation, and has been built in Aspen TM. (Author)

362

Impact of Tax Reforms and Economic Growth of Nigeria: A Time Series Analysis  

OpenAIRE

The study examines the impact of tax reforms on the economic growth of Nigeria from 1994 to 2009. To achieve the objective of the study, relevant secondary data were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin, Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Office of the Accountant General of the Federation, and other relevant government agencies. The data collected were analysed using relevant descriptive statistics and econometric models such as White test, Ramsey RESET te...

Ogbonna, G. N.; Appah Ebimobowei

2012-01-01

363

Cultural and socio-economic impacts of Mediterranean marine protected areas  

OpenAIRE

Marine protected areas (MPAs) may be important for protecting the marine environment, but they may also have substantial socio-cultural impacts about which very little is currently known, or acknowledged. In the Mediterranean, few data are available on the socio-economic consequences of MPAs. The present study reviews the existing data on MPAs in Spain, France, Italy and Greece. A general increase in tourist activities in Mediterranean MPAs is evident, as are increases in the abundances of la...

Badalamenti, Fabio; Ramos Espla?, Alfonso A?ngel; Voultsiadou, Eleni; Sa?nchez Lizaso, Jose? Luis; D Anna, Giovanni; Pipitone, Carlo; Mas Herna?ndez, Julio; Ruiz Ferna?ndez, Juan Manuel; Whitmarsh, David; Riggio, Silvano

2000-01-01

364

Attracting investors: Case of impact of FDI on the achievements of economic growth in Georgia  

OpenAIRE

The paper examines the role and importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Georgia after transition period and its' impact on economic growth of the country and analysing ways for attracting FDI. It focuses on effectiveness of investment climate in Georgia after transition period and on analysis of results of global crisis on Georgia's investment. Despite the improvement of the investment climate in Georgia, there still remain a number of persistent problems on which FDI cannot maximize...

Kbiltsetskhlashvili, Tea

2010-01-01

365

Economic impact study of the IOC group on Lausanne and the Lemanic Arc  

OpenAIRE

This study analysed the economic impact that the IOC is inducing on the city of Lausanne and the Lemanic Arc for the 28th Olympiad (2004 – 2007). It applied the standardised method as proposed by Barget (2001) following the studies of Stritt & Voillat (1998) and Junod (2005). Additionally, this paper was complemented by the analysis of intangible effects covering the increased notoriety of the city and the local population’s sense of pride invoked by hosting the IOC in Lausanne.

Nassar, Vincent

2013-01-01

366

Economic Impact of Microcredit in an Urban Setting : The Case of Tajikistan  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the impact of receiving microcredit on the economic conditions of urban poor. The change in household income level between the years 2009 and 2011 was measured for a group of survey participants half of whom were microcredit beneficiaries, while the other half were not. The survey was conducted in Dushanbe, the capital city of Tajikistan. A difference-in-differences approach was used for the analysis and various other attributes that influence income such as the level ...

Kodirova, Manizha; Mirzoeva, Shabnam

2012-01-01

367

Globalisation’s ugly stepsister : estimating some economic impacts of localisation in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

There is growing concern that globalisation is unable to address unemployment and alleviate poverty sufficiently to achieve the targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Increasing numbers of development economists and practitioners advocate some or other policy favouring the localisation of economic activity in local communities. The authors’ research and policy impact analysis are rooted in the sincere belief that localisation, as defined in this paper, is required alongside ...

Breitenbach, Marthinus C.; Slabbert, Tielman J. C.

2008-01-01

368

The economic costs of climate change: A multi-sector impact assessment for Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

Unlike existing studies, we adopt a multi-sectoral approach and consider the full range of climate projections. Biophysical damages are translated into economic costs using a dynamic economywide model. Our results for Vietnam indicate that the negative impacts on agriculture and roads are modest, at least until 2050. Larger costs are caused by rising sea levels and cyclone strikes. Overall, climate change is likely to reduce Vietnam's national income by between one and two percent by 2050 (re...

Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn; Thurlow, James

2012-01-01

369

WP/082 The Economic Costs of Climate Change: A Multi-Sector Impact Assessment for Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

Unlike existing studies, we adopt a multi-sectoral approach and consider the full range of climate projections. Biophysical damages are translated into economic costs using a dynamic economywide model. Our results for Vietnam indicate that the negative impacts on agriculture and roads are modest, at least until 2050. Larger costs are caused by rising sea levels and cyclone strikes. Overall, climate change is likely to reduce Vietnam’s national income by between one and two percent by 2050 (...

Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn; Thurlow, James

2012-01-01

370

The Economic Impact of AIDS Treatment: Labor Supply in Western Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Using longitudinal survey data from western Kenya, this paper estimates the economic impacts of antiretroviral treatment. The responses in two important outcomes are studied: (1) labor supply of adult AIDS patients receiving treatment; and (2) labor supply of patients’ household members. We find that within six months after treatment initiation, there is a 20 percent increase in patients’ likelihood of participating in the labor force and a 35 percent increase in weekly hours work...

Thirumurthy, Harsha; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Goldstein, Markus

2008-01-01

371

Charcoal production technologies: Environmental and socio-economic impacts with Brazilian examples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The indirect use of solar energy through photosynthesis, wood and charcoal requires reforestation with fast-growing species to supply continuously charcoal for industrial and domestic needs. This concept, sometimes referred to as an energy farms, is the conversion of sunshine into food, fibre, furniture, paper and pulp products. It the charcoal production uses primitive, low-yield technologies, it endangers the economic viability of the wood energy source and causes negative environmental impacts. 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

372

The Impact of Corruption on Sustainable Economic Growth and Development in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The continuous outcry of the citizens on the evils of corruption and its consequences on national development motivated this study. The major objective of this study was to examine the impact of corruption on sustainable economic growth and development of Nigeria. Data were drawn chiefly from secondary sources and subjected to econometrics tool of ordinary least square techniques. The major finding among others are weak institution of government; dysfunctional legal system; lack of transparen...

Ajie, H. A.; Wokekoro, O. E.

2012-01-01

373

Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets  

OpenAIRE

The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the r...

