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1

The Macroeconomic Impact of Defense Expenditure on Economic Growth of Pakistan: An Econometric Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The broad objective of the present study is to examine whether a long run relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth of Pakistan exist. For empirical investigation, an annual time series data over the period from 1980-2013, and ARDL was used. The empirical results support the existence of long run negative relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth. The results for long run negative relationship between defense expenditure and economic growth was suggested just in case Pakistan MKH does not hold during the period under study. The findings further suggested that the policy makers need to formulate appropriate policy to encourage and not to discourage the economic growth and development of Pakistan.

Muhammad Haseeb

2014-01-01

2

78 FR 67925 - Transfer of Real Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

...property at defense nuclear facilities for economic...Section 504 of the Energy and Water Development...legislative change under the Energy and Water Development...the term ``defense nuclear facilities'' in sections...impact on the human environment, as determined by...

2013-11-13

3

Impact of defense conversion and US response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conversion from military to civilian products due to defense conversion after the end of the Cold War takes a long as 20 years. In USA there are over 50 government programs funded to assist in defence conversion. This paper concentrates on the three major programs that will have the greatest impact on the economy, in the framework of the issues and needs of American industry. Federal government and US industry are making a considerable effort to transform how to do business today. One of the most important emerging themes in the federal program is international competitiveness. Large federal expenditures are made to support research and development that will increase productivity, thereby helping industry in global economic competition. This, in turn will play a key role in absorbing a large quantity od resources affected by the end of the Cold War

1994-11-27

4

Economic impact of climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume summarizes the first two of a series of six workshops to investigate the economic impact of climate. These two workshops dealt mainly with input-output and econometric models. Potential for introducing weather and climate variables was discussed. A listing of topics and authors follows: Economic Models and the Identification of Climatic Effects on Economic Processes, Stan Johnson; Economic Modeling, Jim Morgan; Econometric Modeling: State of the Arts for the US Agricultural Industry, Abner Womack; Regional Input-Output Models: Understanding Their Application, Charles Lamphear; Measuring Regional Economic Impact Associated With Unfavorable Conditions During Crop Production Periods: A concept Paper, Charles Lamphear; Possible Applications of Input-Output Models in Climatic Impact Analysis, William Cooter; and Aspects of Input-Output Analysis Pertinent to Climate-Economic Modeling: Three Short Notes, William Cooter. (PSB)

Eddy, A.

1980-05-01

5

Economic impacts study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

1988-09-30

6

Impact of Illegal and Legal Migration on the Defense Security of South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper will examine the phenomenon of migration, movement of people across national borders, into South Africa causing socio-economic challenges that negatively impact the internal defense security of South Africa. The question remains what role and h...

B. Maloy

2012-01-01

7

Economic impact of nuclear facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews empirical analyses of the economic impacts on areas surrounding operating nuclear facilities. Until recently, much of the work that addressed the subject of risk perception and potential impacts of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada claimed that there is the possibility of significant negative economic impacts. This paper adds to the ongoing debate drawing on empirical research compiled at existing nuclear facilities which have had actual operating impacts. This information demonstrates that the economic impacts have not necessarily been negative, in fact, in some cases the impacts have been considered very positive. The economic effects of operating nuclear facilities serves as an important element of analysis for estimating economic impacts of future nuclear sites, including the potential impacts of a high-level, radioactive waste site.

Knox, E. [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States); Burnison, S. [Weston/Williams Brothers Engineering Co., Washington, DC (US)

1992-11-01

8

10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...  

Science.gov (United States)

...transfer real property at defense...for economic development at less than...TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE...FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8...value for real property transferred for economic development, but DOE...

2010-01-01

9

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CULTURAL TOURISM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and placed on the tourist market, i.e. cultural resources are transformed into cultural tourism products. The main objective is fulfilling tourists' needs, and achieving positive effects which includes economic effects. Identification of the economic impact of cultural tourism is important because cultural resources have an inestimable value for the local community. Tourism valorisation should be used in order to achieve the necessary maximum effects with minimum negative impacts which tourism may leave on cultural resources. The objective of the paper is to identify the economic contribution of cultural tourism in the Republic of Croatia and to propose a model of identification of economic impact of cultural tourism.

Zrinka Zadel

2013-12-01

10

Ballistic Missile Defense : Impact of technology on global politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The focus of this paper is to discuss ballistic missile defense (BMD) systems and their impact on international relations. I have a profound interest in the correlation between technological innovation/improvement and changes in international politics. I have therefore chosen the impact of BMD on global politics as the subject of discussion in my paper. I begin the discussion by describing the technological segment of Ballistic Missile Defense systems, after which I indulge in the po...

Musaefendic, Armin

2007-01-01

11

Economic impact of world mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

2002-04-01

12

Economic Impact of Tourism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the traffic of tourists increased in a particular area, it was observed that environmental and ecological balances were disturbed due toover commercialization. The scenic beauty was made more ‘customer friendly’ and the natural tourism products more accessible and ‘saleable’ byman. Environmentalists are agitated about the damages and carelessness showed by the tourists. Culturally and socially, tourism can impact thedestination country, but its effect cannot be solely attributable to simple tourist activities. On the road to development, tourism products have alsowitnessed some changes. As the world changed and developed, new necessities were identified. As people became more aware, the needs changedand new tourism products were developed to satisfy these new found needs. The last few years have seen the emergence of new areas in tourism like,special interest tourism, green tourism, eco tourism, social tourism and so on.

Gabriela P?DURE

2005-10-01

13

Socio-economic impact analysis in the NEPA process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations require environmental impact statements to assess direct and indirect effects on a number of different environmental resource categories, including economic and social effects. However, NEPA regulations do not dictate the scope of the socio-economic analyses or specify which analytical procedures must be employed. As a result, socio-economic impact analyses vary considerably across NEPA documents in both the methodology of analysis and in the models used to quantify impacts. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of socio-economic analyses in NEPA documents and present strategies for ensuring that the socio-economic analyses are focused on the most relevant socio-economic indicators, while still conforming to the full intent of NEPA. This paper will provide guidance on what factors should be considered when identifying the economic indicators to be assessed. The paper will also describe and discuss various types of models currently used to quantify economic impacts in NEPA documents, and the comparative advantages and disadvantages of these models. In addition, the definition of the appropriate Return On Investment in relation to the model used and the analysis performed will be discussed. The offices of the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and the Food and Drug Administration present real world examples of innovative approaches to socio-economic impact analysis.

Karnovitz, A.; McQueen, S. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States)

1997-08-01

14

Economic impact of RVF outbreaks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dwarfing the direct losses due to ruminant abortions and flock mortality, the main economic impact of RVF is systemic and ensues from the trade restrictions aimed at its containment. Indeed, past outbreaks of RVF in East Africa and Middle East came as disturbing events in a commercial context of high specialization in trade of small ruminants and interdependence between East-African exporters and the Middle-Eastern importing countries. The two successive bans imposed by Middle-Eastern countri...

2012-01-01

15

Oak Ridge defense conversion -- Translating technology into economic growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1992 there were over 6,000 employees involved in defense related activities at the Y-12 Plant. By late 1994 the plant had undergone a dramatic change in operations including a reduction of the work force to less than 4,000 employees. That this major downsizing was accomplished without a layoff is a tribute to the combined efforts of the Y-12 employees, union leadership, the DOE, Martin Marietta and local and state governments. The keys to the success are: (1) the end of the Cold War and the potential impact was recognized early and a plan of action was developed and implemented, the plan was based on a total reorientation of the historical role and mode of operation of the plant; (2) everyone who had an interest in the outcome was invited to join in the planning; (3) the plan was developed and implemented as if no barriers to success existed; (4) opening about one-third of the classified portion of the Y-12 Plant as the initial activity was critical to the success of the plan. The historical opening of the gates was a major factor in convincing employees and a skeptical public that change could and would occur. As the debate on the future of the DOE weapons complex evolves it is clear that the Y-12 Plant will be a major contributor to improving productivity and the competitiveness of current and future industry in Tennessee and the country while continuing to provide unique expertise to support the nation`s nuclear weapons program.

Johnson, D.H.

1994-11-14

16

Economic impact of PCI remedies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper first outlines the data base on which the economic evaluation is performed. It includes: modifications of the design of the fuel; preconditioning of the fuel; ramping limitations; in-core fuel management modifications. The economic assumptions on which the study is performed are also outlined. They are representative of a PWR situation. For what fuel design modifications are concerned, some have a minor cost impact (e.g. pellet density, pellet length to diameter ratio, gap size, etc...), while some others may have a quite large impact on the fissile material cost (e.g. duplex pellet), the fabrication cost (e.g. coating of the cladding ID) or the reprocessing cost (e.g. interlayer between pellet and cladding). The preconditioning of the fuel may require to run the reactor in a mode unrelated to the energy demand. This aspect can be minimized by a proper adjustment of in-core fuel management. The ramping limitation is the most usually adopted approach. Different cases are investigated and the impact on generating cost is discussed. The in-core fuel management can also contribute to a better ramping performance of the fuel. Exemplative cases show that this leads to a minimum cost penalty. (author)

1980-01-01

17

Precalving temperament and maternal defensiveness are independent traits but precalving fear may impact calf growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human safety can be compromised by the response of beef cows to handling or when defending their calf. However, little is known about how precalving temperament, postcalving defensiveness, and maternal care are related. The impacts of cow temperament on calf neonatal vigor and ADG are also unknown. Data were collected on 2 farms (Farm 1, n = 143, 1 parity; Farm 2, n = 237, 2 parities). Temperament was recorded before calving when restrained in a crush (crush score), on exit from the crush (flight speed), and when isolated with a handler. Defensiveness was recorded within 4 d after calving during handling of the calf. Maternal interactions with the calf and calf vigor were recorded for 3 h after calving (Farm 1 only) and ADG was measured over 7 mo. Crush score and flight speed were repeatable within a parity (range in repeatability 0.33 to 0.49; P < 0.001). Crush score (0.50; P < 0.001) and defensiveness (up to 0.71; P < 0.001) were repeatable across parities. Temperament and defensiveness were unrelated on Farm 1; on Farm 2 a fearful crush score was associated with heightened defensiveness as measured by vigorous movement during calf handling (P < 0.001). Temperament and defensiveness were unrelated to calving ease or the amount of maternal behavior shown to the calf. At Farm 1, cows that exited the crush quickly had calves with a lighter birth weight (P = 0.023) and those that were agitated when isolated had calves with a decreased ADG (P = 0.017). Defensiveness was unrelated to ADG and neither temperament nor defensiveness affected calf vigor. Cow precalving temperament and postcalving defensiveness are repeatable but appear to be independent traits, neither of which is related to maternal interactions with the neonatal calf. Reducing precalving fearfulness should not affect postcalving behavior and changing postcalving defensiveness should not affect other maternal care traits. Fearful cows may produce calves with decreased birth weight and ADG, which, if confirmed, suggests that cow fearfulness may have wider economic implications than previously realized. PMID:23825324

Turner, S P; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B

2013-09-01

18

Should economic impacts be treated as externalities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is considerable debate over what is properly considered an externality. In a growing number of states, the inclusion of environmental externalities in bidding programs has gained a measure of acceptance. But many planners are going further, treating economic impacts - such as the creation of new jobs - as externalities. Studies which attempt to monetize the creation of new jobs for inclusion in the price of resources have also appeared in the literature. In this paper, the author argues against including economic impacts in the list of externalities. He maintains that such impacts do not constitute true externalities associated with electricity production, nor is there a justifiable economic method of assigning monetary values to them. This should not be construed as a recommendation to ignore economic impacts in the selection of utility resources; rather, it is simply a recommendation not to consider these impacts within the framework established for other externalities. 2 tabs.

Sanghi, A.K. (New York State Energy Office, Albany (USA))

1991-03-01

19

Supplemental environmental impact statement - defense waste processing facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document supplements the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE Issued in 1982 (DOE/EIS-0082) to construct and operate the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a major DOE installation in southwestern South Carolina. That EIS supported the decision to construct and operate the DWPF to immobilize high-level waste generated as a result of nuclear materials processing at SRS. The DWPF would use a vitrification process to incorporate the radioactive waste into borosilicate glass and seal it in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal at a permanent geologic repository. The DWPF is now mostly constructed and nearly ready for full operation. However, DOE has made design changes to the DWPF since the 1982 EIS to improve efficiency and safety of the facility. Each of these modifications was subjected to appropriate NEPA review. The purpose of this Supplemental EIS is to assist DOE in deciding whether and how to proceed with operation of the DWPF as modified since 1982 while ensuring appropriate consideration of potential environmental effects. In this document, DOE assesses the potential environmental impacts of completing and operating the DWPF in light of these design changes, examines the impact of alternatives, and identifies potential actions to be taken to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, and health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

1994-01-01

20

The economic impact of climate change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates show that climate change initially improves economic welfare. However, these benefits are sunk. Impacts would be pr...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts

1981-01-01

22

Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

1985-01-01

23

Defense Waste Processing Facility: Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. Final environmental impact statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Envgy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 103m3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

1982-01-01

24

Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available techniques for quantitative economic impact assessment: partial budgeting, partial equilibrium analysis, input output analysis, and computable general equilibrium analysis. These techniques differ in ...

Soliman, T. A. A.; Mourits, M. C. M.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.; Werf, W.

2010-01-01

25

Wind Power: The Economic Impact of Intermittency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wind is the fastest growing renewable energy source for generating electricity, but economic research lags behind. In this study, therefore, we examine the economics of integrating large-scale wind energy into an existing electrical grid. Using a simple grid management model to investigate the impact of various levels of wind penetration on grid management costs, we show that costs of reducing CO2 emissions by relying more on wind power depend on the generation mix of the existing electrical ...

Kooten, G. C.

2010-01-01

26

The economic impact of renewable energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

1998-01-01

27

The economic impact of renewable energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices.

NONE

1998-02-01

28

The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

2013-01-01

29

Defense Spending and Economic Growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan: Evidence from Cointegrated Panel Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigates the nexus between defense spending and economic growth in China, India, Nepal and Pakistan. The empirical analysis is based on integration and cointegration properties of data over the p...

Rudra Prakash Pradhan

2010-01-01

30

Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

1976-01-01

31

Economic impact analysis of load forecasting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Short term load forecasting is an essential function in electric power system operations and planning. Forecasts are needed for a variety of utility activities such as generation scheduling, scheduling of fuel purchases, maintenance scheduling and security analysis. Depending on power system characteristics, significant forecasting errors can lead to either excessively conservative scheduling or very marginal scheduling. Either can induce heavy economic penalties. This paper examines the economic impact of inaccurate load forecasts. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the effect of different load forecasting accuracy. Investigations into the effect of improving the daily peak load forecasts, effect of different seasons of the year and effect of utilization factors are presented

1997-08-01

32

Engineering support data update for the Hanford Defense Waste: Environmental Impact Statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides updated engineering support data for development of an environmental impact statement for Hanford defense, high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. This document should be used in conjunction with the original engineering support data entitled Hanford Defense Waste Disposal Alternatives: Engineering Support Data for the Hanford Defense Waste - Environmental Impact Statement. The updated data are intended to reflect data and information gathered since 1983, and are current to January 1987. Updated data include inventories, site descriptions, engineering methodologies for retrieval of single-shell tank waste, and facilities descriptions and costs. Errata for the original engineering data is also included as an appendix. 9 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs

1987-01-01

33

Economic impact of uranium mining in Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principal economic impacts are the result of three flows of money from the industry into the remainder of the state's economy. These are: money paid to individuals (personal income); money paid to other businesses (business income); and money paid to state and local governments (government revenues). Growth has come in a largely rural, seven-county area that lies within the triangle formed by the Laredo, San Antonio, and Corpus Christi metropolitan areas. 4 refs

1980-01-01

34

Broad economic impact of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision to adopt, expand or reject a nuclear programme has implications that go beyond economic considerations limited to the cost of electricity produced. This report attempts to illustrate the treatment of macroeconomic factors in the decision-making process of various countries, and discusses the macroeconomic impacts of nuclear power, such as employment, balance of payments, security of supply, as well as environmental, health and socio-cultural issues. 274 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs., 9 appendices

1992-01-01

35

The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic incapacitating illness that affects between 400,000 and 800,000 Americans. Despite the disabling nature of this illness, scant research has addressed the economic impact of CFS either on those affected or on the national economy. Methods We used microsimulation methods to analyze data from a surveillance study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas, and derive estimates of productivity losses due to CFS. ...

Reynolds Kenneth J; Vernon Suzanne D; Bouchery Ellen; Reeves William C

2004-01-01

36

How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding changes in efficient firm boundaries as consequence of changes in uncertainty. The analysis suggests that we need to be more precise in describing the nature of the uncertainty that is assumed in the various theories. Moreover, allowing for changes in levels of uncertainty requires that we take the processes of boundary changes into account in the theory of firm boundaries.

Foss, Kirsten

2010-01-01

37

Study on the economic impact of the Research Councils - Research ...  

News, Events and Publications ... Study on the economic impact of the Research \\Councils ... in their field in a one-off report, setting a baseline2 against which \\further economic impacts can be assessed and reported on an annual basis'.

38

Increasing the Economic Impact of the Research Councils ...  

News, Events and Publications ... Increasing the Economic Impact of the \\Research Councils ... This document sets out an action plan to demonstrate and \\increase the economic impact of the UK Research Councils as recommended in \\the ...

39

78 FR 42054 - Office of Economic Adjustment; Notice of Cooperative Agreement  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Office of Economic Adjustment; Notice of Cooperative Agreement...cooperative agreement with the Office of Economic Adjustment (OEA) for Research and Technical...invites proposals to continue to provide economic data to Defense-impacted...

2013-07-15

40

Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

2004-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Economic Impact of FMD in Chazhoor Panchayath  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease is probably the most important livestock disease in the world in terms of economic impact. Of all the vesicular diseases prevalent in India, FMD remains the greatest and most feared scourge. In Chazhoor Panchayat, 62 animals were affected with FMD, out of which 28 were vaccinated. The economic loss was calculated taking into consideration milk loss, losses due to abortion and treatment charges. The total economic loss was calculated as Rs 313900/- out of which loss in milk production accounted for 80.68%. Cost of milk was calculated at the rate of Rs. 12/ litre, to assess the economic loss. Treatment cost includes vehicle charges and cost of medicine. An average loss of 8 hrs/day/ animal was calculated. Vaccination cost of Rs. 5/ animal was also considered. Towards the nursing of animal and disinfection of shed, loss of manpower of 2-hrs/ animals for 5 days was calculated. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 5-6

Litty Mathew and Deepa G Menon

2008-02-01

42

Defensive technology and welfare analysis of environmental quality change with uncertain consumer health impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measuring the ex post losses from environmental quality change is an important issue when environmental contamination creates health risks, liability is assigned, and private compensation efforts are required. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring the ex post welfare impact of environmental quality change using market behavior from defensive expenditures. Conditions under which a defensive technology can provide a bound on welfare estimates are identified

1993-05-01

43

The economic impact of venture capital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to evaluate the macroeconomic impact of venture capital (VC). We test the assumption that VC is similar in several respects to business R&D performed by large firms and therefore contributes to economic growth through two main channels: innovation and absorptive capacity. The quantitative results, based on a panel of 16 OECD countries from 1990 to 2001, show that the social return of VC is significantly higher than the social return of business or public R&D. An increased ...

Pottelsberghe La Potterie, Bruno; Romain, Astrid

2004-01-01

44

SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience  

Science.gov (United States)

Business interruption (BI) losses for the SAFRR tsunami scenario are derived from the forecasted physical damages of about 100 million at the Ports of Los Angeles (LA) and Long Beach (LB), and 700 million in marina damages, and 2 billion in inundated property damages along the California coast. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction in California's gross domestic product (GDP). The analysis involves several steps. First, estimates are made of immediate business interruption losses due to physical damage to facilities or to disruption of production. Second, total economic impacts (consisting of both direct and indirect effects) are measured by a general equilibrium (quantity and price multiplier effects) of lost production in other sectors through ripple effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. Third, many types of resilience are applied to demonstrate their potential reductions of the impacts. At the Ports of LA and LB, a two-day port shutdown, cargo losses, and additional terminal downtimes would expose 1.2 billion of trade (import and export) value associated with over 4 billion of BI losses. The sectors potentially most affected by trade disruptions are leather, metal, and motor vehicle manufacturing. Excess capacity, inventories, export conversion, and conservation could reduce the direct trade impacts by 85%. Production recapture alone (including clearing the backlog of waiting ships) could reduce BI losses by 85%. The Port of LA commercial fishing would be subject to damages to the fleet, perished fish that cannot be landed, and lost fishing days. Although BI losses are relatively small, the southern Californian fishing sector could incur a 4% drop in output. The impacts would depend on the speed at which boats are repaired and whether lost fishing days can be made up. Ship-building and repair could also be negatively affected, but these impacts would be offset somewhat by reconstruction. Effects on commercial fishing in other locations were not closely examined to assess the impacts. Extensive damages to marinas along the California coast could result in 30 million BI losses in terms of GDP. Interestingly, the service sectors including and relating to marinas (recreation, food services, and retail) indicate possible gains (of .02-1%) from price increases greater than the losses from quantity decreases. Sectors associated with development (residential construction, water and sewage, and health care) could suffer the most with losses of .03% or less. However, these sectors will likely also be bolstered by reconstruction. Economic hardships would be localized and the resilience of the marina sector would depend on alternative moorings and excess capacity elsewhere. Inundated coastal property damages could generate 1.7 billion of BI losses. Application of sector recapture factors (e.g., using overtime) alone could reduce these losses by 80%. For the overall set of loss categories, BI losses amount to 6 billion, and resilience strategies indicate the potential to reduce these economic impacts by 80-90%.

Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

2013-12-01

45

The economic impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because ocean acidification has only recently been recognised as a problem caused by climate change, impact studies are still rare and estimates of the economic impact are absent. This paper estimates the economic impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs which are generally considered to be economically as well as ecologically important ecosystems. First, we conduct an impact assessment in which atmospheric concentration of CO2 is linked to ocean acidity causing coral reef area loss. Next...

Brander, Luke M.; Rehdanz, Katrin; Beukering, Pieter J. H.; Tol, Richard S. J.

2009-01-01

46

The impact of genome defense on mobile elements in Microbotryum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repeat induced point mutation (RIP), a mechanism causing hypermutation of repetitive DNA sequences in fungi, has been described as a 'genome defense' which functions to inactivate mobile elements and inhibit their deleterious effects on genome stability. Here we address the interactions between RIP and transposable elements in the Microbotryum violaceum species complex. Ten strains of M. violaceum, most of which belong to different species of the fungus, were all found to contain intragenomic populations of copia-like retrotransposons. Intragenomic DNA sequence variation among the copia-like elements was analyzed for evidence of RIP. Among species with RIP, there was no significant correlation between the frequency of RIP-induced mutations and inferred transposition rate based on diversity. Two strains of M. violaceum, from two different plant species but belonging to the same fungal lineage, contained copia-like elements with very low diversity, as would result from a high transposition rate, and these were also unique in showing no evidence of the hypermutation patterns indicative of the RIP genome defense. In this species, evidence of RIP was also absent from a Class II helitron-like transposable element. However, unexpectedly the absolute repetitive element load was lower than in other strains. PMID:19898943

Johnson, Louise J; Giraud, Tatiana; Anderson, Ryan; Hood, Michael E

2010-03-01

47

Economic impacts of climate change in Australia: framework and analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: There is growing interest in understanding the potential impacts of climate change in Australia, and especially the economic impacts of 'inaction'. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the possible economic impacts of future climate change in Australia is undertaken using ABARE's general equilibrium model of the global economy, GTEM. In order to understand the potential economy-wide economic impacts, the broad climatic trends that Australia is likely to experience over the next several decades are canvassed and the potential economic and non-economic impacts on key risk areas, such as water resources, agriculture and forests, health, industry and human settlements and the ecosystems, are identified. A more detailed analysis of the economic impacts of climate change are undertaken by developing two case studies. In the first case study, the economic impact of climate change and reduced water availability on the agricultural sector is assessed in the Murray-Darling Basin. In the second case study, the sectoral economic impacts on the Australian resources sector of a projected decline in global economic activity due to climate change is analysed. The key areas of required development to more fully understand the economy-wide and sectoral impacts of climate change are also discussed including issues associated with estimating both non-market and market impacts. Finally, an analytical framework for undertaking integrated assessment of climate change impacts domestically and globally is developed

2007-10-02

48

Statement of Expectation on Economic and Societal Impact ...  

News, Events and Publications · Press Releases · Press ... Research Councils \\UK Mission for Social and Economic Impact provides for the first time a clear \\statement on its role in enhancing the economic and social wellbeing. It covers \\the ...

