FRACTIONAL ORDER SMC FOR DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER
S. D. Jagdale; R. M. Nagarale
2013-01-01
This paper proposed a fractional order sliding mode control for DC-DC buck converter. The traditionally P, PI and PID type linear controllers are used to control the voltages. The DC-DC buck converter is nonlinear and time variant in nature. To control such system variable structure control based sliding mode controller (SMC) is used. The fractional order sliding mode control method not only eliminates chattering problem of integer order SMC, it gives good transient response of the system. Th...
FRACTIONAL ORDER SMC FOR DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. D. Jagdale
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper proposed a fractional order sliding mode control for DC-DC buck converter. The traditionally P, PI and PID type linear controllers are used to control the voltages. The DC-DC buck converter is nonlinear and time variant in nature. To control such system variable structure control based sliding mode controller (SMC is used. The fractional order sliding mode control method not only eliminates chattering problem of integer order SMC, it gives good transient response of the system. The simulation results shows fractional order SMC gives fast response compared to integer order SMC.
Buck-boost DC-DC converter with fractional control
Martínez García, Herminio; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Martínez González, Rubén
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the fractional modeling of a DC-DC buck-boost converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. Although the modeling and design of the controller is carried out for this particular DC-DC converter, it can be easily extended to other kind of switching converter. In addition, the comparison between integer-order plant/controller and fractional-order plants/controller is...
Voltage Tracking of a DC-DC Buck-Boost Converter Using Neural Network Control
W.M.Utomo,; Z.A. Haron, A. A. Bakar, M. Z. Ahmad, Y.M.Y Buswig and S.F. Mansour
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a neural network control scheme of a DC-DC Buck-Boost converter to produce variable DC voltage source that will be applied on DC motor drives. In this technique, a back propagation learning algorithm is derived. The controller is designed to track the output voltage of the DC-DC converter and to improve performance of the Buck-Boost converter during transient operations. Furthermore, to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed controller, some operations such as start...
Charger for NiMH batteries based on buck DC/DC converter
Lap?evi? Vladimir
2014-01-01
In this paper is presented charger for NiMH battery types AA. Charger is realized by Buck DC/DC converter and microcontroller. Microcontroller controls the work of Buck DC/DC converter by pulse width modulation and by measuring the current of battery charging. The current of charging is held constant by power electronics, and the time of charging is set by the user dependent of capacity of the battery. Standard battery chargers enable the recharge of NiMH b...
Tri-State DC-DC Buck Converter with Efficient Conversion Ratio.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.Yuvaraja
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In modern electronic applications the requirement of step down dc-dc conversion is much more. To estimate this process this dc-dc buck converter is implemented with perfect duty cycles as a proposed work. The converter comprises symmetrical half bridges and its structures. The voltage differences across two bridges has been examined in presented and balanced condition of operation is achieved. Then a modulation strategy which can satisfy the operation of the converter is proposed with the capacitor voltages self balance, and the function of the output dc voltage Vo is deduced.
Modeling and Analysis of Transformerless High Gain Buck-boost DC-DC Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vu Tran
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a transfomerless switched capacitor buck boost converter model, which provides higher voltage gain and higher efficiency when compared to the conventional buck boost converter. The averaged model based on state-space description is analyzed in the paper. The simulation results are presented to confirm the capability of the converter to generate high voltage ratios. The comparison between the proposed model and the traditional model is also provided to reveal the improvement. The proposed converter is suitable for for a wide application which requires high step-up DC-DC converters such as DC micro-grids and solar electrical energy.
Design and Modeling of an Integrated Inductor in a Buck Converter DC-DC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Benhadda
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and modeling of a square inductor for its integration in Buck converter DC-DC. The first, we calculate the value of inductance. The second, we descript our inductor; dimensioning and electrical model. A buck micro converter schematic simulation coupled with ideal and integrated inductor was presented. This conceptual model of the buck is best understood in terms of the relation between current and voltage of the inductor. Finely, we have simulated the electromagnetic effects in two cases. The first case, an inductor in the air, the second case with substrate. Our geometry is created en 3D space dimension.
Charger for NiMH batteries based on buck DC/DC converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lap?evi? Vladimir
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper is presented charger for NiMH battery types AA. Charger is realized by Buck DC/DC converter and microcontroller. Microcontroller controls the work of Buck DC/DC converter by pulse width modulation and by measuring the current of battery charging. The current of charging is held constant by power electronics, and the time of charging is set by the user dependent of capacity of the battery. Standard battery chargers enable the recharge of NiMH battery for few hundred times, because termination of charging is done when voltage drop on the battery is detected. The aim of this paper is to create charger which enables that NiMH battery is charged 1000 times.
Design of a PEM Fuel Cell Simulator Based on DC-DC Buck Converter
Georgi Georgievski; Goce L. Arsov
2010-01-01
Modeling of fuel cells is getting more and more important as power fuel cell stacks being available and have to be integrated into real power systems. This paper presents a novel circuit simulator for a PEM fuel cell that can be used to design fuel cell based systems. The simulator is consisted of a DC-DC buck converter driven by PIC 16F877 microcontroller. The proposed circuit can be used in design and analysis of fuel cell power systems.
A New Approach for High Efficiency Buck-Boost DC/DC Converters Using Series Compensation
Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Fujii, Takashi
This paper proposes a novel concept for non-isolated buck-boost DC/DC converter and control method. The proposed concept uses a series connection converter that only regulates the differential voltage between the input and output voltage. As a result, the power converter capacity is decreased. Moreover, the proposed circuit has advantages such as improved efficiency and losses reduction. The fundamental operation, control method, and design method of the proposed circuit are described in this paper. In addition, the validity of the proposed circuit is confirmed by carrying out simulations and experiments.
Integrated Circuit of CMOS DC-DC Buck Converter with Differential Active Inductor
Kaoutar Elbakkar; Khadija Slaoui
2011-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new design of DC-DC buck converter (BC), which the spiral inductor is replaced by a differential gyrator with capacitor load (gyrator-C) implemented in 0.18um CMOS process. The gyrator-C transforms the capacitor load (which is the parasitic capacitor of MOSFETS) to differential active inductor DAI. The low-Q value of DAI at switching frequency of converter (few hundred kHz) is boosted by adding a negative impedance converter (NIC). The transistor parameters of DAI ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhananjay Choudhary
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The two basic topologies of switch mode DC-DC converters (Buck and Boost are analyzed with a view of their use in PV (photovoltaic systems, as the photovoltaic generator exhibits non-linear characteristics due to the change in environmental condition and load variation. As the efficiency of PV panels is low it becomes mandatory to extract maximum power from the PV panel at a given period of time. Several MPPT algorithms with different types of converters are being proposed for extracting maximum power from the PV panel. It is found that the nature of load plays an important role in the choice of topology. This paper investigates the implementation issues of Incremental Conductance method with Buck and Boost Converters. Mathematical analysis and desirable steady-state operating point of the converters are derived to give satisfactory maximum power point tracking operation.
DC-DC buck converters for the CMS Tracker upgrade at SLHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, is planning major upgrades of its current pixel and strip detectors for the LHC luminosity upgrade, known as the SLHC. Due to the larger channel count and - in case of the strip tracker - increased functionality, the powering scheme adopted today, namely parallel powering of several detector modules, has to be abandoned. Instead, a powering scheme based on the DC-DC conversion technique is foreseen, which would lead to lower power losses in the supply cables, and would allow to reduce the material budget of cables and associated electronic boards in the sensitive detector volume. This paper deals with the development, characterisation and optimisation of DC-DC buck converter prototypes for the upgrades of the CMS pixel and strip detectors at the SLHC.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pelan, Ovidiu; Cornea, Octavian
2014-01-01
This paper presents and discusses design considerations and efficiency investigation of a conventional step-down and a hybrid switched-capacitor DC-DC converter. Three MOSFETs with low on-resistance have been tested for each converter in order to find the most adequate switch for this application. The experimental results and comparative efficiency graphs were obtained with a 1kW laboratory prototype dedicated for a 42/14V dual voltage automotive system.
Integrated Circuit of CMOS DC-DC Buck Converter with Differential Active Inductor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaoutar Elbakkar
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new design of DC-DC buck converter (BC, which the spiral inductor is replaced by a differential gyrator with capacitor load (gyrator-C implemented in 0.18um CMOS process. The gyrator-C transforms the capacitor load (which is the parasitic capacitor of MOSFETS to differential active inductor DAI. The low-Q value of DAI at switching frequency of converter (few hundred kHz is boosted by adding a negative impedance converter (NIC. The transistor parameters of DAI and NIC can be properly chosen to achieve the desirable value of equivalent inductance L (few tens H, and the maximum-Q value at the switching frequency, and thus the efficiency of converter is improved. Experimental results show that the converter supplied with an input voltage of 1V, provides an output voltage of 0.74V and output ripple voltage of 10mV at 155 kHz and Q-value is maximum (#8776;4226 at this frequency.
Abdessamad, Benlafkih; Salah-ddine, Krit; Mohamed, Chafik Elidrissi
2013-01-01
This paper presents comparative performance between Analog and digital controller on DC/DC buck-boost converter four switch. The design of power electronic converter circuit with the use of closed loop scheme needs modeling and then simulating the converter using the modeled equations. This can easily be done with the help of state equations and MATLAB/SIMULINK as a tool for simulation of those state equations. DC/DC Buckboost converter in this study is operated in buck (ste...
Adaptive terminal sliding-mode control strategy for DC-DC buck converters.
Komurcugil, Hasan
2012-11-01
This paper presents an adaptive terminal sliding mode control (ATSMC) strategy for DC-DC buck converters. The idea behind this strategy is to use the terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) approach to assure finite time convergence of the output voltage error to the equilibrium point and integrate an adaptive law to the TSMC strategy so as to achieve a dynamic sliding line during the load variations. In addition, the influence of the controller parameters on the performance of closed-loop system is investigated. It is observed that the start up response of the output voltage becomes faster with increasing value of the fractional power used in the sliding function. On the other hand, the transient response of the output voltage, caused by the step change in the load, becomes faster with decreasing the value of the fractional power. Therefore, the value of fractional power is to be chosen to make a compromise between start up and transient responses of the converter. Performance of the proposed ATSMC strategy has been tested through computer simulations and experiments. The simulation results of the proposed ATSMC strategy are compared with the conventional SMC and TSMC strategies. It is shown that the ATSMC exhibits a considerable improvement in terms of a faster output voltage response during load changes. PMID:22877744
Benlafkih Abdessamad; Krit Salah-Ddine; Chafik Elidrissi Mohamed
2013-01-01
this paper presents comparative performance between Analog and digital controller on DC/DC buck-boost converter four switch. The design of power electronic converter circuit with the use of closed loop scheme needs modeling and then simulating the converter using the modeled equations. This can easily be done with the help of state equations and MATLAB/SIMULINK as a tool for simulation of those state equations. DC/DC Buckboost converter in this study is operated in buck (step-down) and boost ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benlafkih Abdessamad
2013-01-01
Full Text Available this paper presents comparative performance between Analog and digital controller on DC/DC buck-boost converter four switch. The design of power electronic converter circuit with the use of closed loop scheme needs modeling and then simulating the converter using the modeled equations. This can easily be done with the help of state equations and MATLAB/SIMULINK as a tool for simulation of those state equations. DC/DC Buckboost converter in this study is operated in buck (step-down and boost (step-up modes.
Nonlinear state-feedback with disturbances estimation for DC-DC Buck converter
Fall, Lamine; Gehan, Olivier; Pigeon, Eric; Pouliquen, Mathieu; M'Saad, Mohammed
2012-01-01
Abstract--The aim of this paper is to present new results on the Buck converter control. The behaviour of the buck converter is described by the well-known average model and the control strategy is based on a double integral high gain control law including an estimation of current load. This control scheme rejects efficiently the disturbances introduced by the battery dynamics that depends on both the coil current and its charge level. Of particular interest, this nonlinear control algorithm ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Xi-jun; Qu, Hao
2014-01-01
As for high power plasma power supply, due to high efficiency and flexibility, multi-channel interleaved multi-stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter becomes the first choice. In the paper, two-channel interleaved two- stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter powered by three-phase AC power supply is selected as research subject, dedicated for the use of plasma cutting machine of 2×45kW, and the passivity-based control over the converter is analyzed theoretically at first, then simulated by means of MATLAB/SIMULINK, finally implemented on the modular product prototype. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the passivity-based controller can be easily designed and implemented, which brings about the global stability and reluctance to outer perturbation, system parameter variation and load fluctuation, which also brings about better current sharing due to fast respond to the variations and the use of phase-shift driving technology and current sharing technology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a width controller, a dead time controller, a discontinuous current mode (DCM) controller and a frequency skipping modulation (FSM) controller for a high frequency high efficiency buck DC-DC converter. To improve the efficiency over a wide load range, especially at high switching frequency, the dead time controller and width controller are applied to enhance the high load efficiency, while the DCM controller and FSM controller are proposed to increase the light load efficiency. The proposed DC-DC converter controllers have been designed and fabricated in the Chartered 0.35 ?m CMOS process, and the measured results show that the efficiency of the buck DC-DC converter is above 80% over a wide load current range from 8 to 570 mA, and the peak efficiency is 86% at 10 MHz switching frequency. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Adaptive switching frequency buck DC—DC converter with high-accuracy on-chip current sensor
Jinguang, Jiang; Fei, Huang; Zhihui, Xiong
2015-05-01
A current-mode PWM buck DC—DC converter is proposed. With the high-accuracy on-chip current sensor, the switching frequency can be selected automatically according to load requirements. This method improves efficiency and obtains an excellent transient response. The high accuracy of the current sensor is achieved by a simple switch technique without an amplifier. This has the direct benefit of reducing power dissipation and die size. Additionally, a novel soft-start circuit is presented to avoid the inrush current at the starting up state. Finally, this DC—DC converter is fabricated with the 0.5 ?m standard CMOS process. The chip occupies 3.38 mm2. The accuracy of the proposed current sensor can achieve 99.5% @ 200 mA. Experimental results show that the peak efficiency is 91.8%. The input voltage ranges from 5 to 18 V, while a 2 A load current can be obtained. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41274047), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK2012639), the Science and Technology Enterprises in Jiangsu Province Technology Innovation Fund (No. BC2012121), and the Changzhou Science and Technology Support (Industrial) Project (No. CE20120074).
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
FABIOLA, ANGULO GARCIA; GERARD, OLIVAR TOST; GUSTAVO ADOLFO, OSORIO LONDOÑO.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available En la última década se ha reportado la estrategia de control Zero Average Dynamics (ZAD) como una alternativa al control de los convertidores de potencia, garantizando frecuencia fija de conmutación y bajo error. Sin embargo la estabilidad del sistema depende fuertemente de la carga, por lo cual no [...] es robusto. Cuando se pierde la estabilidad la frecuencia fija de conmutación se pierde también. En este artículo se presenta la generalización de la técnica ZAD dentro del marco de la teoría de probabilidades. Usando este marco es posible recuperar el ZAD tal como ha sido analizado hasta ahora y se pueden generar nuevas estrategias de control, las cuales son más estables que las usadas en el ZAD. Por este motivo a esta técnica se le ha llamado Generalized Zero Average Dynamics (GZAD). Presentamos algunas simulaciones del GZAD aplicado a un convertidor de potencia reductor. Esta nueva estrategia no puede ser obtenida con el ZAD clásico. Las simulaciones numéricas muestran buen desempeño del controlador con bajo error de regulación y robustez ante cambio en la carga. Abstract in english The Zero Average Dynamics (ZAD) strategy has been reported in the last decade as an alternative for controlling power converters. This technique has the advantage of guaranteeing fixed frequency switching. However, the stability of the controller is highly dependent on the load value, and when the s [...] tability is lost, the fixed frequency switching is lost too. In this paper we generalize ZAD strategy using the probabilities framework through the expectation operator. Thus, we recover classical sliding mode control classical ZAD strategy, and new control methods can be defined, which are more stable than the others previously used. For this reason, this technique is entitled Generalized Zero Average Dynamics (GZAD). We will show several simulations regarding an application to a DC-DC Buck converter within the generalized ZAD strategy, which cannot be deduced from the classical ZAD. Numerical simulations show good regulation features and a wide range of stability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. N. Nagaraj
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Switching frequency acts as a major role, while applying sliding mode control to dc-dc buck converter, switching frequency is affected by line and load variations. To reduce switching frequency deviation to line and load variations, an adaptive feed forward control is used, that varies hysteresis band according to the change of input voltage. Several methods of varying hysteresis band of the hysteresis modulator are possible. In this work adjusting the power supply is to be considered. An adaptive feedback control scheme that varies the control parameters (i.e. sliding coefficient according to the change of output load is proposed. This paper presents a complete investigation into the problem and gives the effectiveness of the desired solutions. In this method implementing the proposed adaptive control strategies are discussed, simulation results gives that the adaptive control methods are capable of reducing the switching frequency variations, simulation have been done in MATLAB /Simulink to verify the results.
Loss model for a high frequency and low load DC/DC synchronous buck converter
Díaz López, Daniel; Vasic, Miroslav; García Suárez, Oscar; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2012-01-01
This work presents a behavioral-analytical hybrid loss model for a buck converter. The model has been designed for a wide operating frequency range up to 4MHz and a low power range (below 20W). It is focused on the switching losses obtained in the power MOSFETs. Main advantages of the model are the fast calculation time and a good accuracy. It has been validated by simulation and experimentally with one Ga, power transistor and two Si MOSFETs. Results show good agreement between measurements ...
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Marcela, González Valencia; Alfonso, Alzate Gómez.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Se presenta el diseño estático de un convertidor reductor-elevador bidireccional con tres conmutadores y conexión en cascada. La principal aplicación del convertidor es la administración de baterías en sistemas de alimentación ininterrumpida, controlando el flujo de energía y regulando la tensión de [...] alimentación DC durante los diferentes modos de operación de la batería como fuente y sumidero. Abstract in english This paper shows a buck-boost converter static design with 3 switches and cascade connection. The main application of the converter is the battery management on uninterruptible power supplies, controlling energy flow and regulating the DC supply voltage for the different battery operation modes as s [...] ource and sink.
Hybrid behavioral-analytical loss model for a high frequency and low load DC/DC buck converter
Díaz López, Daniel; Vasic, Miroslav; García Suárez, Oscar; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2012-01-01
This work presents a behavioral-analytical hybrid loss model for a buck converter. The model has been designed for a wide operating frequency range up to 4MHz and a low power range (below 20W). It is focused on the switching losses obtained in the power MOSFETs. Main advantages of the model are the fast calculation time (below 8.5 seconds) and a good accuracy, which makes this model suitable for the optimization process of the losses in the design of a converter. It has been validated by simu...
Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters
Kazimierczuk, Marian K
2015-01-01
PWM DC-DC power converter technology underpins many energy conversion systems including renewable energy circuits, active power factor correctors, battery chargers, portable devices and LED drivers. Following the success of Pulse-Width Modulated DC-DC Power Converters this second edition has been thoroughly revised and expanded to cover the latest challenges and advances in the field. Key features of 2nd edition: Four new chapters, detailing the latest advances in power conversion, focus on: small-signal model and dynamic characteristics of the buck converter in continuous conduction
Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1
Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.
1980-01-01
The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.
Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.
2007-01-01
A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak current needed for ZVS operation is kept constant and no in excess circulating current losses at light load conditions are encountered. Inductor current ripple decreases with load reduction. Automatic changes in operation between buck and boost modes are accomplished without transient currents. Power circuit elements design is given. The four-stage interleaving is digitally controlled.
Radiation-Tolerant DC-DC Converters
Skutt, Glenn; Sable, Dan; Leslie, Leonard; Graham, Shawn
2012-01-01
A document discusses power converters suitable for space use that meet the DSCC MIL-PRF-38534 Appendix G radiation hardness level P classification. A method for qualifying commercially produced electronic parts for DC-DC converters per the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) radiation hardened assurance requirements was developed. Development and compliance testing of standard hybrid converters suitable for space use were completed for missions with total dose radiation requirements of up to 30 kRad. This innovation provides the same overall performance as standard hybrid converters, but includes assurance of radiation- tolerant design through components and design compliance testing. This availability of design-certified radiation-tolerant converters can significantly reduce total cost and delivery time for power converters for space applications that fit the appropriate DSCC classification (30 kRad).
Fractional DC/DC Converter in Solar-Powered Electrical Generation Systems
Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio
2009-01-01
This paper deals with the fractional modeling of a DC-DC buck-boost converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. Although the modeling and design of the controller is carried out for this particular DC-DC converter,it can be easily extended to other kind of switching converter. In addition, the comparison between integer-order plant/controller and fractional-order plants/controll...
Sliding Mode Control of Dc-Dc Boost Converter
Hanifi Guldemir
2005-01-01
Control of Dc-Dc boost converter is a complex task due to the nonlinearity inherent in the converter and introduced by the external changes. A robust sliding mode controller for the control of Dc-Dc boost converter were described in this study. Dynamic equations describing the boost converter are derived and sliding mode controller is designed. The robustness of the sliding mode controlled boost converter system is tested for step load changes and input voltage variations. The computer-aided ...
Sliding mode controllers for the regulation of DC-DC power converters
Araújo, R.; Leite, V; Freitas, D.
2003-01-01
Sliding mode controllers are derived for the control of the average output voltage in DC/DC power converters. The controller design is carried out on the basis of well-known bilinear models of such circuits. A cascaded control structure is chosen for ease of control realization and to exploit the motion separation property of this power converter. The performance of the proposed sliding mode controllers is tested for the buck and boost converter type. The numerical simulations will demonstrat...
Coupled Inductor Based High Step-Up DC-DC Converter for Multi Input PV System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Shiny Vikram
2014-09-01
Full Text Available With the shortage of the energy and ever increasing of the oil price, research on the renewable and green energy sources, especially the solar arrays and the fuel cells, becomes more and more important. How to achieve high step-up and high efficiency DC/DC converters is the major consideration in the renewable power applications due to the low voltage of PV arrays and fuel cells. In this paper a coupled inductor dc-dc converter for photovoltaic system is proposed. The circuit configuration of the proposed converter is very simple. Thus, the proposed converter has higher step-up and step-down voltage gains than the conventional bidirectional dc–dc boost/buck converter. Under same electric specifications for the proposed converter and the conventional bidirectional boost/buck converter, the average value of the switch current in the proposed converter is less than the conventional bidirectional boost/buck converter. The operating principles have been applied to multi input photovoltaic system and outputs have been observed.
A New ZVS Nonisolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter with Minimal Auxiliary Element
Nasrin Asadi Madiseh; Majid Delshad
2013-01-01
In this paper, a new nonisolated bidirectional buck–boost dc–dc converter is introduced. The proposed converter can be operated under ZVS condition and fixed switching frequency regardless of the direction of power flow. To provide ZVS condition for switches a simple auxiliary circuit is used, that consists of an auxiliary inductor and a coupled winding to main inductor. Due to ZVS operation of switches, the reverse recovery problem of the body diode of the switches does not occur. Moreover, ...
High voltage conversion ratio, switched C & L cells, step-down DC-DC converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pelan, Ovidiu; Muntean, Nicolae
2013-01-01
The paper presents a high voltage conversion ratio DC-DC step-down topology obtained from a classical buck converter associated with an input switched-capacitor cell and an output switched-inductor cell. Analytical descriptions, the voltage and current limits of the main components are synthesized in a comparative form, related to the classical buck structure, in order to emphasis the advantages of the proposed converter. Digital simulations and experimental results obtained with a built prototype are compared. From the first evaluation, the proposed converter is expected to be effectively used at input to output voltage ratios higher than 20.
Transformerless High Step-Up Dc-Dc Converter
Amit S. Surjagade; Akshay B. Bankar; Mrs. J. P. Rothe
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a transformer-less high step-up DC-DC converter which acts as an interconnection between DC systems. A new step up converter proposed in the paper is designed and simulated in a simulation environment. The conventional boost converter cannot have any control over the input current at a high duty cycle. Due to which, it draws considerable amount of current from the source which can create problems for the components used in DC-DC converter. Moreover, the voltage stress acro...