John Walsh

2010-01-01

374

Support for agriculture during economic transformation: Impacts on poverty and undernutrition  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health ri...

Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

2010-01-01

375

The Impact of Tax Incentives on the Economic Activity of Entrepreneurs  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies the effect of Finnish tax reforms in the mid 1990s on the economic activity and tax avoidance decisions of the owners of small businesses. The reforms reduced income tax rates and increased tax planning incentives for small business owners. They applied only to unincorporated firms. We utilize both a theoretical model and empirical data. The empirical strategy is to use the reforms as a natural experiment to estimate the causal impact of the reforms. The results imply that ...

Harju, Jarkko; Kosonen, Tuomas

2013-01-01

376

Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions  

OpenAIRE

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality), nutrition (balanced feed) r...

Ghaffar, A.

2010-01-01

377

Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

378

Framework for Modelling Economic Impacts of Invasive Species, Applied to Pine Wood Nematode in Europe  

OpenAIRE

Background Economic impact assessment of invasive species requires integration of information on pest entry, establishment and spread, valuation of assets at risk and market consequences at large spatial scales. Here we develop such a framework and demonstrate its application to the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which threatens the European forestry industry. The effect of spatial resolution on the assessment result is analysed. Methodology/Principal Findings Direct economi...

Soliman, T.; Mourits, M. C. M.; Werf, W.; Hengeveld, G. M.; Robinet, C.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.

2012-01-01

379

Social and economic impacts of the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant: a confirmatory technology assessment. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Trojan nuclear plant located 32 miles northwest of Portland, Oregon was chosen for a case study. A background of the physical, demographic, economic, and political context of the communities is provided. This is followed by an evaluation of the impacts of plant construction and operation including local taxation, employment, business activity and income, demography, public utilities and transportation, land use, housing, recreation, culture and lifestyle, public safety, education, health care, and politics and institutions

380

Impact of mining projects on the socio-economics of the region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining of mineral deposits, if exploited economically, would generate prospects of significant employment of non-inflationary nature, in developing countries. Exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits contributes in developing inaccessible regions thereby improving socio-economics of the region benefiting the local inhabitants and supplementing the efforts towards national integration. However, an indifferent attitude of the project management towards environment and welfare of local population will result in clash of interests and perpetual litigations which not only impede progress of the project but also lead to law and order problems. A precondition for successful implementation of any project is to understand the possible impact it has, on the socio-economics of the region and educate the local inhabitants to derive optimum advantage from the project. In this paper, two cases of mining projects, one located remotely and the other close to a well developed city are studied and their impact on the socio-economics of the respective regions is presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

381

An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Public Debt on Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria 1975-2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper focuses on the impact of public debt on economic growth using Nigeria as a case study. An analysis of the long-run relationship and impact of debt from the perspective of the value impact and proportional impact was done. The value impact variables used herein include the external debt value, domestic debt value, total debt value and budget deficit figures. The proportional impact variables are ratios of the value impact to the gross domestic product (GDP. An augmented Cobb Douglas model was used and subsequently a dynamic version of the functional relationship was estimated using Co-integration technique to capture the long-run impact of debt variables on economic growth. The result showed that the joint impact of debt on economic growth is negative and quite significant in the long-run though in the short-run the impact of borrowed funds and coefficient of budget deficit is positive. In the study, the speed at which the short-run equation converges to equilibrium in the long-run as shown by the Error Correction Mechanism coefficient was found to be slow. The conclusion from this study is that though in the short-run the impact of borrowed fund on the Nigerian economy was positive, the impact of debt in the long-run depressed economic growth as a result of incompetent debt management.

Key words:

Obademi Olalekan Emmanuel

2012-08-01

382

GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS: CAUSES, IMPACT ON INDIAN ECONOMY, AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global economic crisis started in United States of America mainly due to ‘sub-prime mortgages’ where interest rate was slower down and there was a great demand for housing loans. Later, American banks repackaged this debt to worldwide financial instruments called ‘Collateralized debt obligations’ and sold them worldwide, which resulted in unaffordable mortgage payments and many people defaulted or undertook foreclosure. Then this mortgages crisis affected worldwide. Different views on the reasons of the crisis include sub-prime mortgage, securitization and repackaging of loans, excessive leverage, mismatch between financial innovation and regulation, fair value accounting rules, typical characteristics of US financial system, failure of global corporate governance & complex interplay of multiple factors. Developed countries have so far been the most affected, with a decline in FDI inflows in 2008, mainly due to sluggish market prospects. Flows into developing economies continued to grow in 2008, but at a much lower rate than the year before. Indian economy and agriculture cannot be completely insulated from the global and domestic economic recessions. The impact of economic crisis on Indian agriculture and fisheries were transmitted through three distinct channels, viz., financial sector, exports and exchange rates, and the impact manifests itself in several direct and indirect ways. Some of the impacts were decreased GDP growth rate, high inflation, FDI inflows and international trade.

Apu Das, Kumar N.R., Biswajit Debnath and Mandal S.C.

2012-05-01

383

Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authoritystent with policy making authority

384

Linking extreme climate events and economic impacts: Examples from the Swiss Alps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses upon topics related to current and possible future extreme weather events in order to highlight the links between climatic change and its economic impacts. Most of the examples given here are drawn from observations in Switzerland and the Alpine region that have a wealth of climatic, environmental and socio-economic data. These enable detailed studies to be undertaken on trends in mean and extreme climates and their impacts. Model simulations for a ''greenhouse climate'' suggest that risks associated with various forms of extreme events that affect the Alps may increase in the future, which could lead to high damage costs. In addition to the direct impacts of extremes, it is also necessary to take into account the increasing economic value of infrastructure located in zones potentially at risk. The final part of the paper addresses some of the issues that are related to fully integrated modeling approaches that are aimed at assessing the costs of damage in the wake of an extreme event. (author)