49

Impact of defense-only and opposing eyewitness experts on juror judgments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research shows that expert testimony on eyewitness memory influences mock-juror judgments. We examined the extent to which opposing expert testimony mitigates the impact of defense-only expert testimony. Participants (N = 497) viewed a video-taped trial involving an eyewitness identification and individually rendered verdicts and evaluated the evidence and the experts. We manipulated the Foils (unbiased vs. biased) and Instructions (unbiased vs. biased) of the lineup and Expert Testimony (no expert vs. defense-only expert vs. opposing experts). Expert testimony did not significantly influence juror judgments, but the opposing expert testimony diminished the credibility of the defense expert in the eyes of the jurors. Results point to the need for further research on conditions that qualify the impact of expert testimony. PMID:15638210

Devenport, Jennifer L; Cutler, Brian L

2004-10-01

50

The economic impacts of energy efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

1990-09-18

51

Local economic impact of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The local economic impact of nuclear installations is examined and the conclusion reached that much of the subsequent area growth may be coincidental to the facility. Nuclear siting criteria favor proximity to a regional power grid, abundant water for cooling, and extensive vacant land with a major access road. These criteria coincide with the characteristics of commuter suburbs, centers for retirement, and recreation areas. Clustering of nuclear units introduces an extraordinary level of new construction, office requirements, and capital. Economic changes will occur at the start and completion of the construction stage and at the time of decommissioning the facility. Past experiences are detailed in terms of employment, payroll, housing, public services, and procurement. When construction is completed, employment falls to a relatively low level. Proximity to the plant offers no advantage in terms of local power rates. While nuclear facilities do not preclude other development in the area, there are restrictions on access, regulatory agencies may reject absorbing the cost of public use as a business expense in the rate structure, and security measures may constrain public use. There is pressure for tax equalization laws to compensate communities for the loss of potential property tax revenues. Some agencies (e.g., the Tennessee Valley Authority) make in-lieu-of-tax payments, while some plants have produced tax benefits large enough to effect significant public improvements. 8 references

1977-01-01

52

Climate Change: Socio-Economic impacts and violent conflict  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report contains a literature study on the socio economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect. The socio economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors in chapter 2 of the study. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are the topic of chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to ...

Ec, Ierland; Mg, Klaassen; Nierop T; van der Wusten H

2012-01-01

53

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

54

Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) has developed a spreadsheet-based wind model (Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI)) that incorporates economic multipliers for jobs, income, and output. Originally develo...

M. Golberg K. Sinclair

2004-01-01

55

Streamlining Administrative Procedures at the Defense Language Institute: The Strategic Impact Model in Action  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance at the Defense Language Institute was examined through the prism of human performance technology and the strategic impact model. This examination revealed performance deficiencies in the administrative realm that required mainly a noninstructional intervention. A systematic analysis showed that digitizing administrative procedures…

Oded, Yaniv; Su, Bude

2010-01-01

56

Economic Systems of OECD Nations: Impact and Evolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This essay argues that economic systems should be defined in terms of clusters of complementary institutions. To show how such an approach can be carried out, I use a cluster analysis technique and data on forty different economic institutions in OECD nations to isolate four quite different economic systems. After specifying the most important institutional clusters in each system, I then examine what impact these economic systems have on various indicators of economic performance. Finally, I...

Pryor, Frederic L.

2004-01-01

57

Government Information Public Impact of Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The era of information economy, benign information resources is scarce resources, information socio-economic activities is the most active factor. Information from the economics point of view, the transition economies in government information on the economic characteristics, economic function, pointed out that market imperfections and market information asymmetry, and the importance of open information market, namely the role of economic growth, And the unlimited demand for scarce resources ...

Qun Zhan

2009-01-01

58

The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a chronic incapacitating illness that affects between 400,000 and 800,000 Americans. Despite the disabling nature of this illness, scant research has addressed the economic impact of CFS either on those affected or on the national economy. Methods We used microsimulation methods to analyze data from a surveillance study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas, and derive estimates of productivity losses due to CFS. Results We estimated a 37% decline in household productivity and a 54% reduction in labor force productivity among people with CFS. The annual total value of lost productivity in the United States was $9.1 billion, which represents about $20,000 per person with CFS or approximately one-half of the household and labor force productivity of the average person with this syndrome. Conclusion Lost productivity due to CFS was substantial both on an individual basis and relative to national estimates for other major illnesses. CFS resulted in a national productivity loss comparable to such losses from diseases of the digestive, immune and nervous systems, and from skin disorders. The extent of the burden indicates that continued research to determine the cause and potential therapies for CFS could provide substantial benefit both for individual patients and for the nation.

Bouchery Ellen

2004-06-01

59

A look at local economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The benefits of mega-projects such as Hibernia and the Sable Offshore Energy Project on the local economies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were discussed. It was argued that most of the spin-off activities of such mega-projects are realized externally because the projects are driven by external interests and external funding, and are designed for external markets. Few of the short-term activities that can be done locally provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Studies have shown that the impact of mega-projects on smaller economies is mainly on the construction sector and related supplies industries. Another reason why mega-projects have limited real effects on the local economy is that foreign investors have traditional supply sources, often with affiliated companies. Local availability of appropriate skills is yet another potential limiting factor. Moreover, most mega-projects have social, environmental and political consequences that are often under-estimated and ignored. In this author's view, most mega-projects have limited long-term domestic spin-offs. The challenge is to maximize the net benefits, and to minimize the social and environmental costs

1998-04-20

60

A look at local economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The benefits of mega-projects such as Hibernia and the Sable Offshore Energy Project on the local economies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were discussed. It was argued that most of the spin-off activities of such mega-projects are realized externally because the projects are driven by external interests and external funding, and are designed for external markets. Few of the short-term activities that can be done locally provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Studies have shown that the impact of mega-projects on smaller economies is mainly on the construction sector and related supplies industries. Another reason why mega-projects have limited real effects on the local economy is that foreign investors have traditional supply sources, often with affiliated companies. Local availability of appropriate skills is yet another potential limiting factor. Moreover, most mega-projects have social, environmental and political consequences that are often under-estimated and ignored. In this author`s view, most mega-projects have limited long-term domestic spin-offs. The challenge is to maximize the net benefits, and to minimize the social and environmental costs.

Bradfield, M. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada)

1998-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Global Economic Slowdown: It's impact on employment in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present global economic crisis has its roots in housing loans issued to many people, by the American financial companies,who have not the repaying capacity. First of all economic recession heated to American economy and after that the major economies of the world were destructed by it. The recession in the US market and the economic slowdown termed as Global recession have engulfed complete world economy with a varying degree of recessional impact.World over the impact has diversified an...

2012-01-01

62

Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

None

1981-12-22

63

Economic and Financial Crime and its Impact on the Economic Security of Ukraine ????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

National economy criminalization and shadow economic relations reproduction has a significant impact on the whole system of national economy at every stage of the historical development, and in particular on the economic security of the state. Shadow economic relations become an obstacle to effective structural reforms in the state. They prevent the state coping with the economic crisis, making the national economy trade and speculative raw material appendage of the global economy. Prerequisi...

Khavanov Artem V.

2012-01-01

64

????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????? GLOBAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UKRAINE ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  ?????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ????????????. ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????. Factors that caused global economic crisis have been explored. The estimation of crisis processes development in Ukrainian economy has been made. Anticrisis macroeconomic actions have been generalised and their effectiveness was analysed. The perspectives of recovery processes of global economic growth have been outlined.   ??????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????. ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????. ???????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ? ???????????????? ?? ?????????????. ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????.

?.?. ???’??????

2012-03-01

65

Economic trends and China's impact on world trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ministry of Economic Development has asked the NZIER to examine the impact of: [1] increased integration of the world economy i.e. the economic trends and how they impact on economic/business activity; and [2] China as a world economic power and how it is affecting globalisation trends. Are these trends accelerating and/or changing under China’s influence? How important is China’s influence compared with other influences? This paper is organised in a way that briefly canvasses each of...

Nixon, Chris

2005-01-01

66

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Kar...

2009-01-01

67

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

1991-01-01

68

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

1991-01-01

69

Global Economic Slowdown: It's impact on employment in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present global economic crisis has its roots in housing loans issued to many people, by the American financial companies,who have not the repaying capacity. First of all economic recession heated to American economy and after that the major economies of the world were destructed by it. The recession in the US market and the economic slowdown termed as Global recession have engulfed complete world economy with a varying degree of recessional impact.World over the impact has diversified and its impact can be observed from the very fact of falling Stock market. In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction, a general slowdown in economic activity over a period of time.

Mr. S. S. Shimpale

2012-05-01

70

Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

Dovenmuehle, Timo R.H. von der [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

2013-07-01

71

Economic value and environmental impact (EVEI) analysis of biorefinery systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The selection of product portfolios, processing routes and the combination of technologies to obtain a sustainable biorefinery design according to economic and environmental criteria represents a challenge to process engineering. The aim of this research is to generate a robust methodology that assists process engineers to conceptually optimise the environmental and economic performances of biorefinery systems. A novel economic value and environmental impact (EVEI) analysis methodology is pre...

Martinez-hernandez, E.; Campbell, G.; Sadhukhan, J.

2013-01-01

72

The Impact of economic crisis on HRM practices in Estonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Department of Marketing and Management 13.10.2010 Master’s Thesis Helene Vösa THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON HRM PRACTICES IN ESTONIA Research Objectives The main objective of this study is to gain the overall picture of how the current economic crisis has impacted four areas of Human Resource Management: 1) recruiting and selection, 2) reward systems, 3) training and development, and 4) performance appraisal in Estonia. The case of Est...

Vo?sa, Helene

2010-01-01

73

The economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy) on South Africa's Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Northern Cape province. Data on biltong hunting were derived from a national survey conducted in 2007 and data on trophy hunting were derived from the Professional Hunting Association of South Africa (PHASA). The re...

Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville; Merwe, Petrus

2011-01-01

74

Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

1993-01-01

75

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

1993-01-01

76

Capturing the Overall Economic Impacts of HEIs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

University of Strathclyde were commissioned on behalf of the Tripartite Advisory Group (TAG) on higher education in Scotland to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the overall impact of higher education in Scotland. The Strathclyde report examines evidence from Scotland, UK and international studies to draw conclusions about the impact of HE on the Scottish economy.

Hermannsson, K.; Swales, K.

2010-01-01

77

The Impact of Rules on Economic Activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the rules, the importance of those rules that influence economic activity. It will be presented the institutions starting from the "rules of the game" until the "rule of law". Then it will be explained the concept of "spontaneous order" and the importance of that order in society. For a good economic activity, we need a “good governance”. It will be explained what this means good governance and how addiction affects about institutional change.

Veronica Coca

2010-12-01

78

The Impact of Economic Growth on Employment in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria has enjoyed a long period of sustained economic growth since 2001 and yet, there is rampant unemployment in the country. There are various studies that have supported that growth is a pathway to employment. Thus, this paper investigated the impact the economic growth in Nigeria had on employment generation. The Johansen vector- Error correction model was used in the investigation. The findings revealed that, although economic growth had positive relationship with employment, the relationship is not significant. Foreign private investment has negative impact while Public expenditure has positive and significant impact on employment. It is concluded that the growth in Nigeria does not support employment. The paper recommended that, growth in the economy can support employment if the government gear expenditure towards areas like labour intensive Industry that can create more employment. Key words: Public expenditure; Economic growth; Decent work

OLONI Elizabeth Funlayo

2013-02-01

79

The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

2009-06-01

80

Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 {approx}2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789{approx}919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015{approx}12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of national economy, by having economic profit over all scenarios of construction costs. (2) Export A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation amounts to 899{approx} 1,140 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 7,324{approx}9,287 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Value added inducing effect amounts to 339{approx}464 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 766{approx}778 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Employment inducing effect amounts to 3,616{approx}4,339 men for the 1st reactor export and to 29,471 {approx}35, 364 men for the 10th reactor export. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost-benefit of exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically non-profitable for the natural gas price less than or equal to 10.23 $/MMBtu over all scenarios on exporting number of the reactors and turns out to be economically profitable for the other price level from the exporting number of 4 or 6. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost-benefit and value added inducing effect, exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically profitable from the point of view of national economy for more than equal to 2nd reactor depending on the scenarios of the natural gas price. (3) Intangible Social Gains The intangible social gains of SMART Project by contributing to Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improving Korea's global standing in the science area amounts to 245{approx}458 billion won

Jeong, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Boo, K. D.; Park, S. B. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-15

 
 
 
 
81

Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ?2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789?919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015?12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of national economy, by having economic profit over all scenarios of construction costs. (2) Export A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation amounts to 899? 1,140 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 7,324?9,287 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Value added inducing effect amounts to 339?464 billion won for the 1st reactor export and to 766?778 billion won for the 10th reactor export. Employment inducing effect amounts to 3,616?4,339 men for the 1st reactor export and to 29,471 ?35, 364 men for the 10th reactor export. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost-benefit of exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically non-profitable for the natural gas price less than or equal to 10.23 $/MMBtu over all scenarios on exporting number of the reactors and turns out to be economically profitable for the other price level from the exporting number of 4 or 6. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost-benefit and value added inducing effect, exporting SMART reactors turns out to be economically profitable from the point of view of national economy for more than equal to 2nd reactor depending on the scenarios of the natural gas price. (3) Intangible Social Gains The intangible social gains of SMART Project by contributing to Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improving Korea's global standing in the science area amounts to 245?458 billion won

2010-01-01

82

The Impact of ICT on Economic Sectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the author could not find a reassuring mathematical and statistical method in the literature for studying the effect of information communication technology on enterprises, the author suggested a new research and analysis method that he also used to study the Hungarian economic sectors. The question of what factors have an effect on their net income is vital for enterprises. The highest increment of specific Gross Value Added was produced by the fields of ‘Manufacturing’, ‘Electricit...

Sasvari, Peter

2011-01-01

83

On the economic impacts of nuclear techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The essential intension of nuclear techniques is expounded. The historical developments of nuclear techniques are reviewed. The effects of nuclear techniques on national economy are discussed in detail. As a high technology, nuclear techniques have been in vigorous development with increasing economical benefits. It is expected that nuclear techniques will play greater roles in transforming traditional fields of economy and bringing about a new technological revolution

1990-01-01

84

Climate change impacts on forestry: Economic issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meteorological evidence indicates the likelihood of global climatic warming in the near future. A study was carried out of the economic effects of climate change on the Canadian forestry sector. The measurement of net economic benefits of climate change, and the complexities associated with such measurements are discussed. Assuming a productivity increase of 20% as a result of carbon dioxide doubling, Canada's potential harvests of timber would increase by a total of 7.5%, as a result of less but more productive forest land. An economic analysis was carried out of the shift in timber supply balances due to changes in the US forest sector due to climate change. A decline in US productivity is expected due to lower rainfall and increased desert conditions in many parts of the US. It is not clear whether Canada experiences a net gain or a net loss on account of the climate changes modelled, as in addition to the elasticities of supply and demand, it also depends on existing trade barriers and the extent to which timber production in other countries is affected by climate change. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

1990-01-01

85

Climate change impacts on forestry: Economic issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Meteorological evidence indicates the likelihood of global climatic warming in the near future. A study was carried out of the economic effects of climate change on the Canadian forestry sector. The measurement of net economic benefits of climate change, and the complexities associated with such measurements are discussed. Assuming a productivity increase of 20% as a result of carbon dioxide doubling, Canada's potential harvests of timber would increase by a total of 7.5%, as a result of less but more productive forest land. An economic analysis was carried out of the shift in timber supply balances due to changes in the US forest sector due to climate change. A decline in US productivity is expected due to lower rainfall and increased desert conditions in many parts of the US. It is not clear whether Canada experiences a net gain or a net loss on account of the climate changes modelled, as in addition to the elasticities of supply and demand, it also depends on existing trade barriers and the extent to which timber production in other countries is affected by climate change. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Kooten, G.C. Van

1990-01-01

86

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.

Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

How to cite this article: Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Ferreira, M., 2009, ‘The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park’, Koedoe 51(1, Art. #158, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.158

Madelien Ferreira

2009-01-01

87

Social and macro economic impact of closure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

1999-01-01

88

Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

1996-01-01

89

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

1992-01-01

90

Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

1992-01-01

91

The Economic Impact of Merger Control Legislation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on a unique dataset of legislative changes in industrial countries, we identify events that strengthen the competition control of mergers and acquisitions, analyze their impact on banks and non-financial firms and explain the different reactions observed with specific regulatory characteristics of the banking sector. Covering nineteen countries for the period 1987 to 2004, we find that more competition-oriented merger control increases the stock prices of banks and decreases the stock p...

Carletti, E.; Hartmann, P.; Ongena, S.

2008-01-01

92

The economic impact of merger control legislation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on a unique dataset of legislative changes in industrial countries, we identify events that strengthen the competition control of mergers and acquisitions, analyze their impact on banks and non-financial firms and explain the different reactions observed with specific regulatory characteristics of the banking sector. Covering nineteen countries for the period 1987 to 2004, we find that more competition-oriented merger control increases the stock prices of banks and decreases the stock p...

Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Onega, Steven

2007-01-01

93

Disparate impact of oxidative host defenses determines the fate of Salmonella during systemic infection in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species function in host defense via mechanisms that remain controversial. Pathogens might encounter varying levels of these species, but bulk measurements cannot resolve such heterogeneity. We used single-cell approaches to determine the impact of oxidative and nitrosative stresses on individual Salmonella during early infection in mouse spleen. Salmonella encounter and respond to both stresses, but the levels and impact vary widely. Neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes kill Salmonella by generating overwhelming oxidative stress through NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase. This controls Salmonella within inflammatory lesions but does not prevent their spread to more permissive resident red pulp macrophages, which generate only sublethal oxidative bursts. Regional host expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase exposes some Salmonella to nitrosative stress, triggering effective local Salmonella detoxification through nitric oxide denitrosylase. Thus, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species influence dramatically different outcomes of disparate Salmonella-host cell encounters, which together determine overall disease progression. PMID:24439899

Burton, Neil A; Schürmann, Nura; Casse, Olivier; Steeb, Anne K; Claudi, Beatrice; Zankl, Janine; Schmidt, Alexander; Bumann, Dirk

2014-01-15

94

Economics of Biofuels: An Overview of Policies, Impacts and Prospects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the economics of biofuels. It starts by describing the remarkable growth of the biofuel industry over the last decade, with emphasis on developments in the United States, Brazil and the European Union, and it identifies the driving role played by some critical policies. After a brief discussion of the motivations that are commonly argued in favor of biofuels and biofuel policies, the paper presents an assessment of the impacts of biofuels from the economics perspective. In particular, the paper explains the basic analytics of biofuel mandates, reviews several existing studies that have estimated the economic impacts of biofuels, presents some insights from a specific model, and outlines an appraisal of biofuel policies and the environmental impacts of biofuels. The paper concludes with an examination of several open issues and the future prospects of biofuels.

GianCarlo Moschini

2013-03-01

95

IMPACT OF REMITTANCES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study focused on the importance of remittances inflow and its implication for economic growth and poverty reduction in Pakistan. By using ARDL approach we analyze the impact of remittances inflow on economic growth and poverty in Pakistan for the period 1973-2010. The district wise analysis of poverty suggest that overseas migration contributes to poverty alleviation in the districts of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan however NWFP is not portraying a clear picture. The empirical evidence sh...

2012-01-01

96

Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000–2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impac...

Selin, Noelle Eckley; Wu, S.; Nam, Kyung-min; Reilly, J. M.; Paltsev, Sergey; Prinn, Ronald G.; Webster, Mort David

2009-01-01

97

Systematic review of methods for evaluating healthcare research economic impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies.

Majdzadeh Reza

2010-03-01

98

Refinery economics affected by FCC impact on alkylation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) ''complex,'' including alkylation and other downstream processes, must be operated as an integrated system in order to maximize profits. Many factors have changed refining economics, including the increased demand for higherquality unleaded gasoline. Therefore, an evaluation of the cumulative impact of the FCC operation on downstream processes must be considered to maximize the operating margin of the total complex. IONA's FCC simulation model evaluates the significant items that contribute to the impact of FCC operating condition changes. Economics and alkylation, the vapor recovery unit (VRU), polymerization, MTBE, and other processes are included in the evaluation.

McDonald, G.W.G.

1985-04-01

99

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the so [...] cio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Madelien, Ferreira.

100

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy

1995-01-00

 
 
 
 
101

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency`s far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 45 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE`s impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy.

Lansford, R.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). New Mexico Agricultural Experiment Station; Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Office of Energy, Science and Technology; Ben-David, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Economics

1996-08-01

102

Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

1995-01-01

103

The economic impact of coal in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Input-output analysis is used to assess the importance of the coal industry to the Canadian economy and to estimate the magnitude of multiplier effects due to a change in final demand for coal production. The values of direct purchases of labour, energy, and materials by the Canadian coal industry are given for Canada as a whole and for each coal-producing province. Inter-industry linkages for coal mining are calculated by sector, in particular for the rail and water transportation and the electricity generating sectors. The total impact of coal production on the Canadian economy is discussed. For 1992, it represented one per cent of the gross domestic product. 14 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs., 1 app.

Hatch, S.; Florizone, A.; Heggelund, M.

1995-12-01

104

Malaria and Climate Change: Discussion on Economic Impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Climate change is a global environmental change that is adversely affecting human health by causing various health impacts in countries throughout the world. Climate is the most influential driving force of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Changes in climate factors substantially affect reproduction, development, distribution and seasonal transmissions of malaria. Climate change increases the outbreak of malaria which causes adverse economic impacts in endemic regions. This study reviews literature related to economic impacts of malaria at different levels such as household and national level. The study also focuses on the impacts of malaria on the economic growth of various nations. Approach: Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Several electronic databases were searched for published literature in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to economic impacts of malaria illness. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Related literature and documents were also found through communicating with colleagues working in this research area. Results: The literature review indicates that malaria causes great economic losses at household level through human morbidity and mortality and consequently lower labor productivity, disability and poverty. At the national level, malaria affects negatively the trade, investments, savings and tourism sector. Macroeconomic studies estimated that the annual growth rate of per capita GDP of malaria endemic countries was 0.25-1.3% points lower per year than that of non-malarious countries. Conclusion: Reducing the burden of malaria could help to break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty that contributes to economic growth of the endemic countries. Therefore, further research is urgently needed to ensure interventions for controlling the malaria disease more effectively in the advent of climate change.

Md. S. Mia

2011-01-01

105

The Economic Impact of Vocational Education and Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains papers from a conference on the economic impact of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Australia and elsewhere. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (C. Selby Smith, Fran Ferrier); "Opening Address" (Peter LeP. Darvall); "Trends and Issues in Vocational Education and Training: A Perspective from Europe"…

Smith, C. Selby, Ed.; Ferrier, Fran, Ed.

106

The Economic Impact of US Sanctions with Respect to Cuba  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a request last spring by the House of Representatives, the US International Trade Commission issued its report late last month on the economic impact of US sanctions towards Cuba. The comprehensive report presents an overview of US sanctions on Cuba; a description of the Cuban economy and its trade and investment trends; an analysis of the "historical impact of US sanctions on both the US and Cuban economies"; and an evaluation of the current impact of US sanctions on US - Cuba bilateral trade, investment, employment, and consumers. The report makes no recommendations concerning US policy towards Cuba and explicitly avoids anticipating any change in the current sanctions regime.

107

The Uncertainty about the Total Economic Impact of Climate Change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses a vote-counting procedure to estimate the probability density function of the total economic impact as a parabolic function of global warming. There is a wide range of uncertainty about the impact of climate change up to 3 °C, and the information becomes progressively more diffuse beyond that. Warming greater than 3 °C most likely has net negative impacts, and warming greater than 7 °C may lead to a total welfare loss. The expected value of the social cost of carbon is abou...

Tol, Richard S. J.

2011-01-01

108

The NASA Lewis Research Center: An Economic Impact Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), established in 1941, is one of ten NASA research centers in the country. It is situated on 350 acres of land in Cuyahoga County and occupies more than 140 buildings and over 500 specialized research and test facilities. Most of LeRC's facilities are located in the City of Cleveland; some are located within the boundaries of the cities of Fairview Park and Brookpark. LeRC is a lead center for NASA's research, technology, and development in the areas of aeropropulsion and selected space applications. It is a center of excellence for turbomachinery, microgravity fluid and combustion research, and commercial communication. The base research and technology disciplines which serve both aeronautics and space areas include materials and structures, instrumentation and controls, fluid physics, electronics, and computational fluid dynamics. This study investigates LeRC's economic impact on Northeast Ohio's economy. It was conducted by The Urban Center's Economic Development Program in Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. The study measures LeRC's direct impact on the local economy in terms of jobs, output, payroll, and taxes, as well as the indirect impact of these economic activities when they 'ripple' throughout the economy. To fully explain LeRC's overall impact on the region, its contributions in the areas of technology transfer and education are also examined. The study uses a highly credible and widely accepted research methodology. First, regional economic multipliers based on input-output models were used to estimate the effect of LERC spending on the Northeast Ohio economy. Second, the economic models were complemented by interviews with industrial, civic, and university leaders to qualitatively assess LeRC's impact in the areas of technology transfer and education.

Austrian, Ziona

1996-01-01

109

The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

2004-01-01

110

Economic crisis impact on Remittances and Migration level in Albania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remittances of international migrants as the second largest flow of incomes contribute to the well-being of their households of origin and also have an impact at macro-economic level. Out-migration is an effective means for low-income households to quickly overcome shortages of income. The sustenance of poor households might have been more difficult without such remittances. From a macro perspective, remittances contribute to the equalization of the income distribution among households having out-migrants. Remittances have enforced the Albanian economy since 1992 especially they had a positive and large contribution in consumption level, investment and GDP. But the economic crisis of 2008 has affected large sectors of the population in developed and developing nations and international immigrants have not been the exception because there have been an economic downturn. Remittances in Albania represent the second main source of incomes and this study documents the recent slowdown in workers’ remittances, the money that international immigrants send back home. Current data indicates that remittance flows have slowed for all regions of the globe. This paper tries to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on remittances level and also the negative impact of their slowdown in the Albanian economy.