Development of DC/DC converter in VHF band.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kvasni?ka, Ji?í; Polák, Ivo
Vienna : Vienna University of Technology, 2011. [TWEPP 2011 Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics. 26.09.2011-30.09.2011, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : DC/DC converter * VHF range * BRAHMS project Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics
Soft Commutated Three-Phase Dc-Dc Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silpa.P.T
2014-08-01
Full Text Available High efficient DC-DC Converters find its application in electric power generation, transmission, distribution and Uninterruptable power supplies (UPS. Three phase converter system as compared with single phase converter system increases power density with reduced switching stresses, efficient usage of the transformer magnetic core and smaller filter design as the frequency of the system is higher. Inorder to make use of the above mentioned advantages a ZVS-PWM three- phase current-fed push-pull dc-dc converter with active clamping was developed. This converter topology allows the reuse of the energy from the leakage inductances and reduces the electromagnetic interferences (EMI. The topology was designed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The input supply voltage used for the converter is 120V DC.
Soft Commutated Three-Phase Dc-Dc Converter
Silpa.P.T; Rajeenamol P.T
2014-01-01
High efficient DC-DC Converters find its application in electric power generation, transmission, distribution and Uninterruptable power supplies (UPS). Three phase converter system as compared with single phase converter system increases power density with reduced switching stresses, efficient usage of the transformer magnetic core and smaller filter design as the frequency of the system is higher. Inorder to make use of the above mentioned advantages a ZVS-PWM three- phase current-fed push-p...
A New Soft-Switched Resonant DC-DC Converter
Pourabbasali, Rogayeh; Freghi, Samira; Pourabbasali, Reza; Pakdel, Majid
2012-01-01
This paper presents a new soft-switched resonant dc-dc converter using a passive snubber circuit. The proposed converter uses a new zero voltage and zero current switching (ZVZCS) strategies to get ZVZCS function. Besides operating at constant frequency, all semiconductor devices operate at soft-switching without additional voltage and current stresses. In order to validate the proposed converter, computer simulations and experimental results were conducted. The paper indicates the effective ...
Sliding Mode Control of Dc-Dc Boost Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanifi Guldemir
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Control of Dc-Dc boost converter is a complex task due to the nonlinearity inherent in the converter and introduced by the external changes. A robust sliding mode controller for the control of Dc-Dc boost converter were described in this study. Dynamic equations describing the boost converter are derived and sliding mode controller is designed. The robustness of the sliding mode controlled boost converter system is tested for step load changes and input voltage variations. The computer-aided design software tool Matlab/Simulink is used for the simulations. The simulation results are presented. The simulation results show a fast dynamic response of the output voltage and robustness to load and input voltage variations.
Dynamic Evolution Control for Fuel Cell DC-DC Converter
Ahmad Saudi Samosir; Tole Sutikno; Abdul Halim Mohd Yatim
2011-01-01
Fuel cells are new alternative energy resource that has a great promise for distributed generation and electric vehicle application. However, fuel cells have a slow response due to their slow internal electromechanical and thermodynamic response. To optimize the fuel cell system performance, a fuel cell DC-DC converter with an appropriate controller which can regulate the power flow and automatically adjust the converter output voltage is needed. This paper proposes a new control technique fo...
Design and implementation of fully-integrated inductive DC-DC converters in standard CMOS
Wens, Mike
2011-01-01
CMOS DC-DC Converters aims to provide a comprehensive dissertation on the matter of monolithic inductive Direct-Current to Direct-Current (DC-DC) converters. For this purpose seven chapters are defined which will allow the designer to gain specific knowledge on the design and implementation of monolithic inductive DC-DC converters, starting from the very basics.
Design and Implementation of a FLC for DC-DC Converter in a Microcontroller for PV System
Abel García-B.; Francisco R. Trejo-M.; Felipe Coyotl-M.; Rubén-T.; Hugo Romero-T.,
2013-01-01
This paper presents the design and implementation of a simple fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for a DC-DC buck converter based on the PIC18F4550 microcontroller to control the lead acid battery charging voltage in solar cells applications. For cost consideration, an inexpensive 8-bit microcontroller is selected to program and implement the FLC proportional-integral. The obtained simulation and experimental results show the viability of the controller with a variation on the load of the buck conv...
Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters
Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon
2002-01-01
Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.
Multiple-output Class E Isolated dc-dc Converter
Pavlovic, Zoran; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Alou Cervera, Pedro; García Suárez, Oscar; Prieto López, Roberto; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2010-01-01
This paper presents a multiple output class-E isolated dc-dc converter that regulates the output voltages at fixed switching frequency. The two output converter is simulated at operating frequency of 5 MHz. The converter output power is 40 W and the output voltages are 15 V and 5 V. All the switches operate at zero voltage switching (ZVS) conditions for the full load range. The circuit configuration is simple with small passive components which reduce the size of the converter. The circuit al...
Implementation of FPGA based Digital Controller for Controlling Chaos in DC/DC converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RANJAN Vanaja
2010-05-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the subharmonics andchaos generated in closed loop pulse width modulatedDC/DC buck converter and suggests the implementationof Digital controller based on time delayed selfcontrolling feedback concept for stabilizing the chaosgenerated in such converter. FPGA based digitalcontroller is designed and implemented for controllingthe chaotic oscillations of nonlinear switching converters.An experimental FPGA prototype and an applicationspecific IC that employ new controller architecture arebuilt around 11.3 V, 5.5 W, 2.5 KHz buck converter stageand successful operation of digital controller is verified.The experimental results prove the inherent capability ofthe proposed controller in maintaining the desired outputvoltage and keep the system chaos free by making thesystem insensitive to parameter variations.
Predictive Trailing-Edge Modulation Average Current Control in DC-DC Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LASCU, D.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates predictive digital average current control (PDACC in dc/dc converters using trailing-edge modulation (TEM. The study is focused on the recurrence duty cycle equation and then stability analysis is performed. It is demonstrated that average current control using trailing-edge modulation is stable on the whole range of the duty cycle and thus design problems are highly reduced. The analysis is carried out in a general manner, independent of converter topology and therefore the results can then be easily applied for a certain converter (buck, boost, buck-boost, etc.. The theoretical considerations are confirmed for a boost converter first using the MATLAB program based on state-space equations and finally with the CASPOC circuit simulation package.
High Efficiency Interleaved Bi-Directional ZVS DC-DC Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zafar Ullah Khan, M.; Mohsin Naveed, M.
2013-01-01
A High Efficiency Interleaved Bi-Directional ZVS DC-DC converter is presented in this paper. This converter can be operated in both buck and boost mode. CoolMOS is used as a power device to achieve low conduction losses and fast turn off. The value of inductance is selected such that the CoolMOS drain-to-source voltage always falls to zero before it turns on and ZVS is achieved. Multiphase interleaved inductors are used to achieve high power and low ripple currents. Converter is operated at 50kHz and MATLAB Simulink simulation is performed. 6kW prototype converter is implemented in buck mode and simulation results are verified.
Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex, multiple-output, DC-DC converter systems can be configured through use of only 2 standard product hybrid DC-DC...
Calderone, Luigi; Pinola, Licia; Varoli, Vincenzo
1992-04-01
The paper describes an analytical procedure to optimize the feed-forward compensation for any PWM dc/dc converters. The aims of achieving zero dc audiosusceptibility was found to be possible for the buck, buck-boost, Cuk, and SEPIC cells; for the boost converter, however, only nonoptimal compensation is feasible. Rules for the design of PWM controllers and procedures for the evaluation of the hardware-introduced errors are discussed. A PWM controller implementing the optimal feed-forward compensation for buck-boost, Cuk, and SEPIC cells is described and fully experimentally characterized.
Multiple Output ZVS DC/DC Converter Based on PWM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivia Ramya Chitranjan
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This project presents a soft-switching dc/dc converter with transformers connected in series to implement the features of ZVS, low voltage stress for MOSFETs. The converter has two half-bridge circuits connected in series to limit the voltage stress of MOSFETs at one-half of the input voltage. The output sides of four circuits are connected in series and parallel to primary circuit. The proposed multi output converter shows excellent performance in terms of its output regulation from no-load to full-load conditions and it also provides a multi output capability.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Carlos Andrés, Ramos-Paja; Roberto, Gira; Eliana Isabel, Arango Zuluaga.
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Se propone una estructura de desvío activo para maximizar la producción de potencia en sistemas fotovoltaicos bajo condiciones irregulares de operación, comparando su eficiencia con soluciones individuales y distribuidas basadas en convertidores DC/DC convencionales. Los análisis y simulaciones real [...] istas demuestran las ventajas del nuevo convertidor de desvío activo sobre soluciones basadas en convertidores Boost, Buck y Buck-Boost. Abstract in english An active bypass structure is proposed to maximize the power production in photovoltaic modules under mismatched conditions. Its efficiency is compared with single and distributed maximum power point tracking solutions based on conventional DC/DC structures. The analysis and simulations performed un [...] der realistic assumptions demonstrate the benefits of the novel active bypass converter over solutions based on Boost, Buck or Buck-Boost converters.
Modified Multiport Dc-Dc Converter Topology For Smart Grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhamodharan Shanmugam
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The development of a Solid State Transformer (SST that incorporates a DC-DC multiport converter to integrate both photovoltaic (PV power generation and battery energy storage is presented in this dissertation. The DC-DC stage is based on a quad active-bridge (QAB converter which not only provides isolation for the load, but also for the PV and storage. The AC-DC stage is implemented with a pulse-widthmodulated (PWM single phase rectifier. A unified gyrator-based average model is developed for a general multi-active-bridge (MAB converter controlled through phase-shift modulation (PSM. Expressions to determine the power rating of the MAB ports are also derived. The developed gyrator-based average model is applied to the QAB converter for faster simulations of the proposed SST during the control design process as well for deriving the state-space representation of the plant. Both linear quadratic regulator (LQR and singleinput-single-output (SISO types of controllers are designed for the DC-DC stage. A novel technique that complements the SISO controller by taking into account the cross coupling characteristics of the QAB converter is also presented herein. Cascaded SISO controllers are designed for the AC-DC stage. The QAB demanded power is calculated at the QAB controls and then fed into the rectifier controls in order to minimize the effect of the interaction between the two SST stages. The dynamic performance of the designed control loops based on the proposed control strategies are verified through extensive simulation of the SST average and switching models.
Single-Input Dual-Output (SIDO) Linear–Assisted DC/DC Converter
Martínez García, Herminio; Silva-Martínez, José; Conesa Roca, Alfons; Poveda López, Alberto
2008-01-01
This article describes a single-input dual output (SIDO) linear-assisted DC/DC converter. Linear-assisted DC/DC converters are structures that allow to take advantages of the two classic alternatives in the design of power supply systems: voltage linear regulators and switching DC/DC converters. Thanks to the combination of a switching converter and two voltage linear regulators, the proposed SIDO converter provides two independent outputs with suitable load and line regulations. In the prese...
Practical Design Guidelines of qZSI Based Step-Up DC/DC Converter
Zakis, Janis; Vinnikov, Dmitri; Roasto, Indrek; Jalakas, Tanel
2010-01-01
This paper presents some design guidelines for a new voltage fed step-up DC/DC isolated converter. The most significant advantage of proposed converter is voltage buck-boost operation on single stage. The most promising application for proposed converter is in the field of distributed power generation e.g. fuel cells or photovoltaic. The most sensitive issues - such as power losses caused by high currents in the input side of converter and high transient overvoltages across the inverter bridge caused by stray inductances were discussed and solved. The proposals and recommendations to overcome these issues are given in the paper. The Selection and design guidelines of converter elements are proposed and explained. The prototype of proposed converter was built and experimentally tested. Some results are presented and evaluated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kovacevic, Milovan Technical University of Denmark,
The present invention relates to a step-up DC-DC power converter which comprises a primary side circuit and a secondary side circuit coupled through a galvanic isolation barrier. The primary side circuit comprises a positive and a negative input terminal for receipt of an input voltage and an input capacitor coupled between the positive and negative input terminals and the secondary side circuit comprises an output capacitor chargeable to a converter output voltage between a first positive electrode and a second negative electrode. A switched energy storage network is configured for alternatingly being charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The step-up DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short-circuit connection across the galvanic isolation barrier connecting, in a first case, the second negative electrode of the output capacitor to the positive input terminal of the primary side circuit or, in a second case, connecting the second positive electrode of the output capacitor to the negative input terminal of the primary side circuit thereby establishing in both the first and second cases a series coupling of the output capacitor and the input capacitor. A load connection is established, in the first case, between the first positive electrode of the output capacitor and the negative input terminal or, in the second case, between the second negative electrode of the output capacitor and the positive input terminal.
Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abas Goodarzi
2011-01-31
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.
A Novel Bidirectional DC-DC Converter With Flyback Snubber For Hybrid Electric Vehicles
DIVYA K.NAIR; ELIZABETH RAJAN
2013-01-01
Hybrid electric Vehicles combine the benefits of engine, electric motor and batteries to provide improved fueleconomy. A converter is needed in hybrid Electric Vehicle for charging and discharging of the batteries. So a charging anddischarging can be combined in one circuit topology known as bidirectional DC-DC converter. Here the output is completelyisolated from input, so an isolated bidirectional Dc-DC converter is used. In the bidirectional DC-DC converter, there occursovervoltage and ove...
Performance Analysis of Various DC-DC Converters with Optimum Controllers for PV Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sankarganesh
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Alternative vehicles to Internal Combustion Engines (ICE, for instance the electric vehicle is becoming popular. Electric Vehicles (EV are pollution free and cost effective because the fossil fuel cost increases day by day. These factors make people passion for electric vehicles. Electrical energy demand necessitates charging of electric vehicles using renewable energy. Among the different renewable energy resources, Photovoltaic (PV cells are suitable for EV. The PV output power capacity is still low, so efforts continue to develop the PV converter and its controller, aiming for higher power-extracting efficiency. The PV system requires a proper DC-DC converter with optimum controller to deliver its maximum power. This study analyses the various DC-DC converters such as buck, boost, cuk and modified cuk converters to find the solution for maximum efficiency. In this study in addition to converters, various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT methods, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance along with a proposed algorithm called Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC has been analyzed. The operation of the BELBIC is based on the emotion processing mechanism in the brain. This intelligent control is stimulated by the limbic system of the mammalian brain. The performance analysis of the converters and MPPT methods are simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Furthermore, experimental results are presented in order to validate the modified cuk converter with proposed BELBIC algorithm.
Transformerless High Step-Up Dc-Dc Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amit S. Surjagade
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a transformer-less high step-up DC-DC converter which acts as an interconnection between DC systems. A new step up converter proposed in the paper is designed and simulated in a simulation environment. The conventional boost converter cannot have any control over the input current at a high duty cycle. Due to which, it draws considerable amount of current from the source which can create problems for the components used in DC-DC converter. Moreover, the voltage stress across the switch comes nearly equal to output voltage. These problems can be overcome in the proposed topology discussed in the paper. The improved topology enhances important electrical parameters such as voltage gain, power loss and switch voltage stress. These improvements in the parameters are explained with the help of formulae explained in the paper. The improved topology improves the voltage stress and voltage gain. The output voltage is modified with the introduction of extra components. Due to improvement in these parameters, the proposed topology becomes an attractive feature for use with DG systems. The comparison is performed between conventional boost converter and boost converter with improved topology. The efficiency curves are plotted for simple boost converter and improved topology. The efficiency is evaluated for a wide range of duty cycle and this confirms the effectiveness of the improved topology discussed in the paper. The proposed converter design and its implementation are given with operational results. The simulation results are tested for an input voltage of 12V. The input voltage is stepped up to output voltage of 100V which can be used for various applications. The interfacing problem of DG system (PV cell arrays with grid will solve using this methodology.
Model-free control of dc/dc converters
Michel, Loïc; Join, Cédric; Fliess, Michel; Sicard, Pierre; Chériti, Ahmed
2010-01-01
A new "model-free" control methodology is applied for the first time to power converters, and in particular to a buck converter, and to a Cuk converter. We evaluate its performances regarding load and supply variations. Our approach, which utilizes "intelligent" PI controllers, does not require any converter identification while ensuring the stability and the robustness of the control synthesis. Simulation and experimental results show that, with a simple control structure, insensitivity to p...
Digital Voltage Control of DC-DC Boost Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. M. Swathy
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The need for digital control for faster communication between power stage module & system controllers is increased with requirement of load complexity. The requirements also include stability of power module with the parametric variation. This paper presents a digital control of a dc-dc boost converter under nominal parameter conditions. The system controller has been verified in both frequency response as well as MATLAB-Simulink under nominal & parametric varying condition. The modeling of converter has been illustrated using state-space averaging technique. Direct digital design method is equipped to design the controller in frequency response to yield constant load voltage. The characteristic of load voltage before & after parametric variation is shown.
Very High Frequency Half Bridge DC/DC Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold
2014-01-01
This paper presents the first, off chip, class DE (resonant half bridge) converter working in the Very High Frequency (VHF) range. The benefits of using half bridge circuits both in the inverter and rectifier part of a VHF resonant dc/dc converter are analyzed and design equations for all components in the power stage are given. The circuit has been simulated to verify the accuracy of the presented equations and an efficiency of 89% has been shown. A prototype has been implemented with self-oscillating resonant gate drives driving the switches. The prototype has been used to drive an LED string and shows an efficiency of 85% at 29 MHz with 130 V input and 13.4 W output. The efficiency was above 82% in the range 110-150 V input with output power between 10.3 W and 16.5 W
Adell, Philippe
When electronic devices are used in space and military systems, they may be exposed to various types of radiation, including photons, electrons, protons, neutrons, and heavy ions. The effects of radiation on the semiconductor devices within the systems range from gradual degradation to catastrophic failure. In order to design and produce reliable systems for space or military applications, it is necessary to understand the device-level effects of radiation and develop appropriate strategies for reducing system susceptibility. This research focuses on understanding radiation effects in power converters for space and military applications. We show that power converters are very sensitive to radiation (total-dose, single event effects and displacement damage) and that their radiation response is dependent on input bias conditions and load conditions. We compared the radiation hardness of various power converter topologies using experiments and simulations. Evaluation of these designs under different modes of operation is demonstrated to be critical for determining radiation hardness. We emphasize the correlation between radiation effects and the role of the dynamic response of these topologies. For instance, total dose exposure has been found to degrade loop gain and affect regulation in some converters. We propose several radiation-hardening solutions to improve the radiation response of these designs. For instance, we demonstrate the design of a digitally controlled boost converter suitable for space applications based on an SRAM FPGA. A design hardening solution has been developed and successfully applied through VHDL simulations and experiments to assure the continuous operation of the converter in the presence of SEES (more precisely SEFIs). This research led to the design of a digitally controlled radiation hardened integrated switching buck converter. The proposed design is suitable for micro-satellite applications and is based on a high-voltage/CMOS process. This design is the first radiation-hardened DC/DC power converter in this power range that integrates the switch, controller, and rectifier. The design has been fabricated, simulated and tested.
Simulation and Implementation of Quasi Resonant DC-DC Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Devarajan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: A half-bridge LLC resonant converter with a voltage doubler rectifier has a simple structure and its Zero-Voltage-Switching (ZVS capability is excellent from zero to full load condition. But conduction loss is more due to high circulating energy thus reducing the system efficiency. Moreover a variable frequency control method makes the control circuits more complicated than those using the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM control method. Thus, DC drive has lower efficiency when it operates on light loads. Approach: To improve the efficiency of the DC drive under light loads, a PWM-controlled quasi-resonant converter is proposed .It has simple control circuits and less conduction loss compared to a half-bridge LLC resonant converter under light load conditions. The proposed converter has a half-bridge LLC resonant converter along with an auxiliary circuit. The load regulation of the proposed converter can be achieved by an auxiliary circuit. Thus the proposed converter is expected to be suitable sustaining power module for the efficiency enhancement of DC drives. As the magnetizing inductance of the proposed converter is larger the circulating energy is considerably reduced under light load conditions. In this study the operational principle, design and modeling of QRC DC-DC converters for DC drives are presented. The PWM controlled quasi resonant converter is implemented using PIC microcontroller 16F184A. Results: The capacitor filter in the output is replaced by pi filter to produce DC with minimum ripple. The experimental results and simulation results are compared. This converter has the advantages like reduced number of switches, reduced transformer and filter size, reduced ripple, reduced switching losses, reduced switching stresses and increased power density. Conclusion: The experimental results closely agree with the simulation results.
A Novel Bidirectional DC-DC Converter With Flyback Snubber For Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DIVYA K.NAIR
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Hybrid electric Vehicles combine the benefits of engine, electric motor and batteries to provide improved fueleconomy. A converter is needed in hybrid Electric Vehicle for charging and discharging of the batteries. So a charging anddischarging can be combined in one circuit topology known as bidirectional DC-DC converter. Here the output is completelyisolated from input, so an isolated bidirectional Dc-DC converter is used. In the bidirectional DC-DC converter, there occursovervoltage and overcurrent stress, which can be reduced by snubber circuits. Various technologies such as RCD, active clampand flyback snubber for bidirectional DC-DC converter are compared. The bidirectional DC-DC converter with flyback snubberis explained in detail. The simulations are carried out using Simulink/MATLAB 7.6.0 (R2009b package. The hardware is doneusing PIC16F877A, a microcontroller to generate the PWM pulses for the MOSFET switches so that harmonics in the circuit canbe reduced.
Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja
2014-09-09
A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.
Power Network impedance effects on noise emission of DC-DC converters
Esteban, M. C.; Arteche, F.; Iglesias, M.; Gimeno, A.; Arcega, F. J.; Johnson, M.; Cooper, W. E.
2012-01-01
The characterization of electromagnetic noise emissions of DC-DC converters is a critical issue that has been analyzed during the desing phase of CMS tracker upgrade. Previous simulation studies showed important variations in the level of conducted emissions when DC-DC converters are loaded/driven by different impedances and power network topologies. Several tests have been performed on real DC-DC converters to validate the Pspice model and simulation results. This paper presents these test results. Conducted noise emissions at the input and at the output terminals of DC-DC converters has been measured for different types of power and FEE impedances. Special attention has been paid to influence on the common-mode emissions by the carbon fiber material used to build the mechanical structure of the central detector. These study results show important recommendations and criteria to be applied in order to decrease the system noise level when integrating the DC-DC.
Wide Temperature Range DC-DC Boost Converters for Command/Control/Drive Electronics Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We shall develop wide temperature range DC-DC boost converters that can be fabricated using commercial CMOS foundries. The boost converters will increase the low...
Design & Implementation of Zero Voltage Switching Buck Converter
A.Suresh Kumar; Krishna Reddy, P.
2014-01-01
Zero voltage switching (ZVS) buck converter is more preferable over hard switched buck converter for low power, high frequency DC-DC conversion applications. In Zero voltage switching converter, turn on & turn off of a switch occurs at zero voltage that results in lower switching losses. In this converter soft switching is achieved by using resonant components. The optimal values of resonant components are determined by using electric functions derived from circuit configurati...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharda Jaiswal
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a scheme for implementing two different DC/DC converters in the commutation circuitry of BLDC motor drive and corresponding output characteristic in both sensored and sensorless drive. Here we have considered Buck and Boost converters in order to provide a regulated supply to the commutation circuitry. The drive circuit is a closed loop system with a PI controller, Six-Switch Voltage Source Inverter (VSI and one of the DC/DC converters among Buck and Boost. The performances with these two modes of sensored and sensorless have been studied by considering a low speed operation. Finally a comparison has been studied on the basis of characteristics of stator currents, rotor speed and electromagnetic torque. The modeling and simulation of Buck and Boost converter fed BLDC motor is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK for both sensored and sensorless drive.