385

Linking extreme climate events and economic impacts: Examples from the Swiss Alps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses upon topics related to current and possible future extreme weather events in order to highlight the links between climatic change and its economic impacts. Most of the examples given here are drawn from observations in Switzerland and the Alpine region that have a wealth of climatic, environmental and socio-economic data. These enable detailed studies to be undertaken on trends in mean and extreme climates and their impacts. Model simulations for a 'greenhouse climate' suggest that risks associated with various forms of extreme events that affect the Alps may increase in the future, which could lead to high damage costs. In addition to the direct impacts of extremes, it is also necessary to take into account the increasing economic value of infrastructure located in zones potentially at risk. The final part of the paper addresses some of the issues that are related to fully integrated modeling approaches that are aimed at assessing the costs of damage in the wake of an extreme event

386

The Ghost of Development Past: the Impact of Economic Security Policies on Saami Pastoral Ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was accompanied by reindeer herd accumulation and a corresponding degradation of resilience, increasing the susceptibility to herd losses to predators and adverse winters. For the last 20 years the Norwegian government has worked to halt degradation of pasture ecosystems and reduce susceptibility to environmental risks. These intended win-win policies have mainly been based on economic incentives, which have been developed together with Saami pastoralists through negotiated agreements. We argue that the continued degradation of the Saami pastoral ecosystems is a "ghost of the development past", as the big push policies have resulted in an economic security trap (EST. The gradual reduction of resilience has persisted as the ex post payments of disaster relief and predator compensation have impeded the long-term actions to reduce susceptibility to environmental risks, i.e., ex ante policies, thereby increasing dependency on elevated economic inputs to manage the risks. The transfer of liability for managing risks to the benefactor, both through ex ante and ex post policies, has further discouraged and constrained opportunities for adaptation by the pastoralists.

Nigel G. Yoccoz

2011-09-01

387

An analysis of China's coal supply and its impact on China's future economic growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many people believe that China's economic growth can continue almost indefinitely. For a manufacturing-based economy such as China's to continue to grow, it needs an adequate supply of inexpensive energy. To date, this energy growth has primarily come from coal, but China's indigenous coal supplies are now falling short of the amount needed to support this growth. In this situation, the status of China's future coal supply will be very important for China's future economic development. Our analysis shows that China's ultimate recoverable coal reserves equal 223.6×109 MT, and its production will peak between 2025 and 2030, with peak production of approximately 3.9×109 MT. The extent to which China can import coal in the future is uncertain. With rising coal demand, this combination is likely to create a significant challenge to China's future economic development. - Highlights: ? We analyze an issue of prime importance for the future of China's economy. ? The decline in coal supply will present a challenge to China's economic growth. ? Rising coal price will also have an adverse impact on economic growth

388

Impact of the economic recession on the European power sector's CO2 emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the impact of the economic recession on CO2 emissions in the European power sector, during the years 2008 and 2009. Three main determinants of the power sector's emissions are identified: the demand for electricity, the CO2 price, and fuel prices. A counterfactual scenario has been set up for each of these, i.e., what these parameters would have been if not affected by the recession. A simulation model of the European power sector is then employed, comparing a historical reference simulation (taking the parameters as actually occurred) with the counterfactual scenarios. The lower electricity demand (due to the recession) is shown to have by far the largest impact, accounting for an emission reduction of about 175 Mton. The lower CO2 price (due to the recession) resulted in an increase in emissions by about 30 Mton. The impact of fuel prices is more difficult to retrieve; an indicative reduction of about 17 Mton is obtained, mainly as a consequence of the low gas prices in 2009. The simulated combined impact of the parameters results in an emission reduction of about 150 Mton in the European power sector over the years 2008 and 2009 as a consequence of the recession. - Research highlights: ? CO2 emissions are simulated for the European power sector. ? Emissions reduced drastically because of the economic recession in 2008 and 2009. ? Lower electricity demand had highest impact and accounts for red highest impact and accounts for reduction of about 175 Mton. ? Impact of different CO2 and fuel prices on emissions is more limited.

389

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Selvarathinam Santhirasegaram

2007-01-01

390

Socio-economic and other non-radiological impacts of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is to introduce, in a generic sense, the elements that could comprise a socio-economic and non-radiological environmental impact assessment. The various social, economic and environmental impacts that could be associated with surface and near surface disposal are discussed through factors that could apply at the local, regional or national level. Impact management is also discussed. The report also introduces concepts to help Member States develop their own approaches to undertaking impact assessment and management. The report is intended to complement IAEA documents on the technology and safety aspects of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The scope of this report includes a discussion of a range of social, economic and nonradiological environmental impacts relevant to surface and near surface disposal and illustrations of some impact management measures

391

Socio-economic implications of climate change: Canadian climate impacts program study results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of results of the Canadian Climate Impacts Program series of studies examining the socio-economic impacts of climate change. In the Great Lakes basin, climate change may impact on numerous economic sectors. Lower lake levels could result in increased dredging of ports and channels or reduced cargo loads. Lower lake levels added to increased use of water could result in a loss of 4,165 GWh of power generation for the Canadian hydro-electric generating stations on the Great Lakes. A warmer climate may lead to crop failures in the agricultural heartlands of Ontario, as the advantages of higher temperature may be offset by moisture stress. The downhill ski industry may be decimated in southern Ontario. Rising sea levels may cause increased risk of storm surges and river flooding in the coastal areas of Canada. A warmer climate would probably be beneficial to aquaculture and allow longer inshore fishing seasons. Costs to oil and gas exploration due to sea ice and icebergs would be practically eliminated. Results for the Praire provinces were mixed: one study concluded that impacts would be minimal while another predicted a moderate reduction in spring wheat potential. 24 refs., 1 fig

392

Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ? We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ? Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ? Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ? Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

393

Economic impacts of climate change on agriculture: the AgMIP approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The current paper investigates the long-term global impacts on crop productivity under different climate scenarios using the AgMIP approach (Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project). The paper provides horizontal model intercomparison from 11 economic models as well as a more detailed analysis of the simulated effects from the Common Agricultural Policy Regionalized Impact (CAPRI) model to systematically compare its performance with other AgMIP models and specifically for the Chinese agriculture. CAPRI is a comparative static partial equilibrium model extensively used for medium and long-term economic and environmental policy impact applications. The results indicate that, at the global level, the climate change will cause an agricultural productivity decrease (between -2% and -15% by 2050), a food price increase (between 1.3% and 56%) and an expansion of cultivated area (between 1% and 4%) by 2050. The results for China indicate that the climate change effects tend to be smaller than the global impacts. The CAPRI-simulated effects are, in general, close to the median across all AgMIP models. Model intercomparison analyses reveal consistency in terms of direction of change to climate change but relatively strong heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effects between models.