Adela Shera

2014-07-01

111

The Impact of Fiscal Deficits on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The study investigates the impact of fiscal deficits on economic growth in Nigeria in 1970 – 2009. Budget deficit arises from fiscal operations of the government. Technically, a deficit would arise whenever expenditure surpasses revenues. In Nigeria, huge fiscal deficits had been recorded over the some years. To what extent have these impacted economic growth in Nigeria? In considering this question, this paper posits that the inter play of other variables such as broad money supply along with fiscal deficits may give a better understanding of the budget deficit situation in Nigeria. The ordinary least square was carried out on the data to test the type of relationship between the variables whether positive or negative and to find out if the variables are significant or not. The finding, show that fiscal deficits positively affects economic growth in Nigeria and money supply is significant in explaining economic growth (GDP variation in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that government spending should be more in productive sectors of the economy and adequate monetary policy should be geared towards balancing the role money supply plays to both budget deficits and inflation.

Key words: Fiscal deficits; Economic growth; Government spending and budget deficits

Joseph Oboba Achegbulu

2012-05-01

112

Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

2001-01-01

113

Economic Impact of Nuclear Power Plant in The Operational  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study on economic impact of nuclear power plant in the operational stage, in Madura has been conducted. The object of the study is SMART technology which is coupled with desalination installation. The power capacity is 2 x 100 M We and the water production capacity is 4 x 10,000 m3/day. This technology has been developed by Korea, but until recently there is no units in construction or operation. Input-Output analysis model is applied as the methodology of this study. Economic sector is aggregated from 56 x 56 to 10 x 10. This aggregation is meant to reduce the uncertainty in long term projection. This study conclude that : (1) In the operational stage SMART Nuclear Power Desalination will give an output to local economic about Rp 908.12 billion per year. (2) Electricity and water production will provide output direct impact to Madura about Rp. 1,234 trillion and will give direct impact to Regional Product Domestic Bruto (PDRB) about Rp. 138.7 billion. (3) Output impact to the electricity sector and fresh water sector is about 5.37% and 1.57% compared to PDRB 2018. (author)

2004-01-01

114

Capabilities of the Japanese Self-Defense Force and Its Impact on United States-Japan Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the capabilities of the Japanese Self-Defense Force (JSDF) is necessary to understand its impact on U.S. Japan relations. Few scholars have done the due diligence needed to truly determine the capabilities of this force. For example, general d...

J. E. Pettibon

2011-01-01

115

Economic impacts of expenditures on solar heating. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines a range of macroeconomic impacts of expenditures on residential active (domestic hot water) and passive solar heating systems in Canada. The impacts considered are employment, gross domestic product, gross production and federal tax revenues. For purposes of comparison, the impacts of expenditures on electric power generated at existing facilities, and the construction of new nuclear and coal-fired generating stations are also estimated. Representative designs of a new and retrofitted passive solar house, and a typical solar water heating system, were developed and costs were estimated and incorporated into an interprovincial input-output model from Statistics Canada. The model provides estimates, at provincial level, of economic impacts associated with any specified set of expenditures. One of the two sets of estimates made for employment and gross domestic product takes into account the impacts from consumer purchases out of household incomes earned from solar heating or alternate expenditures. Variations among the provinces are considerable, but the overall pattern that emerges from the results is as follows. Expenditures on solar heating generate more employment, gross domestic product and federal revenues than equal expenditures on electric power and additional generating capacity. The province in which the expenditures are made and the systems are installed receives most of the immediate impacts. Subsequent impacts are generally channeled to Ontario and Quebec. Impacts from expenditures on electric power are more localized than for any other option. 8 refs., 2 figs., 33 tabs.

1982-09-01

116

ASEAN Economic Cooperation: Trade Liberalization Impacts on the National Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the impact of trade liberalization by focusing on twelve priority industrial sectors in the ASEAN-5 (Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. The General Equilibrium Model based on Multi-country Input Output Data as provided by the GTAP is used to measure potential economic benefits of reducing tariffs on output, trade balance, welfare gain, and competitiveness. We compare the outcome of the CGE approach with the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results show that the outcomes of the CGE Model does not match those suggested by the AHP. However, they do support the findings of Falianty (2005, Achsani and Siregar (2010, Achsani and Partisiwi (2010, Nugroho and Yanfitri (2011. Our results suggest that taking non-economic but relevant factors from public opinion into account affects the robustness of CGE studies based purely on economic factors.

Sugiharso Safuan

2012-09-01

117

Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated. (author)

Kaiser, M.J.; Olatubi, W.O.; Pulsipher, A.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

2005-05-01

118

Economic, energy, and environmental impact of the Louisiana Energy Fund  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Louisiana Energy Fund is a public-private cooperative endeavor created by the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority, Hibernia National Bank and Lehman Brothers to provide publicly funded institutions in the state with low cost, tax exempt financing to implement energy and water conservation projects. In September 2002, the Louisiana Bond Commission authorized the issuance of $15.3 million dollars in tax-exempt bonds to fund seven energy and water retrofit performance contracts. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the expected economic, energy, and environmental impact of the performance contracts. An input-output model is developed to quantify the expected total economic benefit, and based on the terms of the performance contracts, the expected energy and environmental impacts of the program are estimated

2005-05-01

119

The economic impacts, costs and opportunities of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper considers the strategies that are available to cope with the widely expected global warming. Cooperation in arriving at an effective treaty is likely only if perceived benefits exceed the expected costs. It is difficult to assess the likely regional impacts of global warming. Useful estimates of the potential biological and socio economic impacts of climate change are possible. Rising sea level is one of the major predicted problems. African countries are especially vulnerable to climatic change, partly due to dependence on agriculture. Global warming is likely to exacerbate the North-South divide. 30 refs.

Perry, A. (University College of Swansea, Swansea (UK). Dept. of Geography)

1992-03-01

120

ASEAN Economic Cooperation: Trade Liberalization Impacts on the National Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to analyse the impact of trade liberalization by focusing on twelve priority industrial sectors in the ASEAN-5 (Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines). The General Equilibrium Model based on Multi-country Input Output Data as provided by the GTAP is used to measure potential economic benefits of reducing tariffs on output, trade balance, welfare gain, and competitiveness. We compare the outcome of the CGE approach with the Cost Benefit Analysis ...

Sugiharso Safuan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

Zaheer Khan KAKAR

2011-12-01

122

The economic impact of tourism in six German national parks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tourism in protected areas can create considerable income for adjacent communities. Based on face-to-face visitor surveys, the present study measures the structure, size and economic impact of tourist expenditure in the six German national parks Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer, Bayerischer Wald, Eifel, Müritz, Hainich and Kellerwald-Edersee. We find that mean daily expenditure per person is considerably below the national averages for tourists in Germany: day-trippers spend between EUR 7 and 1...

Marius Mayer; Martin Mueller; Manuel Woltering; Julius Arnegger; Hubert Job

2010-01-01

123

Malaria and Climate Change: Discussion on Economic Impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Climate change is a global environmental change that is adversely affecting human health by causing various health impacts in countries throughout the world. Climate is the most influential driving force of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Changes in climate factors substantially affect reproduction, development, distribution and seasonal transmissions of malaria. Climate change increases the outbreak of malaria which causes adverse economic...

Mia, Md S.; Begum, Rawshan A.; Ah-Choy Er; Zainal Abidin, Raja D. Z. R.; Pereira, Joy J.

2011-01-01

124

Impacts of current global economic crisis on Asia's labor market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates the labor market and social impacts of the global financial and economic crisis in Asia and the Pacific as well as national policy responses to the crisis. It draws on recent macroeconomic, trade, production, investment, and remittances data to assess the employment and social consequences of the crisis, including falling demand for labor, rising vulnerable and informal employment, and falling incomes and their related pressures on the working poor. The paper provides s...

Huynh, Phu; Kapsos, Steven; Kim, Kee Beom; Sziraczki, Gyorgy

2010-01-01

125

Economic Impact of Ecotourism in Mount Cameroon Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecotourism activities are growing in popularity around the world and generating considerable financial effects to the local population. The definitions of this phenomenon are still evolving, but generally include references to travel to natural areas and local conservation benefits. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impact of this business to the youths and the local communities in the Mount Cameroon region under a Non Governmental Organization (NGO) called Mount Cameroon...

Njumba, Oscar

2012-01-01

126

Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

2005-10-01

127

A systematic approach for evaluating economic impact of voltage dips  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power quality is known to be as much an economical issue as a technical challenge. Voltage dip, one of the most prevailing power quality ailments, is known to cause wide-ranging disruptions with economic loses running into hundreds of thousands of dollars. This impact is likely to worsen as many modern electrical apparatus are increasingly relying on semiconductor devices that are vulnerable to voltage dips. Although there exists measures to mitigate against voltage dips but they can be costly and in many cases, it has been difficult to justify their investments. It is therefore imperative to evaluate the economic costs of such disruptions so that their severity can be fully comprehended and correction measures justified. This paper proposes a systematic approach for evaluating this cost in a manufacturing facility setting. It adopts the fault tree analysis to represent the relationship between devices that are vulnerable to voltage dips and processes that have high economical consequences if they are disrupted. The method considers the system performance, device tolerances, effect of device failures on manufacturing process and the corresponding economic losses. This evaluation allows the importance of individual devices to be assessed so that efforts can be concentrated on those financially more rewarding measures. (author)

Wang, J.; Chen, S.; Lie, T.T. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

2007-02-15

128

Economic valuation of effects on health within Health Impact Assessments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public health experts widely agree that policies, programs and projects from numerous sectors have a decided influence on health determinants, hence the surge of interest in prospective “Health Impact Assessments” (HIA. Likewise, economic considerations currently pose a major challenge throughout the field; health economists developed a range of approaches to calculate (indirect costs of diseases, treatments etc. The question arises then, if and how can economic valuation of health effects within HIAs take place now or in the future. To investigate this issue, the Department of Public Health, University Bielefeld, along with the Institute of Public Health North-Rhine Westphalia (loegd, Germany, conducted an email-survey. The answers of 68 participating experts and practitioners from 16 countries and from international organizations showed that so far, only a small fraction of them (7% have conducted economic valuations; more than one third (37%, however, at least sometimes discusses this option. The main obstacles seem to be: lack of knowledge about methodological details, existing uncertainties, and various problems in defining economic value for effects on health. Cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analysis were nominated most frequently as candidate methods. Participants also provided nearly 300 commentaries concerning potentials and/or risks that these economic valuations might have. This paper is mostly about the basic and quantitative results from the survey; it is planned to publish the qualitative results (with detailed discussion of the range of arguments “pro” and “con” in a separate paper.

Julia Nowacki

2007-09-01

129

Preliminary assessment of the aquatic impacts of a proposed defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the literature indicates that a significant body of descriptive information exists concerning the aquatic ecology of Upper Three Runs Creek and Four Mile Creek of the Savannah River Plant south of Aiken, South Carolina. This information is adequate for preparation of an environmental document evaluating these streams. These streams will be impacted by construction and operation of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility for solidification of high level defense waste. Potential impacts include (1) construction runoff, erosion, and siltation, (2) effluents from a chemical and industrial waste treatment facility, and (3) radionuclide releases. In order to better evaluate potential impacts, recommend mitigation methods, and comply with NEPA requirements, additional quantitative biological information should be obtained through implementation of an aquatic baseline program.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.

1979-01-01

130

The Impact of FDIs Flows on the Nigerien Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Niger, since the 70s has always adopted an approach that makes the IDE a major component of its development plan. It `s so, a series of measures have been taken to make the country more attractive to Foreign direct investment FDI This policy has guaranteed the country a few annual flow between the period 1970 to 2008.The aim of this paper is to try to study the impact of FDI on economic growth in Niger. Observe the literature study on FDI in Niger, however, it is also becoming important to see the between FDI and economic performance since it has not been addressed specifically yet. While it is still unclear of whether there is any relationship between FDI and economic growth in Niger, especially as regard to the causality within the relationship.The theory and the current empirical literature on the relationship between FDI and growth have provided ambiguous results. Using VAR (Vector Autoregressive model, this paper explores the causal relationship between FDI and economic growth for the period 1970-2008 in Niger. With in the Granger causality framework, this study finds a long-term relationship between FDI and economic growth. This finding is a long-term relationship between variables but failed to establish the direct correlation between each variable. This can be explained by the fact that low volume flows of FDI in Niger have major consequences on the economic system, particularly on employment, inflation and GDP. More, this weakness is emphasized by the insignificance of the volume of capital flows (domestic and foreign circulating in the Nigerian economy and domestic savings.

Ousseini Hamadou

2011-07-01

131

Impacts of Antifoam Additions and Argon Bubbling on Defense Waste Processing Facility Reduction/Oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe+2/?Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

2012-01-01

132

IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

2011-11-07

133

The Impact of Economic Crises on the Perception and Knowledge Level of Students Regarding Economic and Financial Concepts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Economic crisis, during the past two years, has an impact on Greek students of 17 years old. Elements of the crisis have intruded on their everyday life. Economic and financial concepts constitute part of their attempt to understand the world they live in and as a result affect their educational level. This paper is an exploratory attempt to study the effects of economic crisis in the economics knowledge of Greek students using a sample of 62 Senior High School (lyceum) students. Data analyze...

2013-01-01

134

Defensiveness in Female College Students and Its Impact on Their MAST and CAGE Scores  

Science.gov (United States)

This study found a statistically significant inverse relationship between defensiveness and female college students' Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (M. L. Selzer, 1971) and CAGE (J. A. Ewing, 198 ) scores. Female college students who produce negative screening scores were more defensive than those whose alcohol use screens were positive.…

Laux, John M.; Salyers, Kathleen M.; Jones, Amy L.

2007-01-01

135

Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

1986-03-17

136

Evaluation the potential economic impacts of Taiwanese biomass energy production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Taiwanese rice paddy land set-aside program diverts a substantial land area. Given today's high energy prices and interests in energy security, that set-aside area could be converted to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This study evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of such a policy change using a Taiwanese agricultural sector model. The results show that such a strategy provides increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. These outcomes indicate that the agricultural sector could play a positive role by producing renewable energy. -- Highlights: ? This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of converting set-aside area to produce bioenergy feedstocks. ? Taiwanese agricultural sector model is built and applied to evaluate such impacts. ? The empirical results show that producing bioenergy using set-aside area could provide increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. ? Agricultural sector in Taiwan could play a positive role by producing renewable energy.

2011-05-01

137

The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico--FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The impact of SNL activities on Central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the Central New Mexico Region includes: Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance Counties (Figure 1). Total impact represents both direct and indirect resending by business, including induced effects (resending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico.

Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

1999-08-09

138

Economic impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and familial Mediterranean fever  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study was to determine the economical impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) in Turkey. A total of 100 patients (69 F/31 M) with JIA and 100 with FMF (68 F/32 F) who were consecutively seen in the outpatient clinic of the pediatric rheumatology department at Cerrahpasa Medical School between August 2008 and January 2009 were studied. Cost data were collected through a questionnaire filled out by the parents. The mean age (JIA: 11 ?...

Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Seyahi, Emire; Kasapcopur, Ozgur; Arisoy, Nil

2012-01-01

139

Measuring the Impact of Fdi on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of FDI on Nigeria’s economic growth process. In an attempt to do this, the paper tests the validity of the modernization or depending hypothesis by employing various econometric tools such as Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF and Phillips Perron (PP tests, Johansen Cointegration test, the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM and Granger Causality test on time series data from 1970-2008. The results reveal that a long run relationship exists between the variables and a unidirectional causality from FDI to growth was also established. Thus, empirical findings support the modernization hypothesis that FDI is growth promoting in Nigeria.

M.S. Ogunmuyiwa

2012-09-01

140

The Impact of FDIs Flows on the Nigerien Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Niger, since the 70s has always adopted an approach that makes the IDE a major component of its development plan. It `s so, a series of measures have been taken to make the country more attractive to Foreign direct investment FDI This policy has guaranteed the country a few annual flow between the period 1970 to 2008.The aim of this paper is to try to study the impact of FDI on economic growth in Niger. Observe the literature study on FDI in Niger, however, it is also becoming important to se...

Ousseini Hamadou

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Economical impact of orchiectomy for advanced prostate cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the economical impact of surgical castration in comparison to the medical castration for patients with advanced prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2001, 32 patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent bilateral sub-capsular orchiectomy at our Hospital. The costs of this procedure were compared to the costs of medical castration with LH-RH analogues. RESULTS: The costs of the surgical procedure were extremely reduced when compared to published data on the medical treatment. Surgical castration did not have any stronger negative impact on the evolution of these patients when compared to medical castration. CONCLUSION: Surgical castration is an efficient and low cost treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

Paula Adriano A. P. de

2003-01-01

142

Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This transportation study assumes that defense high-level waste is stored in three locations (the Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls plants) and may be disposed of in (1) a commercial repository or (2) a defense-only repository, either of which could be located at one of the five candidate sites; also documented is a preliminary analysis of the costs and risks of transporting defense high-level waste from the three storage sites to the five potential candidate repository sites. 17 references, 4 figures, 27 tables

1984-01-01

143

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model

1998-01-00

144

The economic impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides a major source of economic benefits in New Mexico, second only to the activities of the U.S. Department of Defense. The agency's far-reaching economic influence within the state is the focus of this report. Economic benefits arising from the various activities and functions of both the Department and its contractors have accrued to the state continuously for over 50 years. For several years, DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained inter-industry, input-output modeling capabilities to assess DOE's impacts on the state of New Mexico and the other substate regions most directly impacted by DOE activities. One of the major uses of input-output techniques is to assess the effects of developments initiated outside the economy such as Federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. The information on which the models are based is updated periodically to ensure the most accurate depiction possible of the economy for the period of reference. For this report, the reference periods are Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997), and FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). Total impact represents both direct and indirect impacts (resending by business), including induced (resending by households) effects. The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models uniquely developed for New Mexico. This report includes seven main sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Profile of DOE Activities in New Mexico; (3) DOE Expenditure Patterns; (4) Measuring DOE/New Mexico's Economic Impact: (5) Technology Transfer within the Federal Labs funded by DOE/New Mexico; (6) Glossary of Terms; and (7) Technical Appendix containing a description of the model.

Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

1999-08-05

145

IMPACTS OF ANTIFOAM ADDITIONS AND ARGON BUBBLING ON DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY REDUCTION/OXIDATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During melting of HLW glass, the REDOX of the melt pool cannot be measured. Therefore, the Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe ratio in the glass poured from the melter must be related to melter feed organic and oxidant concentrations to ensure production of a high quality glass without impacting production rate (e.g., foaming) or melter life (e.g., metal formation and accumulation). A production facility such as the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream process, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. That is, it is based on 'feed foward' statistical process control (SPC) rather than statistical quality control (SQC). In SPC, the feed composition to the melter is controlled prior to vitrification. Use of the DWPF REDOX model has controlled the balanjce of feed reductants and oxidants in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). Once the alkali/alkaline earth salts (both reduced and oxidized) are formed during reflux in the SRAT, the REDOX can only change if (1) additional reductants or oxidants are added to the SRAT, the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), or the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) or (2) if the melt pool is bubble dwith an oxidizing gas or sparging gas that imposes a different REDOX target than the chemical balance set during reflux in the SRAT.

Jantzen, C.; Johnson, F.

2012-06-05

146

Technical and economic impact of crosswell technology: Progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conoco's Crosswell Reservoir Characterization (CRC) team is using Decision and Risk Analysis (D and RA) to evaluate the potential economic impact of the authors' projects. D and RA can be a useful tool for refining the direction of a project and communicating the value of information in economic terms. Initial studies show that CRC has high potential economic value. Three steps were used to analyze the value of the CRC project. A high-level, industry-wide model was developed to look at the technical, application, and commercialization success of the technology. The team considered an infill drilling decision in shallow shelf carbonates as a detailed case. For that case, fully integrating crosswell information with supporting data (well logs, cores, production information, etc.) leads to a three-fold increase in expected value. The third step, a portfolio analysis of all crosswell applications, was initiated, but not completed. Given the potential broad application of CRC and the value obtained by the one detailed case, the technology is expected to have a very high value

1994-10-23

147

Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

2003-01-01

148

Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the European literature as was feasible has been carried out, such a survey is certain to fall short of reviewing the full literature simply because the larger part of it is North American. The latter was being reviewed separately by the US team. However, in making recommendations as to what valuation methods or studies to use, the report draws on the substantial US experience. The whole issue of when a methodology or a particular study can be transferred from one context to another has never been fully addressed. This report makes some suggestions as to when this is may be appropriate although it is recognized that this is by no means a definitive discussion of that issue. Certainly, the fact that the fuel cycle analysis here is location-specific, rather than 'generic', in the sense of providing broad average costs of impacts caused by the use of certain fuels, makes the transferability of estimates more difficult. The report is structured as follows. Part I begins with a discussion of the nature of externalities and a more precise definition of what is being measured. Of particular importance in this context is the extent to which an environmental impact is or is not an 'externality'. Without going into the more complex aspects of the economic theory, the report offers some advice on when the issue is relevant and what criteria might be used to assess whether or not a particular environmental impact really is an externality. The remainder of Part I then deals with a number of general issues that are of practical importance in the context of valuing specific impacts. These are: the question of transferability discussed above; the time period or timescale over which the valuation is to take place; the treatment of uncertainty; the discounting of future costs; and the finally the issue of exactly what is being assumed constant when a particular valuation is being carried out. This is of special significance in the context of the valuation being undertaken here. Part II of the Report deals with nine specific environmental impacts, namely: crops, forests, biodiversity, n

1994-01-01

149

Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support  

Science.gov (United States)

A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a mitigation level of 3.7 W/m2, as well as consideration of different levels of climate sensitivity (2, 3, 4.5 and 6oC) and different initial conditions for addressing uncertainty. Since the CMIP 3 and CMIP5 protocols did not include this mitigation level or consider alternative levels of climate sensitivity, additional climate projections were required. These two cases will be discussed to illustrate some of the trade-offs made in development of methodologies for climate impact assessments that are intended for a specific user or audience, and oriented towards addressing a specific topic of interest and providing useable results. This involvement of stakeholders from the design phase of climate impacts methodology serves to both define the appropriate method for the question at hand and also to engage and inform the stakeholders of the myriad options and uncertainties associated with different methodology choices. This type of engagement should benefit decision making in the long run through greater stakeholder understanding of the science of future climate model projections, scenarios, the climate impacts sector models and the types of outputs that can be generated by each along with the respective uncertainties at each step of the climate impacts assessment process.

Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

2013-12-01

150

Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the possible contribution of evolutionary economics to macro-economic modelling of flood impacts to provide guidance for future economic risk modelling. Most macro-economic models start from a neoclassical economic perspective and focus on equilibrium outcomes, either in a static or dynamic way, and describe economic processes at a high level of aggregation. As a consequence, they typically fail to account for the complexity of social interactions and other behavioural res...

Safarzynska, Karolina; Brouwer, Roy; Hofkes, Marjan

2013-01-01

151

ANALYSIS OF THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CULTURAL FESTIVALS: THE CASE OF CALABAR CARNIVAL IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the economic impacts of the Calabar Carnival Festival in Nigeria. A convenience sample of 464 attendees was used for the study. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was employed in collecting relevant social and economic data from respondents. The result supported the claim that event tourism has positive economic impacts on the host community.

Bassey Benjamin Esu

2011-09-01

152

Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

2005-01-01

153

The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic growth will follow the creation of stable and sizeable RE markets. Indeed, this is a highly attrac

Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

2013-06-15

154

Preferred drug lists: Potential impact on healthcare economics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kimberly Ovsag, Sabrina Hydery, Shaker A MousaPharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, New York, USAObjectives: To analyze the implementation of Medicaid preferred drug lists (PDLs in a number of states and determine its impact on quality of care and cost relative to other segments of healthcare.Methods: We reviewed research and case studies found by searching library databases, primarily MEDLINE and EBSCOHost, and searching pertinent journals. Keywords initially included “drug lists,” “prior authorization,” “prior approval,” and “Medicaid.” We added terms such as “influence use of other healthcare services,” “quality of care,” and “overall economic impact.” We mainly used primary sources.Results: Based on our literature review, we determined that there are a number of issues regarding Medicaid PDLs that need to be addressed. Some issues include: (a the potential for PDLs to influence the utilization of other healthcare services, (b criteria used by Medicaid for determining acceptance of drugs onto a PDL, (c the effect of PDL implementation on compliance to new regimens, (d the potential effects of restricting medication availability on quality of care, (e administrative costs associated with PDLs, and (f satisfaction rates among patients and medical providers. This review highlighted expected short-term cost savings with limited degree of compromised quality of PDL implementation, but raised the concern about the potential long-term decline in quality of care and overall economic impact.Conclusions: The number of concerns raised indicates that further studies are warranted regarding both short-term cost benefits as well as potential long-term effects of Medicaid PDL implementation. Objective analysis of these effects is necessary to ensure cost-effectiveness and quality of care.Keywords: preferred drug lists, medicaid, healthcare costs, managed care

Kimberly Ovsag

2008-05-01

155

Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President�������¢����������������s commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and greenhouse gas emissions at the global level. In principle, these benefits can be measured as a return on research investments, with appropriate consideration of time lags to research outcomes and attribution to private as well as public expenditure. With appropriate metrics, the same could be true for benefits to public health, environmental quality, and food productivity and security. Federal funding of research leads to the development of human capital that is deployed in a variety of occupations with economic and social impacts. Research also produces information that is used in formal (e.g., regulatory and judicial) and informal (e.g., firm and consumer) decision making processes. In addition to reviewing the range of work (by academics, consultants, and research agencies themselves) that has been done in measuring research outcomes and providing a forum to discuss their methods, this report also considers the different methodologies used across fields of research (e.g., agriculture and energy research) to identifies which are applicable to a range of federal S&T funding.