Fuentes, C; Michelis, S; Blanchot, G; Allongue, B; Faccio, F; Orlandi, S; Kayal, M; Pontt, J
2011-01-01
The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN sets new challenges for the powering of the detectors. One of the powering schemes under study is based on DC-DC buck converters mounted on the front-end modules. The hard environmental conditions impose strict restrictions to the converters in terms of low volume, radiation and magnetic field tolerance. Furthermore, the noise emission of the switching converters must not affect the performance of the powered systems. A study of the sources and paths of noise of a synchronous buck converter has been made for identifying the critical parameters to reduce their emissions. As proof of principle, a converter was designed following the PCB layout considerations proposed and then used for powering a silicon strip module prototype for the ATLAS upgrade, in order to evaluate their compatibility.
Chaos analysis and chaotic EMI suppression of DC-DC converters
Zhang, Bo
2014-01-01
Introduces chaos theory, its analytical methods and the means to apply chaos to the switching power supply design DC-DC converters are typical switching systems which have plenty of nonlinear behaviors, such as bifurcation and chaos. The nonlinear behaviors of DC-DC converters have been studied heavily over the past 20 years, yet researchers are still unsure of the practical application of bifurcations and chaos in switching converters. The electromagnetic interference (EMI), which resulted from the high rates of changes of voltage and current, has become a major design criterion in DC-DC co
Control of improved full-bridge three-level DC/DC converter for wind turbines in a DC grid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe
2013-01-01
This paper presents an improved full-bridge three-level (IFBTL) dc/dc converter for a wind turbine in a dc grid by inserting a passive filter into the dc/dc converter to improve the performance of the converter. The passive filter can effectively reduce the voltage stress of the medium frequency transformer in the IFBTL dc/dc converter. A modulation strategy, including two operation modes, is proposed for the IFBTL dc/dc converter. Then, a voltage balancing control strategy is proposed for the IFBTL dc/dc converter. Furthermore, the control of the wind turbine based on the IFBTL dc/dc converter in a dc-grid system is presented. Finally, a small-scale IFBTL dc/dc converter prototype was built and tested in the laboratory, and the results verify the theoretical analysis.
Decentralized Nonlinear Controller Based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of a Decentralized Control based SiC Parallel DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) with targeted application for...
Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex NASA space power electronic systems can be configured using a small number of qualified hybrid DC-DC converter...
Optimization with System Damping Restoration for Droop Controlled DC-DC Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav
2013-01-01
The parallel operation of dc-dc converters is widely used in distribution systems and uninterruptable power supply systems. Droop control along with virtual resistance (VR) is considered a simple and reliable method for achieving wireless power sharing among converters. In order to enhance the efficiency of the conversion system, this paper implements tertiary level optimization control on the basis of hierarchical control. As the efficiency of each converter changes with output power, VRs are set as decision variables for adjusting power sharing proportion among converters. Genetic algorithm is used in searching for global efficiency optimum. However system dynamic is affected when shifting VRs. Therefore, the stability of a parallel buck converter system is analyzed to examine the influence of VR changing on system dynamics. Based on the stability analysis, a system damping secondary restoration (SDSR) is implemented to readjust the optimization results so as to ensure system stability. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the improvement of system efficiency and effectiveness of the method.
An overview of fast DC-DC converters for envelope amplifier in RF transmitters
García Suárez, Oscar; Vasic, Miroslav; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2012-01-01
In the last years, RF power amplifiers are taking advantage of the switched dc-dc converters to use them in several architectures that may improve the efficiency of the amplifier, keeping a good linearity. The use of linearization techniques such as Envelope Elimination and Restoration (EER) and Envelope Tracking (ET) requires a very fast dc-dc power converter to provide variable voltage supply to the power amplifier but theoretically the efficiency can be much higher than using the classical...
A DC-DC Converter Efficiency Model for System Level Analysis in Ultra Low Power Applications
Calhoun, Benton H.; Aatmesh Shrivastava
2013-01-01
This paper presents a model of inductor based DC-DC converters that can be used to study the impact of power management techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS). System level power models of low power systems on chip (SoCs) and power management strategies cannot be correctly established without accounting for the associated overhead related to the DC-DC converters that provide regulated power to the system. The proposed model accurately predicts the efficiency of induct...
Design and Implementation of a FLC for DC-DC Converter in a Microcontroller for PV System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abel García-B.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a simple fuzzy logic controller (FLC for a DC-DC buck converter based on the PIC18F4550 microcontroller to control the lead acid battery charging voltage in solar cells applications. For cost consideration, an inexpensive 8-bit microcontroller is selected to program and implement the FLC proportional-integral. The obtained simulation and experimental results show the viability of the controller with a variation on the load of the buck converter showing a good performance on the design of the FLC, and it has also a smooth response with a small overshoot. The DC-DC converter designed in this work can be found applications in low cost photovoltaic (PV systems, although in the literature has been already reported this kind of devices with a better response [3-4], however these use a expensive microcontroller or its designs are very complex, and where these are not necessary for this kind of applications. Finally, a prototype PV system with 100 V/6 A has been implemented for verifying the feasibility of the CD-CD converter.
This website from the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College features an animation of a buck converter. A buck converter is a step-down DC to DC converter. Its design is similar to the step-up boost converter, and like the boost converter it is a switched-mode power supply that uses two switches (a transistor and a diode), an inductor and a capacitor.
Simulation and Implementation of Interleaved Boost DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Saudi Samosir
2011-10-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a boost dc-dc converter for fuel cell application. In fuel cell electric vehicles application, a high power boost dc-dc converter is adopted to adjust the output voltage, current and power of fuel cell engine to meet the vehicle requirements. One of challenge in designing a boost converter for high power application is how to handle the high current at the input side. In this paper an interleaved boost dc-dc converter is proposed for current sharing on high power application. Moreover, this converter also reduces the fuel ripple current. Performance of the interleaved boost converter is tested through simulation and experimental results. Keywords: component; Interleaved Boost Converter; Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle; high power application.
High reliability DC/DC converter module for electronic boards equipped with FPGAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Beam Instrumentation Group at CERN is designing a new general-purpose VME carrier module utilising several PTH04T230W DC/DC converters. These off-the-shelf converters are built with unshielded inductors and need to be mounted on the printed circuit board as stand-alone components. Thus, reducing the global manageability and increasing the total cost of the carrier module. The new design aims to develop a module with better power dissipation, efficiency and reliability. In the future, it should be also possible to be directly integrated on the mainboard. For this reason, a Buck DC/DC converter has been implemented with the following main characteristics: input range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V; output range from 0.6 V to 3.3 V, settable by means of an external resistor; output current protection at 6 A; maximum output ripple ± 50 mVpp; switching frequency of 300KHz; short circuit protection; On/Off function; EMI reduction with frequency spread spectrum; soft-start function and thermal shutdown, in a 16 × 19 mm compact size. The selected buck controller is the TPS40303 integrated circuit and drives the CSD16321 power MOSFET, both from Texas Instruments. All selected components have been used at a minimum derating of 50% to reduce component stress and increase the reliability of this module. The selected inductors, i.e. Bourns SRP1055, are the main contributor for the high efficiency (95%), due to their very low equivalent series resistance. On the 4-layer PCB comprising all the components of this module, a snubber circuit, for further reduction of the output ripple due to the MOSFET ringing, can be mounted optionally. It is left as an option due to its effect on the total efficiency. The board layout has been optimized for maximum heat transfer and it can be used without active cooling. The board can maintain the maximum temperature on its surface, while at maximum current output, below 55°C at 25°C ambient temperature. An example of the electrical performance simulation, as well as the verification methodology and the test bench realised will be shown
High reliability DC/DC converter module for electronic boards equipped with FPGAs
Viganò, W.; Boccardi, A.; Zamantzas, C.
2015-01-01
The Beam Instrumentation Group at CERN is designing a new general-purpose VME carrier module utilising several PTH04T230W DC/DC converters. These off-the-shelf converters are built with unshielded inductors and need to be mounted on the printed circuit board as stand-alone components. Thus, reducing the global manageability and increasing the total cost of the carrier module. The new design aims to develop a module with better power dissipation, efficiency and reliability. In the future, it should be also possible to be directly integrated on the mainboard. For this reason, a Buck DC/DC converter has been implemented with the following main characteristics: input range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V; output range from 0.6 V to 3.3 V, settable by means of an external resistor; output current protection at 6 A; maximum output ripple ± 50 mVpp; switching frequency of 300KHz; short circuit protection; On/Off function; EMI reduction with frequency spread spectrum; soft-start function and thermal shutdown, in a 16 × 19 mm compact size. The selected buck controller is the TPS40303 integrated circuit and drives the CSD16321 power MOSFET, both from Texas Instruments. All selected components have been used at a minimum derating of 50% to reduce component stress and increase the reliability of this module. The selected inductors, i.e. Bourns SRP1055, are the main contributor for the high efficiency (95%), due to their very low equivalent series resistance. On the 4-layer PCB comprising all the components of this module, a snubber circuit, for further reduction of the output ripple due to the MOSFET ringing, can be mounted optionally. It is left as an option due to its effect on the total efficiency. The board layout has been optimized for maximum heat transfer and it can be used without active cooling. The board can maintain the maximum temperature on its surface, while at maximum current output, below 55°C at 25°C ambient temperature. An example of the electrical performance simulation, as well as the verification methodology and the test bench realised will be shown.
Design of A Bidirectional Dc-Dc Converter For Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV Using MATLAB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DHARAM DUTTA, SOUVIK GANGULI
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The design of a 60 kW bidirectional DC-DC converter is addressed in this paper. The paper also discusses the operation and role of dc-dc converter in Electric Vehicle (EV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV. Various circuits and their analysis are done to review the operation and design of converter. Results show that at 20Hz operation converter efficiency is better when ETD49 shape is used rather than EC70. However efficiencies are greater with ferrite materials rather than iron powder.
Design of the DC-DC power stage of the capacitor charger for MAXIDISCAP power converters
Cravero, Jean-Marc
2013-01-01
This technical report presents the design of the DC-DC power stage of the capacitor charger for MAXIDISCAP power converters. The power stage is based on a half bridge series resonant converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). This simple and robust topology allows obtaining a current source behavior with a low switching losses power stage. The associated control stage is implemented using a commercial controller which has differenti nternal circuits that allows a high integration of the converter control system. The report presents the design and tuning criteria for the DC-DC converter, including the power stage and the control system.
DC/DC Power Converter for Super-Capacitor Supplied by Electric Power Splitter
Haubert, T.; Mindl, P.
The aim of the article is design of DC/DC converter and discussing of problematic supply using electric power splitter. The electric power splitter with AC/DC converter is source for the DC/DC converter, which is dedicated for charging and discharging of hybrid car drive super-capacitor energy storage. The electric power splitter is synchronous machine with two rotating parts. First rotor contains permanent magnet and the second rotor contains three-phase windings. The amplitude of output voltage depends on difference between first and second rotor speed. The main role of the DC/DC converter is to optimize energy content in super-capacitor storage used to acceleration and deceleration driving period of the passenger car with hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive system using electric power splitter.
Elimination of output voltage oscillations in DC-DC converter using PWM with PI controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sreenivasappa Veeranna Bhupasandra
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the SIMULINK model of a PWM controlled DC-DC converter is modeled using switching function concept to control the speed of the DC motor. The presence of the voltage oscillation cycles due to higher switching frequency in the DC-DC converter is identified. The effect of these oscillations on the output voltage of the converter, Armature current, Developed torque and Speed of the DC motor is analyzed. In order to minimize the oscillation cycles the PI controller is proposed in the PWM controller.
Voltage Tracking of a DC-DC Flyback Converter Using Neural Network Control
Wahyu Mulyo Utomo; Sim Sy Yi; Yonis M.Y. Buswig; Afarul Abu Bakar; Md Zarafi Ahmad
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a neural network control scheme of a DC-DC Flyback converter that will step up a 12V DC and applied it on brushless DC motor with 12 and 24V dc. In this technique, a back propagation learning algorithm is derived. The controller is designed to track the output voltage of the DC-DC converter and to improve performance of the Flyback converter during transient operations. Furthermore, to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed controller, some operations such as starti...
Elimination of output voltage oscillations in DC-DC converter using PWM with PI controller
Sreenivasappa Veeranna Bhupasandra; Udaykumar Yaragatti
2010-01-01
In this paper the SIMULINK model of a PWM controlled DC-DC converter is modeled using switching function concept to control the speed of the DC motor. The presence of the voltage oscillation cycles due to higher switching frequency in the DC-DC converter is identified. The effect of these oscillations on the output voltage of the converter, Armature current, Developed torque and Speed of the DC motor is analyzed. In order to minimize the oscillation cycles the PI controller is proposed in the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhimanyu Kumar Yadav
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper two DC-DC converters connected in parallel with the purpose of load sharing by applying droop method is considered. This method requires no communication interconnection and compensates for converter parameter variations and imbalances in line impedance. The DC-DC converter input source can be any DC source such as photovoltaic module and wind turbine or fuel cell and it is a closed loop system. In this work proportional-integral (PI controller, will have their performance evaluated to control the paralleled converters connected to DC micro-grid. The PI controller is tuned by particle swarm optimization (PSO method. The designing of stable DC-DC converter with primary droop current-sharing control, the stability of the interconnected parallel DC-DC converter system was studied. When the cable resistance of the paralleled DC converters differs, the interconnected system might be unstable and due to this the uneven load sharing occurs. To resolve this issue to some extent without the use of communication lines, a novel technique is applied to parallel DC boost converter in order to optimize the large uneven current sharing. The parallel converter must provide an even load sharing and secondly redundancy. Simulation results are presented in the paper using Mat lab/Simulink to confirm the concept.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe
2014-01-01
Efficiency is one of the main concerns during the design phase of switch mode power supply. Planar magnetics based on PCB windings have the potential to reduce the magnetic manufacturing cost however, one of their main drawbacks comes from their low filling factor and high stray capacitance. This paper presents an analysis of different planar windings configurations focusing on dc and ac resistances in order to achieve highly efficiency in dc-dc converters. The analysis considers different copper thicknesses form 70 ?m up to 1500 ?m (extreme copper PCB) taking into account manufacturing complexity and challenges. The analysis is focused on a high current inductor for a dc-dc converter for fuel cell applications and it is based on FEM simulations. Analysis and results are verified on a 6 kW dc-dc isolated full bridge boost converter prototype based on fully planar magnetics achieving a peak efficiency of 97.8%.
Optimized photovoltaic generator-water electrolyser coupling through a controlled DC-DC converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Valverde, R.; Miguel, C.; Urbina, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Departamento de Electronica, Tecnologia de Computadoras y Proyectos, Plaza del Hospital, 1, Cartagena, 30203 Murcia (Spain); Martinez-Bejar, R. [Universidad de Murcia, Departamento de Ingenieria de la Informacion y las Comunicaciones, Facultad de Informatica, Campus de Espinardo, 30071 Murcia (Spain)
2008-10-15
The coupling of a photovoltaic generator and an electrolyser is one of the most promising options for obtaining hydrogen from a renewable energy source. Both are well known technologies, however, since the high variability of the solar radiation, an efficient coupling still presents some challenges. Direct or through a DC-DC converter couplings are the options in isolated applications. In this work, three models, respectively, for a photovoltaic (PV) generator, a controlled DC-DC converter and a complete proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyser have been designed by using Matlab/Simulink. A PV-electrolyser specific algorithm to search for the optimum and safe working point for both elements is presented. Simulation results demonstrate that the use of a controlled DC-DC converter with the proposed algorithm shows better adaptability to the variable radiation conditions than the other coupling options. Therefore, it leads to a better compliance between the electrolyser and the sizing of the PV generator. (author)
Controlling DC-DC converters by chaos-based pulse width modulation to reduce EMI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, periodic and chaotic behaviors of DC-DC converters under certain parametric conditions are simulated, experimentally verified, and analyzed. Motivated by the work of J.H.B. Deane and D.C. Hamill in 1996, where chaotic phenomena are useful in suppressing electromagnetic interference (EMI) by adjusting the parameters of the DC-DC converter and making it operate in chaos, a chaos-based pulse width modulation (CPWM) is proposed to distribute the harmonics of the DC-DC converters continuously and evenly over a wide frequency range, thereby reducing the EMI. The output waves and spectral properties of the EMI are simulated and analyzed as the carrier frequency or amplitude changes with regard to different chaotic maps. Simulation and experimental results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed CPWM, which provides a good example of applying chaos theory in engineering practice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a dc/dc boost power converter as a didactic prototype intended to support courses on electric circuit analysis experimentally. The corresponding mathematical model is obtained, the converter is designed and an experimental setup is described, constructed and tested. Simplicity of construction as well as low cost of components renders the feasible introduction of this equipment in undergraduate laboratories. (paper)
Silva-Ortigoza, R.; Silva-Ortigoza, G.; Hernández-Guzmán, V. M.; Saldaña-González, G.; Marcelino-Aranda, M.; Marciano-Melchor, M.
2012-05-01
We introduce a dc/dc boost power converter as a didactic prototype intended to support courses on electric circuit analysis experimentally. The corresponding mathematical model is obtained, the converter is designed and an experimental setup is described, constructed and tested. Simplicity of construction as well as low cost of components renders the feasible introduction of this equipment in undergraduate laboratories.
Three-port DC-DC converter with new integrated transformer for DC Distribution Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2014-01-01
A new integrated transformer for three-port dc-dc converter is proposed to overcome the power coupling effect existed in some known multiple inputs dc-dc converters. Orthogonal primary windings arrangement and in series connection of diagonal secondary Windings enables a fully power decoupling between the multiple inputs while the output power is still coupled with all inputs. The energy is accordingly allowed to deliver into the output load simultaneously or at any time-multiplexing scheme. 1-kW experimental prototypes have been built to demonstrate a well-managed power flow for photovoltaic (PV) and battery standalone system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper investigates the interest focused on employing parallel connected dc-dc converter with high tracking effectiveness under wide variation in environmental conditions (Insolation) and wide load variation. dc-dc converter is an essential part of the stand alone PV system. Paper also presents an approach on how duty cycle for maximum power position (MPP) is adjusted by taking care of varying load conditions and without iterative steps. Synchronized PWM pulses are employed for the converter. High tracking efficiency is achieved with continuous input and inductor current. In this approach, the converter can he utilized in buck as well in boost mode. The PV system simulation was verified and experimental results were in agreement to the presented scheme. (authors)
Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for SuperCapacitor Applications
Dehnavi, Sayed M. D.; Sen, Gökhan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Møller, Lars
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a new bidirectional DC/DC converter for supercapacitor applications. The proposed converter has a parallel structure in supercapacitor side (where voltage is low and current is high) and a series structure in the other side. This structure increases efficiency of the converter. For current sharing in the parallel side of the proposed converter, two different methods are recommended and compared in this paper: Current balancing transformer (CBT) and two...
A Family of Four Quadrant DC/DC Converters with Reduced Number of Components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mostaan, Ali; Soltani, Mohsen
2015-01-01
A family of four quadrant DC/DC converters is presented in this paper. Compare with existing four quadrant DC/DC converters that have been introduced in literature, the proposed converters have lower number of components. There are two bidirectional switches, two coupled inductors and one capacitor in proposed converters that can lead to lower cost and also smaller occupied space. The proposed converters are analyzed in detailed and their voltage gain is obtained. It is shown that to obtain high voltage gain, it is not necessary to increase the transformer turn ratio, therefore the leakage inductance effect is minimized in these converters. The effectiveness of the proposed converters is validated with simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Using Nyquist or Nyquist-Like Plot to Predict Three Typical Instabilities in DC-DC Converters
Fang, Chung-Chieh
2012-01-01
By transforming an exact stability condition, a new Nyquist-like plot is proposed to predict occurrences of three typical instabilities in DC-DC converters. The three instabilities are saddle-node bifurcation (coexistence of multiple solutions), period-doubling bifurcation (subharmonic oscillation), and Neimark bifurcation (quasi-periodic oscillation). In a single plot, it accurately predicts whether an instability occurs and what type the instability is. The plot is equivalent to the Nyquist plot, and it is a useful design tool to avoid these instabilities. Nine examples are used to illustrate the accuracy of this new plot to predict instabilities in the buck or boost converter with fixed or variable switching frequency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polenov, Dieter
2010-01-15
The paper discusses DC/DC converters for integration of double layer condensers into the onboard power system. First, requirements on DC/DC converters are listed and compared on the basis of three exemplary applications. A DC/DC converter concept is developed for decoupling transient high-power loads like electric steering systems. Three different topologies are compared using a specially developed method in order to find the best solution for the given application. In order to establish adequate criteria for selecting the switching frequency and inductivities of storage throttles, the influence of the trottle power change on the switching characteristics of the MOSFETs and on certain ranges of EMP interference emissions is investigated. As methods of optimising the operation of the synchronous rectifiers, parallel connection of Schottky diodes and synchronous rectifiers as well as the variation of the shut-off dead times of synchronous rectifiers were investigated. Further, a concept for converter control was developed in consideration of the intended application and topology. Finally, selected aspects for implementation of the DC/DC converter concept are presented as well as the results of experimental investigations.
DESIGN AND BUILDING OF MULTIPLE INPUT SINGLE OUTPUT DC - DC CONVERTER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaktidhar Mahapatra
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A multiple input DC - DC converter has been proposed in this paper to obtain power from several inpu t sources. The structure of the proposed Multiple Input Converter (MIC is simpler than the several available single input converters for each source. Due to the rapid depletion of the conventional energy the world is turning towards the renewable energy s ources because of their abundance and distribution throughout the earth. Thus using different inputs from renewable sources this MISO DC - DC converter is designed. To show continuous output , two 12V batteries are connected as input sources to give a common regulated output. LTspice software is used in the designing of the converter. Hardware implementation of the converter is also done. Results are obtained from both software and hardware.
Optimization with System Damping Restoration for Droop Controlled DC-DC Converters
Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos
2013-01-01
The parallel operation of dc-dc converters is widely used in distribution systems and uninterruptable power supply systems. Droop control along with virtual resistance (VR) is considered a simple and reliable method for achieving wireless power sharing among converters. In order to enhance the efficiency of the conversion system, this paper implements tertiary level optimization control on the basis of hierarchical control. As the efficiency of each converter changes with output power, VRs ar...
Ouyang, Ziwei; ZHANG, ZHE; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2011-01-01
In most power electronics converters, the overall volume is mainly determined by the number of parts and the size of passive components. Integrated magnetics and planar magnetics techniques therefore have been an excellent option in order to reduce the counts and the size of magnetic components, hereby increasing the power density of converters. In this paper, a new planar integrated magnetics (PIM) module for a phase-shift plus duty cycle controlled hybrid bi-directional dc-dc converter is p...
Planar integrated magnetics design in wide input range DC-DC converter for fuel cell application
Ouyang, Ziwei; ZHANG, ZHE; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Poulsen, Ole; Bjorklund, Thomas
2010-01-01
In the most power electronics converters, the overall volume is mainly determined by the number of parts and the size of passive components. Integrated magnetics and planar magnetics techniques therefore have been an excellent option in order to reduce the count and the size of magnetic components, hereby increasing the power density of converters. A new planar integrated magnetics (PIM) technique for a phase-shift plus duty cycle controlled hybrid bi-directional DC/DC converter is pres...
Multi-Level DC-DC Converter for High Gain Applications
Girish Ganesan R; Prabhakar, M.
2013-01-01
The output voltage from most renewable energy sources like photovoltaic arrays and fuel cells will be at low level. This must be stepped up considerably for practical utilization or grid connection. The presented multilevel boost converter DC-DC converter topology consists of the conventional boost converter and voltage doubler stages to provide high voltage gain. The proposed topology uses only one switch along with one inductor, (2N-1) diodes and (2N-1) capacitors for obtaining an output wh...
A DC-DC Converter with Wide Input Voltage Range for Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor Application
Zhe ZHANG; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a novel phase-shift plus duty cycle controlled hybrid bi-directional DC-DC converter based on fuel cells and supercapacitors. The described converter employs two high frequency transformers to couple the half-bridge and full-bridge circuits together in the primary side and voltage doubler circuit in secondary side. Boost type converter can limit the output ripple current of the fuel cells; hybrid full-bridge structure can change operating modes according to the differen...