Delincé, Jacques; Ciaian, Pavel; Witzke, Heinz-Peter

2015-01-01

394

A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever: Research Gaps and Needs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to evaluate them. Of the 52 papers selected for this review, 13 types of socio-economic impact were identified according to the sector impacted, the level and temporal scale of the impact. RVF has a dramatic impact on producers and livestock industries, affecting public and animal health, food security and the livelihood of the pastoralist communities. RVF also has an impact on international trade and other agro-industries. The risk of introducing RVF into disease-free countries via the importation of an infected animal or mosquito is real, and the consequent restriction of access to export markets may induce dramatic economic consequences for national and local economies. Despite the important threat of RVF, few studies have been conducted to assess the socio-economic impact of the disease. The 17 studies identified for quantitative analysis in this review relied only on partial cost analysis, with limited reference to mid- and long-term impact, public health or risk mitigation measures. However, the estimated impacts were high (ranging from $5 to $470 million USD losses). To reduce the impact of RVF, early detection and rapid response should be implemented. Comprehensive disease impact studies are required to provide decision-makers with science-based information on the best intervention measure to implement ensuring efficient resource allocation. Through the analysis of RVF socio-economic impact, this scoping study proposes insights into the mechanisms underpinning its often-underestimated importance. This study highlights the need for comparative socio-economic studies to help decision-makers with their choices related to RVF disease management. PMID:25256804

Peyre, M; Chevalier, V; Abdo-Salem, S; Velthuis, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Thiry, E; Roger, F

2014-09-24

395

Analysis of the Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Biomass Resources for Energy and Materials in the Netherlands. Appendix 2. Macro-economic Scenarios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (known as PGG), which is part of the Energy Transition programme in the Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to study the macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including techno-economic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a top-down study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down study (part 2) including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources, are presented in this report

396

Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As an optional step of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase in the ISO standards, normalization aims to express the magnitude of the impacts by comparing the characterized results against a common reference situation - the normalization references. In this study, we used inventories of two economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006 for North America. The normalization references have been calculated using recommended factors as well as with interim factors, as needed. It is found that, in spite of different inventory assumptions, the normalization references fall within the same order of magnitude for both North America and Europe. By analysing the most contributing substances, metals turn out to dominate the impacts in both regions. This may be explained by the interim status of the characterization factors (CFs) for metals, which might be overestimated in the current model. Part of the explanation may also lie in the incomplete coverage of organics in both the inventory and the CF databases. With respect to the intended global character of the USEtoxTM model, different approaches to determine normalization references of other economic systems (e.g. Asia or world) are discussed in relation to these findings. Overall, we thus recommend the use of the provided set of normalization references for USEtoxTM, but we also advocate 1) to perform an update as soon as a more comprehensive inventory can be obtained and as soon as characterization factors for metals are revised; 2) to consider extension to other economic systems in order to allow normalization in USEtoxTM to be used on a global scale.

Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne

2011-01-01

397

An Empirical Study of the Social Economic Impact of Federal Polytechnic on its Host Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A polytechnic, sited in a metropolitan environment especially, is regarded among other things as a veritable citadel of learning and vehicle for social – economic emancipation of the people. Not only that the institution be a source of light into the darkness of ignorance, poverty and disease, but it will also provide gainful employment opportunities to its patrons, through its many linkages which will inevitably spring up overtime. Host communities to such institutions are usually seen as the primary beneficiaries, if the opportunities thus provided are effectively harnessed. The corollary also holds that if a gap exists by omission or commission, between the expected and actual outcomes regarding the project’s impact on the host community, the credibility gap also widens. The wisdom in releasing their land for such projects. This study was undertaken to examine to what extent the Offa community was justified in hosting federal Polytechnic, vis-a-viz the economic impact that the latter is making on its host community. A survey research design was used while stratified sampling techniques were employed in selecting the sample, realizing the heterogeneous nature of the parameters employed. 50 questionnaires were distributed but only 34 were completed and returned which represented 68% response rate. Data collected were summarized using frequency tables while Pearson correlation analyses was further done to test the hypothesis that the establishment of Federal Polytechnic at Offa has not made any significant impact on the socio-economic life of Offa people. The finding showed that the impact so far made, is significant. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

G. K. Jenyo

2013-10-01

398

The impact of economic policy and structural change on gender employment inequality in Latin America, 1990-2010  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of economic policy and structural change on gender inequality in employment and economic opportunities for a set of 18 Latin American countries over the time period 1990-2010. We use three different methodologies to explore this question: 1) statistical description of changes in a range of gender inequality in economic opportunity variables in the 1990s versus the 2000s; 2) estimates of the growth elasticity of employment for women and ...

Seguino, Stephanie; Braunstein, Elissa

2012-01-01

399

Impact of the Economic Crisis on the Institutional Sectors of the Czech Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyzes institutional sectors of the Czech economy since 2000 with respect to the year 2009 when impacts of economic crisis were felt. It is an empirical analysis based on data of the national accounts. The sense was to show the different influence of this crisis on the sector of nonfinancial corporations, sector offinancial institutions, government sector and household sector. Initially, the economic crisis hit significantly mainly nonfinancial corporations in sphere of their performance but with little impact on profitability. Sector of financial institutions found in deficit itself in 2009 due to adverse development of interest balance and hugeoutflow of dividends, as well. The result in the household sector was reinforced by changes in redistribution processes both received benefits and paid payments. Received wages and salaries in household sector stagnated. Government sector was hit very significantly by crisis when its deficit doubled in 2009. From a broaderperspective the global financial and economic crisis brought for statistics and analyses also a need to watch not only total figures for economy but also an emphasis on the detailed view on the institutional sectors. This article is an attempt to contribute to this newly arisen and emphasized need.