Olson, S; Merrill, S

2011-08-31

156

Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widespread adoption of genetically modified crops in many countries, heated controversies about their advantages and disadvantages continue. Especially for developing countries, there are concerns that genetically modified crops fail to benefit smallholder farmers and contribute to social and economic hardship. Many economic studies contradict this view, but most of them look at short-term impacts only, so that uncertainty about longer-term effects prevails. We address this shortcoming by analyzing economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. Building on unique panel data collected between 2002 and 2008, and controlling for nonrandom selection bias in technology adoption, we show that Bt has caused a 24% increase in cotton yield per acre through reduced pest damage and a 50% gain in cotton profit among smallholders. These benefits are stable; there are even indications that they have increased over time. We further show that Bt cotton adoption has raised consumption expenditures, a common measure of household living standard, by 18% during the 2006–2008 period. We conclude that Bt cotton has created large and sustainable benefits, which contribute to positive economic and social development in India.

Kathage, Jonas; Qaim, Matin

2012-01-01

157

Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widespread adoption of genetically modified crops in many countries, heated controversies about their advantages and disadvantages continue. Especially for developing countries, there are concerns that genetically modified crops fail to benefit smallholder farmers and contribute to social and economic hardship. Many economic studies contradict this view, but most of them look at short-term impacts only, so that uncertainty about longer-term effects prevails. We address this shortcoming by analyzing economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. Building on unique panel data collected between 2002 and 2008, and controlling for nonrandom selection bias in technology adoption, we show that Bt has caused a 24% increase in cotton yield per acre through reduced pest damage and a 50% gain in cotton profit among smallholders. These benefits are stable; there are even indications that they have increased over time. We further show that Bt cotton adoption has raised consumption expenditures, a common measure of household living standard, by 18% during the 2006-2008 period. We conclude that Bt cotton has created large and sustainable benefits, which contribute to positive economic and social development in India. PMID:22753493

Kathage, Jonas; Qaim, Matin

2012-07-17

158

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TSUNAMI ON TAMIL NADU – AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper examine to the Indian Ocean Tsunami on 26 December 2004 has left coastal lands flattened and billions of dollars worth infrastructure, economic assets and materials were devastated. It had severe impacts on coastal fishing communities in Tamil Nadu destroying houses, boats, fishing gear, agricultural land and etc. The livelihood security of lakhs of costal rural folk who are directly dependent on marine fisheries has been shattered by destruction of their dwelling and more importantly their only means of earnings, namely, the craft and gear. The Andaman & Nicobar islands were the worst affected and among the coastal areas. Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry suffered the worst damage, some parts of Kerala and south Andhra Pradesh also experienced loss of human lives and property in India

T. Sherley Gnana Sathiya

2014-04-01

159

Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

Govender, K.

2008-06-01

160

An approach to evaluating the economic impact of emissions trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The command-and-control system to air quality controls is a mixture of technology-forcing standards for existing sources and offset for new sources. More stringent controls are required to achieve the ambient air quality standards in non-attainment urban areas which have been conformed with burgeoning economic growth. Due to the economy of scale and locale of polluting sources, some sources can implement these controls in a more cost-effective manner than others. In order to minimize the control costs of regulated sources, trading of emissions has been stipulated and has occurred among power plants to curb acid rain at the national level. Southern California is currently embarking on the trading of oxides of nitrogen, reactive organic compounds, and oxides of sulfur among existing and new stationary sources. New economic opportunities for entrepreneurs with advances control technology will arise under emissions trading. Trading will also result in the redistribution of emissions geographically and across industries. Through the linkage of a linear-programming trading model, a regional econometric model, and an urban airshed model, the impact of trading on the Southern California economy can thus be examined. This paper describes a framework which can be used to compare and contrast RECLAIM with the command-and-control system; and discusses a few issues which may arise in a trading market and how these issues can be dealt with are also examined

1993-06-13

 
 
 
 
161

Technical and economic impacts of active management on distribution network  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the deregulation of energy market and the appeal for environment protection, more and more distributed generation (DG) is embedded in the distribution network. However the approach of connecting DG in most cases is based on a so-called ''fit and forget'' policy and the capacity of DG is limited rigidly by distribution network operator (DNO) to avoid the negative effects of high level penetration. Therefore active management (AM) is put forward as an effective method to network reinforcement for the connection and operation of DG. In this paper, the concept and principle of AM are introduced, and several indices are proposed to evaluate both technical and economic impacts of AM on distribution network with DG. To simplify the simulation fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) algorithm is introduced. The test results on a sample system represent that AM will lead to decrease of power generation of DG, but it can reduce energy losses and improve voltage profile effectively. Furthermore, AM will take great economic incentives to DG developer as well as DNO with reasonable policy. (author)

Zhang, Jietan; Cheng, Haozhong [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800, Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Chun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800, Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)]|[Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

2009-02-15

162

Economic Impact of Forest Damage in an Alpine Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the situation regarding the main types of damage to forests and their respective economic consequences, with reference to a case study in the Italian Alps (Trentino province. Each kind of damage (wind and snow, defoliation, fire and tillage has been analysed in terms of its impact on four forest functions (production, protection, tourism-recreation and carbon sequestration and evaluated in monetary terms. Market value was used to estimate the production and carbon sequestration functions, replacement cost method for protection, and contingent valuation for tourism-recreation. Applying desk research on damage caused by the main biotic and abiotic factors to this particular case study led us to estimate a annual damage of about € 1,624,921 equal to 4.71 € per hectare. This can be considered a lower bound estimate of possibly greater damage. Another interesting result that emerged from the evaluation exercise is that the wealth of information produced through monitoring and scientific research in the last twenty years does not readily lend itself to economic analysis.

PALETTO, Alessandro

2009-01-01

163

EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

2009-07-01

164

EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

Boehringer, Christoph, E-mail: boehringer@uni-oldenburg.d [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

2009-07-01

165

Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable. (author)

2009-05-01

166

Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable.

2009-05-01

167

IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the construction market, while in Eastern European countries the majority is held by the civil and non-residential constructions. In addition, in the West the medium budget per capita spent on construction is 3-4 times higher than that spent in Eastern countries. But, according to previsions in the coming years the countries that will witness a growth, albeit small, will be the Eastern ones. The paper highlights the impact of the economic and financial crisis in the construction industry on a European and national level, as the sustainable constructions that may represent the sector’s future.

Cristina PLOSCARU

2010-01-01

168

Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel and requires the Secretary of Energy to evaluate five potential repository sites. One factor that is to be examined is transportation of radioactive materials to such a repository and whether transportation might be affected by shipments to a defense-only repository, or to one that accepts both defense and commercial waste. In response to this requirement, The Department of Energy has undertaken an evaluation of the cost and risk associated with the potential shipments. Two waste-flow scenarios are considered which are related to the total quantity of defense high-level waste which will be placed in a repository. The low-flow case is based on a total of 6700 canisters being transported from one site, while the high-flow case assumes that a total of 20,000 canisters will be transported from three sites. For the scenarios considered, the estimated shipping costs range from $105 million to $257 million depending upon the mode of transport and the repository location. The total risks associated with shipping defense high-level waste to a repository are estimated to be significantly smaller than predicted for other transportation activities. In addition, the cost of shipping defense high-level waste to a repository does not depend on whether the site is a defense-only or a commercial repository. Therefore, the transportation considerations are not a basis for the selection of one of the two disposal options

1984-01-01

169

The firm-level societal and economic impact of private equity in Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES This study addresses the lack of comprehensive research on the economic and societal impact of private equity in Europe and especially in Finland. The thesis has two-fold research objective; (1.) to build a solid understanding on how the societal and economic impact can be assessed in Finland based on existing literature and (2.) to empirically examine what can we say about the firm-level societal and economic impact of the investing activities of the members of Finnis...

Ma?nnisto?, Lasse

2009-01-01

170

Defense Contracting Buyer  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

This article examines the applicability of three theoretical approaches to defining defense buyer-seller relationships. Economic Free-Market Theory explains the relative economic power of the participants but ignores the legal, political, and socioeconomic aspects so pervasive in defense acquisitions. Transaction Cost Economics provides a framework for determining the most cost-effective type of contract governance for each transaction. Systems theory explores the degree of interdependence between the buyers' and sellers' systems. Each theory contributes unique insights into defense buyer-seller relationships that can be used to judge the appropriateness of contracting laws, regulations, policies, and management approaches for specific acquisition environments.

1994-01-01

171

78 FR 68028 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Security, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Room 3876, Washington...Michael Vaccaro, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S....

2013-11-13

172

75 FR 54852 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Security, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room 3876, Washington...David Newsom, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S....

2010-09-09

173

77 FR 16205 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Security, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Room 3876, Washington...Liam McMenamin, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S....

2012-03-20

174

76 FR 58463 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Security, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room 3876, Washington...Liam McMenamin, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S....

2011-09-21

175

BASEL III: Long-term impact on economic performance and fluctuations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assess the long-term economic impact of the new regulatory standards (the Basel III reform), answering the following questions: 1) What is the impact of the reform on longterm economic performance? 2) What is the impact of the reform on economic fluctuations? 3) What is the impact of the adoption of countercyclical capital buffers on economic fluctuations? The main results are the following: 1) Each percentage point increase in the capital ratio causes a median 0.09 percent decline in the ...

Angelini, Paolo; Clerc, Laurent; Cu?rdia, Vasco; Gambacorta, Leonardo; Gerali, Andrea; Locarno, Alberto; Motto, Roberto; Roeger, Werner; Den Heuvel, Skander; Vle?cek, Jan

2011-01-01

176

Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

1978-01-01

177

77 FR 42271 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the Committee's market impact review process. Submission...information on the potential market impact of the quantities associated...include the phrase ``Market Impact Committee Notice of Inquiry...public comments on the BIS Freedom of Information Act...

2012-07-18

178

Impact of a delay in the completion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of an analysis and evaluation of a delay in completion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the DOE Savannah River Plant (SRP). The report describes the precipitate hydrolysis problem, which is causing fouling on the hydrolysis reactor coils, and lists several solutions SRP personnel are researching. Estimates on the cost and timeline implications range from several hundred thousand dollars and a few months to a hundred million dollars and several years.

1989-01-30

179

The Economic Impact of Johnson County Community College on Johnson County, 1999-2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is a report on the economic impact of Johnson County Community College (JCCC) (Kansas) on Johnson County and the surrounding community. The information from the economic impact study are used to support the community college's effectiveness, assessment, and accreditation efforts. Results indicate that: (1) the Community College…

Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

180

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Great Lakes Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts identified by the study for the Great Lakes region.

Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Mid-Atlantic Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Mid-Atlantic region.

Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.; Flores, F.; Zammit, D.; Kraemer, M.; Miles, J.

2014-01-01

182

Potential Economic Impacts from Offshore Wind in the Gulf of Mexico Region (Fact Sheet)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore wind is a clean, renewable source of energy and can be an economic driver in the United States. To better understand the employment opportunities and other potential regional economic impacts from offshore wind development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded research that focuses on four regions of the country. The studies use multiple scenarios with various local job and domestic manufacturing content assumptions. Each regional study uses the new offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This fact sheet summarizes the potential economic impacts for the Gulf of Mexico region.

Flores, F.; Keyser, D.; Tegen, S.

2014-01-01

183

Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

N. Sudarsan

2013-02-01

184

Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)

2010-10-01

185

Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system.

2010-10-01

186

The impact of Business Regulatory Reforms on Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I investigate the link between business regulatory reforms and economic growth in 172 countries. I create a five year dataset on business regulatory reforms from the World Bank's Doing Business reports. Then, I test the hypothesis that business regulatory reforms increase economic growth, using data on micro-economic reforms. These data do not suffer the endogeneity issues associated with other datasets on changes in economic institutions. The results provide a robust support for the claim th...

2012-01-01

187

Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Agricultural Innovations on Cropping Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modeling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some models made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision support syste...

2006-01-01

188

Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Cropping Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modelling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some preliminary attempts made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decisio...

2004-01-01

189

Policy-relevant assessment method of socio-economic impacts of floods: An Italian case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper estimates the direct and indirect socio-economic impacts of the 2000 flood that took place in the Po river basin (Italy) using a combination of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and Spatial and Multi-Criteria Analysis. A risk map for the whole basin is generated as a function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The indirect economic losses are assessed using the CGE model, whereas the direct social and economic impacts are estimated with spatial analysis tools combined ...

Farinosi, Fabio; Carrera, Lorenzo; Maziotis, Alexandros; Mysiak, Jaroslav; Eboli, Fabio; Standardi, Gabriele

2012-01-01

190

The impact of financial regulation on economic growth in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Financial regulation is a topical; issue particularly its potential negative impact on economic growth. Literature indicates that researchers have divided opinions on the subject. There is a group that believes higher financial regulation will deter economic growth and another group that believes that current financial regulations should be increased. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of financial regulation on economic growth in developing countries.The study was undertaken ...

2013-01-01

191

Selective Chemical Inhibition of agr Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus Promotes Host Defense with Minimal Impact on Resistance  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial signaling systems are prime drug targets for combating the global health threat of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections including those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is the primary cause of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and the quorum sensing operon agr is causally associated with these. Whether efficacious chemical inhibitors of agr signaling can be developed that promote host defense against SSTIs while sparing the normal microbiota of the skin is unknown. In a high throughput screen, we identified a small molecule inhibitor (SMI), savirin (S. aureus virulence inhibitor) that disrupted agr-mediated quorum sensing in this pathogen but not in the important skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mechanistic studies employing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and a novel AgrA activation reporter strain revealed the transcriptional regulator AgrA as the target of inhibition within the pathogen, preventing virulence gene upregulation. Consistent with its minimal impact on exponential phase growth, including skin microbiota members, savirin did not provoke stress responses or membrane dysfunction induced by conventional antibiotics as determined by transcriptional profiling and membrane potential and integrity studies. Importantly, savirin was efficacious in two murine skin infection models, abating tissue injury and selectively promoting clearance of agr+ but not ?agr bacteria when administered at the time of infection or delayed until maximal abscess development. The mechanism of enhanced host defense involved in part enhanced intracellular killing of agr+ but not ?agr in macrophages and by low pH. Notably, resistance or tolerance to savirin inhibition of agr was not observed after multiple passages either in vivo or in vitro where under the same conditions resistance to growth inhibition was induced after passage with conventional antibiotics. Therefore, chemical inhibitors can selectively target AgrA in S. aureus to promote host defense while sparing agr signaling in S. epidermidis and limiting resistance development.

Sully, Erin K.; Malachowa, Natalia; Elmore, Bradley O.; Alexander, Susan M.; Femling, Jon K.; Gray, Brian M.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Otto, Michael; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Sklar, Larry A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Hall, Pamela R.; Gresham, Hattie D.

2014-01-01

192

Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production o [...] f hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group.

Karina, Stucken; Robin, Koch; Tal, Dagan.

193

Impact of economic models on European Union economies development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The horizon of 2050 is projected a new vision of the economy, supported by a coordination of economic policies in order to generate sustainable growth, employment levels, social cohesion, which would contribute to economic and financial recovery of European Union.Challenges facing the Union are higher than before the recession, while the margin of maneuver is limited. Enhanced role of Union demonstrate increasingly economic and politic power of emerging countries.

Cristina BURGHELEA

2013-04-01

194

The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

Hossein Askari

2012-09-01

195

Off-shoring’s Impact on Economic Growth of Developing Countries in Central and Eastern Europe.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the impact of the increased off-shoring in business and manufacturing to Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Since the off-shoring process is a relatively new activity, there is no precise definition of how to measure its direct impact on a country’s economy. Thus the study is dedicated to identify the main economic factors associated with off-shoring and to examine their impact on the economic growth. The study has used a dataset on economic characteristics for 9 CEE ...

Buchenko, Olga

2011-01-01

196

The Impact Of Voter Initiatives On Economic Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies have claimed that states with initiatives systems of legislation use this more direct from of democracy to improve productive resource allocation. This paper compares the economic performance of states with initiatives to states that do not have initiatives. We first construct a simple growth model to identify the channel through which initiatives play an important role in determining economic activity; we then test the implications of this model using data for the 48 contiguou...

Blomberg, S. Brock; Hess, Gregory D.; Weerapana, Akila

2001-01-01

197

State and local economic impacts from wind energy projects: Texas case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to estimate economic impacts from 1398 MW of wind power development in four counties in west Texas. Project-specific impacts are estimated at the local level (i.e., within a 100-mile radius around the wind farms) and at the state level. The primary economic policy question addressed is how investment in wind energy affects the state and local communities where the wind farms are built. During the four-year construction phase approximately 4100 FTE (full time equivalents) jobs were supported with turbine and supply chain impacts accounting for 58% of all jobs generated. Total lifetime economic activity to the state from the projects equated to more than $1.8 billion, or $1.3 million per MW of installed capacity. The total economic activity to the local communities was also substantial, equating to nearly $730 million over the assumed 20-year life cycle of the farms, or $0.52 million per MW of installed capacity. Given the current level of impacts observed, and the potential for increased impacts via greater utilization of instate manufacturing capacity and the development of trained wind industry specific laborers, Texas appears to be well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development. - Highlights: ? We use the JEDI model to assess economic impacts from wind development in west Texas. ? Total lifetime economic impact from 1398 MW wind equated to more than $1.8 billion. ? Texas is well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development.

2011-12-01

198

Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

2011-08-01

199

Economic impact analysis, RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) interim status standards. Volume II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contents: Specific compliance requirements under RCRA; Unit costs; Off-site waste disposal prices; Projected U.S. inflation rates; Cost of capital; Economic characterization and impact on selected generator industries.

1981-01-01

200

Assessment of the Economic Impacts of Recreational Boating in the City of Hampton.  

Science.gov (United States)

The survey research completed and described in this report produces in-depth information regarding the economic activity and fiscal impacts of recreational boating to the City of Hampton, Virginia. Surveys of Hampton resident boat owners and non-resident ...

D. Lipton J. Kirkley T. Murray

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

1998-02-01

202

Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

2013-08-01

203

Bachelor Thesis in Economics:The Impact of Openness on the Swedish Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Subject / term: Economics (Nationalekonomi) / VT2008Title: The Impact of Openness on the Swedish EconomyAuthor(s): Nsiah Samuel Osei & Ojeabulu GodspowerSupervisor: Christos PaphristodoulouIntroduction:Over the decades there has been continues debate amongst economist on the relation betweenopenness and economic performance. From the comparative advantage theory of Heckscher-Ohlin, Openness can be an influencing factor in improving the economic performance of acountry. Based on Heckscher-...

2008-01-01

204

Economic costs of ocean acidification: A look into the impacts on shellfish production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a major global problem. Yet economic assessments of its effects are currently almost absent. Unlike most other marine organisms, mollusks, which have significant commercial value worldwide, have relatively solid scientific evidence of biological impact of acidification and allow us to make such an economic evaluation. By performing a partial-equilibrium analysis, we estimate global and regional economic costs of production loss of mollusks due...

Narita, Daiju; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

2011-01-01

205

The Impact of External Events on the Emergence of Social Herding of Economic Sentiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the impact of an exogenous environment on the emergence of social herding of economic sentiment. An interactions-driven dynamics of economic sentiment is modeled by an Ising model on a large (two-dimensional) square lattice. The individual states are called optimism and pessimism. The exogenous environment is modeled as a sequence of random events, which might have a positive or negative influence on economic sentiment. These exogenous events can be frequent o...

Hohnisch, Martin; Stauffer, Dietrich; Pittnauer, Sabine

2006-01-01

206

Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth Based on Spatial Economic Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article studies on bind of different country’s human capital and its economic growth by means of spatial econometric model. Firstly, this study construct spatial model of the Cobb-Douglas production function with human capital factors and expansion spatial Benhabib and Spiegel model and then use these two models to discuss human capital and its spatial lag’s contribution to economic growth. The empirical results show that, even in considering the case of spatial elements, studying hu...

Xiao Zhen; Song Fen

2013-01-01

207

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF JOINT FOREST PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT (JFPM) ON GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KARNATAKA, INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluates the economic impact of Joint Forest Planning and Management (JFPM) initiated by the Karnataka Forest Department especially on Groundwater Recharge considering productivity, wage income, income generating activities (IGAs) and equity in distribution in Karnataka, with the following specific objectives. 1) Estimation of economic impact of JFPM on groundwater recharge. 2) Assessment of equity in distribution of benefits of JFPM tree endowment at farm and village level and 3)...

Vikram, Patil; Chandrakanth, M. G.; Gangadharappa, N. R.

2010-01-01

208

The economic impacts of compatibility standards:The case of Office Open XML  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of this thesis is twofold; first the focus is on general standardization theory, and thereafter the theory is applied to the Office Open XML (OOXML) case. The thesis analyses the economic impacts of compatibility standards, and hereunder applies the results to examine the economic impacts of the international document standard OOXML. A focus will be on markets characterised by network externalities. Another focus will be comparing the private and social incentives for standardizatio...

2010-01-01

209

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

2013-06-01

210

Estimating the economic value to societies of the impact of health research: a critical review.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Estimating the economic value to societies of health research is a complex but essential step in establishing and justifying appropriate levels of investment in research. The practical difficulties encountered include: identifying and valuing the relevant research inputs (when many pieces of research may contribute to a clinical advance); accurately ascribing the impact of the research; and appropriately valuing the attributed economic impact. In this review, relevant studies identified from ...

Buxton, Martin; Hanney, Steve; Jones, Teri

2004-01-01

211

Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth and Poverty: Evidence from Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study focused on the importance of remittances inflow and its implication for economic growth and poverty reduction in Pakistan. By using ARDL approach we analyze the impact of remittances inflow on economic growth and poverty in Pakistan for the period 1973-2007.

2008-01-01

212

Progressive decommissioning of French nuclear power plants: economic and geopolitical impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author analyzes the french energy safety in the next twenty years. The first part is devoted to the electric production park structure in 2020, with a presentation of the electric power economy, the carbon cost introduction and the economic choices in the deregulation system. The second part discusses the economical and geopolitical impacts of a gas-nuclear substitution. (A.L.B.)

1998-01-01

213

The Impact of Short-Term Economic Fluctuations on Kindergarten Enrollment  

Science.gov (United States)

For some 5-year-olds, delayed kindergarten enrollment may result in long-term academic benefits. Although waiting an additional year allows for further development prior to the start of formal education, the economic costs of the next best alternatives can be significant. This study examines the impact of short-term economic fluctuations on a…

Herman, Douglas A.

2010-01-01

214

The Economic Impact of Johnson County Community College on Johnson County, 1993-94.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1995, Johnson County Community College (JCCC), in Kansas, conducted a study to estimate the economic benefit contributed by the college to the Johnson County economy for 1993-94. Following a model developed by J. G. Ryan, direct economic impact was assessed by examining institutional expenditures, expenditures by college employees, and…

Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

215

Economic Impacts from Spending by Community Dock Owners at Pomme de Terre Lake.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the local economic impacts of users of community-owned docks at Pomme de Terre Lake, located in southcentral Missouri. This economic assessment is based on the results of a 1999 survey of a sample of Pomme de Terre Lake community doc...

B. L. Amsden D. B. Propst L. Lee R. Kasul W. Chang

2008-01-01

216

Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

Goldberg, M.

2013-12-31

217

Spatial Econometric Model for Economics Development in Archipelago of Riau, as a Defense System Development in Republic of Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Province of Archipelago of Riau is a region in Indonesia which is adjacent to Singapore and Malaysia. This province has a great potential conditions diversity and natural resources. Planning on public prosperity improvement is necessary in order to increase loyalty and nationalism to Republic of Indonesia. The aim of this research is to build a spatial econometric model of economic growth in Province of Archipelago of Riau. One of the results shows that in recent 4 years Batam always gives the largest contribution to GRDP in Province of Archipelago of Riau. This can be understood that the contribution is more than 72.0% not only based on GRDP at current prices, but also based on GRDP at constant prices. Economic growth rate in regions in Province of Archipelago of Riau is higher than national economic growth rate. The model fits well because the coefficient of determination R2 is more than 85%. There are only 3 worse models, i.e. based on building construction in Batam (with R2= 59.6%, in Tanjungpinang (with R2=74.0%, and based on transportation and communication in Tanjungpinang (with R2=37.1%.

Susanti Linuwih

2010-08-01

218

The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998; ANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico-FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major impact analyses: The impact of SNL activities on Central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the Central New Mexico Region includes: Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance Counties (Figure 1). Total impact represents both direct and indirect resending by business, including induced effects (resending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico

1999-01-01

219

Technical Report on the Impact of MgO on Defense Waste Processing Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect(s) of removing MgO from DWPF frits to assess the impact on liquidus temperature and the durability of the glass product. Removal of MgO from the frit was hypothesized to lead to a decrease in liquidus temperature and thereby allow increased waste loading

2000-01-01

220

he Impact of Economic Paradoxes on the Pharmaceutical Market Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The population’s health represents the most important economic resource in a society. The social-economic role of heath protection is determined by the proper allocation of public financial resources but also partially, by the allocation of the populations own income. The general law of demand can be applied to the drugdemand. The well-knowneconomic paradoxes R. Giffen, T. Veblen and A. Rugina canbefound on the pharmaceuticalmarket and determine the elasticity of drug demand. The quantity of drugs needed to assure the populations health presents insignificant modifications to the price fluctuations, to the populations’ income, the resources allocated by the state and by each patient.

Doina MARGARITTI

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

REFLECTIONS ABOUT SOCIO-ECONOMIC CORN CROP IMPACT IN SINALOA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Sinaloa farmers have many problems to produce “white corn” Maize, due to the Federal Government Politics. Maize is the principal food for Mexicans people, so this state has the highest production levels, moreover the corn demand is one million ton annually, its use to produce ethanol. Farmers are not convince to produce “yellow corn”, because the incentives economic support are not available.