This animation, created by faculty at Dartmouth University, is a discontinuous buck converter. The resource features other animations such as boost and discontinuous converters. They also add simple diode, bridge and half-wave rectifiers. Although simple in design, this can still be a useful resource for those interested in electrical engineering.
Soft Switched Multi-Output PWM DC-DC Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rashmi Sharma
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new soft switched cell that overcomes most of the drawbacks of the normal "hard switched-pulse width modulation" converter is proposed to contrive a new family of soft switched PWM converters. All of the semiconductor devices in this converter are turned on and off under exact or near zero voltage switching (ZVS and/or zero current switching (ZCS. No additional voltage and current stresses on the main switch and main diode occur. A push-pull converter equipped with the proposed snubber cell is analyzed in detail. The predicted operation principles and theoretical analysis of the presented converter are verified with a prototype of a 50W PWM push-pull multi-output converter with insulated MOSFET and for regulation of slave outputs magnetic amplifier post regulators are considered as post regulators. Moreover; this multioutput converter has a simple structure, low cost, and ease of control circuitry.
Differential Mode EMI Filter Design for Isolated DC-DC Boost Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Makda, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Nymand, Morten
2014-01-01
A Differential Mode EMI filter for a low input voltage high-current isolated dc-dc boost converter is designed and presented in this paper. The primary side Differential Mode noise voltage is low due to the high transformer turn ratio, however, the input current is very high and since the EMI limit also does not change for such converters, it requires greatly optimized design approach for the filter including the correct sizing of the filter components. A complete analytical filter design process is carried out such a way that the Differential Mode noise voltage source in the converter is identified first. The DM noise model is then established and based on the harmonic analysis of the noise source voltage waveform, the complete Differential Mode EMI filter, including the filter resonance damping branch, is designed for a 3kW isolated dc-dc boost converter. The noise model and its theoretical analysis is verified by means of experimental results.
Improvement of burst-mode control of piezoelectric transformer based DC/DC converter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burst-mode operation is adopted sometimes in piezoelectric transformer based converters for two major purposes: (1) to achieve voltage regulation in DC/DC converters and (2) to achieve dimming control in backlight inverters. Burst-mode control enables the converter to operate at a constant switching frequency as well as to maintain good efficiency at light load conditions. However, in practice, the piezoelectric transformer cannot instantly stop vibrating in the burst-mode due to its high quality factor. The delay in the output voltage change resulting from this behavior influences the accuracy of the regulation. This paper proposes a control strategy to make the piezoelectric transformer stop more quickly so as to enhance the accuracy of burst-mode control. The proposed method only modifies the control signal of the burst-mode driving circuit. The proposed control strategy is verified by experiments in a step-down 9 W DC/DC converter. (paper)
Symmetrical multilevel converters with two quadrant DC-DC feeding
Schibli, Nikolaus
2000-01-01
In the technology sector of power electronics and control, the multilevel converter technology is still a rather new research area, but the application possibilities in the field of power drives and energy will demand more solutions with this promising technology. In the future, more converter systems will be realized with the multilevel topology. Up to now, multilevel converters have only been used in very particular applications, mainly due to the high costs and complexity of the multilevel...
Soft Switched Multi-Output PWM DC-DC Converter
Rashmi Sharma
2013-01-01
In this paper, a new soft switched cell that overcomes most of the drawbacks of the normal "hard switched-pulse width modulation" converter is proposed to contrive a new family of soft switched PWM converters. All of the semiconductor devices in this converter are turned on and off under exact or near zero voltage switching (ZVS) and/or zero current switching (ZCS). No additional voltage and current stresses on the main switch and main diode occur. A push-pull converter equipped with the prop...
ZVZCS PWM DC-DC Converter with Energy Recovery Clamp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Ruscin
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents research motivated by industrial demand for special traction drive topology devoted tominimization of traction transformer weight against topology with classical 50Hz traction transformer. The special tractiondrive topology for AC power systems consists of input high voltage trolley converter (single phase matrix converter –middle frequency transformer – output converter - traction motor has been described. The main attention has been given tothe control algorithm of the traction topology (inserting of NULL vector of matrix converter and Two-value control ofsecondary active rectifier.
PWM-BASED SLIDING MODE CONTROL OF DC-DC BOOST CONVERTER
Swarada S. Muley; Ravindra M. Nagarale
2013-01-01
This paper explores brief idea of the Design and simulation of DC/DC Boost Converter using Pulse Width Modulation based Sliding Mode Controller operating in Continuous Conduction Mode is discussed. The performance and properties of Sliding Mode Controller is compared with conventional controllers Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller and Proportional Integral (PI) controller. The derived Controller/Converter system is feasible for step up purposes, as it is exposed to significant ...
Predictive Trailing-Edge Modulation Average Current Control in DC-DC Converters
LASCU, D.; Draghici, D.
2013-01-01
The paper investigates predictive digital average current control (PDACC) in dc/dc converters using trailing-edge modulation (TEM). The study is focused on the recurrence duty cycle equation and then stability analysis is performed. It is demonstrated that average current control using trailing-edge modulation is stable on the whole range of the duty cycle and thus design problems are highly reduced. The analysis is carried out in a general manner, independent of converter topology and th...
PWM-BASED SLIDING MODE CONTROL OF DC-DC BOOST CONVERTER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swarada S. Muley
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper explores brief idea of the Design and simulation of DC/DC Boost Converter using Pulse Width Modulation based Sliding Mode Controller operating in Continuous Conduction Mode is discussed. The performance and properties of Sliding Mode Controller is compared with conventional controllers Proportional Integral Derivative (PID controller and Proportional Integral (PI controller. The derived Controller/Converter system is feasible for step up purposes, as it is exposed to significant variations and input changes.
Adaptive Non-singular Terminal Sliding Mode Control for DC-DC Converters
Yu, Y.; Fan, L
2011-01-01
DC-DC converters have some inherent characteristics such as high nonlinearity and time-variation, which often result in some difficulties in designing control schemes. An adaptive non-singular terminal sliding mode control method is presented in this paper. Non-singular terminal sliding mode control is used to make the converter reach steady state within a limited time, and an adaptive law is integrated to the non-singular terminal sliding mode control scheme to make the proposed control me...
Parallel-Connected Solar Photovoltaic with Ultra Low Voltage DC/DC Converter
Zhiwen Yu; Da Xie; Junqi Feng
2013-01-01
In series-connected wiring scheme, the residual energy generated by partially shaded cells cannot be collected or, worse, impedes collection of power from the remaining fully illuminated cells. In this paper, a parallel-connected topology is introduced to PV panel. Each cell, connected to the dc bus paralleled with a special converter, is treated as a voltage source. The dc-dc converter is introduced to realize the method, which could work under an ultra-low-voltage (ULV). Efficiency comparis...
Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters
Kazimierczuk, Marian K
2008-01-01
This book studies switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) in great detail. This type of converter changes an unregulated DC voltage into a high-frequency pulse-width modulated (PWM) voltage controlled by varying the duty cycle, then changes the PWM AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage at a high efficiency by rectification and filtering. Used to supply electronic circuits, this converter saves energy and space in the overall system. With concept-orientated explanations, this book offers state-of-the-art SMPS technology and promotes an understanding of the principle operations of PWM converters,
Fuentes Rojas, Cristian Alejandro; Blanchot, G
2011-01-01
The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN sets new challenges for the powering of the detectors. One of the powering schemes under study is based on DC-DC buck converters mounted on the front-end modules. The hard environmental conditions impose strict restrictions to the converters in terms of low volume, radiation and magnetic field tolerance. Furthermore, the noise emission of the switching converters must not affect the performance of the powered systems. A study of the sources and paths of noise of a synchronous buck converter has been made for identifying the critical parameters to reduce their emissions. As proof of principle, a converter was designed following the PCB layout considerations proposed and then used for powering a silicon strip module prototype for the ATLAS upgrade, in order to evaluate their compatibility.
High Step Up Dc-Dc Converter For Non-Conventional Energy Source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Kuralanban
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The demand for non-isolated high step-up dc–dc converters in applications such as dc backup energy systems for UPS, photovoltaicand fuel cell systems, and hybrid electric vehicles has been gradually increasing. This project proposes a non-isolated step-up dc–dc converter with an improved switching method. The proposed converter shows zero-voltage switching turn-on of the switches in continuous conduction mode as well as reduced turnoff switching losses using resonant PWM.As a result of the proposed switching method, the switching losses associated with diode reverse recovery become negligible even in the small duty cycle. The capacitance in the auxiliary circuit is significantly reduced compared to the pulse width modulation method. The duty cycle loss is further reduced resulting in increased step-up ratio.The result of the project is implemented in Simulation using MATLAB Simulink Software.
Pulse Skipping Modulated DC-DC Converter Modeling and Simulation
Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; RANJAN Vanaja P
2010-01-01
Pulse Skipping Modulated converters havelow switching losses and are more efficient at lightloads than conventional PWM converters. A Buckconverter with Pulse Skipping Modulation controlwhereby pulses applied to the switch are blocked orreleased on output voltage crossing a predeterminedvalue is considered in this paper for applicationsinvolving sources with wide variations in voltage.Results of the study on the performance of regulatorcircuit are presented. The regulator workssatisfactorily ...
Isolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for SuperCapacitor Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dehnavi, Sayed M. D.; Sen, Gökhan
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a new bidirectional DC/DC converter for supercapacitor applications. The proposed converter has a parallel structure in supercapacitor side (where voltage is low and current is high) and a series structure in the other side. This structure increases efficiency of the converter. For current sharing in the parallel side of the proposed converter, two different methods are recommended and compared in this paper: Current balancing transformer (CBT) and two separate inductors (TSI). Simulation and experimental results show performance of the proposed converter.
Modeling the Bi-directional DC-DC Converter for HEV's
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chongwu Wang
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Hybrid Electrical Vehicles-HEV!?s are the importnt ways to improve vehicle performance. The transformer isolated bi-directional DC-DC converters are the key components of the traction system in HEV!?s. This paper presents adetail mathematic model of isolated bi-directional DC-DC converter for HEV!?s. Approximate models are important mathematic methods especially for analysis and closed-loop control design converter circuits. These differential equations, which govern the converter operation, change periodically among a set of linear differential equations because of the switch effect. Basing on the time-scale the state variables was separate as fast-scale and slow-scale variables. The fast changing variable of the leakage inductor was eliminated by substitute the fast-scale variable into slow-scale variable equations, resulting in reduced order differential equations. From this set of reduced orderdifferential equations the completely averaged model of the isolated DC/DC converter was derived. The simulated results reveal that the circuit and mathematical model are consistent very well. The averaged state variables can be treated as a small component plus a DC component, so the averaged model can be separated a dynamic small signal part and a DC part. This linearized small signal model is suit for control design and analysis at a steady point that is decided by the DC component. As an example a PI controller was design basing on the linear model.
A DC-DC Converter Efficiency Model for System Level Analysis in Ultra Low Power Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benton H. Calhoun
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a model of inductor based DC-DC converters that can be used to study the impact of power management techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS. System level power models of low power systems on chip (SoCs and power management strategies cannot be correctly established without accounting for the associated overhead related to the DC-DC converters that provide regulated power to the system. The proposed model accurately predicts the efficiency of inductor based DC-DC converters with varying topologies and control schemes across a range of output voltage and current loads. It also accounts for the energy and timing overhead associated with the change in the operating condition of the regulator. Since modern SoCs employ power management techniques that vary the voltage and current loads seen by the converter, accurate modeling of the impact on the converter efficiency becomes critical. We use this model to compute the overall cost of two power distribution strategies for a SoC with multiple voltage islands. The proposed model helps us to obtain the energy benefits of a power management technique and can also be used as a basis for comparison between power management techniques or as a tool for design space exploration early in a SoC design cycle.
Simulation and Implementation of Quasi Resonant DC-DC Converter
N. Devarajan; P. Parvathy
2012-01-01
Problem statement: A half-bridge LLC resonant converter with a voltage doubler rectifier has a simple structure and its Zero-Voltage-Switching (ZVS) capability is excellent from zero to full load condition. But conduction loss is more due to high circulating energy thus reducing the system efficiency. Moreover a variable frequency control method makes the control circuits more complicated than those using the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control method. Thus, DC drive has lower efficiency whe...
Optimization of Shielded PCB Air-Core Toroids for High-Efficiency DC-DC Converters
Orlandi, S; Buso, S; Michelis, S; Fuentes, C A; Kayal, M; Faccio, F; Spiazzi, G
2011-01-01
The paper describes the design of optimized printed circuit board (PCB) air-core toroids for high-frequency dc-dc converters with strict requirements in terms of volume and noise. The effect of several design parameters on the overall inductor volume, on dc and ac winding resistance, and on the radiated noise will be investigated. PCB toroids are compared to standard air-core solenoids and other state-of-the-art air-core toroids both theoretically and experimentally: at first, using ANSOFT Maxwell and ANSOFT Q3D simulation tools, and subsequently, with laboratory measurements (irradiated noise, efficiency, and frequency response) on several prototypes. These very flexible and rather easy to manufacture inductors appear very attractive for compact high-frequency dc-dc converters where high efficiency, low volume, and low noise are of primary concern.
A Nonlinear Digital Control Solution for a DC/DC Power Converter
Zhu, Minshao
2002-02-01
A digital Nonlinear Proportional-Integral-Derivative (NPID) control algorithm was proposed to control a 1-kW, PWM, DC/DC, switching power converter. The NPID methodology is introduced and a practical hardware control solution is obtained. The design of the controller was completed using Matlab (trademark) Simulink, while the hardware-in-the-loop testing was performed using both the dSPACE (trademark) rapid prototyping system, and a stand-alone Texas Instruments (trademark) Digital Signal Processor (DSP)-based system. The final Nonlinear digital control algorithm was implemented and tested using the ED408043-1 Westinghouse DC-DC switching power converter. The NPID test results are discussed and compared to the results of a standard Proportional-Integral (PI) controller.
Switched capacitor DC-DC converter ASICs for the upgraded LHC trackers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bochenek, M; Faccio, F; Michelis, S [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Dabrowski, W, E-mail: Michal.Bochenek@cern.ch [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. Mickiewicza 30 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
2010-12-15
The High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker puts demanding requirements on the powering system of the silicon strip detector modules due to 10-fold increase of the channel count compared to the existing SemiConductor Tracker. Therefore, new solutions for the powering scheme must be elaborated. Currently two possible approaches, the serial powering and the parallel powering scheme using the DC-DC conversion technique, are under development. This paper describes two switched capacitor DC-DC converters designed in a 130 nm technology. For the optimized step-down converter, foreseen for the parallel powering scheme, power efficiency of 97% has been achieved, while for the charge pump, designed for the serial powering scheme, power efficiency of 85% has been achieved.
Switched capacitor DC-DC converter ASICs for the upgraded LHC trackers
Bochenek, M; Faccio, F; Michelis, S; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12031
2010-01-01
The High Luminosity Upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker puts demanding requirements on the powering system of the silicon strip detector modules due to 10-fold increase of the channel count compared to the existing SemiConductor Tracker. Therefore, new solutions for the powering scheme must be elaborated. Currently two possible approaches, the serial powering and the parallel powering scheme using the DC-DC conversion technique, are under development. This paper describes two switched capacitor DC-DC converters designed in a 130 nm technology. For the optimized step-down converter, foreseen for the parallel powering scheme, power efficiency of 97% has been achieved, while for the charge pump, designed for the serial powering scheme, power efficiency of 85% has been achieved
A High Power Density DC-DC Converter for Distributed PV Architectures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agamy, Mohammed S; Chi, Song; Elasser, Ahmed; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Jiang, Yan; Mueller, Frank; Tao, Fengfeng
2012-06-01
In order to maximize solar energy harvesting capabilities, power converters have to be designed for high efficiency and good MPPT and voltage/current performance. When many converters are used in distributed systems, power density also becomes an important factor as it allows for simpler system integration. In this paper a high power density string dc-dc converter suitable for distributed medium to large scale PV installation is presented. A simple partial power processing topology, implemented with all silicon carbide devices provides high efficiency as well as high power density. A 3.5kW, 100kHz converter is designed and tested to verify the proposed methods.
Very High Frequency Resonant DC/DC Converters for LED Lighting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold
2013-01-01
This paper presents a very high frequency DC/DC converter for LED lighting. Several resonant topologies are compared and their usability discussed. At the end the resonant SEPIC converter is chosen based on the achievable power density and total bill of material. Simulations of a 51 MHz converter with 40 V input and 15 V output are made. The simulation shows possibility of achieving efficiency up to 87 % even with a HEXFET Power MOSFET. Three prototypes of the simulated converter are implemented showing good correlation with simulations. The prototypes have efficiencies up to 84 % and power densities up to 8.9 W/cm3 (146 W/in3).
DC-DC Converter Topology Assessment for Large Scale Distributed Photovoltaic Plant Architectures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agamy, Mohammed S; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan A; Steigerwald, Robert L; Jiang, Yan; Essakiappan, Somasundaram
2011-07-01
Distributed photovoltaic (PV) plant architectures are emerging as a replacement for the classical central inverter based systems. However, power converters of smaller ratings may have a negative impact on system efficiency, reliability and cost. Therefore, it is necessary to design converters with very high efficiency and simpler topologies in order not to offset the benefits gained by using distributed PV systems. In this paper an evaluation of the selection criteria for dc-dc converters for distributed PV systems is performed; this evaluation includes efficiency, simplicity of design, reliability and cost. Based on this evaluation, recommendations can be made as to which class of converters is best fit for this application.
Dynamic Modelling & Controller Design for Z-Source DC-DC Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shilpa Sarode
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the detailed mathematical modeling of Z-source dc-dc converter (ZSC in continuous conduction mode. Transfer function of ZSC is derived based on mathematical modeling with state space averaging method. This paper has been focused on dynamic modeling of open loop transfer function of ZSC along with design of closed loop controller. MATLAB based simulation results are presented for open loop and close loop system of ZSC.
Resonant Boost Dc-Dc Converter for a High Frequency Operation
Tejaswini R,
2013-01-01
With different versions of inverters available, a control of VHF resonant boost dc-dc converter is described in detailed in this paper. Though, a classical Class- ? inverter is well documented in the literature, this is a new version and coupled to resonant rectifier. The twin aspect of any design of resonant boost topology is to mainly feature low device voltage stress and to have high efficiency over wide range of loads. Increased switching frequency allows smaller size of the passive compo...
Hybrid Wiener-Hammerstein Structure for Grey-Box Modeling of DC-DC Converters
Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Prieto López, Roberto; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio; García Suárez, Oscar; Alou Cervera, Pedro
2009-01-01
In this work a generic hybrid model for dc-dc converters is proposed. The protections and remote control functions are managed by the logic system (event driven behaviour) and the power stage and control is modelled by a Wiener-Hammerstein structure. The model is oriented to be parameterized based on the information provided by manufacturers in their datasheet and it is able to predict power consumption, efficiency, system stability and large signal behaviour including inrush current, protect...
Uncertainty Analysis of the Conducted Interferences in a DC-DC Converter
Ferber De Vieira Lessa, Moises; Vollaire, Christian; Krähenbühl, Laurent; Vasconcelos, Joao,
2012-01-01
A new methodology to analyze systems in the time and frequency domain, containing large number of uncertain parameters, is presented. As an example, the conducted interferences of a DC-DC Converter with uncertainties in its component values is analyzed. The model has a large number of parameters, which are described by Probability Density Functions (PDF). The output considered is a standard measurement of conducted interferences and its PDF is rapidly determined, when compared to the Monte Ca...
A VHF Class E DC-DC Converter with Self-Oscillating Gate Driver
Andersen, Toke Meyer; Christensen, Søren K.; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2011-01-01
This paper describes the analysis and design of a DC-DC converter topology which is operational at frequencies in the Very High Frequency (VHF) band ranging from 30 MHz ? 300 MHz. The presented topology, which consists of a class E inverter, class E rectifier, and self-oscillating gate driver, is inherently resonant, and switching losses are greatly reduced by ensuring Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) of the power semiconductor devices. A design method to ensure ZVS operat...
Fuzzy Predictive Control of Step-Down DC-DC Converter Based on Hybrid System Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Sarailoo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a fuzzy predictive control scheme is proposed for controlling output voltage of a step-down DC-DC converter in presence of disturbance and uncertainty. The DC-DC converter is considered as a hybrid system and modeled by Mixed Logical Dynamical modeling approach. The main objective of the paper is to design a Fuzzy Predictive Control to achieve desired voltage output without increasing complexity of the hybrid model of DC-DC converter in various conditions. A model predictive control is designed based on the hybrid model and applied to the system. Although the performance of the model predictive control method is satisfactory in normal condition, it suffers from lack of robustness in presence of disturbance and uncertainty. So, to succeed in facing up to the problem a fuzzy supervisor is utilized to adjust the main predictive controller based on the measured states of the system. In this paper it is shown that the proposed fuzzy predictive control scheme has advantages such as simplicity and efficiency in normal operation and robustness in presence of disturbance and uncertainty. Through simulations effectiveness of the proposed method is shown.
Design and Implementation of Digital Current Mode Controller for DC-DC Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taeed, Fazel
2015-01-01
In the recent decades, shortage of fossil fuels and global warming have increased the demand for renewable energy resources. Dc-dc converters are widely used in renewable energy systems, electric vehicles, and battery chargers. In practical applications, dc-dc converters are required to be regulated by a closed-loop controller. The Peak Current Mode Control (PCMC) is one of the most promising control methods for dc-dc converters. It has been known for high bandwidth (speed), and inherent current protection. Increasing the controller bandwidth decreases the output filter size and cost. Analog controllers (including PCMC) are sensitive to temperature drift, component aging and noise. Digital controllers do not have the aforementioned drawbacks of analog controllers; but they have lower bandwidth than analog controllers due to the sampling and calculation delays. Generally, analog controllers have a bandwidth of 1/10 of the switching frequency. In the current state-of-the-art, the best reported digital PCMC hascrossover frequency of 1/15 of the switching frequency. In this PhD study a novel digital PCMC with negligible delay in the inner current loop has been proposed. The proposed solution has a bandwidth of 1/10 of the switching frequency; which is an improvement of 50% compared to the best reported digital solution, also the achieved crossover frequency is nearly equal to analog controller crossover frequency. Furthermore, the proposed solution offers an adaptive compensation slope; therefore the controlled converter can maintain a high bandwidth over wide range of the operating points. The proposed digital PCMC is modeled and the stability criteria are defined. The digital PCMC is implemented in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The experimental results verify the modeling method and the high predicted bandwidth of the proposed controller. Additionally, the small signal model of the isolated full-bridge boost converter is obtained and the modeling method is verified by experimental results. In modeling, the Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) of the inductor and capacitor are also included. Analyzing the obtained model reveals that the small values of capacitor and inductor ESR results in a large resonance peak of complex poles in the voltage to duty cycle transfer function. High efficiency dc-dc converters essentially have low ESR in the capacitor and the inductor. Since the complex poles are eliminated in current mode control; applying the current mode control in high efficiency dc-dc converters results in much higher controller bandwidth.
SOFT-SWITCHED HIGH STEP-UP DC-DC CONVERTER WITH HIGH VOLTAGE GAIN
J.C. Paul Immanuel; D. Anitha
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new design of soft switched high step-up dc-dc converter with high voltage gain which is suitable for high power applications such as Uninterruptible Power System (UPS), Photo Voltaic system and hybrid electric vehicles. The emergence of this front-end converter is to improve the shape of active input current given to the system. This converter proposes Soft-Switching technique to achieve ZVS turn on of active switches and ZCS turn off of diodes using Lr - Cr resonance i...
A DC-DC Conversion Powering Scheme for the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Upgrade
Feld, Lutz Werner; Marcel Friedrichs; Richard Hensch; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Sammet, Jan Domenik; Wlochal, Michael
2012-01-01
The powering scheme of the CMS pixel detector will be described, and the performance of prototype DC-DC buck converters will be presented, including power efficiency, system tests with DC-DC converters and pixel modules, thermal management, reliability at low temperature, and studies of potential frequency locking betwe...