Drahomíra Dubská

2011-12-01

400

Predicting the economic impact of an invasive species on an ecosystem service.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantifying the impact of alien invasive species on ecosystem services is an essential step in developing effective practices and policy for invasive species management. Here we develop a stochastic bioeconomic model that enables the economic impact of an invasive pest to be estimated before its arrival, based on relatively poorly specified ecological and economic parameters. We developed the model by using a hypothetical invasion of the varroa bee mite (Varroa destructor) into Australia and the negative flow-on effects that it would have on pollination by reducing honey bee populations, giving rise to a loss of pollination services, reduced crop yields, and additional production costs. If the mite were to continue to be prevented from entering the country over the next 30 years, we estimate that the economic costs avoided would be U.S. $16.4-38.8 million (Aus $21.3-50.5 million) per year. We suggest that current invasion response funding arrangements in Australia, which do not acknowledge these avoided damages, require amendment. PMID:17913144

Cook, David C; Thomas, Matthew B; Cunningham, Saul A; Anderson, Denis L; De Barro, Paul J

2007-09-01

401

Europeanization and urban policy networks : the impact of EU programmes on cooperation around economic development in Kraków and Glasgow  

OpenAIRE

This PhD thesis is the outcome of a research project that has analysed how EU programmes influence cooperation among local economic development actors in European cities. The focus of the research is particularly on the impact of the Europeanization process on urban policy networks. The study is based on a comparative analysis of two European cities, Krakow and Glasgow. In particular, the thesis looks into the impact of EU funds on local actor relations around economic development by analysin...

Sobczak, Anna

2010-01-01

402

Economic impact of explosive volcanic eruptions: A simulation-based assessment model applied to Campania region volcanoes  

Science.gov (United States)

PLINIVS Study Centre of University of Naples Federico II has developed a methodology that aims to estimate, in probabilistic terms, the direct and the indirect economic impacts of a Sub-Plinian I or Strombolian type eruption of Vesuvius. The economic model has been implemented as a complementary tool of the Volcanic Impact Simulation Model, a tool developed at PLINIVS Center available to the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) decision makers to quantify the potential losses consequent to a possible eruption of Vesuvius or Campi Flegrei. Along the expected time history of the eruptive event all the possible "direct costs" and the "factors" (indirect costs) impacting the economic growth in the event area have been identified. Each cost factor is built up through a specific algorithm that is fed by various providers, in order to run software that will estimate the global amount of economic damage from a volcanic event. The model does not include the economic evaluation of intangibles (e.g. human casualties), while the evaluation of damage to the local cultural heritage (historical buildings, archeological sites, monuments, etc.), is linked to the economic impact on tourism, estimated into indirect costs. The architecture of the model is based on a simulation logic, which allows an evaluation of different economic impact scenarios through input changes, allowing the model to be used as a tool to support the decision making process.

Zuccaro, Giulio; Leone, Mattia Federico; Del Cogliano, Davide; Sgroi, Angelo

2013-10-01

403

Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test-region by linking land-use data from Corine Land Cover and the typology from the FADN database. Issues related to carbon sequestration have also been addressed at an infra-regional scale, including both spatial and dynamic dimensions. This analysis relies on the use of micro-economic, dynamic land-use model, a geo-referenced database of soils characteristics and a carbon accounting model. We estimate the costs of carbon sequestration when switching from annual crops to pluri-annual energy crops, which allow higher carbon sequestration rates for a longer period of time. (author)

404

Estimates of the long-term U.S. economic impacts of global climate change-induced drought.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While climate-change models have done a reasonable job of forecasting changes in global climate conditions over the past decades, recent data indicate that actual climate change may be much more severe. To better understand some of the potential economic impacts of these severe climate changes, Sandia economists estimated the impacts to the U.S. economy of climate change-induced impacts to U.S. precipitation over the 2010 to 2050 time period. The economists developed an impact methodology that converts changes in precipitation and water availability to changes in economic activity, and conducted simulations of economic impacts using a large-scale macroeconomic model of the U.S. economy.

Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Loose, Verne W.; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-01-01

405

Energie-Nederland. Financial and economic impact of a changing energy market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed study of the Dutch power market has been carried out, including an assessment of the financial implications for conventional power plants. This study is to provide insight into the potential implications of the 16% RES (renewable energy sources) target without prescribing a particular scenario or outcome, or suggesting possible solutions. The study focuses on the potential financial and economic impact of meeting the RES target under different market scenarios. Also, the potential impact on security of supply and the need for flexible back-up capacity in the period 2013-2020 are assessed. Furthermore, an analysis is performed of potential market prices that are required for the economic feasibility of flexible back-up generation capacity with a very limited load factor. For the assessment of the financial impact of a changing energy market, the Dutch power market is modelled under various scenarios. Use has been made of a detailed model of Northwest Europe, in which all power stations, interconnections, and constraints (i.e. RES potential) are accounted for. In all scenarios, the 16% RES target is a binding constraint in that model. This means the model determines the least-cost option to meet this target, including wind onshore and offshore (up to the limit estimated by ECN), dedicated biomass and co-firing of biomass, and other sources such as solar.

NONE

2013-03-15

406

Economic impacts of EU climate policy until 2020; EU:n ilmastopolitiikan talousvaikutukset vuoteen 2020  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study evaluates the impacts of EU climate policy on the emission allowance price, electricity prices, the competitiveness of industry and macroeconomic developments in the third EU emission trading period 2013-2020. The economic impacts of climate policy on Finland are compared to the impacts on the entire EU area. It turns out that due to its cold climate and heating energy demand, higher export intensity of the economy and higher energy intensity of the industry Finland pays a higher price for EU climate policy in terms of output and employment losses than the EU on average. The study examines the macroeconomic effects of climate policy also in the more distant future, assuming that climate policy is tightened further in the 2020s. Climate policy implemented by emission trading means that the long-term economic growth in the EU area depends essentially on emission-free electricity production, and no longer on other growth factors, such as the labour supply and productivity growth. (orig.)