2010-01-01

222

The economic impact of telecommunications diffusion on UK productivity growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure competition, investment and productivity. Using econometric modelling and input-output economics, the analysis examines and measures the extent to which telecommunications has contributed to national and sectoral productivity performance. The main findings from this paper suggests that most industries have benefited from the incorporation of advances of telecommunications technology, which might have, amongst o...

Correa, Lisa

2003-01-01

223

THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE FISCAL REVENUES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tries to evaluate the situation of the fiscal revenues in Romania in the context of economic and financial crisis, because the fiscal revenues are the major source of financing the public expenditure. The evolution of the level of fiscal revenu

2009-01-01

224

THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE FISCAL REVENUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to evaluate the situation of the fiscal revenues in Romania in the context of economic and financial crisis, because the fiscal revenues are the major source of financing the public expenditure. The evolution of the level of fiscal revenu

Inceu Adrian

2009-05-01

225

Economic Impact of Interstate Highway 35 on Tonkawa, Oklahoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

This interim report shows economic data gathered and analyzed, covering a 48 month period, involving the effects of the opening of Interstate 35 on Tonkawa, Oklahoma and compares these data with the control city of Woodward and the control county of Woodw...

1968-01-01

226

Economic impacts of the S. S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill.

Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

1990-11-01

227

The economic impact of uncertain tourism demand in Hawaii: risk in a computable general equilibrium model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis estimates the economic impact of uncertain tourism demand in Hawaii. It does this by incorporating risk into a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. CGE models have been used to investigate a wide range of policy issues. To date, none have investigated how uncertainty regarding future tourism demand impacts on an economy.

Pratt, Stephen A.

2009-01-01

228

Impacts of Regional Electricity Prices and Building Type on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To identify the impacts of regional electricity prices and building type on the economics of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, 207 rate structures across 77 locations and 16 commercial building types were evaluated. Results for expected solar value are reported for each location and building type. Aggregated results are also reported, showing general trends across various impact categories.

Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Clark, N.

2012-12-01

229

THE IMPACT OF PROPERTY RIGHTS FREEDOM ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE OECD NATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study empirically investigates of the impact on per capita real economic growth of property rights freedom. After controlling for nominal long term interest rates, net exports, a measure of political stability, and other factors, panel least squares as well as panel two stage least squares estimations using a four-year panel data set for the OECD nations as a group reveal that higher levels of property rights freedom lead to an increased rate of per capita real economic growth. Furthermore, it is found that whereas higher nominal long term interest rates lead to diminished economic growth net export growth and greater political stability enhance economic growth

Richard J. Cebula

2011-02-01

230

The Impact of Economic Freedom on Per Capita Real GDP: A Study of OECD Nation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study of the impact of economic freedom on per capita real GDP among OECD nations over the 2003-2006 period, with each OECD nation during this time frame being treated as a de facto “economic region” within the OECD, finds strong initial support for the hypothesis proffered here that the higher the degree of economic freedom, the higher the level of economic activity and hence the higher the per capita real GDP level. In particular, the per capita real GDP level in each of the 30 nat...

2012-01-01

231

The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Sudan for the period 1982-2009 by using a simultaneous equation model that links human capital i.e. school attainment; and investment in education and health to economic growth, total productivity, foreign direct investment, and human development index. Based on three-stage least squares technique, the empirical results of the paper show that quality of the education has a determinant role in the economic growth; health quality factor has a positive impact on economic growth as expected and total factor productivity which mainly represents the state of technology has adverse effect on economic growth and human development due to the obsolete and old fashion technology.

Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi

2013-06-01

232

Business globalization process and its impact on Serbia's economic system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The changes companies are facing at the beginning of this century result from the impact of three factors. The first factor is globalization - a huge increase in exchange and availability of new products and services and a dramatic increase in mobility of foreign investment, movement of people and international competition. Another factor is the impact of modern communications technology. Rapid changes in all forms of technology allow a rapid access to various ways of communication with low c...

Vesi? Dobrica

2010-01-01

233

Socio-economic impacts and assessment biological invasions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological invasions have been object of ecological research for years. As one objective, natural scientists investigate the effects of invasive species on ecosystems and their functioning (Levine et al. 2003). However, impacts on ecosystems are also of relevance for society. Changes in ecosystems affect humans in so far as ecosystems provide goods and services, such as fresh water, food and fibbers or recreation, which might be altered due to invasive species. Therefore impacts of biological...

Binimelis, Rosa

2006-01-01

234

ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OPERATING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emergence and deepening global economic crisis is in large part reflected in the operation of international financial institutions and their current structure. Long-term financial crisis has increased demands for decisive reform moves in operating and structure of the IMF, World Bank Group and other global and regional financial institutions. This means that so far the results of their policies are inadequate and that their role is subject to critical observation. The crisis has imposed the need to reform international financial institutions and new global financial architecture. Changes in their structure and operation should lead to global economic stability. Members of the Euro zone are faced with a new attitude towards the international financial institutions, particularly the International Monetary Fund. Proclaimed missions of International Monetary Fund and World Bank clearly differ in theory, but with the passage of time their activities have become increasingly intertwined.

Slobodan Cerovic

2013-06-01

235

Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

1983-01-01

236

The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

South Africa’s unallocated water resources have dwindled to precariously low levels. Furthermore, it is generally recognised by the authorities and specialists alike that it is likely that water demand will outstrip water supply within the next decade. Macro-economically and strategically speaking, the question therefore is how to make best use of the country’s available water resources? We ask this question since South Africa is a country classified as having chronic water sh...

Blignaut, James Nelson; Heerden, J. H.

2009-01-01

237

The global economic crisis: Impact on India and policy responses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India's financial sector is not deeply integrated with the global financial system, which spared it the first round adverse effects of the global financial crisis and left Indian banks mostly unaffected. However, as the financial crisis morphed in to a full-blown global economic downturn, India could not escape the second round effects. The global crisis has affected India through three distinct channels: financial markets, trade flows, and exchange rates. The reversal in capital inflows, whi...

Kumar, Rajiv; Vashisht, Pankaj

2009-01-01

238

Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

1991-05-03

239

The Global Economic Crisis: Impact on Indian Outward Investment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indian outward FDI flows have declined in 2008 and the first half of 2009. The global financial and economic crisis appears to have seriously dented overseas investment plans of emerging Indian multinationals. This paper looks at the trends and patterns of Indian OFDI flows in the current crisis period, what led to its slowdown, how Indian multinationals have fared, and what is their revival prospect.

2009-01-01

240

The economic impact of EPAs in SADC countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cotonou Agreement introduces new fundamental principles with respect to trade between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries relative to the Lomé Convention: in particular non-reciprocal preferential market access for ACP economies will only last until 1 January 2008. After that date, it will be replaced by a string of Economic Partnership Agreements meant to progressively liberalise trade in a reciprocal way. The progressive removal of barriers to trade is expec...

Keck, Alexander; Piermartini, Roberta

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life hist...

O’malley, Mary P.; Lee-brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

2013-01-01

242

ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IMPACT ON ROMANIA ALONG TIME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five years after the onset of the strongest economic crisis that has seen a global economy, the world still seems to be far from solved problems. Neither Romania is no exception, sustainable economic recovery we all want is (for now only hope. We have allowed the material to make some suggestions on how the economy might revive. We talked first about the vital need for revival of investment, supporting them through tax incentives to entrepreneurs. I then point the better absorption of European funds, the source of revival of the Romanian economy. Also advocate for greater accountability in spending public money, so terms like necessity, opportunity and social need not remain only in books, but to be used effectively in the allocation of budgetary resources. We detailed several times how I propose we approached the Romanian economy and revitalize major role essential, you must have it in technical and scientific economic recovery. The regret of not having experience in macroeconomics, in order to put more ideas on the table, still think that the detailed material could give thought to avid readers.

Gheorghe GRIGORESCU

2013-06-01

243

Economic Impact of Food Safety Outbreaks on Food Businesses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A globalized food trade, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing toward an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. Moreover, the volume of international food trade has increased to become very large. All of these factors are putting pressure on the food companies to meet global demand in order to be competitive. This scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient toward food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. The estimated cost of food safety incidents for the economy of the United States is around $7 billion per year which comes from notifying consumers, removing food from shelves, and paying damages as a result of lawsuits. Most other countries similarly have economic losses. Much of these losses represent lost markets, loss of consumer demand, litigation and company closures. Concrete steps are needed to improve safety of foods produced for local or overseas markets to avoid unexpected food scandals and economic losses.

Malik Altaf Hussain

2013-12-01

244

Economic perspectives on the impact of climate variability and change: A summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is presented of a collection of papers on the economic methodologies applicable to studies of the impact of global climate variability and change. The research was sponsored by the Canadian Climate program and was conducted as part of a project investigating the potential impacts on various sectors of the Canadian economy of climate warming due to the greenhouse effect. Topics of the papers include microeconomic analysis, benefit/cost analysis, input-output analysis, policy options regarding water levels in the Great Lakes, the scenario approach to assessing socio-economic sensitivities to climate change in the agri-food sector, and analysis of weather impacts. Several analytical tools are seen to be readily applicable to economic analyses of the effects of climate change, and issues of future water supply and demand are seen as central to climate impact assessment, and of particular concern to Canada

1988-01-01

245

Policy instruments to limit negative environmental impacts from increased international transport: An economic perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transport activities have adverse environmental and health impacts, of which local and regional air pollution, climate change, and noise impacts are the most important. This paper is a non-comprehensive overview of existing and potential policies to deal with these negative impacts, with a focus on international transport. We define international transport as those transport activities that are mainly derived from the globalization of economic activity, not as cross-border transport flows in ...

Dender, Kurt; Crist, Philippe

2009-01-01

246

Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

Wallace Tyner

2012-05-30

247

Assessing future economic impacts of acidic deposition on the recreational fishery of eastern Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to assess the socio-economic impacts and net economic value effects related to potential reduction in acidic deposition on the sports fishery of eastern Canada. Impacts and net economic effects that would have occurred from 1950 to 1985 if emission/deposition controls were in place are measured. Impacts and net economic effects that will occur from 1986 to 2021 if controls are put in place in the future are also measured. The study incorporated the latest data describing the relationship of acidic deposition to lake pH levels and ultimate impact on fish survival, and applies a spatial analysis system to model changes in sport fish availability with respect to pH changes and fish survival responses. It was found that if emission controls were put in place beginning in 1950 the Canadian economy would have accrued $4.3 billion in net economic value from 1950 to 1985 inclusive. The 1986 value of the historical stream of losses that occurred because controls were not put in place is $24 billion assuming a 10% rate of return. If controls were put in place in the future, net economic value to Canada due to increased angler activity would be $4.2 billion for the period 1986-2021. The value in 1986 would be $925 million. 9 figs., 34 tabs

1990-02-01

248

Animal Movement Standstill: Economic Assessment of the Impact ...  

Estimated additional change in throughput due to other factors (i.e. not fewer ..... \\September and must arrive and settle in on their new premises before they .... of \\all respondents believed that the rule had had a major impact which hindered the\\.

249

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing within the crisis context for the retail sector.

Sorin Toma

2010-12-01

250

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products.

2009-11-01

251

Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

2009-11-01

252

Indirect economic impacts of comorbidities on people with heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background:?Few studies have assessed the effect of multiple health conditions among patients with heart disease, particularly the economic implications of having multiple conditions. Methods and Results:?This study used a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, to assess the effect of comorbidities on the labor force participation of 45-64-year-old Australians with heart disease, and the indirect economic costs to these individuals and government. For most comorbid conditions, there is a significant increase in the chance of an individual being out of the labor force, relative to those with heart disease alone. For example, individuals with heart disease and arthritis have more than 6-fold the odds of being out of the labor force relative to those with heart disease alone (OR 6.64, 95% CI: 2.46-17.95). People with heart disease and ?1 comorbidities also receive a significantly lower income, pay less in taxation and receive more in government transfer payments than those with heart disease alone. Conclusions:?It is important to consider whether an individual with heart disease also has other health conditions, as individuals with comorbidities have inferior financial situations and are a greater burden on government finances than those with only heart disease.??(Circ J?2014; 78: 644-648). PMID:24441575

Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Passey, Megan E; Percival, Richard; Kelly, Simon J

2014-01-01

253

The Impact of External Events on the Emergence of Collective States of Economic Sentiment  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the impact of the environment (i.e. the impact of socio-political and socio-economic exogenous events) on the emergence of ordered phases of locally interacting individual economic sentiment variables (consumer confidence, business confidence etc.). The sentiment field is modeled as a (non-critical) Ising field with nearest-neighbor interactions on a (two-dimensional) square lattice. The environment is modeled as an external ``field of events'', randomly fluctuating over time, stochastically impacting the Ising field of individual variables. The external events can be frequent or rare, have a lasting impact or a non-lasting impact. The field is not homogeneous, as individual actors might fail to perceive external events. We find that if events are sufficiently ``strong'' and/or perceived by a sufficiently large proportion of agents, collective states of pessimism/optimism can not occur, even for strong inter-agent interactions.

Hohnisch, M; Pittnauer, S; Hohnisch, Martin; Stauffer, Dietrich; Pittnauer, Sabine

2006-01-01

254

Business globalization process and its impact on Serbia's economic system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes companies are facing at the beginning of this century result from the impact of three factors. The first factor is globalization - a huge increase in exchange and availability of new products and services and a dramatic increase in mobility of foreign investment, movement of people and international competition. Another factor is the impact of modern communications technology. Rapid changes in all forms of technology allow a rapid access to various ways of communication with low cost, what leads to opening of markets to consumers worldwide. These two factors have contributed to the change of power in the market from producers to consumers or end users. Within this context, the availability of information in the company as well as the determination of global brands and services becomes a phenomenon of global markets.

Vesi? Dobrica

2010-01-01

255

Economic impact of the energy price increase in Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One unknown with regard to the price increases for gasoline and electricity is what will be the expected impact as the Mexican economy struggles to rebound. This is of more than spurious concern since many Mexican industries rely both intensively and extensively on gasoline and electricity to produce their goods and services. For example, the petrochemical and steel manufacturing industries are major consumers in Mexico's industrial sector which accounts for 55% of total energy consumption. Mexico's steel industry is one of the most electricity intensive in the world, with heavy reliance on electric arc furnace technology. Mexico's transportation sector accounts for about 30% of total energy consumption. Higher energy prices are expected to affect significantly the price and quantity of the goods and services produced. The nature and extent of this effect is the subject of this article. Also the modelling approach to be used in assessing the impact of higher energy prices will be discussed. 2 tabs., 20 refs

1997-07-01

256

Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia. 46 refs

1998-07-01

257

Review of existing studies and unresolved problems associated with socio-economic impact of nuclear powerplants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques

1975-01-01

258

Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constraints of conventional cross breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, especially in apple, pear, citrus and wine grape, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale. The main method followed in mutation breeding of tree fruit has been acute irradiation of meristematic multicellular buds but, Chimera formation and reversion present a serious problem. 87 refs, 4 tabs

1990-05-01

259

Absorptive capacities and the impact of FDI on economic growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the necessary local conditions required for the existence of positive spillovers from multinationals' entry and it consists of a unified study of absorptive capacities. We start from the idea that FDI speeds up the diffusion of technologies across countries. Yet, the question that arises is: to what extent are these advanced technologies absorbed and successfully internalized by the receiving countries such that they materialize in welfare gains? The impact of FDI depends ...

Farkas, Beatrice

2012-01-01

260

A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses this question from the position of critical realism. An empirical study focusing on the housing sector is conducted, indicating that housing stock growth and economic growth have been, at best, weakly decoupled from environmental impacts. In the long run, it seems implausible that the degree of decoupling can be increased at a rate sufficient to compensate for continual growth in the volume of housing stock. A further elaboration of the topic at an ontological level leads to the conclusion that continual economic growth and long-term environmental sustainability can hardly be combined.

Xue, Jin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS ON CREDIT INSURANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The insurance domain is one of the most complex and extensive areas of the market. However this field is very risk exposed especially in this period of economic instability. One of the most non-performant insurance products at this time is the credit insurance. Due to inability to pay and increasing bad loans, insurance companies have decided to remove these products from their portfolio. We believe that the signs that led to this situation have been very visible for a long time, but the insurance market players refused to give too much importance to them because they based their operations on the artificial strength of the whole system. In this paper we want to show how things have evolved on the credit insurance market as compared to the general insurance market, and if the present situation could have been anticipated and avoided.

Vaidean Viorela-Ligia

2010-07-01

262

The economic impact of EUV lithography on critical process modules  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, semiconductor density scaling has been supported by optical lithography. The ability of the exposure tools to provide shorter exposure wavelengths or higher numerical apertures have allowed optical lithography be on the forefront of dimensional scaling for the semiconductor industry. Unfortunately, the roadmap for lithography is currently at a juncture of a major paradigm shift. EUV Lithography is steadily maturing but not fully ready to be inserted into HVM. Unfortunately, there are no alternative litho candidates on the horizon that can take over from 193nm. As a result, it is important to look into the insertion point of EUV that would be ideal for the industry from an economical perspective. This paper details the benefit observed by such a transition. Furthermore, it looks into such detail with an EUV throughput sensitivity study.

Mallik, Arindam; Horiguchi, Naoto; Bömmels, Jürgen; Thean, Aaron; Barla, Kathy; Vandenberghe, Geert; Ronse, Kurt; Ryckaert, Julien; Mercha, Abdelkarim; Altimime, Laith; Verkest, Diederik; Steegen, An

2014-04-01

263

Impact of Foreign Aid on Economic Development in Jordan (1990-2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the impact of foreign aid on economic development, suggest that poor countries have to relay on the foreign aid as a resource to fill the deficit. There are many form of foreign resources like Foreign Direct Investment (FDI, External Loans and Credit, Technical Assistance, Project and non Project Aid and many other forms. But most of under developed countries where Jordan one of them don't have the investment friendly situation. So in one way or the other have to relay on foreign aid and debt rather than other form of financial foreign resources. This study analyses the trend and impact of foreign aid on the economic development of Jordan during the period 1990-2005 using for this purpose different statistical techniques. From the analysis of the related data of Jordan it is clear that the foreign capital flow has a direct impact on the economic development of Jordan.

Mwafaq D. Al-Khaldi

2008-01-01

264

Economic-impact analysis of effluent limitations and standards for the battery-manufacturing industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report identifies and analyzes the economic impacts of water pollution control regulations on the battery manufacturing industry. These regulations include effluent limitations and standards based on BPT (best practical control technology currently available), BAT (best available technology economically achievable), PSES (pretreatment standards existing sources), NSPS (new source performance standards), and PSNS (pretreatment standards new sources), that have been promulgated under authority of Sections 301, 304, 306, 307, 308, and 501 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as Amended (the Clean Water Act). The primary economic impact variables of interest include price changes, plant closures, substitution effects, changes in employment, shifts in the balance of foreign trade, changes in industry profitability, structure, and competition, and impacts on small business.

1984-01-01

265

The economic impact of 10CFR61 commonwealth Edison operational perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impact of implementing 10 CFR Part 20.311 and the applicable sections of 10 CFR Part 61 has been analyzed. Two major influencing factors have been considered - the interpretation applied to certain information provided by the operators of shallow-land disposal sites and the attitude with which the utility company approaches implementation of the rules. The analysis considers the following five general areas of power plant operations: radiochemical analysis, health physics, radioactive waste processing, packaged radioactive waste transportation, and packaged radioactive waste disposal. The economic impact is provided for two different points of view - depending on the results one wants to produce. A comment is also provided concerning the economic impact associated with the continuing implementation of the rules in future years

1984-01-01

266

GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION: EVALUATION OF IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work tries to assess the impact of government investment in engineering construction, communication technology and transportation on economic growth in Nigeria. One null hypothesis guided the study and data was collected from 1977 to 2008 from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using regression, F and t tests, stationary and co-integration tests. Results revealed that increases in government expenditure in engineering construction impacted more significantly on economic growth than their expenditureon transport and communication. Increased expenditure on all sectors was recommended especially on engineering construction. In addition policy modifications are needed to ensure that government expenditure on the transportation and communication sector achieve greater impacts on economic growth.

ALAMEZIEM KELECHI STANLEY

2012-04-01

267

The impact of real exchange rate volatility on economic growth: Kenyan evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of real exchange rate volatility on economic growth in Kenyan. The study employed the Generalized Autoregressive Condition of Heteroscedasticity (GARCH and computation of the unconditional standard deviation of the changes to measure volatility and Generalized Method Moments (GMM to assess the impact of the real exchange rate volatility on economic growth for the period January 1993 to December 2009. Data for the study was collected from Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Central Bank of Kenya and International Monetary Fund Data Base by taking monthly frequency. The study found that RER was very volatility for the entire study period. Kenya’s RER generally exhibited a appreciating and volatility trend, implying that in general, the country’s international competitiveness deteriorated over the study period. The RER Volatility reflected a negative impact on economic growth of Kenya.

Ganesh P. Pokhariyal

2012-10-01

268

Critical assessment of economic impact analyses at selected national festivals / Lukas Johannes Meyer van Wyk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Festivals have become a global phenomenon and now serve as a platform to promote the leisure and tourism industry within a nation. These events have an undisputed economic effect – not only on the hosting community – but also on the global community. Despite the encouraging community support and the socio-economic impact and spin-offs that are generated by means of such events, the financing of art festivals remains an intricate issue. The fact remains that not all festival...

Wyk, Lukas Johannes Meyer

2011-01-01

269

Socio-Economic Impact of Social Forestry on Farmers in District Faisalabad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present study deals with the survey which was conducted to study the Socio-economic impact of social forestry on farmers in District Faisalabad. Forest community of plants and animals dominated by woody vegetation. In Pakistan there is not appropriate forestry system and farmers are not aware of social forestry. The main purpose of the study were to measure : to examine Socio-economic characteristics of farmers affecting planting : to examine the motivating factors behind the adoption of soci...

2001-01-01

270

IMPACT OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION ON THE HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE GREATER MEKONG SUB-REGION COUNTRIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the impact of economic globalization on the human trafficking inflows into the Greater Mekong Sub-region(GMS) countries. The paper empirically tests for a cross-section of six countries, including Cambodia, the Yunnan Province of the People'sRepublic of China (PRC), Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PRD), Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Employing the Pooled OLSestimator, as the theory predicts, the economic globalization increases trafficking inflow into the GMS. Howev...

Prasert Chaitip; Chukiat Chaiboonsri; Sandor Kovacs; Peter Balogh; Kovács Sándor; Balogh Péter (1997-) (statisztikus); Suk-Rutai Peerapeng (1978-) (researcher)

2012-01-01

271

Hazardous waste management in South African mining : a CGE analysis of the economic impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is no doubt that an improved hazardous waste management in mining and mineral processing will reduce environmental and health risks in South Africa. However, skeptics fear that waste reduction, appropriate treatment and disposal are not affordable within the current economic circumstances, neither from an economic nor from a social point of view. This paper mainly deals with the first aspect and touches upon the second. It investigates the short-run and long-run sectoral impacts of an e...

Wiebelt, Manfred

1999-01-01

272

Impact of foreign aid on economic growth in Sierra Leone: Empirical analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the impact of foreign aid on economic growth in Sierra Leone, a country where an empirical econometric study on aid effectiveness is yet to exist. Using a triangulation of approaches involving the ARDL bounds test approach and the Johansen maximum likelihood approach to cointegration for the period 1970-2007, we find that foreign aid has a significant contribution in promoting economic growth in the country. This finding is found to be robust across approaches and specific...

Kargbo, Philip Michael

2012-01-01

273

The ghost of development past :the impact of economic security policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was...

Hausner, Vera Helene; Fauchald, Per; Tveraa, Torkild; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Jernsletten, Johnny-leo L.; Ulvevadet, Birgitte; Ims, Rolf Anker; Yoccoz, Nigel; Bra?then, Kari Anne

2011-01-01

274

The Ghost of Development Past: the Impact of Economic Security Policies on Saami Pastoral Ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was...

Hausner, Vera H.; Per Fauchald; Torkild Tveraa; Elisabeth Pedersen; Johnny-Leo Jernsletten; Birgitte Ulvevadet; Ims, Rolf A.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Kari Anne. Bråthen

2011-01-01

275

Assessing the impact of one aspect of globalization on economic growth in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using panel data, this paper explores the effects of openness to international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth. Fixed-effect and adjusted fixedeffect (regional-effect) estimations yield results consistent with the hypothesis of conditional convergence. FDI has a significant positive impact on economic growth in all specifications. However, openness to trade does not seem to enhance growth in poor countries. The empirical findings fail to substantiate the propositi...

Baliamoune, Mina N.

2002-01-01

276

THE IMPACT OF PROPERTY RIGHTS FREEDOM ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE OECD NATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study empirically investigates of the impact on per capita real economic growth of property rights freedom. After controlling for nominal long term interest rates, net exports, a measure of political stability, and other factors, panel least squares as well as panel two stage least squares estimations using a four-year panel data set for the OECD nations as a group reveal that higher levels of property rights freedom lead to an increased rate of per capita real economic growth. Further...

2011-01-01

277

Computational modeling for evaluating the economic impact of airports on regional economies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Airports, as fundamental nodes of the air transport network, reflect the economic status of the region they serve and act as major engines of economic development, as was stated in ACI 2004. The impact of regional tourist airports on their region is more important due to the fact that there is a high interrelation between airports and tourism. A growing literature on this subject highlights the methods used to calculate the total effect of an airport on regional economy, and th...

Sartzetaki, Maria

2011-01-01

278

The impact of the international economic crisis on child poverty in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on a study to provide insights into the magnitude of the shocks associated with the recent global economic crisis in macroeconomic terms in South Africa, the country’s capacity to withstand or cushion these shocks, and the extent of fragility in terms of poverty levels and child wellbeing. The analysis combines macroeconomic and micro-economic tools to assess the extent of the crisis’ impact on the country. The study finds that the poverty headcount ratio increases litt...