Viejo de Frutos, Miriam del; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; García Suárez, Oscar; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2010-01-01
High switching frequency allows the integration of low power DC/DC converters. Although a high switching frequency would make feasible a voltage mode control with 1MHz bandwidth, parasitic effects and robustness don’t allow such a high bandwidth. This paper proposes a fast control to optimize the dynamic response of high frequency DC/DC converters. The proposed control is based on the peak current mode control of the output capacitor current. The output capacitor current loop provides...
Transformerless DC-DC Converter Using Cockcroft-Walton Voltage Multiplier to Obtain High DC Voltage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meghana G Naik,
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In the present scenario the use of transformer for high voltages in converter circuit reduces the overall operating efficiency due to leakage inductance and use of transformer also increases the operational cost. . Therefore the proposed system is implemented with transformer less DC-DC converter so as to obtain high DC voltage with the use of nine stage Cockcroft-Walton (CW voltage multiplier. The proposed converter operates in CCM (continuous conduction mode, so that the converter switch stress, the switching losses are reduced. The DC voltage at the input of the proposed model is low and is boosted up by boost inductor (Ls in DC-DC converter stage and performs inverter operation. The number of stages in CW-voltage multiplier circuit is applied with low input pulsating DC (AC Voltage voltage where it is getting converted to high DC output voltage. The proposed converter switches operates at two independent frequencies, modulating (fsm andalternating (fsc frequency. The fsm operates at higher frequency of the output while the fsc operates at lower frequency of the desired output voltage ripple and the output ripples can be adjusted by the switch Sc1 and Sc2. The regulation of the output voltage is achieved by controlling the Duty ratio.The simulation is carried over by the MATLABSIMULINK.
An Effective High Step-Up Interleaved DC-DC Converter Photovoltaic Grid Connection System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Lakpathi,
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Within the photovoltaic (PV power generation systems in the market, the ac PV module has shown obvious growth. However, a high voltage gain converter is concentrate for the module’s grid connection with dc-ac inverter. This paper proposed a converter that employs a floating active switch to isolate energy from the PV panel when the ac module is OFF; this particular design protects installers and users from electrical hazards. Without extreme duty ratios and numerous turns-ratio of a coupled inductor, this converter achieves a high step-up voltage-conversion ratio; the leakage inductor energy of the coupled inductor is efficiently recycled to the load. These features explain about module’s high-efficiency performance. The detailed operating principles and steady-state analyses of continuous mode is described. A 15 volts produces from photovoltaic which is connects to high step-up dc-dc converter to produces output voltage of 170 volts. The novel proposed system is “an effective high step up interleaved dc-dc converter photovoltaic grid connection system”. In this configuration consists of PV array, high step-up interleaved dc-dc converter and three-phase inverter with grid connected system. In this system, the THD value per phase voltage of three phase inverter output without filter is 1.74% with grid connection system. In this same configuration with 2nd order filter connected of three phase inverter output, the THD value reduced to 0.08%. The results are shown in Matlab/simulink 2009a.
Magnetically coupled high-gain Y-source isolated DC/DC converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siwakoti, Yam P.; Loh, Poh Chiang
2014-01-01
A new form of magnetically coupled DC/DC converter is proposed for medium power applications (250 W to 2 kW), requiring a high-voltage gain, short inductive charging time and galvanic isolation. The proposed converter can be realised using a unique Y-source impedance network and a two-switch push-pull circuit with voltage-doubling rectification. The converter's voltage gain is presently not matched by any other converter operating at the same switch duty ratio. The converter also has more degrees of freedom in design for setting the desired gain than other converters, and hence can better meet the demands of many applications. The operating principles of the converter have been analysed mathematically, and are verified by both simulation and experiment.
Transistor Selection and Design of a VHF DC-DC Power Converter
Warren, James R.; Rosowski, Kathryn Anne; Perreault, David J.
2007-01-01
This paper explores the design and performance of dc-dc power converters operating in the very high frequency (VHF, 30-300 MHz) range. Methods are presented for assessment and comparison of device losses in VHF operation under soft switching and soft gating conditions. These methods are applied to the development of a 2 W resonant boost converter operating at a switching frequency of 30 MHz. Design of the power stage, resonant gate drive, and control circuitry are treated in detail, and exper...
Interleaved Self-Oscillating Class E Derived Resonant DC/DC Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kovacevic, Milovan; Knott, Arnold
2012-01-01
A new method for achieving self-oscillating, self-interleaved operation of class E derived resonant DC/DC converters is presented. The proposed method is suitable for operation at frequencies in the Very High Frequency (VHF) band. Interleaved and self-oscillating modes of operation are achieved at the same time with very small number of additional passive components in the interconnection network. To verify the proposed technique, a 110MHz prototype resonant boost converter was designed; experimental results and comparison with SPICE simulation are presented. Peak measured efficiency was 89% in continuous operation.
Light weight, high power, high voltage dc/dc converter technologies
Kraus, Robert; Myers, Ira; Baumann, Eric
1990-01-01
Power-conditioning weight reductions by orders of magnitude will be required to enable the megawatt-power-level space systems envisioned by the Strategic Defense Initiative, the Air Force, and NASA. An interagency program has been initiated to develop an 0.1-kg/kW dc/dc converter technology base for these future space applications. Three contractors are in the first phase of a competitive program to develop a megawatt dc/dc converter. Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center are investigating innovative converter topology control. Three different converter subsystems based on square wave, resonant, and super-resonant topologies are being designed. The components required for the converter designs cover a wide array of technologies. Two different switches, one semiconductor and the other gas, are under development. Issues related to thermal management and material reliability for inductors, transformers, and capacitors are being investigated in order to maximize power density. A brief description of each of the concepts proposed to meet the goals of this program is presented.
A Four-Phase High Voltage Conversion Ratio Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Battery Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Kun Xue
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This study presents a four-phase interleaved high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converter circuit based on coupled inductors and switched capacitors, which can eliminate the defects of conventional high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converters in terms of high-voltage/current stress, less efficiency and low-power limitation. Parallel channels are used to reduce current stress at the low-voltage side and series connected switched capacitors are used to enlarge voltage conversion ratio, reduce voltage stress and achieve auto current sharing. This paper proposes the operation principle, feature analysis and optimization design considerations. On this basis the objectives of high voltage conversion ratio, low voltage/current stress, high power density, high efficiency and high-power applications can be achieved. Some experimental results based on a 500 W prototype converter (24 V to 48 V at low-voltage side, 400 V at high-voltage side are given to verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed converter.
COMPARISON OF PID TUNING TECHNIQUES FOR CLOSED LOOP CONTROLLER OF DC-DC BOOST CONVERTER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Apekshit Bhowate
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The capability of PID controller to withstand practical industrial problems has led to its inclusive acceptance in industries and academics. It has been observed that PID controller tuning is quite difficult by classical methods using graphs and mathematical analysis. In this paper, PID theory is briefly summarized and some standard tuning methods are discussed using MATLAB. Accordingly compensator transfer function is derived by different methods and compared based on the steady state response and system characteristics. This effort inspects which method is best for conventional DC-DC boost converter.
Comparison of two different high performance mixed signal controllers for DC/DC converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Lars TØnnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2006-01-01
This paper describes how mixed signal controllers combining a cheap microcontroller with a simple analogue circuit can offer high performance digital control for DC/DC converters. Mixed signal controllers have the same versatility and performance as DSP based controllers. It is important to have an engineer experienced in microcontroller programming write the software algorithms to achieve optimal performance. Two mixed signal controller designs based on the same 8-bit microcontroller are compared both theoretically and experimentally. A 16-bit PID compensator with a sampling frequency of 200 kHz implemented in the 16 MIPS, 8-bit ATTiny26 microcontroller is demonstrated.
The PEM Fuel Cell System with DC/DC Boost Converter: Design, Modeling and Simulation
Kirubakaran, A.; Jain, Shailendra; R. K. Nema
2010-01-01
The fuel cells are considered as one of the most promising devices for standalone/grid connected distributed generations (DGs) due to its cleanliness, modularity and higher potential capability. The barriers in the widespread use of fuel cells are their slow response for sudden load changes and higher installation cost. In this paper a simulation study of dynamic behavior of NexaTM 1.2kW PEM fuel cell with DC/DC boost converter is carried out for compact design of PCU. The necessity for the r...
Four Quadrants Integrated Transformers for Dual-input Isolated DC-DC Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ouyang, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhe
2012-01-01
A common limitation of power coupling effect in some known multiple-input dc-dc converters has been addressed in many literatures. In order to overcome this limitation, a new concept for decoupling the primary windings in the integrated multiple-winding transformers based on 3-dimensional (3D) space orthogonal flux is proposed in this letter. And thus a new geometry core and relative winding arrangements are proposed in accordance with the orthogonal flux decoupling technology. Due to the four secondary windings are arranged in a quadratic pattern at the base core plate with the two perpendicular primary windings, a name of “four quadrants integrated transformers” (FQIT) is therefore given to the proposed construction. Since the two primary windings are uncoupled, the FQIT allows the two input power stages to transfer the energy into the output load simultaneously or at any timemultiplexing scheme, which can optimize the utilization of input sources, simplify the system structure and reduce the overall cost, so they are attractive for the hybrid renewable power system. Section IV initiates a discussion for the advantages of the FQIT. In order to verify the feasibility of the FQIT in multiple-input converter, a dualinput isolated boost dc-dc converter with the FQIT is designed and tested. The results have excellently demonstrated that the two input power stages can be operated independently and the correctness of all the analysis in the letter.
Y-Source Boost DC/DC Converter for Distributed Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siwakoti, Yam P.; Loh, Poh Chiang
2015-01-01
This paper introduces a versatile Y-source boost dc/dc converter intended for distributed power generation, where high gain is often demanded. The proposed converter uses a Y-source impedance network realized with a tightly coupled three-winding inductor for high voltage boosting that is presently unmatched by existing impedance networks. The proposed converter also has more variables for tuning the required gain and, hence, more degrees of freedom for meeting design constraints. These capabilities have been demonstrated by mathematical derivation and experimental testing. For the experiments, a 300-W prototype has been built in the laboratory using silicon carbide devices for better efficiency. The prototype has been tested with a regulated power supply, before operating it with a high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell. Results obtained confirm the practicality and performance of the proposed converter.
A DC-DC Converter with Wide Input Voltage Range for Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor Application
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a novel phase-shift plus duty cycle controlled hybrid bi-directional DC-DC converter based on fuel cells and supercapacitors. The described converter employs two high frequency transformers to couple the half-bridge and full-bridge circuits together in the primary side and voltage doubler circuit in secondary side. Boost type converter can limit the output ripple current of the fuel cells; hybrid full-bridge structure can change operating modes according to the different input voltage; phase-shift with duty cycle control scheme is utilized to control the bidirectional power flow flexibly. All the switches can turn on under zero-voltage-switching condition (ZVS). The operating principles of the converter are described in details, and the experimental results based on the prototype controlled by DSP are presented to verify the validity of the analysis and design.
A Cascaded Quasi Z-Source Scheme Step up DC-DC Converter Using ANN Based Control.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.Praburaja
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Modern renewable generation systems need smart and integrated power converters ensure for high efficiency of power conversion .This project intends to the Artificial Neural Network (ANN based control step up DC-DC converter family with a cascaded Quasi Z-source network (qZS-scheme.The cascaded (two-stage qZS- network could be derived by the adding of one diode, one inductor, and two capacitors to the traditional single stage quasi-Z-source inverter (qZSI. The proposed cascaded qZSI giving as same all the advantages of the traditional solution (voltage boost and buck functions in a single stage, continuous input current ,and improved reliability.As compared to the conventional qZSI, the proposed solution reduces the shoot-through duty cycle at the same voltage boost factor ,and without adding additional switches. The ANN based controller ensuring the better result compare to the conventional PI controller .The two-stage qZSI in the shoot-through and non-shoot-through operating modes are described. The proposed and conventional closed loop results are compared.
A new DC-DC converter technology suitable to support grid connection of wave power energy converter
Back, Erik
2012-01-01
Since 2002, the department of electricity at Uppsala university has pushed the Lysekil project. The project has a number of wave energy converters installed in the sea southwest of Lysekil. The purpose of this work is to design, build and test a DC-DC converter, which will later be used as a necessary part of the grid connection of a wave energy converter. Since a wave energy converter does not generate electricity at a constant frequency, it is not possible to use a gearbox. Instead, power i...
A Stable Control Strategy for Input-Series Output-Series Connected Boost half Bridge DC-DC Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahnawaz Farhan Khahro
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Boost half bridge DC-DC converters in the combination of an input-series and output-series (ISOS connected configuration with a stable control strategy has been investigated in this paper. A stable control strategy comprises of two loops that are current loop and voltage loop. The reference to the current loop has been chosen from the input side of the DC-DC converter. The reference to the voltage loop has been selected from the output side of the DC-DC converter. Such a reference makes the circuit configuration simple, easy and eventually results in reduced cost. The control strategy for input-series output-series (ISOS configuration of DC-DC converters is proposed to achieve equal input voltage sharing (IVS as well output voltage sharing (OVS. Furthermore, in this paper, the performance of the stable control strategy for input-series output-series (ISOS boost half bridge DC-DC converter has been observed not only for the fixed but also for the varying and continuously varying load. The proposed Stable control scheme has been developed by modeling it on MATLAB using Simulink and Simpower toolboxes. The operation of the proposed stable control strategy has been found to be satisfactory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe
2013-01-01
This paper presents driving circuit for a recently invented dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) incremental actuator. The basic operation of such an actuator is bioinspired from the movement of an inchworm. The actuator consists of three electrically isolated, and mechanically connected capacitive sub-actuators. It needs to be driven by three high voltage (~2.5 kV) DC-DC converters, to achieve the linear incremental motion. The topology used for this application is a bi-directional flyback DC-DC converter. The control of the incremental actuator involves, implementation of digital controller used for controlling charge and discharge sequences of the individual sub-actuators, and monitoring and adjustment of the output voltages of three high voltage DC-DC converters to provide over-voltage protection capability. Three power stages of the proposed converter were experimentally tested. The experimental results and efficiency measurements are shown.
Time delay control for fuel cells with bidirectional DC/DC converter and battery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Y.B. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea); Kang, S.J. [Mechatronics Engineering Department, Korea Polytechnic College V, Gwangju (Korea)
2010-08-15
Transient behavior is a key property in the vehicular application of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. A better control technology is constructed to increase the transient performance of PEM fuel cells. A steady-state isothermal analytical fuel cell model is constructed to analyze mass transfer and water transport in the membrane. To prevent the starvation of air in the PEM fuel cell, time delay control is used to regulate the optimum stoichiometric amount of oxygen, although dynamic fluctuations exist in the PEM fuel cell power. A bidirectional DC/DC converter connects the battery to the DC link to manage the power distribution between the fuel cell and the battery. Dynamic evolution control (DEC) allows for adequate pulse-width modulation (PWM) control of the bidirectional DC/DC converter with fast response. Matlab/Simulink/Simpower simulation is performed to validate the proposed methodology, increase the transient performance of the PEM fuel cell system and satisfy the requirement of energy management. (author)
Isolated Bidirectional Full-Bridge DC–DC Converter with a Flyback Snubber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chitanya
2013-05-01
Full Text Available An isolated bidirectional full-bridge dc–dc converter with high conversion ratio, high output power, and soft start-up capability is proposed in this paper. The use of a capacitor, a diode, and a flyback converter can clamp the voltage spike caused by the current difference between the current-fed inductor and leakage inductance of the isolation transformer, and can reduce the current flowing through the active switches at the current-fed side. Operational principle of the proposed converter is first described, and then, the design equation is derived. A 1.5-kW prototype with low-side voltage of 48 V and high-side voltage of 360 V has been implemented, from which experimental results have verified its feasibility.
Design of a total-dose radiation hardened monolithic CMOS DC-DC boost converter
Zhi, Liu; Hongying, Ning; Hongbo, Yu; Youbao, Liu
2011-07-01
This paper presents the design and implementation of a monolithic CMOS DC-DC boost converter that is hardened for total dose radiation. In order to improve its radiation tolerant abilities, circuit-level and device-level RHBD (radiation-hardening by design) techniques were employed. Adaptive slope compensation was used to improve the inherent instability. The H-gate MOS transistors, annular gate MOS transistors and guard rings were applied to reduce the impact of total ionizing dose. A boost converter was fabricated by a standard commercial 0.35 ?m CMOS process. The hardened design converter can work properly in a wide range of total dose radiation environments, with increasing total dose radiation. The efficiency is not as strongly affected by the total dose radiation and so does the leakage performance.
A high voltage gain quasi Z-source isolated DC/DC converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siwakoti, Yam P.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
A compact quasi-Z-source DC/DC converter is presented with high voltage gain, isolated output, and improved efficiency. The improvements in size and performance were achieved by using a square wave inverter with only two output switches driving an isolating transformer in push-pull mode, followed by a voltage doubling output rectifier. The converter is well-suited to applications requiring a high voltage gain, especially renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic and fuel-cell power supplies. To demonstrate the converter's performance a prototype designed to output 400 V at 500 W was constructed and tested. The efficiency at full load varied from 89.0% to 97.4% as the input voltage changed from 44 V to 82 V.
Parallel-Connected Solar Photovoltaic with Ultra Low Voltage DC/DC Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiwen Yu
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In series-connected wiring scheme, the residual energy generated by partially shaded cells cannot be collected or, worse, impedes collection of power from the remaining fully illuminated cells. In this paper, a parallel-connected topology is introduced to PV panel. Each cell, connected to the dc bus paralleled with a special converter, is treated as a voltage source. The dc-dc converter is introduced to realize the method, which could work under an ultra-low-voltage (ULV. Efficiency comparison is discussed with a valid calculation. Experiments about the converter, PV cell and the parallel-connected panel are given. The results show that the novel system has a good working characteristic and the efficiency is higher than that of the conventional.
Design of a total-dose radiation hardened monolithic CMOS DC-DC boost converter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the design and implementation of a monolithic CMOS DC-DC boost converter that is hardened for total dose radiation. In order to improve its radiation tolerant abilities, circuit-level and device-level RHBD (radiation-hardening by design) techniques were employed. Adaptive slope compensation was used to improve the inherent instability. The H-gate MOS transistors, annular gate MOS transistors and guard rings were applied to reduce the impact of total ionizing dose. A boost converter was fabricated by a standard commercial 0.35 ?m CMOS process. The hardened design converter can work properly in a wide range of total dose radiation environments, with increasing total dose radiation. The efficiency is not as strongly affected by the total dose radiation and so does the leakage performance. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Fredy Hernán, Martínez Sarmiento; Mariela, Castiblanco Ortíz.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available El control de convertidores DC/DC, topologías utilizadas ampliamente en la reducción activa de contenido armónico para equipo monofásico no lineal de baja potencia, plantea grandes retos de diseño debido a lo complejo del modelo matemático y su característica dinámica altamente no lineal. Técnicas d [...] e inteligencia artificial como las redes neuronales, suponen grandes mejoras en el diseño y desempeño final, dada su capacidad de aprender dinámicas complejas y generalizar su comportamiento. La motivación de este trabajo fue la de plantear (y posteriormente evaluar la respuesta dinámica) un lazo de control directo con redes neuronales, que permitiera adicionalmente eliminar elementos de prueba y error en su diseño. Se propone un control directo basado en red neuronal artificial, cuyo diseño se realizó de forma óptima utilizando modelos de búsqueda bioinspirada, esto para optimizar simultáneamente dos aspectos diferentes pero fundamentales de la red: la arquitectura y los pesos de las conexiones. El control es aplicado a un convertidor boost. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar el desempeño dinámico del esquema, para el cual los tiempos de respuesta y los delta de voltaje en la salida permiten concluir que los criterios seleccionados para el diseño del control son apropiados y representan un aporte en el desarrollo de aplicaciones de control de sistemas conmutados DC/DC. Abstract in english Controlling DC/DC converters (topologies widely used in the active reduction of harmonic content for singlephase nonlinear low power equipment) raises great design challenges due to the mathematical model's complexity and its highly nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Artificial intelligence techniqu [...] es, such as neuronal networks, suppose great improvements in design and final performance, given their capacity for learning complex dynamics and generalising their behaviour. This work was aimed at proposing (and evaluating dynamic response later on) direct control link with neuronal networks which also allowed eliminating test elements and error in its design. Artificial neuronal networkbased direct control was designed as well as possible using bioinspired search models. This simultaneously optimised two different but fundamental aspects of the network: architecture and the weight of the connections. The control was applied to a boost converter. The results led to observing the scheme's dynamic performance; response time and exit voltage delta led to concluding that the criteria selected for designing the control were appropriate and represented a contribution towards developing control applications of DC/DC switchmode systems.
Design and Simulation of a soft switching scheme for a dc-dc Boost Converter with pi controller
X.Felix Joseph; S.Pushpa Kumar; D.Arun Dominic; D.M. Mary Synthia Regis Prabha
2010-01-01
This paper presents the design of simple but powerful soft switching scheme for a DC-DC Boost Converter with a closed loop control. A new novel soft switching scheme is proposed with a single switch and minimum components which offers load independent operations. The only switch used in this converter is switched ON at zero current and switched OFF at zero voltage .The proposed Controller is used to improve the dynamic performance of DC-DC converter by achieving a robust output voltage agains...
Modeling and Simulation of Sensorless Speed Control of a Buck Converter Controlled Dc Motor
Tagreed M. Ali; Bassim M. H. Jassim
2010-01-01
This paper investigate a sensorless speed control of a separately excited dc motor fed from a buck type dc-dc converter. The control system is designed in digital technique by using a two dimension look-up table. The performance of the drive system was evaluated by digital simulation using Simulink toolbox of Matlab.
Multistability and Torus Reconstruction in a DC–DC Converter With Multilevel Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik
2013-01-01
By virtue of their limited size and relatively low costs, multilevel dc-dc converters have come to play an important role in modern industrial power supply systems. When operating in a regime of high corrector gain, such converters can display a variety of new dynamic phenomena associated with the appearance of additional oscillatory modes. Starting in a state where four pairs of stable and unstable period-6 cycles coexist with the basic period-1 cycle, the paper describes a sequence of smooth and nonsmooth bifurcations through which the cycles and their basins of attraction transform as the output voltage is increased. The paper also describes the birth of a multilayered resonance torus through a transverse pitchfork bifurcation of the saddle cycle on an ordinary resonance torus.
Conventional control and fuzzy control of a dc-dc converter for machine drive
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radoi, C.; Florescu, A. [Department of Power Electronics `Politecnica` University Bucharest (Romania)
1997-12-31
Fuzzy logic or fuzzy set theory is recently getting increasing emphasis in process control applications. The paper describes an application of fuzzy logic in speed control system that uses a dc-dc converter. The fuzzy control is used to linearize the family of external characteristics of the converter in discontinuous-conduction mode occurring at light load and/or high speed. In order to compare the conventional control with the fuzzy logic control, algorithms have been developed in detail and verified by Microsoft Excel simulation. The simulation study indicates that fuzzy control is a good alternative for conventional control methods, being used particularly in non-linear complex systems ill defined or totally unknown. Where the mathematical model exists, it is useful. The applications of fuzzy set theory in power electronics are almost entirely new; fuzzy logic seems to have a lot of premises in the large industrial control field. (orig.) 2 refs.
SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter
Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.
A 10 kW dc-dc converter using IGBTs with active snubbers. [Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
Masserant, Brian J.; Shriver, Jeffrey L.; Stuart, Thomas A.
1993-01-01
This full bridge dc-dc converter employs zero voltage switching (ZVS) on one leg and zero current switching (ZCS) on the other. This technique produces exceptionally low IGBT switching losses through the use of an active snubber that recycles energy back to the source. Experimental results are presented for a 10 kW, 20 kHz converter.