Rantala, O. E-mail: olavi.rantala@etla.fi

2012-07-01

407

Economic impacts of industrial wood energy use in the Southeastern U.S.A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the results of a study designed to quantify the conomic impacts associated with industrial/commercial wood energy use in the Southeastern region of the US. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy's Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program, managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study involved four overall activities: (1) estimation of industrial fuelwood consumption; (2) calculation of economic impact multipliers for the states and region via the use of the US Forest Service input/output model IMPLAN; (3) development of a personal computer-based input/output decision model using Lotus 1-2-3 software, for use in the study, as well as for future use by state planners, and (4) input of all the state data into the decision model and calculation of the state and regional economic impacts. The results of the analysis found net income for the region to be approximately $880 million/year, with 57,000 net jobs generated, as a result of 47.2 million tons of industrial fuelwood consumption in the region in 1987. For the year 2000, regional wood consumption was estimated to be 65.6 million tons, with the resulting net income for the region estimated to be $1.7 billion, resulting in the creation of 97,700 net jobs

408

Advances in Ileitis Control, Diagnosis, Epidemiology and the Economic Impacts of Disease in Commercial Pig Herds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proliferative enteropathy, commonly known as “ileitis” continues to be a significant production-limiting disease in pig herds throughout the world. The disease can be controlled with a combination of vaccination and antibiotic medication. However, pressure from consumers to reduce antibiotic use in livestock industries highlights the need to better understand the epidemiology of ileitis, the mechanisms of immunity, and to identify management factors that can reduce the load of Lawsonia intracellularis in both pigs and the environment. New diagnostic assays and economic modelling of ileitis will help producers target optimal treatment times and minimize the production losses associated with ileitis. This review aims to outline the current advances in disease diagnosis, epidemiology, control strategies and the economic impact of both clinical and sub-clinical disease.

Alison M. Collins

2013-09-01

409

Impact of the Taxes on Used Nuclear Fuel on the Fuel Cycle Economics in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2013, the Spanish government created two new taxes on used nuclear fuel. This article aims to present the results of an economic study carried out to compare the costs of long-term storage of used nuclear fuel –open cycle strategy–, with the cost of the strategy of reprocessing and recycling used fuel– closed cycle strategy– taking into account the impact of the new taxes on the global cost of the fuel cycle. The results show that the costs of open-cycle and closed-cycle spent fuel management, evaluated in Spain after the introduction of the taxes, are sufficiently similar (within the bounds of uncertainty, that the choice between both is predicated on other than purely economic criteria.

B. Yolanda Moratilla Soria

2015-02-01

410

The impact of non-economic damages caps on obstetrics: Incentives versus practice style.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper uses 1989-2010 county-level data to reexamine the effect of non-economic damages caps on the field of obstetrics. Previous literature found that caps on damages lead to both changes in the number of physicians and changes in treatment patterns. This paper investigates whether the changes in procedures are attributable to changes in incentives or to selection when new entrants could have a different practice style than incumbents. First, I find that the relationship between non-economic damages caps and the number of physicians and procedures identified in previous literature is not robust to the inclusion of the newer policy changes. Second, over the period when such changes were observed, the impact on procedures is concentrated in areas with the greatest changes in the number of obstetricians/gynecologists per capita, suggesting that most of the effect on procedures is driven by differences in practice style between entrants and incumbents. PMID:25647440

Cotet-Grecu, Anca

2015-04-01

411

Critical Impact of Latest Quality Issues and China Dairy Market Economic Overview: Comparative Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although general Chinese economy now is growing fast and takes leading positions in the world, its dairyindustry comes across several difficulties. It sustained a number of losses after a series of well-known incidentsinvolving food safety. It is certain that paramount mission of the current market conditions requires extensivestudies of critical impact caused. The situation with different dairy products varies, and that’s why the authordescribes in details the milk, cheese, and yoghurt markets. Also it is compared to the markets of Western Europe,Russia, India, New Zealand, Australia, America and Canada. This work attempts to analyze contemporarymarket situation in a retrospective contemplation of the corresponding dynamics and course of economic andpublic events, including basic trends, business analytics and adjacent studies in an endeavor to discover andsituate a better economic mechanism for the given field. The most considerable result is development ofeconomic and business recommendation that are bound to improve the problematic situation.

Andrew Zheleznov

2014-12-01

412

The Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth in Small-Open Developing Economies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The essence of this study is to verify the macroeconomic implications of cross-border remittances for economic growth prospects of small-open developing economies for the period, 1996-2006. A set of dynamic panel models specified within the framework of Blundell-Bond Generalized Method of Moments (GMM was empirically analyzed. Using annual panel data from 31 small-open developing countries from Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, this study argues that, contemporaneously, remittances contribute significantly to growth in small-open developing economies. Remittances, however, contribute more to long-run economic growth in Latin America and the Caribbean than to Sub-Saharan Africa. In dynamic terms, remittances retard growth, but with overall positive long-run growth impact across these developing economies. The methodology is very important to apply in another field.

C.R.K. Ahortor

2009-01-01

413

Sustainability of biomass electricity systems. An estimate of costs, macro-economic and environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the 1990s there has been a renewal of interest in the possibility of sustainable generating energy from biomass, an interest driven in part by the climate issue. Other motives are the search for alternatives for parts of Western agriculture and progress in the technological feasibility of efficiently producing high-quality energy from biomass. World-wide this renewed interest has led to a clear increase in research, demonstration and commercial implementation of biomass energy systems. A recent thesis concludes that biomass can contribute to all aspects of sustainability. In the context of sustainable development (often viewed as a concept having economic, social and ecological dimensions), the central question asked by this Ph.D. research is: How do biomass electricity systems compare to fossil-fuel systems and to the land-use that they may replace, in terms of costs, macro-economic and environmental impacts. This article presents a number of conclusions