Chitiga, Margaret; Mabugu, Margaret; Chitiga-mabugu, Margaret; Decaluwe, Bernard; Mabugu, Ramos; Maisonnave, Helene; Robichaud, Veronique; Shepherd, Debra; Berg, Servaas; Von Fintel, Dieter

2010-01-01

279

Financial and Economical Crisis - the Impact on the EU as a Global Actor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project analyses the question of ‘can the European Union (EU) continue as a global actor after being struck by the financial and economic crises’. The analysis is made with main focus on the impact on EU’s role on the international scene. The project considers the crisis through an analysis of the decision-making patterns of the EU, using historical, sociological and discourse-integration theories. Through the analysis of the three types of institutionalism and the economical refo...

Arabadzhieva, Ivayla; Komleva, Jekaterina; Hansen, Helle H.

2012-01-01

280

The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the countries of South East Europe. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced during the transition period have enabled countries to cope with external shocks such as those associated with the recent global economic crisis. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variabl...

Bartlett Will; Prica Ivana

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The impact of population growth on economic growth and poverty reduction in Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines the link between population and per capita economic growth, and poverty, using the interesting case study of Uganda. Although Uganda has recently experienced excellent economic growth and poverty reduction, it currently has one of the highest population growth rates in the world which, due to the inherent demographic momentum, will persist for some time to come. By combining both a macro and microeconometric approach, using panel data, we are able to consider the impact of ...

Klasen, Stephan; Lawson, David

2007-01-01

282

Solar power satellites: Commercialization and socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commercialization prospects for solar power satellites are assessed with reference to their possible impacts on the viability of the fossil fuel market and on international energy and environmental policies. The technical aspects which are examined include: solar panel sizing in relation to solar cell efficiency; the development of point-contact solar cell technology; the feasibility of the use of lunar materials; microwave transmission from the moon; optimum satellite positioning; the use of robots for in-space satellite assembly; satellite transmitted power for hydrogen production and storage; marketable product estimated development time

1993-01-01

283

Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

1996-01-01

284

The formation and economic impact of perceptions of risk surrounding nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the results of an investigation of factors determining the nature of risk perceptions associated with eleven nuclear facilities and their impact on local economic development. The paper indicates that the nature of risk perceptions depends primarily on the level of communication by plant officials within the local community, the track record of the facility operator, the process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, and the level of economic links each facility has with the local community. The research indicates that adverse risk perceptions have not affected economic development

1993-04-25

285

The economic impact of shale gas development on state and local economies: benefits, costs, and uncertainties.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is often assumed that natural gas exploration and development in the Marcellus Shale will bring great economic prosperity to state and local economies. Policymakers need accurate economic information on which to base decisions regarding permitting and regulation of shale gas extraction. This paper provides a summary review of research findings on the economic impacts of extractive industries, with an emphasis on peer-reviewed studies. The conclusions from the studies are varied and imply that further research, on a case-by-case basis, is necessary before definitive conclusions can be made regarding both short- and long-term implications for state and local economies. PMID:23552649

Barth, Jannette M

2013-01-01

286

Direct and indirect economic impacts of drought in the agri-food sector in the Ebro River basin (Spain)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic evaluation of drought impacts is essential in order to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation strategies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of a drought event on the agricultural sector and measure how they are transmitted from primary production to industrial output and related employment. We fit econometric models to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water storage. The direct impacts of drought on agricultur...

Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Herna?ndez-mora, N.

2013-01-01

287

Socio-Economic and Cultural Impacts of Resettlement on Bakassi People of Cross River State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic and cultural impact of resettlement on Bakassi people of Cross River State, Nigeria was examined. The study elicited data from 516 respondents who were purposively selected from the Bakassi resettlement site at Ekpiri Ikang in Cross River State. Data were generated with the aid of structured questionnaire and statistically analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was observed that, the resettlement of Bakassi people significantly influenced their occupations, culture and accommodation pattern. It was recommended among others, that the Affected Persons (APs should be properly compensated and adequate accommodation provided.Key words: Socio-economic; Resettlement and Cultural Impacts

J. J. Akpanudoedehe

2010-12-01

288

Green jobs? Economic impacts of renewable energy in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) are analyzed in this text. Although a growing RE industry can be observed in Germany the overall effect of large increases of RE based electricity and heat generating technologies on the German economy require a careful model based analysis. The applied model PANTA RHEI has been used among others to evaluate the German energy concept in 2010. It takes positive and negative impacts of RE into account. The paper shows the overall effects under different assumptions for fossil fuel prices, domestic installations and international trade. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the development of RE world markets and German exports to these markets. Almost all of these scenarios exhibit positive net employment effects. Under medium assumptions net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. Only with assumptions for German RE exports below today's level, net impacts are slightly negative. Gross employment will increase from 340 thousand in 2009 to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030. - Highlights: ? This paper analyzes labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) in Germany. ? It shows the overall effects under different assumptions. ? The development of world markets and German RE exports are very important. ? Net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. ? Gross employment will increase to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030.

2012-08-01

289

Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). Part I. Sectoral Analysis of Climate Impacts in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on the results of the research work carried out by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) within the WISE project. This project aims at investigating the effects and the impacts of extreme weather events, particularly very warm summers, mild winters and storms, on the socio-economic systems of European countries. The output consists of a series of empirical studies, both of quantitative and qualitative descriptive nature. The work of FEEM in the WISE project covers the quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate extremes on the socio-economic system in Italy and the analysis of individuals' perception of climate extremes based on results from individuals' surveys. In this paper is presented the statistical modelling of the impact of weather, through quantitative analysis of activity time series. In particular, the core sectors analysed include fires, health, energy use, tourism and agriculture

2004-01-01

290

Processing and economic impacts of biomass delignification for ethanol production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for chemical pretreatment of biomass for the enzyme-catalyzed production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks has been established. Past research in the Alternative Fuels Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has focused on dilute acid prehydrolysis processes as a means of hydrolyzing the hemicellulose component of biomass. Such processes provide a solid residue that is more easily hydrolyzable by cellulose enzymes, as well as a hemicellulose-sugar component that can be converted by pentose-fermenting microorganisms. This work investigates the technical and economic feasibility of including a separate biomass delignification/fractionation step, either in conjunction with dilute acid prehydrolysis or as an independent pretreatment process. These alternatives would not only solubilize the hemicellulose component of a biomass feedstock, but the lignin fraction as well. The resulting residual solids would be primarily composed of cellulose. The benefits found in converting such material to ethanol may include lower cellulose requirements, shorter bioconversion times, higher effective cellulose concentrations resulting in higher ethanol concentrations, smaller reactor volumes, and more efficient enzyme recycle options. A technoeconomic assessment indicates that improvements in these process parameters can lead to significant savings that can cover the costs of such process additions.

Elander, R.T.; Hsu, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

291

Community Perceptions toward Economic and Environmental Impacts of Tourism on Local Communities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the community perceptions toward economic and environmental impacts of tourism in Shiraz, Iran. Special focus is on the differences in perceptions between the Old and New Districts of Shiraz. The study demonstrates that there are broadly similar views among the community leaders and community residents from both districts of Shiraz. In fact, a high percentage of the answers obtained highlighted positive aspects environmental and economic impacts of tourism toward local communities. According to the survey, the strongest and favourable perceptions toward tourism impacts are found to be linked with environmental aspects and while economic matters are found to be the least favourable in terms of the perceived impacts on tourism. T-test analysis of the study indicates that there is no significant difference between community leaders' perceptions in both districts of Shiraz City. Results drew from discussion with the target group show that the community residents have positive perceptions toward economic and environmental impacts of tourism with only minor differences with each other.

Fariborz Aref

2009-06-01

292

Economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

293

Social and economic impact of Chernobyl in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiological impact of the Chernobyl accident in terms of doses to individuals in the various countries covered a wide range. The specific features of the release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl accident, particularly its relatively large duration and altitude reached by the radioactive plume, caused a widespread distribution of activity across Europe. Meteorological conditions and wind regimes during the period of release were the contributing factors. The varying distances from the source of release and long duration of the release in different directions resulted in uneven ground and foodchain contamination. Also, variable meteorological situation, characterized by frequent and localized heavy precipitation contributed to uneven deposition differs sometimes by one or two orders of magnitude between localities situated few tens of kilometers apart. In these circumstances, the doses to the individuals of critical groups appeared to be higher than the average individual dose over whole population

1997-09-01

294

1977 Clean Air Act amendments: energy, environmental, economic and distributional impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy, environmental, economic, and distributional impacts of Title I of the 1977 Amendments, to the Clean Air Act, which primarily regulates coal-burning powerplants, are analyzed relative to the base case 1970 Act. Four provisions - revised New Source Performance Standards (RNSPS), Prevention of Significant Deterioration, the local coal amendment, and visibility stipulations - are discussed qualitatively. Two well-known coal forecasting models quantify selected impacts of the RNSPS. Except for a modest decline in sulfur dioxide emissions, the energy, environmental, and economic impacts appear to be significantly adverse. The distributional impacts suggest that Eastern coal and industrial interests, Western agricultural and tourist-oriented business interests, and environmentalists gain at the expense of Western coal interests, electricity consumers, utilities, and national policy goals.

Navarro, P.

1981-01-01

295

The economic impact of giving up nuclear power in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite de France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value and would penalize its shareholders, the State. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas-price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially-amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (author)

2001-11-01

296

The economical impact of a nuclear renunciation in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite De France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value for its shareholders. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (authors)

2001-01-01

297

Defense Inventory: Army Needs to Evaluate Impact of Recent Actions to Improve Demand Forecasts for Spare Parts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1990, GAO has designated the Department of Defense's (DOD) inventory management as a high-risk area. It is critical that the military services effectively and efficiently manage DOD's secondary inventory to ensure that the warfighter is supplied wit...

2009-01-01

298

Improvements to the economic impact assessment section of the EPPO PRA scheme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the adjustments to the economic impact assessment section of the EPPO Decision-support scheme for pest risk analysis undertaken by the PRATIQUE EU project are described. The improvements aim to improve accuracy, consistency and transparency and include the following aspects. The wording of the questions and notes has been adjusted to enhance clarity and provide additional assistance, especially for assessing indirect impacts. Furthermore a new question has been added about the i...

Bremmer, J.; Petter, F.; Baker, R.

2012-01-01

299

Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change.

Ierland, E.C. van; Derksen, L. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of General Economics

1994-12-31

300

Economics of extreme weather events in cities: Terminology and regional impact models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Impacts of extreme weather events are relevant for cities in many aspects. Cities are the cores of economic activity and the amount of people and assets endangered by extreme weather events is large, even under the current climate. A changing climate with changing extreme weather patterns and the process of urbanization will make the whole issue even more relevant in the future. In this paper, definitions and terminology in the field of extreme weather events are discussed. Possible impacts o...

Jahn, Malte

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Potential economic impacts of technological and organisational innovations in intermodal access to major passenger terminals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report deals with the potential economic impacts of innovations such as smart ticketing and instantaneous access to rail and modal connection information schedules. First, the qualitative role of TOIs (technological and organizational innovations) is explored within the framework of intermodality. Secondly, a simple, quantitative, parametric model is described. The model is then used to analyze the impact of TOIs on rail demand, accessibility and passenger welfare under the assumption of...

Tapiador, Francisco J.; Marti?-henneberg, Jordi

2009-01-01

302

The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

1975-01-01

303

The Economic Consequences of IFRS: The Impact of IAS 32 on Preference Shares in the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The consequences of international accounting standards are likely to reach beyond the impact on financial statements. This paper demonstrates one of the economic implications of international standards. We focus on the impact of the IFRS regulation on preference shares (IAS 32) in the Netherlands. IAS 32 causes most preference shares to lose their classification as equity and these shares will hence be classified as liabilities. We document that for Dutch firms with preferred stock outstandin...

Jong, A.; Rosello?n, M. A.; Verwijmeren, P.

2006-01-01

304

Predicting the economic impact of the 2010 FIFA World Cup on South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of the sporting industry on economic decision making has increased dramatically since the global media explosion in the 1980s. Tourism and advertising revenues generated by mega-events such as World Cups or Olympic Games have become a major boost to the economies of hosting nations. In addition, globalisation has placed great emphasis on the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), especially to developing countries. This paper seeks to examine the impact of the 2010 FIFA Wor...

2008-01-01

305

Economic impacts of adoption and fundraising strategies in animal shelters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adoption strategies used in animal shelters can have a large impact on the total number of adoptions and donations that take place. Reducing adoption fees during peak kitten or puppy season is one way to reduce inventories and increase the number of open spaces to save more lives, but does not necessarily increase the financial well-being of the shelter if the per-animal costs exceed the revenues generated. We developed a stochastic model to simulate the expected costs, revenues, and net income of a hypothetical animal shelter for various alternative management strategies, based on US conditions. A total of 8 scenarios were developed and compared to the base-case scenario (BC). In the model, scenarios which decreased or waived adoption fees caused total costs to increase due to the escalating costs associated with increasing the total number and density of animals housed. This effect was especially pronounced when adoptions were free. When the return on money invested in additional fundraising was predetermined to be 'good' (rather than 'fair' or 'poor'), net shelter income did exceed costs - but even 'fair' return increased net shelter income compared to the BC. Of the eight scenarios compared to BC, the mean monthly net income was significantly different from that in the BC in all eight scenarios (p<0.01). In contrast, variances were different (p<0.01) in five of the eight scenarios (and the uncertainty that comes with high variance would make planning difficult for shelter managers); however, the variance in net income did not differ from the BC for any of the scenarios investigating returns to additional spending on promotion and fundraising. In these scenarios, because the extra cost involved is relatively low compared to the other scenarios, the potential risk of a reduction in net shelter revenue is reduced. When shelters are aware of the positive and negative impacts of various adoption strategies on mean net income and variation in net income, shelter managers can better strategize saving animal lives and meeting shelter goals, while maintaining the financial health and functionality of the operation. PMID:24380571

Lord, Emily; Olynk Widmar, Nicole; Litster, Annette

2014-03-01

306

Does the Climate Change the Economy: An Empirical Investigation of the Local Economic Impacts of Extreme Events in the Southwest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Do extreme weather events have an impact on local economies. Has local governments' public finance been impacted by climate change. Can the complex dynamics between climate and economic threaten the feasibility of local adaptation policies. These are the ...

D. Pasqualinin L. Bianchini P. Patelli R. Boero

2013-01-01

307

Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in fruit trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The constraints of conventional cross-breeding in fruit trees, wide market acceptance of definite cultivars, and the increased impact of natural mutants provide incentives for mutation breeding. Only few induced mutants in fruit trees have been commercialized and are being planted on a large scale, contrary to the situation in ornamentals. Thermal neutrons, X-rays or gamma rays have yielded commercial mutants, with only isolated cases of success with chemical mutagens or chronic irradiation. The latter method often results in severe cumulative injury to plants. The main method followed in the mutation breeding of tree fruits has been acute irradiation of the meristematic multicellular buds. Chimera formation and reversion present serious problems. Selection is usually performed in the second vegetatively propagated progeny, mV2, in an attempt to overcome chimerism. Some induced mutants have already been used as parents in conventional cross-breeding programmes. Future targets for mutation breeding will probably not deviate essentially from those formulated in the past, although more emphasis will have to be placed on easily selectable simple traits and the problem of reversion. 83 refs, 2 tabs

1990-06-18

308

Multi-Attribute Modelling of Economic and Ecological Impacts of Agricultural Innovations on Cropping Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modeling of economic and ecological impacts of genetically modified crops is a demanding task. We present some models made for the purpose of the ECOGEN project "Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops". One of the goals of the project is to develop a computer-based decision support system for the assessment of economic and ecological impacts of using genetically modified crops, with special emphasis on soil biology and ecology. The decision support system is based on a rule-based model incorporating both economic and ecological criteria. In this paper we present an extension to previous results specifying further two sub-models assessing economic impacts of cropping systems at farm and regional level. Following a real option approach we show how both social and private costs and benefits, both at farm and regional level, can be classified in reversible and irreversible, and what irreversibility means for the size of the uncertainty associated to the adoption of agricultural innovations. All the qualitative models are developed using a qualitative multi-attribute modeling methodology, supported by the software tool DEXi.

Sara Scatasta

2006-04-01

309

Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in crop productivity, producers in some regions face adaptation costs through either intensification or spatial expansion of agricultural production. Impacts are relatively small in the first half of the century, but intensify later. Additional adaptation options are investigated through the use of different levels of trade liberalization in the model (Schmitz et al. 2012). MAgPIE results also have been compared to other global agro-economic models in AgMIP. Third, climate-induced changes are aggregated for major world regions as the sum of producer and consumer surplus across spatial units. Different equity weighting schemes are investigated based on Frankhauser et al. (1997), in order to take spatial differences in population density and economic wealth into account. Finally, agricultural damages are implemented into the macro-economic framework of ReMIND-R. This approach of a detailed study of climate change impacts along the effect chain from bio-physical impacts to economic assessment is an important next step in the development of damage assessments with regard to long-term climate change. It will be extended in the future to other impact areas. The separate models involved have benefitted from checks for robustness in the course of AgMIP and other model intercomparison exercises.

Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

2012-12-01

310

The Cultural-Economic Impact of the State University College at Oswego.  

Science.gov (United States)

The economic and cultural impact of the State University of New York (SUNY) at Oswego on the local economy is reviewed. The following areas are covered: the community in historical perspective (1861-1970); the college in historical perspective (1861-1970); changes in the size, nature, and structure of the community, 1950-70; and growth of the…

Garber, Herbert

311

Impact of Technology and Culture on Home Economics and Nutrition Science Education in Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and report on the impact of technology and culture on home economics and nutrition science education in developing countries with a focus on Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Globally and most especially in developing countries, the advent of information and communication technologies has meant…

Aburime, M. O.; Uhomoibhi, J. O.

2010-01-01

312

Economic Impacts of Global Warming :The Case of the Barents Sea Fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regional analyses of possible physical and biological effects of global warming in the Barents Sea area have been carried out recently. Based on such studies possible economic impacts of global warming on the Barents Sea fisheries have been quantified, assuming different types of management

Eide, Arne

2007-01-01

313

Analyzing the Economic Impact of Transportation Projects Using RIMS II, IMPLAN and REMI.  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this study is to provide public transit managers, operators and planners with a well researched and simply presented comparative economic impact assessment guidebook for using each of these tools. The analysis will use each of these tools on ...

T. Lynch

2000-01-01

314

Field veterinary survey on clinical and economic impact of Schmallenberg virus in Belgium.  

Science.gov (United States)

We implemented a questionnaire-based methodology targeting veterinary field practitioners to evaluate clinical and economic impact of Schmallenberg virus in Belgium. First suspicious cases were detected as soon as July 2011. The mean cost for individual symptomatic treatment was 65 or 107 Euros, in case of fatal outcome or apparent recovery, respectively. PMID:23279714

Martinelle, L; Dal Pozzo, F; Gauthier, B; Kirschvink, N; Saegerman, C

2014-06-01

315

Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

Ward, Frank A.

2014-01-01

316

Money Talks: Documenting the Economic Impact of Extension Personal Finance Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Money 2000, an extension program to teach saving money, included a longitudinal behavioral monitoring component over an extended period of time, computerized financial analysis, and individual financial counseling. The personal finance programs and evaluation procedures enabled staff to document almost $2 million of economic impact on the lives of…

O'Neill, Barbara

1998-01-01

317

Economic and fiscal impacts of large-scale development projects: implications for nuclear waste repositories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the local economic and fiscal implications of siting high-level nuclear waste repositories in rural areas. The economic and fiscal effects of repository development fall into two categories: (1) standard impacts similar to those that would be associated with developing any large-scale industrial facility in an isolated area; (2) special impacts that result from the hazardous nature of the nuclear materials stored and from federal ownership of the facility. Standard economic and fiscal impacts include employment effects (direct and secondary), local income changes, alterations in community price structures, effects on community services, and changes in revenues and costs for local jurisdictions. Special impacts include the possibility of diminished activity in other basic economic sectors, negative effects on the area's long-term growth prospects and a consequent dampening of investment in the local trade an service sectors, additional costs for local jurisdictions (e.g., for preparing evacuation plans), and limited local tax revenues resulting from the tax-exempt status of the facility. These special effects are difficult to quantify and require additional analysis. 47 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

1982-01-01

318

Economic impact of GM crops: The global income and production effects 1996-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

2014-01-01

319

Counting Jobs and Economic Impacts from Distributed Wind in the United States (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference poster describes the distributed wind Jobs and Economic Development Imapcts (JEDI) model. The goal of this work is to provide a model that estimates jobs and other economic effects associated with the domestic distributed wind industry. The distributed wind JEDI model is a free input-output model that estimates employment and other impacts resulting from an investment in distributed wind installations. Default inputs are from installers and industry experts and are based on existing projects. User input can be minimal (use defaults) or very detailed for more precise results. JEDI can help evaluate potential scenarios, current or future; inform stakeholders and decision-makers; assist businesses in evaluating economic development impacts and estimating jobs; assist government organizations with planning and evaluating and developing communities.

Tegen, S.

2014-05-01

320

CAPITAL ACCOUNT CONVERTIBILITY IN INDIA: THE IMPACT OF CAPITAL INFLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH, EXPORTS AND IMPORTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capital Account Convertibility increases inflows of foreign capital in the country and these inflows have got far reaching impact on the economy. In this article an attempt is made to study the impact of foreign capital inflows on macro economic variables of the Indian economy such as IIP, Exports, and Imports. Using co-integration and Error Correction Models we find that the inflow of foreign capital (INFK and FPI cause positively the change in the Index of Industrial production (IIP i.e. economic growth in India. The study also reveals that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between inflows of capital and imports; there is an evidence for economic growth influencing the inflows of FDI but not vice versa and Inflows of foreign capital causing an increase in exports. In view of these findings some policy measures relating capital inflows are suggested.

Laila Memdani

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed by several types of market participants, ranging from residential customers to large-scale project developers and utilities. Each type of market participant frequently uses a different economic performance metric to characterize PV value because they are looking for different types of returns from a PV investment. This report finds that different economic performance metrics frequently show different price thresholds for when a PV investment becomes profitable or attractive. Several project parameters, such as financing terms, can have a significant impact on some metrics [e.g., internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio] while having a minimal impact on other metrics (e.g., simple payback time). As such, the choice of economic performance metric by different customer types can significantly shape each customer's perception of PV investment value and ultimately their adoption decision.

Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

2011-10-01

322

Impact of Development and Efficiency of Financial Sector on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of development and efficiency of financial sector on economic growth of a group of selected developing countries using a cross-country data averaged over the period 2005-2009. The results show that the impact of financial sector efficiency on economic growth is significantly positive for developing countries. For a sample of 50 developing countries the effect of financial sector development and financial sector efficiency is positive and highly significant. The sensitivity analysis also shows that the relationship remain positive and significant no matter what combination of the omitted variables are used in the basic model. Thus, our findings support the core idea that development and efficiency of financial sector stimulates economic growth.

Najia SAQIB

2013-06-01

323

Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

2013-12-01

324

Economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This economic study examines the economic impact associated with the decommissioning process of the Vandellos I Nuclear Power Plant, measured in terms of the global income that generated the ending of the Nuclear Power Plant activity, on the territory. To this end, we will take into account the total investment that has been necessary to complete the process of decommissioning. The economic impact is calculated using the Input- Output methodology. Briefly, the Input-Output model defines a group of accounting relationships that reflect the links taking place within the production system. The Input-Output model is based on the assumption that given an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector, this sector should produce more (less) to satisfy this new demand. At the same time, this will lead to demand more (less) intermediate consumption goods from the remainder sectors of the economy. Then, these sectors should produce more (less) and use more (less) intermediate inputs, and so on. Therefore, an increase (decrease) in the final demand of one sector multiplies the effect throughout the economy, following the interdependency relationships that exist among the productive activities. We will start by collecting an exhaustive economic information. This information covers the whole decommissioning process and the whole economic and productive activity of the province of Tarragona. Next, this information is used with the objective of building an Input-Output table of the province that will serve as a base to establish the global economic impact of Vandellos I. The incomes and employment generation has been evaluated in the province of Tarragona that, following the main assumptions, correspond to the global effects of the decommissioning. In addition, we have evaluated the income and employment generation within the region where the nuclear power plant is located. The total income impacts show a high multiplier effect due to the investment carried out during the decommissioning

2005-01-01

325

Impact Of Insurance On Economic Growth: The Case Of Republic Of Macedonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of insurance and economic growth, with empirical analysis for the Republic of Macedonia. We apply multiple regression and control for other relevant determinants of economic growth. The analysis used data for the period 1995 - 2010. In order to solve the model in the analysis will use the technique of least squares, followed by analysis of variability in order to identify the effects of each variable. Insurance development is measured by insurance penetration (insurance premiums in percentage of GDP. We used three different insurance variables - life insurance, non-life insurance and total insurance penetration. According to our findings, insurance sector development positively and significantly affects economic growth. The results are confirmed in terms of non-life insurance, and, total insurance, while the results show that life insurance negatively affect economic growth.

Jordan Kjosevski

2013-09-01

326

The estimation of economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of a release parameters and metrorological data. According to the cost estimation for the basic scenarios, the population dependent cost is dominant. The cost for the protective actions such as evacuation and relocation have a small portion in the total cost and show little variation from scenario to scenario. The economic cost estimation for the seasonal scenarios show very similar trend as that for the basic scenarios. There are little or small variation in the economic cost for the different scenarios for each season except for the season-5 scenario. The health effect value shows maximum in Summer and minimum in Fall. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum in Fall and minimum in Summer. The result will be used as basic data in the establishment of effective emergency response and in the cost/benefit analysis in developing optimum risk reduction strategies.