Control and Analysis of Synchronous Rectifier Buck Converter for ZVS in Light Load Condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NIMMY JOSEPH
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to improve the efficiency of a dc-dc buck converter. It enables a synchronous rectifier buck converter to realize zero voltage switching in light load condition. The replacement of output rectifier diode by MOSFET can minimize conduction losses and increase the efficiency of the circuit. The control technique introduced in this paper enables a SR buck converter to carry out ZVS in light load condition to increase efficiency. No extra auxiliary switches or RLC passive components are required. It is of low cost and easy to control.
Two-Phase Interleaved Buck Converter with a new Digital Self-Oscillating Modulkator
Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new Digital Self-Oscillating Modulator (DiSOM) for DC/DC converters. The DiSOM modulator alllows the digital control algorithm to sample the output voltage at a sampling frequency higher than the converter switching frequency. This enables higher control loop bandwidth than for traditional digital PWM modulators given a certain switching frequency. A synchronised version of the DiSOM modulator is derived for interleaved converters. A prototype interleaved Buck convert...
DC-DC converters for the upgrades of the CMS tracker
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the present decade, it is foreseen to gradually increase the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC to 1-2.1034 cm-2s-1. Around 2020, it is intended to increase the luminosity further, to about 5.1034 cm-2s-1. To ensure and improve its physics performance, CMS is going to exchange its pixel detector around 2016. Four years later the complete tracker is going to be replaced by a new development. The use of DC-DC converters is foreseen for both of these upgrades. Radiation tolerant converters developed by working groups at CERN and Aachen match the requirements of the new pixel detector already. However, further work is required to integrate the converters on system level and to ensure their save and reliable operation. The status of this work is presented. Building a new tracking detector equipped with converters, raises several additional challenges. In particular the noise performance of the converters and their efficiency at large conversion ratios still has to be improved. The coil, used by the converters to buffer energy, has a significant impact on both of these issues. Effort has been put into the optimization of converter coils, as well as into the exploration and minimization of noise radiated by the coils. The talk gives a summary of the results of this work.
Closed loop control of ZVS half bridge DC-DC converter with DCS PWM Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JANAPATI SIVAVARA PRASAD
2012-10-01
Full Text Available
The main drawback of the conventional symmetric control is that both primary switches in the converter operate at hard switching condition. Moreover, during the off-time period of two switches, the oscillation between the transformer leakage inductance and junction capacitance of the switches results in energy dissipation and electromagnetic interference (EMI emissions due to reverse recovery of MOSFETs body diodes. The asymmetric (complementary control was proposed to achieve ZVS operation for HB switches. However, asymmetric stresses distribution on the corresponding components may occur due to the asymmetric duty cycle distribution for the two primary switches. A new control scheme, to be known as duty-cycle shifted PWM (DCS PWM control, is proposed and applied to the conventional HB dc–dc converters to achieve ZVS for both the switches without adding extra components and without adding asymmetric penalties of the complementary control. The concept of this new control scheme is shifting one of the two symmetric PWM driving signals close to the other, such that ZVS may be achieved for the lagging switch due to the shortened resonant interval. Moreover, based on the DCS PWM control, a new half-bridge topology is proposed to achieve ZVS for both the main switches and auxiliary switch by adding an auxiliary switch and diode in the proposed half bridge. ZVS for the switch is achieved by utilizing the energy trapped in the leakage inductance. There are two control schemes. One is open loop and the other is closed loop. In open loop scheme, the given dc-dc converter is operating under disturbance. This disturbance effect is eliminated in closed loop scheme.
Bidirectional buck boost converter
Esser, A.A.M.
1998-03-31
A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero. 20 figs.
Chien-Wei Ma; Jaw-Kuen Shiau
2013-01-01
This paper analyzes and simulates the Li-ion battery charging process for a solar powered battery management system. The battery is charged using a non-inverting synchronous buck-boost DC/DC power converter. The system operates in buck, buck-boost, or boost mode, according to the supply voltage conditions from the solar panels. Rapid changes in atmospheric conditions or sunlight incident angle cause supply voltage variations. This study develops an electrochemical-based equivalent circuit mod...
Y-source impedance-network-based isolated boost DC/DC converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siwakoti, Yam P.; Town, Graham
2014-01-01
A dc-dc converter with very high voltage gain is proposed in this paper for any medium-power application requiring a high voltage boost with galvanic isolation. The proposed converter topology can be realized using only two switches. With this topology a very high voltage boost can be achieved even with a relatively low duty cycle of the switches, and the gain obtainable is presently not matched by any existing impedance network based converter operated at the same duty ratio. The proposed converter has a Y-source impedance network to boost the voltage at the intermediate dc-link side and a push-pull transformer for square-wave AC inversion and isolation. The voltage-doubler rectifier provides a constant dc voltage at the output stage. A theoretical analysis of the converter is presented, supported by simulation and experimental results. A 250 W down-scaled prototype was implemented in the laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed converter topology.
Multistability and hidden attractors in a multilevel DC/DC converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik
2015-01-01
An attracting periodic, quasiperiodic or chaotic set of a smooth, autonomous system may be referred to as a "hidden attractor" if its basin of attraction does not overlap with the neighborhood of an unstable equilibrium point. Historically, this condition has implied that the basin of attraction for the hidden set in most cases has been so complicated that special analytic and/or numerical techniques have been required to locate the set. By simulating the model of a multilevel DC/DC converter that operates in the regime of high feedback gain, the paper illustrates how pulse-width modulated control can produce complicated structures of attracting and repelling states organized around the basic switching cycle. This leads us to suggest the existence of hidden attractors in such systems as well. In this case, the condition will be that the basin of attraction does not overlap with the fixed point that represents the basic switching cycle.
Resonant Boost Dc-Dc Converter for a High Frequency Operation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tejaswini R,
2013-07-01
Full Text Available With different versions of inverters available, a control of VHF resonant boost dc-dc converter is described in detailed in this paper. Though, a classical Class- ? inverter is well documented in the literature, this is a new version and coupled to resonant rectifier. The twin aspect of any design of resonant boost topology is to mainly feature low device voltage stress and to have high efficiency over wide range of loads. Increased switching frequency allows smaller size of the passive components, allowing one to use air-core magnetic, and thereby reducing core loss. The output is regulated by MPPT controller. The performance analysis was carried out on MATLAB/Simulink platform and performance characteristics are presented along with the values of components.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agamy, Mohammed S; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Steigerwald, Robert L; Sabate, Juan A; Chi, Song; McCann, Adam J; Zhang, Li; Mueller, Frank
2012-09-01
In this paper a DC-DC power converter for distributed photovoltaic plant architectures is presented. The proposed converter has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and low cost. High efficiency is achieved by having a portion of the input PV power directly fed forward to the output without being processed by the converter. The operation of this converter also allows for a simplified maximum power point tracker design using fewer measurements
High Step up DC-DC Converter with PID Controller for Photovoltaic Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rakesh Kumar Goudanaikar
2014-06-01
Full Text Available From the literature survey, it is observed that the need of ac photovoltaic modules in photovoltaic (PV power-generation market has increased. However, the important aspect is a requirement of a high voltage gain converter for the module’s grid connection through a dc–ac inverter. A high step up dc-dc converter using PI controller is proposed and presented in this paper. Further, the converter proposed in this paper employs a floating active switch, which is designed to isolate the dc current from the PV panel when the ac module is off-grid as well as in the non-operating condition. This isolation will ensure the operation of the internal components without any residential energy being transferred to the output or input terminal,. The PI controller is used in feedback in order to speed-up the response. The converter achieves a high step-up voltage-conversion ratio without extreme duty ratio and the numerous turns-ratios of a coupled inductor. The leakage inductor energy of the coupled inductor is efficiently recycled to the load. The proposed converter model along with PI controller is modeled using SIMULINK and the simulation results are presented in this paper to authenticate the proposed scheme.
Zumel, P.; Fernandez, C.; Sanz, M.; Lazaro, A.; Barrado, A.
2011-01-01
In this paper, a short introductory course to introduce field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based digital control of dc/dc switching power converters is presented. Digital control based on specific hardware has been at the leading edge of low-medium power dc/dc switching converters in recent years. Besides industry's interest in this topic, from…
Garcerá Sanfeliú, Gabriel; González Medina, Raul; Figueres Amorós, Emilio; Sandia Paredes, Jesús
2012-01-01
In photovoltaic (PV) double-stage grid-connected inverters a high-frequency DC-DC isolation and voltage step-up stage is commonly used between the panel and the grid-connected inverter. This paper is focused on the modeling and control design of DC-DC converters with Peak Current mode Control (PCC) and an external control loop of the PV panel voltage, which works following a voltage reference provided by a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm. In the proposed overall control structur...
Non-Inverting Buck-Boost Converter for Fuel Cell Applications
Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza
2008-01-01
Fuel cell DC/DC converters often have to be able to both step-up and step-down the input voltage, and provide a high efficiency in the whole range of output power. Conventional negative output buck-boost and non-inverting buck-boost converters provide both step-up and step-down characteristics. In this paper the non-inverting buck-boost with either diodes or synchronous rectifiers is investigated for fuel cell applications. Most of previous research does not consider the parasitic in the eva...
Efendi Moh. Zaenal; Windarko Novie Ayub; Amir Faisal Moh.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a design and implementation of a converter which has a high power factor for battery charger application. The converter is a combination of a SEPIC converter and a full-bridge dc-dc converter connected in two stages of series circuit. The SEPIC converter works in discontinuous conduction mode and it serves as a power factor corrector so that the shape of input current waveform follows the shape of input voltage waveform. The full-bridge dc-dc converter serves as a regulato...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ouyang, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhe
2011-01-01
In most power electronics converters, the overall volume is mainly determined by the number of parts and the size of passive components. Integrated magnetics and planar magnetics techniques therefore have been an excellent option in order to reduce the counts and the size of magnetic components, hereby increasing the power density of converters. In this paper, a new planar integrated magnetics (PIM) module for a phase-shift plus duty cycle controlled hybrid bi-directional dc-dc converter is proposed, which assembles one boost inductor and two transformers into an E-I-E core geometry, reducing the number of parts, the total volume of converter, as well as the total core loss of the magnetic components. AC losses in the windings and leakage inductance of the transformers are kept low by interleaving the primary and secondary turns of the transformers. To verify the validity of the design approach and theoretical analysis, a lab prototype employing the PIM module is implemented for a fuel cell application with 20~40 V input voltage and 400 V output voltage. Detailed results from the experimental comparisons demonstrate that the PIM module is fully functional and electromagnetically equivalent to the discrete magnetics and a significant reduction of size can be achieved by using the PIM module.
Design of current source DC/DC converter and inverter for 2kW fuel cell application
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreiciks, A.; Steiks, I.
2013-01-01
In order to use hydrogen fuel cell in domestic applications either as main power supply or backup power source, the low DC output voltage of the fuel cell has to be matched to the voltage level and frequency of the utility grid AC voltage. The interfacing power converter systems usually consist of a DC/DC converter and an inverter. In this paper a detailed simulation study of such interfacing converter system comprising a double inductor push-pull step-up DC/DC converter and a cascaded H-bridge inverter has been carried out and further confirmed with experimental results. The power converter system is designed for interfacing a 2kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell.
Design and Simulation of a soft switching scheme for a dc-dc Boost Converter with pi controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X.Felix Joseph
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design of simple but powerful soft switching scheme for a DC-DC Boost Converter with a closed loop control. A new novel soft switching scheme is proposed with a single switch and minimum components which offers load independent operations. The only switch used in this converter is switched ON at zero current and switched OFF at zero voltage .The proposed Controller is used to improve the dynamic performance of DC-DC converter by achieving a robust output voltage against load disturbances. The duty cycle of the Boost converter is controlled by PI Controller. A 50W/50KHz soft switched PWM Boost converter is simulated and analyzed. The results are simulated using PSIM
A Protection Circuit for DC-DC Converter with Voltage Doubler
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.Elangovan
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to obtain a protected voltage gain by employing a protection circuit for the voltage doubler or multiplier circuit in an isolated tyde DC-DC Converter. The entire set up consists of a phase shift converter with a protected bridge/voltage doubler rectifier on the output side. The operating frequency of the phase shift converter is 20-25kHz (depending on the requirement of the application which is high enough to improve the efficiency. Ferrite core transformer is used in place of ordinary air core transformer, which is small in size with number of turns of the transformer is reduced and the overall power density is increased. The doubler circuit consists of electrolytic capacitors, which are rated at 400V in order to comply with IEC65 requirements. This paper proposes an “electrolytic capacitor protection circuit”, which enables the voltage rating of the electrolytics to be reduced to 250V. This circuit results in cost savings of more than 50% in the price of the electrolytic filter capacitors. The circuits were simulated using PSPICE SOFTWARE and the following results were obtained. For an input voltage of 200V, an output of 200V and400V were obtained in bridge mode and doubler mode respectively.
Basic circuits to design switched-based DC-DC converters
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
F, Sandoval-Ibarra; J.R, Mercado-Moreno; L.H, Urióstegui-Vázquez.
2007-12-01
Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es doble. Por un lado, se presentan conceptos básicos de circuitos conmutados para diseñar un convertidor CD-CD y, por el otro, se rescatan definiciones de electrónica de potencia asociadas a redes eléctricas simples. En el análisis de esas redes es necesario tomar en c [...] uenta no solo las no idealidades de los convertidores sino también cómo minimizar pérdidas de potencia. Porque las perdidas de potencia pueden ser minimizadas aumentando la frecuencia de reloj de los convertidores conmutados, se presentan resultados experimentales de generadores de reloj. Estos circuitos fueron implementados con componentes de bajo costo Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is twofold. On one hand, basics on switched circuits for designing a DC-DC converter are presented and, on the other hand, power electronics definitions associated with simple electrical networks are mentioned. In the analysis of these networks, it is necessary to take into [...] account not only converters' non-idealities but also how to minimize power losses. Since power losses may be minimized by increasing the clock frequency of switched-based converters, experimental results of basic clock generators are presented. These generators were implemented with low-cost components
High-voltage boost quasi-Z-source isolated DC/DC converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siwakoti, Yam P.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
A high-voltage gain two-switch quasi-Z-source isolated DC/DC converter has been presented in this study. It consists of a quasi-Z-source network at its input, a push-pull square-wave inverter at its middle, and a voltage-doubler rectifier at its output. When coordinated appropriately, the new converter uses less switches, a smaller common duty cycle and less turns for the transformer when compared with existing topologies. Its size and weight are therefore smaller, whereas its efficiency is higher. It is therefore well-suited for applications, where a wide range of voltage gain is required like renewable energy systems, DC power supplies found in telecom, aerospace and electric vehicles. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed converter, a 400 V, 500 W prototype has been implemented in the laboratory. Efficiency of the prototype measured is found to vary from 89.0 to 97.4% when its input voltage changes from 44 to 82 V at full load.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sugandhra Pal Singh
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study on buck dc/dc converter of high efficiency by soft switching technique. The paper will focus on modeling, analysis, and design and simulation buck converter architecture. The converter is designed in CCM (continuous conduction mode. The voltage mode control strategy is proposed by using pulse width modulation (PWM with a proportional-integral (PI. The effectiveness of the step down converter is verified through simulation results using control oriented simulator like MATLAB/Simulink tools. The circuit operation, designs and simulation results are mentioned in this paper.
An imroved design for ZVT DC-DC PWM converters with snubber assisted auxiliary switch
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Russi
2005-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved design to calculate the snubber auxiliary elements of ZVT DC-DC PWM converters with snubber assisted auxiliary switch. The proposed improved design guidelines are based on the reduction of the conduction losses through the auxiliary circuit. It is accomplished by the unique location of the turn-off snubber capacitor, which is shared by both active switches. By means of this improved design guidelines the converter efficiency can be increased. An efficiency comparative analysis is carried out and the experimental results, obtained from 1 kW, 100 kHz laboratory prototypes, show a relevant improvement in converter efficiency compared to the original converter design. In addition, experimental results also confirm that with the improved design the ZVT PWM converters with snubber assisted auxiliary switch can be competitive with ZVT PWM converters with constant auxiliary voltage source (True PWM ZVS pole.Este artigo propõe uma metodologia de projeto aprimorada para determinação dos componentes auxiliares para o conversor ZVT CC-CC PWM snubber assisted auxiliary switch. O procedimento de projeto proposto é baseado na redução das perdas de condução no circuito auxiliar. Isto é somente possível devido à localização do capacitor snubber de bloqueio, o qual é compartilhado por ambas as chaves ativas. Através do procedimento de projeto proposto o rendimento do conversor pode ser aumentado. Uma análise comparativa do rendimento é apresentada e os resultados experimentais, obtidos de protótipos de laboratório de 1 kW, 100 kHz, mostram uma melhoria relevante em relação ao rendimento apresentado pelo projeto original. Além disso, os resultados experimentais também confirmam que o projeto proposto para o conversor ZVT snubber assisted auxiliary switch torna-o competitivo em relação ao conversor ZVT PWM com fonte auxiliar de tensão constante (true PWM ZVS pole.
An imroved design for ZVT DC-DC PWM converters with snubber assisted auxiliary switch
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
J., Russi; M. L., Martins; H. A., Gründling; H., Pinheiro; J. R., Pinheiro; H. L., Hey.
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma metodologia de projeto aprimorada para determinação dos componentes auxiliares para o conversor ZVT CC-CC PWM snubber assisted auxiliary switch. O procedimento de projeto proposto é baseado na redução das perdas de condução no circuito auxiliar. Isto é somente possível devido [...] à localização do capacitor snubber de bloqueio, o qual é compartilhado por ambas as chaves ativas. Através do procedimento de projeto proposto o rendimento do conversor pode ser aumentado. Uma análise comparativa do rendimento é apresentada e os resultados experimentais, obtidos de protótipos de laboratório de 1 kW, 100 kHz, mostram uma melhoria relevante em relação ao rendimento apresentado pelo projeto original. Além disso, os resultados experimentais também confirmam que o projeto proposto para o conversor ZVT snubber assisted auxiliary switch torna-o competitivo em relação ao conversor ZVT PWM com fonte auxiliar de tensão constante (true PWM ZVS pole). Abstract in english This paper proposes an improved design to calculate the snubber auxiliary elements of ZVT DC-DC PWM converters with snubber assisted auxiliary switch. The proposed improved design guidelines are based on the reduction of the conduction losses through the auxiliary circuit. It is accomplished by the [...] unique location of the turn-off snubber capacitor, which is shared by both active switches. By means of this improved design guidelines the converter efficiency can be increased. An efficiency comparative analysis is carried out and the experimental results, obtained from 1 kW, 100 kHz laboratory prototypes, show a relevant improvement in converter efficiency compared to the original converter design. In addition, experimental results also confirm that with the improved design the ZVT PWM converters with snubber assisted auxiliary switch can be competitive with ZVT PWM converters with constant auxiliary voltage source (True PWM ZVS pole).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liao Xiaozhong
2013-02-01
Full Text Available High Output Voltage Based Multiphase Step-Up DC-DC Converter topology with voltage doubler rectifiers is presented in this paper. High output voltage is obtained due to the series combination of voltage doubler rectifiers on the secondary side of high frequency transformers. This topology is useful in the application where the output voltage is greater than the input. The two loop control strategy has been developed in order to analyze the stable and effective working of the converter topology. Therefore the working mode analysis of the converter topology has been described in detail. The multiphase step-up DC-DC converter topology is first simulated on MATLAB and then a prototype has been designed in order to verify the simulation and experimental results. Finally the simulation and experimental results are found to be satisfactory.
High Current Planar Transformer for Very High Efficiency Isolated Boost DC-DC Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe
2014-01-01
This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac-resistance and transformer leakage inductance. Design and optimization procedures are validated based on an experimental prototype of a 6 kW dcdc isolated full bridge boost converter developed on fully planar magnetics. The prototype is rated at 30-80 V 0-80 A on the low voltage side and 700-800 V on the high voltage side with a peak efficiency of 97.8% at 80 V 3.5 kW. Results highlights that thick copper windings can provide good performance at low switching frequencies due to the high transformer filling factor. PCB windings can also provide very high efficiency if stacked in parallel utilizing the transformer winding window in an optimal way.
Fast response double series resonant high-voltage DC-DC converter
Lee, S. S.; Iqbal, S.; Kamarol, M.
2012-10-01
In this paper, a novel double series resonant high-voltage dc-dc converter with dual-mode pulse frequency modulation (PFM) control scheme is proposed. The proposed topology consists of two series resonant tanks and hence two resonant currents flow in each switching period. Moreover, it consists of two high-voltage transformer with the leakage inductances are absorbed as resonant inductor in the series resonant tanks. The secondary output of both transformers are rectified and mixed before supplying to load. In the resonant mode operation, the series resonant tanks are energized alternately by controlling two Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switches with pulse frequency modulation (PFM). This topology operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) with all IGBT switches operating in zero current switching (ZCS) condition and hence no switching loss occurs. To achieve fast rise in output voltage, a dual-mode PFM control during start-up of the converter is proposed. In this operation, the inverter is started at a high switching frequency and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target value, the switching frequency is reduced to a value which corresponds to the target output voltage. This can effectively reduce the rise time of the output voltage and prevent overshoot. Experimental results collected from a 100-W laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Optimal Design and Tradeoff Analysis of Planar Transformer in High-Power DC–DC Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2012-01-01
The trend toward high power density, high operating frequency, and low profile in power converters has exposed a number of limitations in the use of conventional wire-wound magnetic component structures. A planar magnetic is a low-profile transformer or inductor utilizing planar windings, instead of the traditional windings made of Cu wires. In this paper, the most important factors for planar transformer (PT) design including winding loss, core loss, leakage inductance, and stray capacitance have individually been investigated. The tradeoffs among these factors have to be analyzed in order to achieve optimal parameters. Combined with an application, four typical winding arrangements have been compared to illustrate their advantages and disadvantages. An improved interleaving structure with optimal behaviors is proposed, which constructs the top layer paralleling with the bottom layer and then in series with the other turns of the primary, so that a lower magnetomotive force ratio $m$ can be obtained, as wellas minimized ac resistance, leakage inductance, and even stray capacitance. A 1.2-kW full-bridge dc–dc converter prototype employing the improved PT structure has been constructed, over 96% efficiency is achieved, and a 2.7% improvement, compared with the noninterleaving structure, is obtained.
Progress on DC-DC Converters for a Silicon Tracker for the sLHC Upgrade
Dhawan, S; Chen, H; Khanna, R; Kierstead, J; Lanni, F; Lynn, D; Musso, C; Rescia, S; Smith, H; Tipton, P; M. Weber, M
2009-01-01
There is a need for DC-DC converters which can operate in the extremely harsh environment of the sLHC Si Tracker. The environment requires radiation qualification to a total ionizing radiation dose of 50 Mrad and a displacement damage fluence of 5 x 1014 /cm2 of 1 MeV equivalent neutrons. In addition a static magnetic field of 2 Tesla or greater prevents the use of any magnetic components or materials. In February 2007 an Enpirion EN5360 was qualified for the sLHC radiation dosage but the converter has an input voltage limited to a maximum of 5.5V. From a systems point of view this input voltage was not sufficient for the application. Commercial LDMOS FETs have developed using a 0.25 ?m process which provided a 12 volt input and were still radiation hard. These results are reported here and in previous papers. Plug in power cards with ×10 voltage ratio are being developed for testing the hybrids with ABCN chips. These plug-in cards have air coils but use commercial chips that are not designed to be radiatio...
Fast response double series resonant high-voltage DC-DC converter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a novel double series resonant high-voltage dc-dc converter with dual-mode pulse frequency modulation (PFM) control scheme is proposed. The proposed topology consists of two series resonant tanks and hence two resonant currents flow in each switching period. Moreover, it consists of two high-voltage transformer with the leakage inductances are absorbed as resonant inductor in the series resonant tanks. The secondary output of both transformers are rectified and mixed before supplying to load. In the resonant mode operation, the series resonant tanks are energized alternately by controlling two Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switches with pulse frequency modulation (PFM). This topology operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) with all IGBT switches operating in zero current switching (ZCS) condition and hence no switching loss occurs. To achieve fast rise in output voltage, a dual-mode PFM control during start-up of the converter is proposed. In this operation, the inverter is started at a high switching frequency and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target value, the switching frequency is reduced to a value which corresponds to the target output voltage. This can effectively reduce the rise time of the output voltage and prevent overshoot. Experimental results collected from a 100-W laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.