414

Economic impact assessment of Turkey's post-Kyoto vision on emission trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the post-Kyoto period, Turkey strongly emphasizes the establishment of national emission trading system by 2015 and its integration with the EU ETS along its accession process to the EU. In this paper, we study the mechanisms of adjustment and economic welfare consequences of various ETS regimes that Turkey considers to apply by 2020, i.e. regional ETS and international trading within the EU ETS. We conduct our analysis under the current EU 20–20–20 emission target, 20%, and also under its revised version, 30%. We find that Turkey has economic gains from linking with the EU ETS under the 20% cap, in comparison to the domestic ETSs. Despite the EU's welfare loss under linkage in comparison to the case where Turkey has domestic abatement efforts, it still prefers linking as it increases economic well being compared to the case where Turkey does not abate. Under 30% cutback, Turkey has critical output loss under linkage due to high abatement burden on the EU, while the EU is better off as it passes some of its abatement burden to Turkey. Therefore, emission quotas and their allocation across the ETS and non ETS sectors become highly critical in distributing the overall economic gains from bilateral trading. - Highlights: • We conduct welfare analysis of Turkey's post-Kyoto vision on emission trading. • Welfare impacts of having Turkey in the EU ETS via EU accession are analyzed. • Analysis is done with the current EU target of 20%, and the revised target of 30%. • Welfare impacts of linkage on both regions highly depend on the emission targets. • The EU has welfare gains when Turkey engages in abatement actions

415

The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producersâ?? attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A â??multi-methodâ?ť or â??mixed methodâ?ť research methodology was employed for each case study.

Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

2013-02-11

416

Wind versus coal: Comparing the local economic impacts of energy resource development in Appalachia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two energy development scenarios were compared for the Coal River Mountain in Raleigh County, West Virginia: (1) mountaintop mining (MTM) of coal, and (2) wind energy plus underground mining of coal. Economic impact computations over the life of each energy development scenario were made on a county basis for output of goods and services, the number of jobs created, and local earnings. Externality costs were assigned monetary values for coal mining and subtracted from earnings. Premature mortality within the general population due to additional coal mining accounted for 96% of these external cost computations. The results showed that economic output over the life of each scenario was twice as high for MTM mining as wind energy plus underground coal mining. Over the short term, employment and earnings were higher for MTM mining, but towards the end of the scenario, cumulative employment and earnings became higher under scenario (2). When local externality costs were subtracted from local earnings, MTM coal production had an overall negative net social impact on the citizens of Raleigh County. The external costs of MTM coal production provide an explanation of the existence of a “resource curse” and the conflicting results of output versus income provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped. - Highlights: ? Mountaintop mining (MTM) was compared to wind plus underground mining. ? Economic output was twice as high for MTM. ? Employment anas high for MTM. ? Employment and earnings were cumulatively higher for wind energy. ? Including local externality costs, MTM had an overall negative net social impact. ? Results provide insights into why coal-producing counties are underdeveloped.

417

Biophysical and Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Poverty Impacts of Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper seeks to understand the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the impacts of climate change on agricultural output, international trade, and poverty. We incorporate biophysical uncertainty by sampling from a distribution of global climate model predictions for temperature and precipitation for 2050. The implications of these realizations for crop yields around the globe are estimated using the recently published statistical crop yield functions provided by Lobell, Schlenker and Costa-Roberts (2011). By comparing these yields to those predicted under current climate, we obtain the likely change in crop yields owing to climate change. The economic uncertainty in our analysis relates to the response of the global economic system to these biophysical shocks. We use a modified version of the GTAP model to elicit the impact of the biophysical shocks on global patterns of production, consumption, trade and poverty. Uncertainty in these responses is reflected in the econometrically estimated parameters governing the responsiveness of international trade, consumption, production (and hence the intensive margin of supply response), and factor supplies (which govern the extensive margin of supply response). We sample from the distributions of these parameters as specified by Hertel et al. (2007) and Keeney and Hertel (2009). We find that, even though it is difficult to predict where in the world agricultural crops will be favorably affected by climate change, the responses of economic variables, including output and exports can be far more robust (Table 1). This is due to the fact that supply and demand decisions depend on relative prices, and relative prices depend on productivity changes relative to other crops in a given region, or relative to similar crops in other parts of the world. We also find that uncertainty in poverty impacts of climate change appears to be almost entirely driven by biophysical uncertainty.

Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.; Verma, M.

2011-12-01

418

Economic Impact of the Dutch Gas Hub Strategy on the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the discovery of the Groningen gas field in 1959, the Netherlands has been a key player in the European gas market. The Netherlands has built up a large onshore and offshore Exploration and Production sector, it has a highly developed gas transmission and distribution network, and is a major exporter of gas to other EU Member States. The Netherlands has considerable expertise in all parts of the gas supply chain, and is a world centre for Research and development in natural gas supply and use. More recently construction has begun on terminals to allow the import of Liquid Natural Gas to the Netherlands. However, Dutch gas reserves are now in decline, and the Netherlands will become a net importer of gas around 2025. The Dutch government wishes to capitalise on the existing industry and skills and sustain the Netherlands' place in the European gas industry beyond the life of the existing gas fields. In November 2009 the Minister of Economic Affairs published a paper describing the strategy of turning the Netherlands into a 'Gas Hub' or 'gas roundabout' for north-west Europe. The Dutch government intends that the gas hub would capitalise on the existing skills and industry, increase competition and security of supply in the Dutch gas market, create employment and make a significant contribution to the Dutch economy. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has commissioned The Brattle Group to perform an analysis of the economic impact ofform an analysis of the economic impact of the gas hub concept. The study has several aims including: To analyse the current contribution of the Dutch gas sector to the economy; To assess the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats associated with the gas hub strategy; To quantify the benefits of the gas hub strategy to the Dutch economy. Note that the aim of the study is to define in more detail what a successful Dutch gas hub strategy would look like, to assess the strengths and weakness of the Dutch gas sector in achieving a successful gas hub strategy, and to quantify its economic impact.

419

Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the ..Section..1603 Treasury Grant Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the Section 1603 grant program.

Steinberg, D.; Porro, G.; Goldberg, M.

2012-04-01

420

The Impact of Human Capital Development on Economic Growth in Ethiopia: Evidence from ARDL Approach to Co-Integration  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of the study was is to investigate the long run and short run impact of human capital on economic growth in Ethiopia (using real GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic growth) over the period 75-2011. The ARDL Approach to Co-integration and Error Correction Model are applied in order to investigate the long-run and short run impact of Human capital on Economic growth. The finding of the Bounds test shows that there is a stable long run relationship between real GDP per c...