Jeong, Jong Tae; Jung, Won dea

2001-03-01

327

The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the countries of South East Europe. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced during the transition period have enabled countries to cope with external shocks such as those associated with the recent global economic crisis. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variable impact across countries is assessed. Several types of institutions are examined, including the degree to which countries have adopted the acquis communautaire, determined by the extent of their EU integration, progress with transition, and the broad institutional environment measured through the quality of governance. The paper asks whether countries with a more flexible economy due to faster progress with transition reforms were better able to adjust to the impact of external shocks. It concludes that the variable impact of the global crisis in the region can be explained mainly by their degree of integration into the global economy, and that the institutional reforms that were introduced during the boom times have made countries more integrated into the global economy, and therefore more vulnerable to the impact of the global economic crisis.

Bartlett Will

2011-01-01

328

Regional studies program. Forecasting the local economic impacts of energy resource development: a methodological approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Emphasis is placed on the nature and magnitude of socio-economic impacts of fossil-fuel development. A model is described that identifies and estimates the magnitude of the economic impacts of anticipated energy resource development in site-specific areas and geographically contiguous areas of unspecified size. The modeling methodology was designed to assist industries and government agencies complying with recent federal and state legislation requiring subregional impact analyses for individual facilities. The model was designed in light of the requirements for accuracy, expandability, and exportability. The methodology forecasts absolute increments in local and regional growth on an annual or biennial basis and transforms these parameters into estimates of the affected area's ability to accommodate growth-induced demands, especially demands for public services. (HLW)

Stenehjem, E.J.

1975-12-01

329

Social and economic impacts of petroleum boom and bust' cycles. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report focuses on the effect of petroleum production in the Gulf of Mexico on social problems, educational attainment and strain, and community economic health on parishes in Louisiana. The parishes studies vary in degree of involvement (highly or minimally involved) and type of involvement (extraction or related activities such as refining, metal fabrication and wholesaling) in petroleum production. The findings suggest that petroleum production in the Gulf of Mexico affects social problems, educational attainment, educational strain, and community economic health, In addition, the influence depends on both the degree and type of involvement. Mitigation recommendations include data collection, impact monitoring, sharing of information about potential impacts with community residents, counseling and treatment programs, and the expansion of government assistance and programs that help citizens cope with impacts.

Seydlitz, R.; Laska, S.

1994-06-01

330

The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor’s survey (156 respondents, a community survey (132 respondents and a business survey (11 respondents. We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved.

Conservation implications: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

How to cite this article:How to cite this article: Oberholzer, S., Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Slabbert, E., 2010, ‘The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park’, Koedoe 52(1, Art. #879, 9 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v52i1.879

Elmarie Slabbert

2010-03-01

331

Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

1981-01-01

332

An Investigation of the Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper posits to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria. A study of this nature is necessary because foreign direct investment is an important component of private investment which is widely believed to be the engine of economic growth in any modern economy. In order to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Nigeria and the causal relationship between them, liner regression and granger causality test were used. The data used were from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin (2006 and national account of Nigeria (2007. The study has shown that foreign direct investment has a positive impact on gross domestic product in Nigeria and we therefore accept the alternative hypothesis. It is recommended that there is the need to put in place concrete policies to engender a positive and competitive enabling environment that would attract more foreign investors. There must also be relentless wars against corruption and insecurity in order to give confidence to investors.

Key words: Domestic investment; Foreign direct investment; Capital formation and economic growth

Abu Maji

2011-09-01

333

Analyzing the economic impacts of land use change: a framework and a case study for the Miombo woodlands, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the causes of unsustainable land management is a general lack of understanding of the economic impacts of land use change. This article presents a methodological framework for analyzing the economic costs of land degradation and the benefits of sustainable land management (SLM). The framework comprises three complementary types of assessment: partial valuation, total valuation, and impact assessment. Total valuation allows for static assessment of selected economic benefits from a cert...

Hein, L. G.; Groot, R. S.; Soma, K.

2008-01-01

334

The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

2006-03-29

335

DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

Constantin PREDA

2012-01-01

336

IMPACT OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR ON THE CURRENT ZIMBABWEAN ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper sought to investigate the economic impact of the informal sector in the Zimbabwean economy. It was discovered that the informal sector is very significant in its contribution to the development of the Zimbabwean economy. However the small entrepreneurs find difficulties in their operations because of the lack of capital and collateral. Given their significance in the economy, the paper suggests that these businesses should be assisted by the relevant stakeholders to graduate from informal to formal sector. This will enhance rapid economic growth.

Clainos Chidoko

2011-12-01

337

EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth in Niger from 1961 to 2010 by using, Unit root test and Co-integration test and the Vector Error correction Model. The results obtained below show that FDI has small, and not a statistically significant effect, on the economic growth. The results seem to sustain the statement that FDI in the extractive area might not be growth enhancing as much as manufacturing FDI.

Amadou Maiga Ousseini

2011-10-01

338

The economic impact of stroke in The Netherlands: the €-restore4stroke study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke has a considerable socio-economic impact worldwide and is the leading cause of disabilities in the Western world. Economic studies of stroke focus merely on physical aspects and clinical interventions. To our current knowledge there is no comprehensive economic study investigating the economic impact of stroke including psychological and social aspects. The €-Restore4Stroke project, part of a large comprehensive research programme Restore4Stroke, aims to investigate the total economic impact of stroke in the Netherlands. Methods Two trial-based economic evaluation studies will be conducted within the €-Restore4Stroke project: one focussing on a self-management intervention and one on an augmented cognitive behavioural therapy intervention. Both include cost-effectiveness analyses and cost-utility analyses as primary research methods. Furthermore, a cost-of-illness study investigating costs after stroke attached to a cohort study and a record linkage study in which four databases are linked to investigate patterns of health care consumption before and after stroke, are embedded in €-Restore4Stroke. All studies will be performed from a societal perspective. The primary outcome measure for the cost-effectiveness analysis is the increase in health status on the primary outcome scales. Within the cost-utility analysis, the primary outcome measure is quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for which an indirect preference-based technique will be used. In the self-management study we will also look at the estimation of health effects on informal caregivers. Cost outcomes in the cost-of-illness study will be computed with a cost questionnaire and linkage of several databases will be used to derive outcomes in the record linkage study, Discussion €-Restore4Stroke will provide new insights and evidence for the economic impact of psychosocial consequences after stroke. Besides being innovative in various ways (i.e. focussing on the chronic phase after stroke and including personal factors as possible determinants of long-term re-integration including quality of life in a prospective longitudinal design, a major strength of €-Restore4Stroke is that we include impact on informal caregivers. The outcomes of this study will provide health care decision makers with valuable and necessary information regarding stroke care related decisions. Trial registration NTR3051 (RCT Self-management, NTR2999 (RCT Augmented Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

van Eeden Mitchel

2012-02-01

339

Mycotoxin reduction in Bt corn: potential economic, health, and regulatory impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically modified (GM) Bt corn, through the pest protection that it confers, has lower levels of mycotoxins: toxic and carcinogenic chemicals produced as secondary metabolites of fungi that colonize crops. In some cases, the reduction of mycotoxins afforded by Bt corn is significant enough to have an economic impact, both in terms of domestic markets and international trade. In less developed countries where certain mycotoxins are significant contaminants of food, Bt corn adoption, by virtue of its mycotoxin reduction, may even improve human and animal health. This paper describes an integrated assessment model that analyzes the economic and health impacts of two mycotoxins in corn: fumonisin and aflatoxin. It was found that excessively strict standards of these two mycotoxins could result in global trade losses in the hundreds of millions US dollars annually, with the US, China, and Argentina suffering the greatest losses. The paper then discusses the evidence for Bt corn's lower levels of contamination of fumonisin and aflatoxin, and estimates economic impacts in the United States. A total benefit of Bt corn's reduction of fumonisin and aflatoxin in the US was estimated at 23 million dollars annually. Finally, the paper examines the potential policy impacts of Bt corn's mycotoxin reduction, on nations that are making a decision on whether to allow commercialization of this genetically modified crop. PMID:16779644

Wu, Felicia

2006-06-01

340

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Oconee case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Oconee nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

342

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

343

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: D. C. Cook case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the D. C. Cook nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

344

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Surry case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

345

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

346

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined.

Flynn, J.

1982-07-01

347

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Rancho Seco case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Rancho Seco nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

348

Economic impacts of illness in older workers: quantifying the impact of illness on income, tax revenue and government spending  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Long term illness has far reaching impacts on individuals, and also places a large burden upon government. This paper quantifies the indirect economic impacts of illness related early retirement on individuals and government in Australia in 2009. Methods The output data from a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, was analysed. Health&WealthMOD is representative of the 45 to 64 year old Australian population in 2009. The average weekly total income, total government support payments, and total taxation revenue paid, for individuals who are employment full-time, employed part-time and not in the labour force due to ill health was quantified. Results It was found that persons out of the labour force due to illness had significantly lower incomes ($218 per week as opposed to $1167 per week for those employed full-time, received significantly higher transfer payments, and paid significantly less tax than those employed full-time or part-time. This results in an annual national loss of income of over $17 billion, an annual national increase of $1.5 billion in spending on government support payments, and an annual loss of $2.1 billion in taxation revenue. Conclusions Illness related early retirement has significant economic impacts on both the individual and on governments as a result of lost income, lost taxation revenue and increased government support payments. This paper has quantified the extent of these impacts for Australia.

Passey Megan E

2011-06-01

349

Economic Impact Analyses of Interdisciplinary Multi-hazard Scenarios: ShakeOut and ARkStorm  

Science.gov (United States)

U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are using an interdisciplinary strategy to develop and analyze multi-hazard scenarios to help communities enhance resilience to natural hazard disasters. Two such scenarios are the southern California ShakeOut earthquake and the California ARkStorm winter storm. Both scenarios are multi-hazard: Shakeout ground motions trigger landslides and liquefaction and ARkStorm involves wind, flood, landslide, and coastal hazards. A collaborative scenario-process engages partners and stakeholders throughout the development and use of the scenarios, In doing so, community resilience is enhanced by educating communities about hazards and hazard interdependencies, building networks from scientists to decision makers, exercising emergency management strategies, identifying emergency management issues, and motivating solutions prior to an event. In addition, interdisciplinary scenarios stimulate research on the various steps of analysis (e.g., natural hazard processes, physical damages, societal consequences, and policy connections). In particular, USGS scientists have collaborated with economists to advance methods to estimate the economic impacts (business interruption losses) of disasters. Our economic impact analyses evolved from the economic module in the Federal Emergency Management Agency's loss-estimation tool, HAZUS-MH, to a more encompassing input-output analysis for ShakeOut, to a more sophisticated Computable General Equilibrium model for ARkStorm. The analyses depend on physical damage and restoration time estimates from engineers and geographic analyses of economic assets in hazard zones. Economic resilience strategies are incorporated to represent resourcefulness and ingenuity that avoids potential losses during and after an event. Such strategies operate at three levels of the economy: micro (e.g., ability to catch up on lost production time), meso (e.g., coordination within a sector to share resources), and macro (e.g., price adjustments to redistribute scarce resources). A sensitivity analysis of the ARkStorm economic impact model explores the effects of 1) the magnitude of the shocks (e.g., flood damages to buildings and infrastructure, agricultural productivity, and lifeline service disruptions), 2) the sustainability of the economic resilience strategies, and 3) the amount, timing, and source of reconstruction funds. The inclusion of an economic analysis in ShakeOut and ARkStorm broadens the range of interest in the scenario results. For example, the relative contribution of ShakeOut economic shocks to business interruption losses emphasized the need to reduce the impacts of fire following earthquake and water service disruption. Based on the magnitude and duration of the economic impacts for the ARkStorm scenario, policy experts surmised that business interruption policy time elements would be exceeded and business interruptions would be largely unfunded calling attention to the need for innovative funding solutions. Finally, economic impact analyses inform the question of paying now to mitigate or paying more later to recover.

Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

2011-12-01

350

A simulation of the economic impact of renewable energy development in Morocco  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we identify the renewable energy source (RES) demand scenarios for Morocco, the needs of RES installed capacity according to those scenarios and the detailed investment plans needed to achieve such installed capacity supply. Then, using a dynamic variant input–output model, we simulate the macroeconomic impact of the foreign investment inflows needed to make available these Moroccan RES generation capacity plans in the medium and long term. The use of concentrated solar plants, photovoltaic generation and wind power farms are considered and compared in the simulation. - Highlights: ? An evaluation of RES economic impact in Morocco from 2010 to 2040 is simulated. ? Different scenarios about import dependency and energy exports have been considered. ? The impact on GDP range from 1.21% to 1.99%. ? The impact on employment range from 269 to 499 thousand jobs. ? The alternative that produces most benefits would be the installation of windmills.

2012-07-01

351

Defense Programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following will help you to understand how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) carries out its national security responsibilities, and includes information about the kinds of programs we manage and where facilities are located. Our more than 60,000 employees and contractor personnel work at two headquarters locations in the Washington Metropolitan area and at various research, production, and test sites throughout the country. While each field facility has its own unique functions, most DP activities involve collaboration between two or more locations. DP's partners in progress encompass thousands of ''outsiders'' as well, including members of the academic community, industrial leaders, a number of other US Government agencies, and foreign countries. The major program area in DP are: Weapons Activities, Nuclear Materials Production, Defense Waste and Transportation Management, Verification and Control Technology, Nuclear Safeguards and Security, Classification and Technology Policy, and Intelligence. Defense Programs activities include the research, development, testing, manufacture, and retirement of all US nuclear weapons; the production of all nuclear materials needed for the weapons program; and the management of defense-related nuclear wastes. Other responsibilities include developing inertial confinement fusion to support defense needs; strategic defense research; protecting and safeguarding the DOE nuclear materials and facilities; verifying international arms control agreements and controlling sensitive technology transfers; classifying and disseminating information; and administering activities involving nuclear weapons under international agreements for cooperation.

1989-05-01

352

Assessment of Economic and Water Quality Impacts of Land Use Change Using a Simple Bioeconomic Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to assess the economic and water quality impact of land use change in a small watershed in the Wiregrass region of Alabama. The study compares changes in water quality and revenue from agricultural and timber production due to changes in land use between years 1992 and 2001. The study was completed in two stages. In the first stage, a biophysical model was used to estimate the effect of land use change on nitrogen and phosphorus runoff and sediment deposition in the main channel; in the second stage, farm enterprise budgeting tools were used to estimate the economic returns for the changes in land use condition. Both biophysical and economic results are discussed, and a case for complex optimization to develop a decision support system is presented.

Bhattarai, Gandhi; Srivastava, Puneet; Marzen, Luke; Hite, Diane; Hatch, Upton

2008-07-01

353

Economic and Financial Integration of CEECs: The Impact of Financial Instability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent financial crisis had a powerful impact upon the European countries' economies, in particular on those from Central and Eastern Europe, with some small exceptions. Thus, applying a panel data approach for a large sample of CEECs, we demonstrate that financial instability negatively influences these countries economic and financial integration. If instability is measured by means of a financial instability index, we have used two classical indicators for the economic integration, namely trade openness and trade intensity index. Indicators such as the interest rates co-movement and the asset share of foreign-owned banks were chosen to calculate financial integration. We highlight the fact that the crisis events hinder the process of CEECs' integration into the EU, deepening the economic gaps between more and less developed EU members.

Claudiu T. Albulescu

2011-03-01

354

On the economic impact of a regional management of multidrug-resistant bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing number of people who are colonized or infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria imposes a high economic burden on society which includes the negative impact on health status as an intangible cost. An economic analysis leads to the conclusion that currently too little is done to prevent or control infections. The reasons include insufficient incentives for health care providers, a lack of reliable data on both the prevalence and the effects of infection, and a lack of coordination among the different branches of the health care sector. A regional management of multidrugresistant bacteria which does not focus on a single branch but rather on the health care sector overall can achieve a substantial reduction in the number of infected people and of the associated economic cost for society.

Ried, Walter

2011-01-01

355

The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

1991-03-18

356

Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model Geothermal User Reference Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Geothermal Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is an Excel-based user-friendly tools that estimates the economic impacts of constructing and operating hydrothermal and Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) power generation projects at the local level for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Model Geothermal User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in using and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted.

Johnson, C.; Augustine, C.; Goldberg, M.

2012-09-01

357

Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: Inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). PMID:24682070

Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Sheikh Ahmad, Md Khadzir

2014-06-01

358

Bank Savings and Bank Credits in Nigeria: Determinants and Impact on Economic Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the determinants of bank savings in Nigeria as well as examined the impact of bank savings and bank credits on Nigeria’s economic growth from 1970-2006. We adopted two impact models; Distributed Lag-Error Correction Model (DL-ECM and Distributed Model. The empirical results showed a positive influence of values of GDP per capita (PCY, Financial Deepening (FSD, Interest Rate Spread (IRS and negative influence of Real Interest Rate (RIR and Inflation Rate (INFR on the size of private domestic savings. Also a positive relationship exists between the lagged values of total private savings, private sector credit, public sector credit, interest rate spread, exchange rates and economic growth. We therefore recommend, among others, that government’s effort should be geared towards improving per capita income by reducing the unemployment rate in the country in a bid to accelerate growth through enhanced savings.

Orji Anthony

2012-01-01

359

Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

2010-06-01

360

Assessing the economic impact of climate change : an updated CGE point of view  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research describes a climate change integrated impact assessment exercise, whose economic evaluation is based on a CGE approach and modeling effort. Input to the CGE model comes from a wide although still partial set of up-to-date bottom-up impact studies. Estimates indicate that a temperature increase of 1.92°C compared to pre-industrial levels in 2050 could lead to global GDP losses of approximately 0.5% compared to a hypothetical scenario where no climate change is assumed to...

Bosello, Francesco

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Assessing the economic impacts of climate change: An updated CGE point of view  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research describes a climate change integrated impact assessment exercise, whose economic evaluation is based on a CGE approach and modeling effort. Input to the CGE model comes from a wide although still partial set of up-to-date bottom-up impact studies. Estimates indicate that a temperature increase of 1.92°C compared to pre-industrial levels in 2050 could lead to global GDP losses of approximately 0.5% compared to a hypothetical scenario where no climate change is assumed to ...

Bosello, Francesco; Eboli, Fabio; Pierfederici, Roberta

2012-01-01

362

Modeling the economic impact of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a theoretical approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David S Cobden1, Louis W Niessen2, Frans FH Rutten1, W Ken Redekop11Department of Health Policy and Management, Section of Health Economics – Medical Technology Assessment (HE-MTA, Erasmus MC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USAAims: While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis.Methods: We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM and oral (OAD medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1 and one which incorporated it (analysis 2. Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Results: In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY. This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM.Conclusions: Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be ­considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health ­economic outcomes, and validation of different approaches to modeling adherence, is warranted.Keywords: economics, modeling, adherence, diabetes, cost-effectiveness

David S Cobden

2010-08-01

363

Socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on patient employment after ten years  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Birmingham hip resurfacing is an attractive option for treatment of arthritis in young and active patients. The aim of this study was to assess the socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on their employment and work intensity at ten years. A cohort of 90 consecutive patients with 100 Birmingham hip resurfacing, performed by single surgeon, were reviewed prospectively. The mean age was 51 years at surgery. Prospective review was undertaken from surgery until the tenth post-operat...

Malek, Ibrahim A.; Hashmi, Munawar; Holland, James P.

2011-01-01

364

The economic impact of AIDS treatment: labor supply in Western Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using longitudinal survey data from western Kenya, this paper estimates the economic impacts of antiretroviral treatment. The responses in two important outcomes are studied: (1) labor supply of adult AIDS patients receiving treatment; and (2) labor supply of patients’ household members. We find that within six months after treatment initiation, there is a 20 percent increase in patients’ likelihood of participating in the labor force and a 35 percent increase in weekly hours work...

Thirumurthy, Harsha; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Goldstein, Markus

2006-01-01

365

Empirical Study on the Impact of Domestic Economic Cycle on Sichuan’s Tourism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article empirically enquires, from the perspective of demand, the impact of economic cyclical fluctuation on Sichuan tourism. The findings show that Sichuan tourism demand proves elastic to CPI, Sichuan’s GNI capita and interest rate, and that CPI and interest rate fluctuations are negatively correlated with Sichuan domestic tourism demand, while, with which Sichuan’s GNI capita is positively associated. The study also finds that per capita national income and the local consumer pric...

Junrong Liu; Qin Yan

2012-01-01

366

Integrated Approach for Improving Small Scale Market Oriented Dairy Systems in Pakistan: Economic Impact of Interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched a Coordinated Research Program in 10 developing countries including Pakistan involving small scale market oriented dairy farmers to identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms, develop intervention strategies and assess the economic impact of the intervention. The interventions in animal health (control of mastitis at sub-clinical stage and reduction in calf mortality), nutrition (balanced feed) r...

Ghaffar, A.

2010-01-01

367

Support for agriculture during economic transformation: Impacts on poverty and undernutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores trends in poverty and nutrition during economic transformation and especially the impacts linked to government support for agriculture during the process. Analysis of multiyear data for 29 developing countries confirms that structural transformation raises total income and that poverty falls faster with strong support for agriculture. In turn, poverty reduction supports improved nutrition, especially in rural areas. However, transformation brings problems through health ri...

Webb, Patrick; Block, Steven

2012-01-01

368

Modelling of an industrial NGL-Recovery unit considering environmental and economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, an integrated model is presented that identifies key areas in the operation of a cryogenic NGL-recovery unit. This methodology sets out to provide deep understanding of various interrelationship across multiple plant operating factors including reliability, which could be essential for substantial improvement of process performance. The integrated model has been developed to predict the economic and environmental impacts of a real cryogenic unit (600 MMCUF/D) during normal operation, and has been built in Aspen TM. (Author)

2008-09-00

369

Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

1993-09-20

370

Socio-Economic and Cultural Impacts of Resettlement on Bakassi People of Cross River State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The socio-economic and cultural impact of resettlement on Bakassi people of Cross River State, Nigeria was examined. The study elicited data from 516 respondents who were purposively selected from the Bakassi resettlement site at Ekpiri Ikang in Cross River State. Data were generated with the aid of structured questionnaire and statistically analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was observed that, the resettlement of Bakassi people significantly influenced their occupations, c...

2010-01-01

371

Health Impacts and Economic Evaluations of Maternal and Child Health Programs in Developing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation is motivated by two of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): MDG 4, focused on reducing child mortality, and MDG 5, which aims to improve maternal health. My three papers evaluate the health and economic impact, and cost-effectiveness, of interventions to improve maternal and child health in three areas of the developing world using methods from decision sciences and statistics. In paper 1, I use a decision-analytic model that simulates the natural history ...

Carvalho, Natalie

2012-01-01

372

European forests and carbon sequestration services: an economic assessment of climate change impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports an original economic valuation of the impact of climate change on the provision of forest regulating services in Europe. To the authors' knowledge the current paper represents the first systematic attempt to estimate human well-being losses with respect to changes in biodiversity and forest regulating services that are directly driven by climate change. First, selected 34 European countries are grouped by their latitude intervals to capture the differentiated regional effec...

Ding, Helen; Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Teelucksingh, Sonja S.

2010-01-01

373

High impact, low probability? An empirical analysis of risk in the economics of climate change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To what extent does economic analysis of climate change depend on low-probability, high-impact events? This question has received a great deal of attention lately, with the contention increasingly made that climate damage could be so large that societal willingness to pay to avoid extreme outcomes should overwhelm other seemingly important assumptions, notably on time preference. This paper provides an empirical examination of some key theoretical points, using a probabilistic integrated asse...

Dietz, Simon

2009-01-01

374

The variable impact of the global economic crisis in South East Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the variable impact of the global economic crisis on the post-communist countries of South East Europe and Turkey. The central question is whether the institutional reforms introduced in the former group of countries during the transition period have improved their ability to cope with external shocks. The transmission mechanisms of the crisis to the region are identified as contractions of credit, foreign direct investment, remittances, and exports, and their variable impa...

Bartlett, Will; Prica, Ivana

2012-01-01

375

The Impact of Bank and Non-Bank Financial Institutions on Local Economic Growth in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper shows that banking development spurs growth, even in a country with a high growth rate such as China. Employing data of 27 Chinese provinces over the period 1995-2003, we study whether the financial development of two different types of institutions ?banks and non-bank financial institutions ?have a (significantly different) impact on local economic growth. Our findings show that banks outperfirm non-bank financial institutions. Only banking development exerts a statistically and e...

Cheng, Xiaoqiang; Degryse, Hans

2006-01-01

376

Evaluation of economic impact of climatic change on agro-forestry systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climate change has a strong influence on agro-forestry systems. Present estimations evisage that changes in climate patterns and extreme events connected to climate change will have greater impacts in the future. This paper seeks to illustrate the articulation of the problems concerning the economic evaluation of climate change, with particularly attention to open problems and future lines of research. Research on this topic, though using methods and approaches consolidated in the disciplines...

Vittorio Gallerani; Fabio Bartolini; Davide Viaggi

2009-01-01

377

The impact of international trade flows on economic growth in Brazilian states  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the impact of trade openness on the economic growth of Brazilian states according to their initial income level. This empiri- cal study covers 26 Brazilian states over the period 1989-2002. Growth rates of Brazilian states are modeled as dependent on international trade flows and a set of control variables such as initial income level, human capital, private and public physical capital, growth rate of labor force and a number of inter- action terms with trade openness. Thi...