A 1.6-kW, 110-kHz dc-dc converter optimized for IGBT's
Chen, Keming; Stuart, Thomas A.
1993-01-01
A full bridge dc-dc converter using a zero-current and zero-voltage switching technique is described. This circuit utilizes the characteristics of the IGBT to achieve power and frequency combinations that are much higher than previously reported for this device. Experimental results are included for a 1.6-kW, 110-kHz converter with 95 percent efficiency.
Modeling and Design of Five Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with DC/DC Boost Converter
Vinayaka B.C; S. Nagendra Prasad
2014-01-01
Power electronic converters, especially DC/AC Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation inverters have been extending their range of use in industry because of their numerous advantages. They typically synthesize the stair –case voltage waveform (from several dc sources) which has reduced harmonic content. This paper aims to extend the knowledge about the performance of Five level Cascaded H-Bridge MLI topology with DC/DC Boost Converter using SPWM for fixed DC Source. The output volt...
A Novel Dual-input Isolated Current-Fed DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy System
ZHANG, ZHE; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Nielsen, Henning R.
2010-01-01
In this paper, a novel isolated current-fed DC-DC converter (boost-type) with two input power sources based on multi-transformer structure, which is suitable for fuel cells and super-capacitors hybrid energy system, is proposed and designed. With particular transformer windings connection strategy, the proposed converter can draw power from two different DC sources with lower voltage and deliver it to the higher voltage DC bus or load individually and simultaneously. T...
Digitally intensive DC-DC converter for extreme space environments Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Micro ?Arizona State University (ASU) team will develop an all-digitally controlled, wide temperature range point-of-load switch-mode DC-DC regulator...
Digitally intensive DC-DC converter for extreme space environments Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Micro-Arizona State University (ASU) team will develop an all-digitally controlled, wide temperature range point-of-load switch-mode DC-DC regulator core...
Evaluating neural control with optimal architecture for DC/DC converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fredy Hernán Martínez Sarmiento
2010-05-01
-power equipment raises great design challenges due to the mathematical model’s complexity and its highly nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Artificial intelligence techniques, such as neuronal networks, suppose great improvements in design and final per- formance, given their capacity for learning complex dynamics and generalising their behaviour. This work was aimed at propo- sing (and evaluating dynamic response later on direct control link with neuronal networks which also allowed eliminating test ele- ments and error in its design. Artificial neuronal network-based direct control was designed as well as possible using bio-inspired search models. This simultaneously optimised two different but fundamental aspects of the network: architecture and the weight of the connections. The control was applied to a boost converter. The results led to observing the scheme’s dynamic performan- ce; response time and exit voltage delta led to concluding that the criteria selected for designing the control were appropriate and represented a contribution towards developing control applications of DC/DC switchmode systems.
Planar integrated magnetics design in wide input range DC-DC converter for fuel cell application
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ouyang, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhe
2010-01-01
In the most power electronics converters, the overall volume is mainly determined by the number of parts and the size of passive components. Integrated magnetics and planar magnetics techniques therefore have been an excellent option in order to reduce the count and the size of magnetic components, hereby increasing the power density of converters. A new planar integrated magnetics (PIM) technique for a phase-shift plus duty cycle controlled hybrid bi-directional DC/DC converter is presented and investigated in this paper. The main magnetic components including one boost inductor and two independent transformers are integrated into an E-I-E core geometry. Utilizing the flux cancellation as the principle of uncoupling, the transformers and the boost inductor are integrated, to reduce the total ferrite volume and core loss. The transformers and inductor are wound in the outer legs and the center legs respectively. The uncoupling effect between them is determined by the winding connections. The middle I-core provides a shared low reluctance flux path, uncoupling the two independent transformers. With the air gaps shift into the center legs, the magnetizing inductance of transformers will not be decreased due to there is no air gap throughout the flux paths generated by the two transformers. The new PIM structure can be extended to other topologies. To verify the validity of design approach and theoretical analysis, a lab prototype with PIM has been built, and tested. Comparing with the discrete structure, the result demonstrated a great improvement in profile and volume without sacrificing electrical performance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muh. Zakiyullah Romdlony
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Well-regulated DC bus voltage is the important point to guarantee the power demand in hybrid vehicle applications. Voltage regulation can be achieved with control method that build switching signal on DC-DC converter. This paper describes design and small scale experimental results of bus voltage regulation control of the DC-DC bidirectional converter with battery and supercapacitor as energy source. The control system consists of two control loops, the outer loop that get DC bus voltage feedback using PI anti-windup back calculation control method. This outer loop will generate a reference current for the inner loop that implement hysteresis control. The inner control loop will compare that reference curent with the source current obtained from the current sensor. Simulation and experimental results show that bus voltage is well-regulated under the load changes with 1% voltage ripple.
Martínez García, Herminio
2015-01-01
This article shows the proposal of a linear–assisted converter or linear–&–switching hybrid converter with a constant switching frequency for photovoltaic solar DC-DC regulators. The control loop of the system is based on the current–mode technique. The main disadvantage of a converter with current–mode control is the inherent instability of the loop when switch duty ratios are greater than 0.5. In order to make stable the proposed linear–assisted converter, the article shows the technique ba...
Efficiency and Cost Comparison of Si IGBT and SiC JFET Isolated DC/DC Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup; Török, Lajos
2013-01-01
Silicon carbide (SiC) and other wide band gap devices are in these years undergoing a rapid development. The need for higher efficiency and smaller dimensions are forcing engineers to take these new devices in to considerations when choosing semiconductors for their converters. In this article a Si based converter and a SiC based converter is compared. Both converters are isolated DC/DC converters and were designed for 5 kW nominal outputs. Test setups for both converters were built and tested. The hardware differences between the two converters are described and performance is compared. An efficiency of above 97 % for the SiC JFET and over 90 % for the SI IGBT converter was measured. Cost differences between the two converters have been analyzed, showing that 772 days of operation are needed for the SiC converter costs to break even with the Si IGBT converter costs.
Using Nyquist or Nyquist-Like Plot to Predict Three Typical Instabilities in DC-DC Converters
Fang, Chung-Chieh
2012-01-01
By transforming an exact stability condition, a new Nyquist-like plot is proposed to predict occurrences of three typical instabilities in DC-DC converters. The three instabilities are saddle-node bifurcation (coexistence of multiple solutions), period-doubling bifurcation (subharmonic oscillation), and Neimark bifurcation (quasi-periodic oscillation). In a single plot, it accurately predicts whether an instability occurs and what type the instability is. The plot is equival...
A.S. Oshaba; E.S. Ali
2013-01-01
This study presents an approach for the speed control of a permanent magnet DC motor drive via Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique and a DC/DC converter. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is used to minimize a time domain objective function and obtain the optimal controller parameters. The performance of the proposed technique has been evaluated using various types of disturbances including load torque variations. Simulation results illustrate clearly the robustness of the co...
García Suárez, Oscar; Vasic, Miroslav; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Díaz López, Daniel; Cheng, Pengming; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2011-01-01
Classical linear amplifiers such as A, AB and B offer very good linearity suitable for RF power amplifiers. However, its inherent low efficiency limits its use especially in base-stations that manage tens or hundreds of Watts. The use of linearization techniques such as Envelope Elimination and Restoration (EER) allow an increase of efficiency keeping good linearity. This technique requires a very fast dc-dc power converter to provide variable voltage supply to the power amplifier. In this pa...
Dynamic analysis of the input-controlled buck converter fed by a photovoltaic array
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Marcelo Gradella, Villalva; Ernesto, Ruppert Filho.
2008-12-01
Full Text Available O controle da tensão de entrada de conversores DC-DC é freqüentemente necessário em aplicações com energia fotovoltaica. Nesta situação especial, diferentemente do que ocorre com conversores convencionais, a tensão de saída é constante e a tensão de entrada é variável. Este artigo versa sobre a anál [...] ise e o controle do conversor buck com tensão de saída constante e tensão de entrada variável. Abstract in english The control of the input voltage of DC-DC converters is frequently required in photovoltaic applications. In this special situation, unlike conventional converters, the output voltage is constant and the input voltage is controlled. This paper deals with the analysis and the control of the buck conv [...] erter with constant output voltage and variable input.
Ambrosio B. Cultura II; Ziyad M. Salameh
2012-01-01
The design of a bidirectional dc-dc power converter specifically for a distributed energy application is presented. The existing two different DC voltage battery bank of the distributed generation needs to interlink each other using a bi-directional dc-dc converter in order to minimize the unbalance of the output load currents of the three inverters connected to electric grid system. Through this connection, a current can flow from one system to another or vice versa depending on which system...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mostaan, Ali; Alizadeh, Ebrahim
2014-01-01
Novel step-up DC/DC converter is introduced in this paper. This converter is realized with adding the switched capacitor voltage multiplier cell to the three switch step-down DC/DC converter that has been proposed in the literature. The proposed converter is analyzed in the steady state and the voltage transfer gain is obtained. It is also demonstrated that the voltage stress on all semiconductor devices is restricted to input voltage which allows the utilization of a power switch with lower drain source resistance. In order to further increase the voltage gain another switched capacitor voltage multiplier cell can be added to the proposed converter. By using the state space average technique it is shown that the control to output transfer function of the proposed converter and its derivatives doesn't have right half plane zero (R.H.P.Z) that makes the dynamic behavior of these converters very fast against the load variations. The performance of the proposed converter and its derivation is verified using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.Umaranjani
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with reducing switching loss, reducing voltage and current stresses, and reducing conduction loss due to circulation current. An isolated bidirectional full-bridge dc–dc converter with high conversion ratio, high output power, and soft start-up capability is proposed. The use of a capacitor, a diode, and a flyback converter can clamp the voltage spike caused by the current difference between the currentfed inductor and leakage inductance of the isolation transformer, and can reduce the current flowing through the active switches at the current-fed side.
Dual-Input Isolated Full-Bridge Boost DC-DC Converter Based on the Distributed Transformers
ZHANG, ZHE; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Nielsen, Henning R.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a new two-input isolated boost dc-dc converter based on a distributed multi-transformer structure which is suitable for hybrid renewable energy systems is investigated and designed. With a novel transformer winding-connecting strategy, the two input ports can be decoupled completely, so the proposed converter can draw the power from the two different dc sources, which have low output voltage, and transfer it to the dc bus, which has high voltage, separately or simultaneously. T...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANIL KUMAR REDDY.K, SIRISHA.S
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract:zero-voltage-switching (ZVS dc?dc converter with specific voltage gain is proposed . The specific voltage is utilized for inverter operation for supplying 3-phase domestic load. It consists of a ZVS boost converter stage and a ZVS half-bridge converter stage and two stages are merged into a single stage. The ZVS boost converter stage provides a continuous input current and ZVS operation of the power switches. The ZVS half-bridge converter stage provides a high voltage gain. The principle of operation and system analysis are presented. The specific voltage is used to obtain a 200 volts Line to Line RMS AC supply through inverter operation. The supply is in turn used for a 3-Phase load like operation and speed control of 3-Phase Squirrel cage Induction motor. Keywords: Boost converter, Zero voltage switching, Coupled inductor, Specific voltage gain, Soft switching technique, Inverter, Speed control of Induction motor.
MODELING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE USING BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER WITH PWM CONTROLLING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahnam Baig
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Our aim is to increase the efficiency and get the maximum power from the pv system. It is also required that constant voltage be supplied to the load irrespective of the variation in solar irradiance and temperature. To achieve stabilization from above two variation. We have designed a buck boost circuit such that it delivers constant dc voltage to the load. The photovoltaic module is analyzed using MATLAB SIMULINK software. Then we coupled the PV array with the buck boost converter..Now there are cases when isolation level is high and low that it may cause dangerously high power across the load. Under such conditions this DC-DC buck boost converter will automatically start working in buck/boost mode. Now every time when the power crosses its upper limit the DC-DC converter will switch to buck/ mode and when safe power is reached. The output voltage is adjustable based on the duty cycle of the switching transistor. which will control the pwm controller and maintain constant load voltage.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
FREDY EDIMER, HOYOS VELASCO; FABIOLA, ANGULO GARCIA; JOHN ALEXANDER, TABORDA GIRALDO; GERARD, OLIVAR TOST.
2010-12-01
Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan resultados experimentales que confirman la validez de una nueva técnica de control digital, por modulación de ancho de pulso (PWM- Digital), para convertidores de potencia DC-DC y DC-AC. El controlador PWM-Digital combina el esquema de control por promedio cero de la din [...] ámica del error (ZAD), ya reportado en la literatura, con el esquema de control por inducción al punto fijo (FPIC) aún en fase de experimentación. El diseño ha sido validado experimentalmente, usando la plataforma digital DSpace, en convertidores DC-DC y DC-AC de baja potencia. Los diagramas de bifurcaciones, calculados numéricamente en la etapa de diseño, concuerdan en un alto porcentaje con los obtenidos en la etapa experimental. Cuando el sistema opera en zona estable se obtiene buen comportamiento a la salida (regulación en el caso DC-DC y rastreo en el caso DC-AC), con bajo error y rechazo a perturbaciones. Abstract in english In this paper, we show numerical and experimental results obtained when a new PWM-digital control technique is applied to DC-DC and DC-AC converters. The controller combines ZAD (zero average dynamics) and FPIC (Fixed point inducting controller) strategies. The first one has been reported in the lit [...] erature in the last years and the second one is still in experimental phase. The design has been tested in an experimental way in low power DC-DC and DC-AC converters, using DSpace platform. Numerical and experimental bifurcation diagrams agree. When the system is working in a stable range it has very good performance, showing low error and robustness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pui-Sun Lei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This Letter presents a low start-up voltage dc–dc converter for low-power thermoelectric systems which uses a native n-type MOS transistor as the start-up switch. The start-up voltage of the proposed converter is 300 mV and the converter does not need batteries to start up. The negative voltage control is proposed to reduce the leakage current caused by native n-type transistor and increase the efficiency. The proposed converter was designed using standard 0.18 µm CMOS process with chip size of 0.388 mm^2. The peak efficiency is 63% at load current of 1.5 mA. The proposed converter provides output voltage >1 V at maximum load current of 3.2 mA.
A Novel Dual-input Isolated Current-Fed DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2010-01-01
In this paper, a novel isolated current-fed DC-DC converter (boost-type) with two input power sources based on multi-transformer structure, which is suitable for fuel cells and super-capacitors hybrid energy system, is proposed and designed. With particular transformer windings connection strategy, the proposed converter can draw power from two different DC sources with lower voltage and deliver it to the higher voltage DC bus or load individually and simultaneously. The detailed operation principle of the proposed converter has been analyzed in dual-input mode and single-input mode, respectively. Furthermore, the method to increase the number of input ports, the magnetic integration structure, and ground loop decoupling are discussed. Experimental results from the lab prototype converter with two DC voltage sources verify the validity of the theoretical analysis and design of the converter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Research highlights: ? Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. ? Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. ? New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. ? Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.
Implementation of Buck-Boost Converter with Coupled Inductor for Photo-Voltaic System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.S. Subbulakshmi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The solar energy is a very interesting alternative on supplement the electrical system generation. In this paper, a photovoltaic based system is obtained from a boost cascaded with a buck converter along with Coupled inductor. Due to its novel operating modes, high efficiency can be achieved because there is only one switch operating at high frequency at a time, and the converter allows the use of power MOSFET and ultra-fast reverse recovery diode. This paper begins with theoretical analysis and modeling of this boost–buck converter. The model indicates that the coupled inductance will lead to an increase in the gain and the decrease in ripples. Finally, this paper analyzes and describes step by step the process of designing, and simulation of high efficiency low ripple voltage buck boost DC-DC converter for the photovoltaic solar conversion system
Multiphase Buck Converter with Minimum Time Control Strategy for RF Envelope Modulation
Cheng, Pengming; Vasic, Miroslav; García Suárez, Oscar; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2011-01-01
Power amplifier supplied with constant supply voltage has very low efficiency in the transmitter. A DC-DC converter in series with a linear regulator can be used to obtain voltage modulation. Since this converter should be able to change the output voltage very fast, a multiphase buck converter with a minimum time control strategy is proposed. To modulate supply voltage of the envelope amplifier, the multiphase converter works with some particular duty cycle (i/n, i=1, 2 ... n, n is the numbe...
Zhang, Zhe; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2012-01-01
Electrical power system in future uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or electrical vehicle (EV) may employ hybrid energy sources, such as fuel cells and super-capacitors. It will be necessary to efficiently draw the energy from these two sources as well as recharge the energy storage elements by the DC bus. In this paper, a bidirectional isolated DC-DC converter controlled by phase-shift and duty cycle for the fuel cell hybrid energy system is analyzed and designed. The proposed topology mini...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.S. Oshaba
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This study presents an approach for the speed control of a permanent magnet DC motor drive via Pulse Width Modulation (PWM technique and a DC/DC converter. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO technique is used to minimize a time domain objective function and obtain the optimal controller parameters. The performance of the proposed technique has been evaluated using various types of disturbances including load torque variations. Simulation results illustrate clearly the robustness of the controller and validity of the design technique for controlling the speed of permanent magnet motors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Subrahmanya Kumar Bhajana
2010-07-01
Full Text Available A closed loop ZVS-ZCS bidirectional dc-dc converter is modeled and appropriate digital simulations are provided. With the ZVS-ZCS concept, the MATLAB simulation results of application to a fuel cell and battery application have been obtained whenever the input voltage exceeds the given 24V, at that time the load voltage will change from 180V to 230V. But due to this usage the load is disturbed and there is instability in the model. Using closed loop the output voltage is stabilized.
Ohnishi, Yoshihiro; Ikemoto, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Toru
This paper proposes an adaptive PID controller which is driven by current control performance. The calculations of the PID parameters are based on the generalized minimum variance control(GMVC) algorithm. The current control performance is obtained in an online manner over a user-specified time-window with some overlap. The retuning of PID parameters are only carried out when controller performance deteriorates below a user-specified threshold. Experimental evaluations on the voltage control of the DC-DC converter demonstrates the practicality and utility of this idea.
Development of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 pixel upgrade
Feld, Lutz Werner; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Max Rauch; Rittich, David Michael; Sammet, Jan Domenik; Wlochal, Michael
2014-01-01
A novel powering scheme based on the DC-DC conversion technique will be exploited to power the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters for the CMS pixel project have been developed, based on the AMIS5 ASIC designed by CERN. The powering system of the Phase-1 pixel detector is described and the performance of the converter prototypes is detailed, including power efficiency, stability of the output voltage, shielding, and thermal management. Results from a test of the magnetic field tolerance of the DC-DC converters are reported. System tests with pixel modules using many components of the future pixel barrel system are summarized. Finally first impressions from a pre-series of 200 DC-DC converters are presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2012-01-01
A common limitation of power coupling effect in some known multiple-input dc-dc converters has been addressed in many literatures. In order to overcome this limitation, a new concept for decoupling the primary windings in the integrated multiple-winding transformers based on 3-dimensional (3D) space orthogonal flux is proposed in this paper. And thus a new geometry core and relative winding arrangements are proposed in accordance with the rthogonal flux decoupling technology. Due to the four secondary windings are arranged in a quadratic pattern at the base core plate with the two perpendicular primary windings, a name of “four quadrants integrated transformers” (FQIT) is therefore given to the proposed construction. Since the two primary windings are uncoupled, the FQIT allows the two input power stages to transfer the energy into the output load simultaneously or at any timemultiplexing scheme, which can optimize the utilization of diversified power energy sources, simplify the system structure, improve the flexibility and reduce the overall cost, so they are attractive for the hybrid renewable power system. Section IV initiates a discussion for the advantages of the FQIT. In order to verify the feasibility of the FQIT in multiple-input converter, a dual-input isolated boost dc-dc converter employing with the FQIT is designed and tested. The results have excellently demonstrated that the two input power stages can be operated independently and the correctness of all the analysis in the paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Seyezhai
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a soft-switched Interleaved DC-DC Boost Converter (IBC for fuel cell is simulated and implemented. The proposed two-phase IBC circuit consists of two identical boost converter connected in parallel and are controlled by interleaved switching signals. But in the conventional IBC switching loss increases with the number of switching devices. To solve this problem, this paper has proposed a soft switched IBC. Detailed analysis has been done to investigate the benefits of soft-switched IBC compared to that of conventional uncoupled and directly coupled IBC. The converter circuit is constructed using power MOSFET as power switch. The PWM is generated by PIC18F4450 microcontroller. In this paper, the analysis of the converter is presented which is verified by the results of simulation and experimentation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Seyezhai
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a soft-switched Interleaved DC-DC Boost Converter (IBC for fuel cell is simulated and implemented. The proposed two-phase IBC circuit consists of two identical boost converter connected in parallel and are controlled by interleaved switching signals. But in the conventional IBC switching loss increases with the number of switching devices. To solve this problem, this paper has proposed a soft switched IBC. Detailed analysis has been done to investigate the benefits of soft-switched IBC compared to that of conventional uncoupled and directly coupled IBC. The converter circuit is constructed using power MOSFET as power switch. The PWM is generated by PIC18F4450 microcontroller. In this paper, the analysis of the converter is presented which is verified by the results of simulation and experimentation.
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SURESH KUMAR REDDY. G, V.SWARUPA
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract:The mankind is in dire need for maximum utilization of the available resources. Many people have suggested the application and usage of the micro grid near the load centers. These micro grids are connected to the nearby available generating stations like solar, wind etc. the generating stations cannot give a pure DC voltage for conversion in to AC. We do have some resources which cannot have optimal dc voltage for conversion. These voltage sources are combined and connected to single stage DC-AC // AC-DC conversion. This will provide a flat voltage profile for pure AC production. A phenomenon of power backflow in traditional phase shift control of isolated bidirectional full bridge dc-dc converter and analyzes the effects which backflow power act on power circulating flow and current stress. On the basis a novel extended phase shift control of isolated bidirectional dc-dc converter for power distribution in micro grid compared with traditional phase shift control extended phase shift control not only expands regulating range of transmission power and enhances regulating flexibility but also reduces the current stress and improves the system efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective of this study was to increase the output current and power in a piezoelectric transformer (PT)-based DC/DC converter by using a cooling system. It is known that the output current of a PT is limited by temperature build-up because of losses, especially when driving at high vibration velocity. Although connecting different inductive circuits at the PT secondary terminal can increase the output current, the root cause of the temperature build-up problem has not yet been solved. This paper presents a study of a PT with cooling system in a DC/DC converter with a commonly used full-bridge rectifier and current-doubler rectifier. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique were investigated. A theoretical–phenomenological model was developed to explain the relationship between the losses and the temperature rise. It will be shown that the vibration velocity as well as heat generation increases the losses. In our design, the maximum output current capacity can increase by 100% when the temperature of operation of the PT is kept below 55?° C. The study comprises a theoretical part and experimental proof-of-concept demonstration of the proposed design method. (paper)
Su, Yu-Hao; Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Costa, Francois; Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chuih-Kung
2013-09-01
The objective of this study was to increase the output current and power in a piezoelectric transformer (PT)-based DC/DC converter by using a cooling system. It is known that the output current of a PT is limited by temperature build-up because of losses, especially when driving at high vibration velocity. Although connecting different inductive circuits at the PT secondary terminal can increase the output current, the root cause of the temperature build-up problem has not yet been solved. This paper presents a study of a PT with cooling system in a DC/DC converter with a commonly used full-bridge rectifier and current-doubler rectifier. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique were investigated. A theoretical-phenomenological model was developed to explain the relationship between the losses and the temperature rise. It will be shown that the vibration velocity as well as heat generation increases the losses. In our design, the maximum output current capacity can increase by 100% when the temperature of operation of the PT is kept below 55?° C. The study comprises a theoretical part and experimental proof-of-concept demonstration of the proposed design method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe
2015-01-01
DC microgrids or nanogrids have attracted increasing research interest in recent years. Therefore, as a critical component, dc-dc converters with multiple inputs are required. In this paper, a dual-input interleaved buck/boost converter is proposed and its corresponding power flow control methods are analyzed and designed accordingly. Furthermore, the design guidelines are discussed. Finally, in order to verify the validity of this study, the measurement results are presented.