Kidanemariam Gidey Gebrehiwot

2014-01-01

421

Estimating the economic impact of climate change on the freshwater sportsfisheries of the Northeastern United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study links models of global climate circulation, ecology, and economic valuation (hedonic travel cost and random utility models) to value the impact of global warming on freshwater sportfishing in the Northeast. An origin-specific linear random utility model (RUM) is introduced. The results of the RUM are shown to be comparable to those of a hedonic travel cost model. A doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is predicted to generate between a $4.6 million loss and a $20.5 million net benefit for the Northeastern United States, depending on the climate scenario.

Pendleton, L. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Economics; Mendelsohn, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

1997-06-06

422

The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants

423

Economical and industrial impact of nuclear power stations construction in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief introduction the paper analyses the employment in the Belgian nuclear sector with regard to construction, the operation, the engineering of nuclear power plants as well as fuel reprocessing. In the economical section a comparison of the kWh cost of different sources is presented as well as the seasibility of this cost to the raw material price. The future installation of nuclear power plants is discussed and the impact of its delay on the Belgian economy by an absence of decision is analyzed. (AF)

424

Examining Climate Influences and Economic Impacts of Harmful Algal Blooms in Massachusetts: 1993 and 2005  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the potential causes of harmful algal blooms (HABs), or red tides, have been studied extensively, the relationships between the environmental drivers and economic impacts have not been fully explored. This paper examined the environmental-economic link by investigating similarities in the environmental conditions leading to the 1993 and 2005 HABs (caused by the dinoflagellate Alexandirum) along the Massachusetts coast, and the resulting effects on shellfish, public health, recreation, tourism, and the commercial shellfish industry in Massachusetts. Environmental influences including sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, precipitation, streamflow, and shellfish toxicity levels were examined for the years 1990 to 2005. Economic impacts on commercial fishery landings (Massachusetts mussel commercial fishery landings and Gloucester commercial fishery landings) were assessed for the years1990 to 2003. The Plume Advection hypothesis was studied and results showed that runoff from the five major rivers that contribute to the Western Maine Coastal Current, the current that carried these cells, peaked in April 1993 and 2005 relative to the mean which varied from river to river. The most intense wind stress coming from the North occurred in April 1993 and May 2005 with speeds of 15-20 m/s. A large decrease in salinity off the Massachusetts coast occurred in May 1993 and measured outside the 68% of 1993 salinity data recorded, and from the information available, in April and May 2005 waters were also less saline. Peaks in shellfish toxicity occurred in early June 1993 at approximately 400 ?g toxicity/g shellfish meat and in 2005 at 700 ?g toxicity/g shellfish meat. This indicated a lag time between peaks in runoff and toxicity of approximately one month and similarly with decreases in salinity. Runoff also corresponded to a large decrease in salinity during May 1993. Coincidentally, there was also a significant decrease in commercial fishery landings between 1992 and 1993, resulting in a decrease of millions of dollars of revenue for shellfish fishermen and the state of Massachusetts. The 2005 red tide affected 1700 shellfish fisherman and there was a projected loss of 527 million dollars for the 2005 Massachusetts shellfish season. Effects to tourism and public health for 1993 and 2005 were challenging to assess, however, due to scarcity of accurate information. Changing fishery policies affected commercial fishery landings during the same time and were also considered. These results argue for more accurate forecasts that will help predict future HABs, as well as improved methods to provide more reliable information on the economic impacts of HABs to minimize the negative impacts of future HABs.

Ngo, N.

2005-12-01

425

The economic impact on Aboriginal communities of the Ranger Project: 1979-1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

What are the benefits generated for Aboriginal people by mining projects like the Ranger Project? Are these projects likely to fulfill the expectations of Aborigines who support the controlled exploitation of mineral resources on their land? This article examines the economic impact of the Ranger uranium project on Aboriginal people. Its principal aim is to provide detailed information on the use of royalty-related payments made to traditional owners as a result of Ranger's operations, and the consequent employment, training and social service opportunities for Aborigines

426

Changes in taxation and their impact on economic growth in the European Union.  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the paper is to analyze changes in taxation and their impact on economic growth in the European Union. The analysis is performed on adjusted annual panel data of 24 European Union countries in a period 1995–2008. Panel regression with fixed effects is used as a basic method of research. The panel regression is based on analysis the effect of total tax quota changes on GDP growth in model 1, of changes in its components (social contribution, direct and indirect tax quotas) in mode...

Szarowska, Irena

2010-01-01

427

State and local planning procedures dealing with social and economic impacts from nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The roles of state and local agencies in planning for and managing social and economic impacts of nuclear power plants are studied. In order to be effective in these roles state and local agencies must work with each other as well as the NRC. A comparative case study approach is used which analyzes six sites in three West Coast states. The case studies included plants in operation, plants under construction, and plants still in the planning stages. In contrast to some states, all three of these states have moderately centralized procedures for siting power plants, and all have strong environmental laws

428

RESPIRATORY SYNDROME: A MAJOR THREAT TO THE LIVESTOCK FARMERS AND ITS ECONOMIC IMPACT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epidemiology of a respiratory syndrome was studied at Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC, Karachi, Pakistan and its economic impact was estimated. Among 5889 buffaloes examined, 2.3% animals were suffering from this syndrome. From some of the sick animals, Pasteurella multocida, the causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia, was isolated. In the present study, an average loss of Rs. 0.2 million per farm was calculated and the extrapolated values for 0.2 and 0.8 million animals present in LDC and other dairy colonies in Karachi were Rs. 225.6 and Rs. 1128.1 million, respectively.

A. B. ZAHUR, U. FAROOQ, M. HUSSAIN1, S. H. HASHMI2 AND R. MUNEER

2007-10-01

429

Atg7 deficiency impairs host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae by impacting bacterial clearance, survival and inflammatory responses in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause serious infections in humans. Autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) has been implicated in certain bacterial infections; however, the role of Atg7 in macrophage-mediated immunity against Kp infection has not been elucidated. Here we showed that Atg7 expression was significantly increase