Marie Daumal; Selin Özyurt

2010-01-01

378

The impact of international trade flows on economic growth in Brazilian states  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the impact of trade openness on the economic growth of Brazilian states according to their initial income level. This empiri- cal study covers 26 Brazilian states over the period 1989-2002. Growth rates of Brazilian states are modeled as dependent on international trade flows and a set of control variables such as initial income level, human capital, private and public physical capital, growth rate of labor force and a number of inter- action terms with trade openness. Thi...

Marie Daumal; Selin Özyurt

2011-01-01

379

Climate change impacts on North African countries and on some Tunisian economic sectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global temperature is increasing and that the main cause is the accumulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human activities. The economic costs alone will be very large: as extreme weather events such as droughts and floods become more destructive and frequent; communities, cities, and island nations are damaged or inundated as sea level rises; and agricultural output is disrupted. Impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity are also likely to be ...

Leila Radhouane

2013-01-01

380

Assessing the Impact of ACP/EU Economic Partnership Agreement on West African Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The European Union is currently negotiating free trade agreements, called Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), with African countries as part of the Cotonou Agreement between the European Union and African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. The paper empirically assesses the impact of the EPAs on trade flows and government revenue for 14 West African countries. The results indicate that the decline in import duties due to the preferential tariff elimination might be of some cause for concer...

Busse, Matthias; Großmann, Harald

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The impact of the financial and economic crisis on world trade and trade policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Forum is dedicated to a discussion of the effects of the global financial and economic crisis on both international trade and trade policy. What changes could be observed in the volume and structure of trade and what transmission channels were involved? Has the international competitiveness of the European Union and its member countries been affected? What has been the impact of the crisis on trade policy? Are the widespread fears of a revival of protectionism justified? How can trade po...

Curran, Louise; Escaith, Hubert; Hallaert, Jean-jacques; Barfield, Claude; Evenett, Simon J.; Koopmann, Georg

2009-01-01

382

Economic and Health Impacts Associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium Drinking Water Outbreak?Alamosa, CO, 2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alam...

Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J.; Brunkard, Joan M.

2013-01-01

383

Dairy foods and osteoporosis: an example of assessing the health-economic impact of food products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summary: Osteoporosis has become a major health concern, carrying a substantial burden in terms of health outcomes and costs. We constructed a model to quantify the potential effect of an additional intake of calcium from dairy foods on the risk of osteoporotic fracture, taking a health economics perspective. Introduction: This study seeks, first, to estimate the impact of an increased dairy consumption on reducing the burden of osteoporosis in terms of health outcomes and costs, and, second,...

Lo?tters, F. J. B.; Lenoir-wijnkoop, I.; Fardellone, P.; Rizzoli, R.; Rocher, E.; Poley, M. J.

2012-01-01

384

Clinical and economic impact of multiple gated acquisition scan monitoring during anthracycline therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The clinical and economic impacts of monitoring cardiac function in patients given doxorubicin have yet to be determined, especially in relation to patient age, cumulative doxorubicin dose, and the relative efficacies of doxorubicin-based vs alternative regimens. We developed a decision analysis model that includes these factors to estimate the incremental survival benefit and cost-effectiveness of using multiple gated acquisition scans to measure left-ventricular ejection fraction before and...

Shureiqi, I.; Cantor, S. B.; Lippman, S. M.; Brenner, D. E.; Chernew, M. E.; Fendrick, A. M.

2002-01-01

385

Evaluating the impact of foreign aid on economic growth: a cross-country study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One branch of the literature on aid effectiveness attempts to measure the contribution of foreign aid to the growth of developing countries. The micro results are clear and encouraging: foreign aid is beneficial to economic growth. However, until recently, the macro results were inconclusive: the impact of aid on growth was positive, negative, or even non-existent, in statistical terms. This contradiction is known as the “micro-macro paradox”. Certain methodological and econometric flaws ...

Moreira, Sandrina Berthault

2005-01-01

386

Economic analysis of the environmental impact on marine cage lobster aquaculture in Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Vietnam, marine cage lobster aquaculture has been expanding significantly over the last years. Besides the economic contribution for locals living in the coastal areas in Central of Vietnam, this industry has created some problems that are relating to the marine environmental protection where trash fish feed is predominant. This paper investigates the environmental impact on cage marine lobster aquaculture in Vietnam by using the Change of Productivity method in which nitrogen releasing fr...

Ly, Nguyen Thi Y.

2009-01-01

387

????????????????? The Impact of the Economic Restructuring on the Demand of the Labor Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“?????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The economic restructuring and barriers to labor mobility are the most important market constrains when it comes to analyzing employment for they dynamically change the demand and supply of the labor market. Due to various internal and external factors the economic growth, featuring high energy consumption and high investment, is becoming unsustainable, so the economic restructuring is pressing. This article summarized the non-equilibrium structural changes in China and discussed the impact on the labor demand of the changes in industrial structures, foreign trade, urbanization, income growth and demography. To be specific, as the structure of three industries is moving forward to “three, two, one”, a large number of surplus labor in agriculture needs to be transferred. The low-end manufacturing is struggling because of shrinking foreign trade and soaring production cost, but the service industry has a large demand for labor force. Urbanization promotes city building, public services, infrastructure construction, financial services, high-end manufacturing, software design and other industries. The income growth inevitably leads to corresponding changes in consumption structure. For example, the consumption of household appliances and communication devices upgrade. The demand for the elderly services will also develop with the aging of the population. All these changes will exert impacts on the demands for the related labor markets. As the economic restructuring accelerates, laborers also need to improve their quality and skills so as to meet the requirements of the labor markets.

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2011-10-01

388

Impact of financial guarantee on project economics. Vol. 83-34-08  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Optimal usage of corporate debt capacity is an essential element of corporate financial planning. Financial commitments such as payment guarantees increase the guarantor's financial risk in the same way as debt, thereby reducing the debt capacity that would otherwise be available and decreasing the number of investment opportunities that can be financed. Without proper consideration of this adverse impact, project economics may be seriously overstated. A methodology is presented for calculating the impact of financial guarantees on project economics. It is applicable to all cases in which the investor guarantees his payments to a third party. The decisions resulting from this calculation are consistent with conventional lease versus purchase analyses but the methodology goes beyond conventional lease/purchase analyses by providing a quantitative assessment of the cost of these guarantees. The analysis can thus be used in situations where no purchase alternative is available for comparison or where the true unleveraged economics of an investment requiring guaranteed payments must be determined. Example calculations show that project economics can be substantially changed by these commitments.

Kwan, M.M.L.; Comfort, L.H.

1983-01-01

389

GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS: CAUSES, IMPACT ON INDIAN ECONOMY, AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global economic crisis started in United States of America mainly due to ‘sub-prime mortgages’ where interest rate was slower down and there was a great demand for housing loans. Later, American banks repackaged this debt to worldwide financial instruments called ‘Collateralized debt obligations’ and sold them worldwide, which resulted in unaffordable mortgage payments and many people defaulted or undertook foreclosure. Then this mortgages crisis affected worldwide. Different views on the reasons of the crisis include sub-prime mortgage, securitization and repackaging of loans, excessive leverage, mismatch between financial innovation and regulation, fair value accounting rules, typical characteristics of US financial system, failure of global corporate governance & complex interplay of multiple factors. Developed countries have so far been the most affected, with a decline in FDI inflows in 2008, mainly due to sluggish market prospects. Flows into developing economies continued to grow in 2008, but at a much lower rate than the year before. Indian economy and agriculture cannot be completely insulated from the global and domestic economic recessions. The impact of economic crisis on Indian agriculture and fisheries were transmitted through three distinct channels, viz., financial sector, exports and exchange rates, and the impact manifests itself in several direct and indirect ways. Some of the impacts were decreased GDP growth rate, high inflation, FDI inflows and international trade.

Apu Das, Kumar N.R., Biswajit Debnath and Mandal S.C.

2012-05-01

390

Linking extreme climate events and economic impacts: Examples from the Swiss Alps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses upon topics related to current and possible future extreme weather events in order to highlight the links between climatic change and its economic impacts. Most of the examples given here are drawn from observations in Switzerland and the Alpine region that have a wealth of climatic, environmental and socio-economic data. These enable detailed studies to be undertaken on trends in mean and extreme climates and their impacts. Model simulations for a 'greenhouse climate' suggest that risks associated with various forms of extreme events that affect the Alps may increase in the future, which could lead to high damage costs. In addition to the direct impacts of extremes, it is also necessary to take into account the increasing economic value of infrastructure located in zones potentially at risk. The final part of the paper addresses some of the issues that are related to fully integrated modeling approaches that are aimed at assessing the costs of damage in the wake of an extreme event

2007-11-01

391

Linking extreme climate events and economic impacts: Examples from the Swiss Alps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses upon topics related to current and possible future extreme weather events in order to highlight the links between climatic change and its economic impacts. Most of the examples given here are drawn from observations in Switzerland and the Alpine region that have a wealth of climatic, environmental and socio-economic data. These enable detailed studies to be undertaken on trends in mean and extreme climates and their impacts. Model simulations for a ''greenhouse climate'' suggest that risks associated with various forms of extreme events that affect the Alps may increase in the future, which could lead to high damage costs. In addition to the direct impacts of extremes, it is also necessary to take into account the increasing economic value of infrastructure located in zones potentially at risk. The final part of the paper addresses some of the issues that are related to fully integrated modeling approaches that are aimed at assessing the costs of damage in the wake of an extreme event. (author)

2007-11-01

392

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Science.gov (United States)

Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Santhirasegaram, Selvarathinam

393

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom is negatively related with economic growth, but has no significant effect. Freedom for joint collective decision of people for selecting central leadership in developing countries is challenge for achieving rapid economic growth. These results differ from most of existing literatures and policy prescriptions on that positive role of democratic and economic freedom for economic growth which is precondition of economic development.

Selvarathinam Santhirasegaram

2007-01-01

394

The Ghost of Development Past: the Impact of Economic Security Policies on Saami Pastoral Ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was accompanied by reindeer herd accumulation and a corresponding degradation of resilience, increasing the susceptibility to herd losses to predators and adverse winters. For the last 20 years the Norwegian government has worked to halt degradation of pasture ecosystems and reduce susceptibility to environmental risks. These intended win-win policies have mainly been based on economic incentives, which have been developed together with Saami pastoralists through negotiated agreements. We argue that the continued degradation of the Saami pastoral ecosystems is a "ghost of the development past", as the big push policies have resulted in an economic security trap (EST. The gradual reduction of resilience has persisted as the ex post payments of disaster relief and predator compensation have impeded the long-term actions to reduce susceptibility to environmental risks, i.e., ex ante policies, thereby increasing dependency on elevated economic inputs to manage the risks. The transfer of liability for managing risks to the benefactor, both through ex ante and ex post policies, has further discouraged and constrained opportunities for adaptation by the pastoralists.

Nigel G. Yoccoz

2011-09-01

395

Impact of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) and Ethanol Interaction on Antioxidant Defense System in the Adult Male Albino Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interactive effects of Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) and Ethanol Consumption on the antioxidant defense system in testis tissue of rats were studied in the present research work. Male Albino rats were divided into eight groups of six animals each. Control rats were administered normal saline orally. While experimental animals were fed Sildenafil citrate (VIAGRA) (1 ?g gm-1) and 18% ethanol (5 g kg-1 Body weight) and sacrificed. A significant depletion of GSH con...

2007-01-01

396

Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ? We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ? Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ? Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ? Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

2012-08-01

397

Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Fiscal Policy on Economic Growth of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study provides empirical analysis of the impact of fiscal policy on economic growth in Nigeria. Time series data from 1986 to 2010 relevant to the study were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin, Volume 22 and the National Bureau of Statistics. The ordinary least square method of multivariate regression was utilized in analyzing the log-linearized Model. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test was employed to establish the stationarity of the variables while the General-to-Specific approach to Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model was used for testing for the existence of long-run and short-run equilibrium conditions. The findings were that, there is evidence of long run equilibrium relationship between fiscal policy and economic growth in Nigeria during the period studied. The adjusted R2 value of 0.6850 showed that about 68.5% of the total variation in the real GDP is explained by the independent variables included in the model. Specific fiscal policy variables that have significant and positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria are government recurrent and capital expenditures. Non-oil taxes and government total debts have no significant impact on real GDP. Only capital expenditure has short run equilibrium relationship with economic growth. It is therefore recommended that government should establish a strong fiscal responsibility and transparency system in the fiscal institutions; and tax reforms should be such that would encourage increase in investment and fight corruption. Government debts should be channelled towards provision of critical infrastructure so as to provide the enabling investment environment, while fiscal policy should be complemented with the use of effective monetary policy.

Alex E. Osuala

2014-05-01

398

Socio-economic and other non-radiological impacts of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this report is to introduce, in a generic sense, the elements that could comprise a socio-economic and non-radiological environmental impact assessment. The various social, economic and environmental impacts that could be associated with surface and near surface disposal are discussed through factors that could apply at the local, regional or national level. Impact management is also discussed. The report also introduces concepts to help Member States develop their own approaches to undertaking impact assessment and management. The report is intended to complement IAEA documents on the technology and safety aspects of the near surface disposal of radioactive waste. The scope of this report includes a discussion of a range of social, economic and nonradiological environmental impacts relevant to surface and near surface disposal and illustrations of some impact management measures

2002-01-01

399

The Impact of Democratic and Economic Freedom on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Pooled Cross Country Data Evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Main objective of this study is to investigate that whether free economic and political policies promote economic growth in developing countries or not. This study employs least square quantitative methodology to estimate the effects of freedoms. This study found a strong negative relationship between political freedom and economic growth in more than 70 developing countries from all regions during 2000-2004 by using an econometric model based on new classical growth theory. Economic freedom ...

2007-01-01

400

Normalization references for USEtoxTM-based toxic impact categories: North American and European economic systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As an optional step of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase in the ISO standards, normalization aims to express the magnitude of the impacts by comparing the characterized results against a common reference situation - the normalization references. In this study, we used inventories of two economic regions, North America and Europe, to calculate normalization references for the three currently-modelled USEtoxTM-based impact categories, i.e. freshwater ecotoxicity, human toxicity, divided into cancer effects and non-cancer effects. Base years for the references are 2004 for Europe and 2006 for North America. The normalization references have been calculated using recommended factors as well as with interim factors, as needed. It is found that, in spite of different inventory assumptions, the normalization references fall within the same order of magnitude for both North America and Europe. By analysing the most contributing substances, metals turn out to dominate the impacts in both regions. This may be explained by the interim status of the characterization factors (CFs) for metals, which might be overestimated in the current model. Part of the explanation may also lie in the incomplete coverage of organics in both the inventory and the CF databases. With respect to the intended global character of the USEtoxTM model, different approaches to determine normalization references of other economic systems (e.g. Asia or world) are discussed in relation to these findings. Overall, we thus recommend the use of the provided set of normalization references for USEtoxTM, but we also advocate 1) to perform an update as soon as a more comprehensive inventory can be obtained and as soon as characterization factors for metals are revised; 2) to consider extension to other economic systems in order to allow normalization in USEtoxTM to be used on a global scale.

Laurent, Alexis; Lautier, Anne

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

An Empirical Study of the Social Economic Impact of Federal Polytechnic on its Host Community  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A polytechnic, sited in a metropolitan environment especially, is regarded among other things as a veritable citadel of learning and vehicle for social – economic emancipation of the people. Not only that the institution be a source of light into the darkness of ignorance, poverty and disease, but it will also provide gainful employment opportunities to its patrons, through its many linkages which will inevitably spring up overtime. Host communities to such institutions are usually seen as the primary beneficiaries, if the opportunities thus provided are effectively harnessed. The corollary also holds that if a gap exists by omission or commission, between the expected and actual outcomes regarding the project’s impact on the host community, the credibility gap also widens. The wisdom in releasing their land for such projects. This study was undertaken to examine to what extent the Offa community was justified in hosting federal Polytechnic, vis-a-viz the economic impact that the latter is making on its host community. A survey research design was used while stratified sampling techniques were employed in selecting the sample, realizing the heterogeneous nature of the parameters employed. 50 questionnaires were distributed but only 34 were completed and returned which represented 68% response rate. Data collected were summarized using frequency tables while Pearson correlation analyses was further done to test the hypothesis that the establishment of Federal Polytechnic at Offa has not made any significant impact on the socio-economic life of Offa people. The finding showed that the impact so far made, is significant. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

G. K. Jenyo

2013-10-01

402

Macro-economic impact of loss of health; Macro-economische impact van gezondheidsverlies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More healthy life years are achievable by dwelling improvements. This article computes the healthy life years that may be gained by increased ventilation rates. It concerns the diseases Asthma, COPD en lung cancer. Increased ventilation removes house dust mites and their allergens, as well as tobacco smoke, which are associated with these diseases. Costs and savings are computes and compared in order to test the macro-economical feasibility of increased ventilation in dwellings. [Dutch] Door verbetering van woningen zijn veel gezonde levensjaren te behalen. In dit artikel worden de gewonnen gezonde levensjaren uitgerekend door meer ventileren voor de ziekten astma, COPD en longkanker. Zowel huisstofmijtallergeen als tabaksrook zijn geassocieerd met astma, COPD en longkanker. De kosten en de opbrengsten van meer ventileren worden met elkaar vergeleken om de macro-economische haalbaarheid te toetsen.

Franchimon, F. [BAM Techniek, Capelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands); Ament, H.J.A. [Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Knies, J.; Pernot, C.E.E. [Pernot Consulting, Heeze (Netherlands); Van Bronswijk, J.M.H. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2010-11-15

403

Spatialization of the impacts of the economic regulation of the greenhouse in the agricultural sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report addresses the issue of the spatialization of the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies in the agricultural sector. Generally speaking, the objective is to reach a compromise between large-scale macro-economic modelling approaches - which often overlook the spatial variability of emissions and abatement costs - and field-scale biophysical modelling approaches. The studies carried out in the course of this project rely for the most part on a supply-side oriented economic model of the EU agriculture based on micro-economic concepts, mathematical programming and optimization. The analysis of spatial implications of GHG mitigation polices relies on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which allows for spatial integration of the results provided by the economic model. We first carry out a comprehensive assessment of the emission sources of methane and nitrous oxide for the EU agriculture at a regional scale (FADN regions, scale at which data that feed the economic model are available). The abatement supply from the agricultural sector is derived from this assessment by simulating the impact of a first-best instrument (namely an emission tax). We therefore estimate the marginal abatement cost curves for all sources and at the farm-type level. The heterogeneity of abatement costs is discussed both at the regional scale (spatially defined) and at the farm-type level (non spatially-defined). Our results show that the spatial heterogeneity of abatement costs is of crucial importance in the design of GHG mitigation policies. The greater is the heterogeneity of abatement costs, the larger is the efficiency loss associated with non incentive-based instruments. We estimate this efficiency loss in the case of uniform quotas. Down-scaling the economic and environmental results from the FADN-region scale to a finer scale requires the linking of the simulation results with geo-referenced databases and GIS tools. This has been carried out for a test-region by linking land-use data from Corine Land Cover and the typology from the FADN database. Issues related to carbon sequestration have also been addressed at an infra-regional scale, including both spatial and dynamic dimensions. This analysis relies on the use of micro-economic, dynamic land-use model, a geo-referenced database of soils characteristics and a carbon accounting model. We estimate the costs of carbon sequestration when switching from annual crops to pluri-annual energy crops, which allow higher carbon sequestration rates for a longer period of time. (author)

2004-01-01

404

Private money for public good: the impact of remittances on economic development in Mexico and El Salvador  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research project explores the linkages between remittances and economic development in Mexico and El Salvador. Incorporating micro-level data in the form of case studies as well as macro-economic indicators, the research analyzes the impact of remittances on economic growth, poverty, and inequality from 1995 to 2005. By including both quantitative and qualitative data, the objective is to transcend the empirical analysis and investigate the broader social framework of remittances. The re...

Seeley, Erin Leigh

2008-01-01

405

Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

Mu?ller, Martin

2009-01-01

406

Impact of sawfly defoliation on growth of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae) and associated economic losses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Needle defoliation by diprionid sawflies decreases the increment and timber yield of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. The aim of this study was to provide approximate estimates of this decrease and preliminary estimates of the economic value of growth losses and tree mortality. Growth loss after needle damage by Diprion pini (Linnaeus) was studied in western Finland. Increment cores were sampled for radial growth measurements from trees subjected to slight, moderate and heavy defoliation. A literature survey was carried out to estimate radial growth losses after defoliation by Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy). Calculations for economic consequences were based on previous estimates and on the ongoing 9th Finnish National Forest Inventory. Moderate defoliation by N. sertifer and D. pini reduced volume growth by 21% and 86% and heavy defoliation by 38% and 94%, respectively. Tree mortality in defoliated stands was recorded as approximately 4% after an outbreak of N. sertifer and 30% after an outbreak of D. pini. The estimated average economic value of the losses due to reduced growth and tree mortality reached $40 ha-1 after a single-year outbreak of N. sertifer and $310 ha-1 in the case of D. pini. These preliminary estimates of economic losses indicate a much higher impact of pine sawflies than those revealed by the few earlier studies in Europe. PMID:12020371

Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, P; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, P; Tomppo, E

2002-04-01

407

Annual economic impacts of seasonal influenza on US counties: Spatial heterogeneity and patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Economic impacts of seasonal influenza vary across US counties, but little estimation has been conducted at the county level. This research computed annual economic costs of seasonal influenza for 3143 US counties based on Census 2010, identified inherent spatial patterns, and investigated cost-benefits of vaccination strategies. The computing model modified existing methods for national level estimation, and further emphasized spatial variations between counties, in terms of population size, age structure, influenza activity, and income level. Upon such a model, four vaccination strategies that prioritize different types of counties were simulated and their net returns were examined. The results indicate that the annual economic costs of influenza varied from $13.9 thousand to $957.5 million across US counties, with a median of $2.47 million. Prioritizing vaccines to counties with high influenza attack rates produces the lowest influenza cases and highest net returns. This research fills the current knowledge gap by downscaling the estimation to a county level, and adds spatial variability into studies of influenza economics and interventions. Compared to the national estimates, the presented statistics and maps will offer detailed guidance for local health agencies to fight against influenza.

Mao Liang

2012-05-01

408

Human Resources development and research capacity and their impact on economic growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this research is to provide an analysis of the development of the Republic of Croatia and 110 selected countries in terms of human resource development index components and the components of the Technological Achievement Index. Developmental lags of the Republic of Croatia were determined by the bird’s eye view method in terms of the observed developmental indicators, and suggestions were provided for their development. The impact of the analysed indicators and their components on the economic growth of the Republic of Croatia and the selected countries was established by regression analysis. The paper provides possible developmental guidelines for certain components. The results of the research proved that the Human Resources Development Index is insufficient in the analysis of economic development, as well as the existence of the expected correlation between trained human resources, which enable technological progress, and economic growth of a country. Taking into consideration the correlation between the growth of the Human Resources Development Index, Research Capacity Index, Technology and Innovation Index, and the Ability to Absorb Knowledge and Technology Index and economic growth, which was determined by the application of a model, Croatia has to make additional investments in the growth of human capital and labour productivity in order to reduce developmental lags.

Zoran Ježi?

2009-12-01

409

Air Pollution, Its Mortality Risk, and Economic Impacts in Tehran, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Air pollution in Tehran is widely recognized as a serious environmental challenge,posing significant threats to the health of the resident population. Improving air quality will be difficult for many reasons,including climate and topography, heavy dependence on motor vehicles for mobility, and limited resources to reduce polluting emissions.Consequently, it is useful to have information regarding the scale of the health threat and the economic value of reducing that threat.Methods: This paper integrates information on air quality, population, economic valuation, and health science to assess the most serious impact of fine particle pollution on humans, which is increased mortality risk, and provides estimates of the costs of present pollution levels,both in terms of risk and in terms of economic value relative to attaining air quality standards.Results:Mid-range results indicate that mortality risk for the population aged 30 and over would be reduced from 8.2 per 1,000 residents annually to 7.4 per 1,000 and that the estimated annual economic benefits of this reduced risk would be $378.5 million, if health-based World Health Organization-recommended annual average PM2.5 standards were met.Conclusions:The potential public health benefits of reducing particulate air pollution are significant, and will increase with growing population.

M Rahmatian

2012-04-01

410

An Assessment of the Regional and National Socio-Economic Impacts of the 2007 Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although Rift Valley fever (RVF) has significant impacts on human health and livestock production, it can also induce significant (and often overlooked) economic losses among various stakeholders in the marketing chain. This work assesses and quantifies the multi-dimensional socio-economic impacts of the 2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya based on a rapid assessment of livestock value chains in the northeast part of the country and a national macroeconomic analysis. Although study results show negati...

Rich, Karl M.; Wanyoike, Francis

2010-01-01

411

Economic impact of explosive volcanic eruptions: A simulation-based assessment model applied to Campania region volcanoes  

Science.gov (United States)

PLINIVS Study Centre of University of Naples Federico II has developed a methodology that aims to estimate, in probabilistic terms, the direct and the indirect economic impacts of a Sub-Plinian I or Strombolian type eruption of Vesuvius. The economic model has been implemented as a complementary tool of the Volcanic Impact Simulation Model, a tool developed at PLINIVS Center available to the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) decision makers to quantify the potential losses consequent to a possible eruption of Vesuvius or Campi Flegrei. Along the expected time history of the eruptive event all the possible "direct costs" and the "factors" (indirect costs) impacting the economic growth in the event area have been identified. Each cost factor is built up through a specific algorithm that is fed by various providers, in order to run software that will estimate the global amount of economic damage from a volcanic event. The model does not i