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Deepak Kumar Nayak
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A full bridge DC/DC converter with an auxiliary circuit and a voltage doubler type rectifier is proposed in this study. Due to the auxiliary circuit, the proposed circuit achieves Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS for main switches and Zero Current Switching (ZCS for auxiliary switches to provide reduced switching stress and high efficiency. Since there is no output inductor, the voltage across the rectifier diodes can be clamped to the output voltage level and it features a simple structure. The operation of the new converter is explained, analyzed and implemented in MATLAB with 20 kHz switching frequency and 15 W output power. Open loop and closed loop models are presented for input step change and output load regulation.
New non-linear control strategy for non-isolated DC/DC converter with high voltage ratio
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahin, A.; Huang, B.; Martin, J.P.; Pierfederici, S.; Davat, B. [Groupe de Recherche en Electronique et en Electrotechnique de Nancy - INPL - Nancy Universite, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)
2010-01-15
In this paper, a non-isolated DC/DC converter with high voltage ratio is proposed to allow the interface between a low voltage power source like fuel cell and a high voltage DC bus. To take into account the low voltage-high density characteristics of power sources, a cascaded structure composed of two sub-converters has been chosen and allows obtaining a high voltage ratio. The choice of each sub-converter is based on the requirements of the source and its performances. Consequently, we have chosen a three-interleaved boost converter as the 1st sub-converter whereas the 2nd sub-converter is a three-level boost converter. The control of the whole system is realized thanks to energetic trajectories planning based on flatness properties of the system. The control of both the current and the balance of voltage across the output serial capacitors of the three-level boost converter is ensured by non-linear controllers based on a new non-linear model. Experimental results allow validating the proposed power architecture and its associated control. (author)
Dual-Input Isolated Full-Bridge Boost DC-DC Converter Based on the Distributed Transformers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2012-01-01
In this paper, a new two-input isolated boost dc-dc converter based on a distributed multi-transformer structure which is suitable for hybrid renewable energy systems is investigated and designed. With a novel transformer winding-connecting strategy, the two input ports can be decoupled completely, so the proposed converter can draw the power from the two different dc sources, which have low output voltage, and transfer it to the dc bus, which has high voltage, separately or simultaneously. The detailed operation principles of the proposed converter have been analyzed in the dual-input mode and the single-input mode, respectively. The main advantage of the proposed topology is that the four transformers and the secondary rectifiers are fully utilized whether the converter is connected with two input power sources or only one input. Although the four transformers are employed, the nominal powers of each transformer and rectifier are both reduced by four times. Furthermore, some special issues on converter design, such as increasing number of the input ports, the magnetic integration and the ground loop decoupling are discussed. A 2 kW prototype was built and tested. Experiments on the converter’s steady-state and transient operations verified the validity of the analysis and design.
Open-circuit fault detection and tolerant operation for a parallel-connected SAB DC-DC converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe
2014-01-01
This paper presents an open-circuit fault detection method and its tolerant control strategy for a Parallel-Connected Single Active Bridge (PCSAB) dc-dc converter. The structural and operational characteristics of the PCSAB converter lead to several advantages especially for high power applications. By paralleling modular converters, the power and current ratings of each modular converter can be lowered and by interleaving the switching patterns, the input and output current ripples can be significantly reduced without increasing switching losses or device stresses. Apart from these, the PCSAB converter also possesses better reliability under a certain open-circuit fault condition. The proposed fault diagnosis method identifies both location and type of a fault using one current sensor in the output. Depending on the type of the fault, the proposed fault-tolerant strategy tries to keep the capability of the converter unaffected or to improve the quality of the output current under the fault condition. The feasibility of the proposed fault detection and fault-tolerant methods are verified by simulations and experiments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe
2014-01-01
This paper presents the design of a low input (24 V) and variable high output voltage (0-2.5 kV) bidirectional dc-dc converter for driving a capacitive actuator. The topology is a digitally controlled bidirectional flyback converter with a variable frequency control. The objective is, to design the converter for efficiently charging and discharging the capacitive actuator from 0 V to 2.5 kV and vice versa, respectively. The converter is used to drive a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) based capacitive incremental actuator, which has the potential to be used in automotive (e.g., EVs), space and medical industries. The design of the bidirectional flyback converter to charge and discharge a 400 nF capacitive actuator is presented, when 4 kV and 4.5 kV high voltage MOSFETs are used on the secondary high voltage side. The experimental results and efficiency measurements of the converter with the proposed design are provided
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we propose a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) for DC/DC converter applications. We examined several parameters, which allows us to produce a piezoelectric transformer with optimal efficiency and which has an optimal range for regulating voltage. The characteristics of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converter applications, it requires the presence of a rectifier circuit block. A rectifier is usually a nonlinear device which does not act like a pure resistor. We began by modeling a full-wave rectifier directly in order to understand the design constraint variables such as the maximum mechanical current, the piezoelectric transformer configuration, and the energy balance of the PT configuration. In our final design, a stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformer with radial-mode vibration was chosen due to the large number of design parameters required. In our new design procedure, instead of just looking at the typical optimal loading condition of the PT, we used the concept of a maximum mechanical current to determine the new optimal efficiency which is suitable for voltage regulation. From our results we found that the size of the piezoelectric transformer and efficiency are trade-offs which means that they have an inverse relationship. In summary, we developed a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer, which we found to be small but with high efficiency so as to provide an optimal range for regulating voltage
Stability analysis of a high-step-Up DC grid-connected two-stage boost DC-DC converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El Aroudi A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available High conversion ratio switching converters are used whenever there is a need to step-up dc source voltage level to a much higher output dc voltage level such as in photovoltaic systems, telecommunications and in some medical applications. A simple solution for achieving this high conversion ratio is by cascading different stages of dc-dc boost converters. The individual converters in such a cascaded system are usually designed separately applying classical design criteria. However these criteria may not be applicable for the complete cascaded system . This paper first presents a glimpse on the bifurcation behavior that a cascade connection of two boost converters can exhibit. It is shown that the desired periodic orbit can undergo period doubling leading to subharmonic oscillations and chaotic regimes. Then, in order to simplify the analysis the second stage is considered as constant current sink and design-oriented analysis is carried out to obtain stability boundaries in the parameter space by taking into account slope interactions between the state variables in the two-different stages.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Török, Lajos; Munk-Nielsen, Stig
2011-01-01
A comparison of an analog and a digital controller driven 70 W two-stage power factor corrector converter is presented. Both controllers are operated in average current-mode-control for the PFC and peak current control for the DC-DC converter. Digital controller design and converter modeling is described. Results show that digital control can compete with the analog one in efficiency, PFC and THD.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe
2013-01-01
Energy production from renewable energy sources is continuously varying, for this reason energy storage is becoming more and more important as the percentage of green energy increases. Newly developed fuel cells can operate in reverse mode as electrolyzer cells; therefore, they are becoming an attractive technology for energy storage grid-tie applications. In this application dc-dc converter optimization is very challenging due to the large voltage range that the converter is expected to operate. Moreover, the fuel-electrolyzer cell side of the converter is characterized by low voltage and high current. Dc-dc converter efficiency plays a fundamental role in the overall system efficiency since processed energy is always flowing through the converter; for this reason, loss analysis and optimization are a key component of the converter design. The paper presents an isolated full bridge boost dc-dc converter (IFBBC) designed for this new application focusing on losses analysis. The system topology is briefly discussed and the major concerns related to the system, cells stacks and converter operating points are analyzed. The dc-dc converter losses are modeled and presented in detail; the analysis is validated on adc-dc converter prototype rated at 6 kW 30-80 V 0-80 A on the low voltage side and 700-800 V on the high voltage side (for a grid-tie application). The prototype is based on fully planar magnetic, Si MOSFETs, Si IGBTs and SiC diodes; efficiencies up to ~96.5% and ~97.8% were demonstrated depending on the converter operating point.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a gate driver circuit for the switching devices used in the asymmetrical converter for a switched reluctance machine with reduced number of isolated dc/dc converters. Isolation required in the gate driver circuit of switching devices is indispensable. For the purpose of isolation different arrangements may be used such as pulse transformers. The dc/dc converter for isolation and powering the gate drive circuits is suitable, cheaper in cost and simple to implement. It is also significant that required number of isolation converters is much less than the switches used in converter. In addition, a simple logic circuit has been presented for producing the gate signals at correct phase sequence which is compared with the gated signals directly obtained from the encoder of an existing machine. (author)
Modeling and Design of Five Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with DC/DC Boost Converter
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Vinayaka B.C
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Power electronic converters, especially DC/AC Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation inverters have been extending their range of use in industry because of their numerous advantages. They typically synthesize the stair –case voltage waveform (from several dc sources which has reduced harmonic content. This paper aims to extend the knowledge about the performance of Five level Cascaded H-Bridge MLI topology with DC/DC Boost Converter using SPWM for fixed DC Source. The output voltage is the sum of the voltage that is generated by each bridge. The switching angles can be chosen in such a way that the total harmonic distortion is minimized. This topology incorporates Boost Converter in the input side which magnifies the fundamental output voltage with reduction in total harmonic distortion. It also incorporates LC filter and hence output is drawn near the sine wave because of more levels. Results of experiments proved efficiency of 95%.The performance of the proposed SPWM strategy in terms of output voltage and THD has studied successfully and shown using MATLAB/Simulink.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav
2015-01-01
Droop control by means of virtual resistance (VR) control loops can be applied to paralleled dc-dc converters for achieving autonomous equal power sharing. However, equal power sharing does not guarantee an efficient operation of the whole system. In order to achieve higher efficiency and lower energy losses, this paper proposes a tertiary control level including an optimization method for achieving efficient operation. As the efficiency of each converter changes with the output power, VR values are set as decision variables for modifying the power sharing ratio among converters. Genetic algorithm is used in searching for a global efficiency optimum. In addition, a secondary control level is added to regulate the output voltage drooped by the VRs. However, system dynamics is affected when shifting up/down the VR references. Therefore, a secondary control for system damping is proposed and applied for maintaining system stability. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness of this method. The results show that the system efficiency is improved by using tertiary optimization control and the desired transient response is ensured with system damping secondary control.
Research on Variable Structure Control Strategy Based on Direct BUCK AC-AC Converter
Xin Geng; Houjun Tang; Liangyu Bai; Nan Jin
2012-01-01
The researches on direct AC-AC convertors have been an important field. The DC-modulated method, which was used in DC-DC convertors before, is used in AC-AC convertors to realize a direct AC-AC converting now. The method as regulating the duty of switch periods can control the circuit to output an acceptable sinusoid voltage wave. But this method can always bring forth a small phase shift between input and output. In this paper, variable structure control (VSC) is used in BUCK circuit. Simula...
Continuation of periodic orbits in a ZAD-strategy controlled buck converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angulo, Fabiola [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, and Computer Science, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales Campus La Nubia, Manizales (Colombia)], E-mail: fangulog@unal.edu.co; Olivar, Gerard [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, and Computer Science, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales Campus La Nubia, Manizales (Colombia)], E-mail: golivart@unal.edu.co; Taborda, Alexander [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, and Computer Science, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales Campus La Nubia, Manizales (Colombia)], E-mail: jatabordam@unal.edu.co
2008-10-15
This paper concerns the dynamics of a Zero Average Dynamics (ZAD) controlled DC-DC Buck converter. We study the continuation problem of periodic orbits in a periodically forced piecewise-smooth system through the ranges of existence and stability. These orbits can have different configuration and periodicity, and they end in a transition to chaotic bands when a parameter is varied. Three assumptions (a symmetry assumption, a zero-average assumption and a regulation assumption) allows existence ranges to be predicted analytically, and there is only a final efficient numerical step. Stability is checked through Floquet exponents, which are also analytically computed.
Self-oscillating Galvanic Isolated Bidirectional Very High Frequency DC-DC Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Madsen, Mickey Pierre
2015-01-01
This paper describes a galvanic isolated bidirectional Very High Frequency (VHF = 30 MHz - 300MHz) ClassE converter. The reason for increasing the switching frequency is to minimize the passive components in the converter. To make the converter topology bidirectional the rectifier has to be synchronous. This increases the complexity of the gate drives, which in this paper is solved by using a self-oscillating gate drive. A bidirectional converter has been implemented and is described in this paper; the converter reaches efficiencies above 80% in forward conduction mode and 73.5% in reverse conduction mode. The designed converter operates at a switching frequency of 35.6 MHz, which is well within the VHF range. The same converter is also implemented with PCB embedded inductors to minimize cost and the physical volume of the total converter.
Transient Performance Improvement Circuit (TPIC)s for DC-DC converter applications
Lim, Sungkeun
Gordon Moore famously predicted the exponential increase in transistor integration and computing power that has been witnessed in recent decades [1]. In the near future, it is expected that more than one billion transistors will be integrated per chip, and advanced microprocessors will require clock speeds in excess of several GHz. The increasing number of transistors and high clock speeds will necessitate the consumption of more power. By 2014, it is expected that the maximum power consumption of the microprocessor will reach approximately 150W, and the maximum load current will be around 150A. Today's trend in power and thermal management is to reduce supply voltage as low as possible to reduce delivered power. It is anticipated that the Intel cores will operate on 0.8V of supply voltage by 2014 [2]. A significant challenge in Voltage Regulator Module (VRM) development for next generation microprocessors is to regulate the supply voltage within a certain tolerance band during high slew rate load transitions, since the required supply voltage tolerance band will be much narrower than the current requirement. If VR output impedance is maintained at a constant value from DC to high frequency, large output voltage spikes can be avoided during load cur- rent transients. Based on this, the Adaptive Voltage Position (AVP) concept was developed to achieve constant VR output impedance to improve transient response performance [3]. However, the VR output impedance can not be made constant over the entire frequency range with AVP design, because the AVP design makes the VR output impedance constant only at low frequencies. To make the output impedance constant at high frequencies, many bulk capacitors and ceramic capacitors are required. The tight supply voltage tolerance for the next generation of microprocessors during high slew rate load transitions requires fast transient response power supplies. A VRM can not follow the high slew rate load current transients, because of the slow inductor current slew rate which is determined by the input voltage, output voltage, and the inductance. The remaining inductor current in the power delivery path will charge the output capacitors and develop a voltage across the ESR. As a result, large output voltage spikes occur during load current transients. Due to their limited control bandwidth, traditional VRs can not sufficiently respond rapidly to certain load transients. As a result, a large output voltage spike can occur during load transients, hence requiring a large amount of bulk capacitance to decouple the VR from the load [2]. If the remaining inductor current is removed from the power stage or the inductor current slew rate is changed, the output voltage spikes can be clamped, allowing the output capacitance to be reduced. A new design methodology for a Transient Performance Improvement Circuit(TPIC) based on controlling the output impedance of a regulator is presented. The TPIC works in parallel with a voltage regulator (VR)'s ceramic capacitors to achieve faster voltage regulation without the need for a large bulk capacitance, and can serve as a replacement for bulk capacitors. The specific function of the TPIC is to mimic the behavior of the bulk capacitance in a traditional VRM by sinking and sourcing large currents during transients, allowing the VR to respond quickly to current transients without the need for a large bulk capacitance. This will allow fast transient response without the need for a large bulk capacitor. The main challenge in applying the TPIC is creating a design which will not interfere with VR operation. A TPIC for a 4 Switch Buck-Boost (4SBB) converter is presented which functions by con- trolling the inductor current slew rate during load current transients. By increasing the inductor current slew rate, the remaining inductor current can be removed from the 4SBB power delivery path and the output voltage spike can be clamped. A second TPIC is presented which is designed to improve the performance of an LDO regulator during output current transients. A TPIC fo
Two-output Class E Isolated dc-dc Converter at 5 MHz Switching Frequency
Pavlovic, Zoran; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Alou Cervera, Pedro; García Suárez, Oscar; Prieto López, Roberto; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2010-01-01
This paper presents a two output class-E isolated dcdc converter that regulates the output voltages at fixed switching frequency. The converter is simulated at operating frequency of 5 MHz. The converter output power is 40 W and the output voltages are 15 V and 5 V. All the switches operate at zero voltage switching (ZVS) conditions for the full load range. The circuit configuration is simple with small passive components which reduce the size of the converter. The circuit also has ...
New DC/DC High Step Up Isolated Converter with ZVS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ehsan Movahedi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we presents a soft switch sepic, flyback converter. At first the converter have hard switching in main switch and completely analysis then added auxiliary circuit for soft switching Auxiliary circuit in the converter is not only soft switching condition for the main switch but also prevents the spike voltage across the main switch when turned off that because leakage inductance. Therefore, the proposed converter efficiency in comparison with the previous converters increased and voltage stress on the main switch is reduced. Also the auxiliary switch in the converter have soft switching and thereby decrese losses. this converter Control with pwm.These converter have higher efficiency than the similar converters and the cost is low. Auxiliary circuit in the converter is not only soft switching condition for the main switch but also prevents the spike voltage across the main switch when turned off that because leakage inductance. Therefore, the proposed converter efficiency in comparison with the previous converters increased and voltage stress on the main switch is reduced.
A new zero-voltage-switching dc/dc boost converter
Chan, C. C.; Chau, Kwok-Tong
1993-01-01
A new pulsewidth-modulated zero-voltage-switching quasi-resonant boost converter operating at constant switching frequency is presented. In contrast to the frequency-modulated zero-voltage-switching quasi-resonant boost converter, this converter possesses better controllability and higher operating performance, and overcomes the instability caused by the parasitic oscillation. The principle of operation and performance of the converter are presented. Its two-dimensional state trajectories and steady-state characteristic curves are derived which are useful for the converter design. Both the SPICE simulation and experimental result agree with the theoretical prediction.
SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF BUCK AND SEPIC CONVERTERS
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CHAKIB ALAOUI
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Switched mode power converters generate harmonic currents, which will be injected into the utility grid, causing distortion of the utility waveform. They also become a source for the generation of EMI, which may affect the communication systems. This work is about the design and evaluation of the two most frequently used SMPS used in step down mode of operation: the Buck converter and the Sepic converter working in step-down mode of operation. These converters were designed using optimized equations for their components ratings. Simulation results show that although the Buck output voltage is low in harmonics, it has high harmonic contents in currents circulating in its inductor and diode, and hence requires strong filtering. The Sepic converterhas lower harmonic contents than the Buck converter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaw-Kuen Shiau
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power converter topologies; including SEPIC, Zeta, and four-switch type buck-boost DC/DC converters. The circuit simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and a fuzzy logic MPPT controller. Dynamic analyses of the current-fed buck-boost converter systems are conducted and results are presented in the paper. The maximum power point tracking function is achieved through appropriate control of the power switches of the power converter. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to perform the MPPT function for obtaining maximum power from the PV panel. The MATLAB-based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the complete circuit simulation model.
High Step-Up DC—DC Converter for AC Photovoltaic Module with MPPT Control
Sundar, Govindasamy; Karthick, Narashiman; Rama Reddy, Sasi
2014-08-01
This paper presents the high gain step-up BOOST converter which is essential to step up the low output voltage from PV panel to the high voltage according to the requirement of the application. In this paper a high gain BOOST converter with coupled inductor technique is proposed with the MPPT control. Without extreme duty ratios and the numerous turns-ratios of a coupled inductor this converter achieves a high step-up voltage-conversion ratio and the leakage energy of the coupled inductor is efficiently recycled to the load. MPPT control used to extract the maximum power from PV panel by controlling the Duty ratio of the converter. The PV panel, BOOST converter and the MPPT are modeled using Sim Power System blocks in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The prototype model of the proposed converter has been implemented with the maximum measured efficiency is up to 95.4% and full-load efficiency is 93.1%.
Linear-assisted DC-DC switching converter with constant switching frequency
Martínez García, Herminio; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Gámiz Caro, Juan
2011-01-01
This article shows the proposal of a linear–assisted converter or linear–&–switching hybrid converter with a constant switching frequency. The control loop of the system is based on the current–mode technique. The main disadvantage of a converter with current–mode control is the inherent instability of the loop when switch duty ratios are greater than 0.5. In order to make stable the proposed linear–assisted converter, the article shows the technique based on a slope compensation.
Sergio Serna; Roberto Giral; Javier Calvente; Carlos Andres Ramos-Paja; Eliana Arango
2012-01-01
A novel asymmetrical interleaved dc/dc switching converters family intended for photovoltaic and fuel cell applications is presented in this paper. The main requirements on such applications are small ripples in the generator and load, as well as high voltage conversion ratio. Therefore, interleaved structures and voltage multiplier cells have been asymmetrically combined to generate new converters, which inherently operate indiscontinuous conduction mode. The novel family is derived from boo...
Design and Implementation of Power Flow Control for a novel Dual Input DC-DC Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taeed, Fazel; Ouyang, Ziwei
2014-01-01
In this paper a control strategy for controlling the power flow from input voltage sources of a novel dual-input dcdc converter to the load is introduced. The converter can be used in renewable energy applications with two independent power sources. Firstly, the operation principle of the converter is outlined; then the control method for adjusting power sharing is proposed. In the next step, the controller is implemented in an FPGA, and then a 350W dual input converter is built to verify operation of the proposed control strategy. The experimental results show the excellent ability of the controller to control the power flow in the converter. The implemented controller in FPGA is low cost and simple. The complete system can be practically used in power management for renewable energy sources.
Modeling and control of isolated full bridge boost DC-DC converter implemented in FPGA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, M.
2013-01-01
In this paper an isolated full bridge boost converter (IFBC) firstly is modeled. In the modeling part, a small signal equivalent of the converter is developed. From the small signal model, the converter transfer function is derived. Based on the obtained transfer function, challenges of controller design are discussed. In the next step a digital PI controller is designed and implemented in a FPGA to control the output voltage. Using the injection transformer method the open loop transfer function in closed loop is measured and modeling results are verified by experimental results. © 2013 IEEE.
High efficiency isolated DC/DC converter inherently optimized for fuel cell applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Lars Press; Jensen, Lasse Crone
2013-01-01
The isolated full-bridge boost converter has been suggested as the best choice for fuel cell applications. Comparisons have been carried out in the literature using both stress factors and experimental verified designs to determine the optimal converter. Never the less, this paper suggests a different topology not previous used for fuel cell applications with some clear advantages. Taking into account the I-V characteristics of the fuel cell only emphasized the performance of the proposed converter and reveals its self as an optimal candidate for the fuel cell application.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Micro ?Arizona State University (ASU) team will develop an all-digitally controlled, wide temperature range point-of-load switch-mode DC-DC regulator core...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhe; Ouyang, Ziwei
2012-01-01
Electrical power system in future uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or electrical vehicle (EV) may employ hybrid energy sources, such as fuel cells and super-capacitors. It will be necessary to efficiently draw the energy from these two sources as well as recharge the energy storage elements by the DC bus. In this paper, a bidirectional isolated DC-DC converter controlled by phase-shift and duty cycle for the fuel cell hybrid energy system is analyzed and designed. The proposed topology minimizes the number of switches and their associated gate driver components by using two high frequency transformers which combine a half-bridge circuit and a full-bridge circuit together on the primary side. The voltage doubler circuit is employed on the secondary side. The current-fed input can limit the input current ripple that is favorable for fuel cells. The parasitic capacitance of the switches is used for zero voltage switching (ZVS). Moreover, a phase-shift and duty cycle modulation method is utilized to control thebidirectional power flow flexibly and it also makes the converter operate under a quasi-optimal condition over a wide input voltage range. This paper describes the operation principle of the proposed converter, the ZVS conditions and the quasi-optimal design in depth. The design guidelines and considerations about the transformers and other key components are given. Finally, a 1- kW 30~50-V-input 400-V-output laboratory prototype operating at 100 kHz switching frequency is built and tested to verify the effectiveness of the presented converter.
Adaptive Sense Current Control for DC-DC Boost Converters to Get Accurate Voltage
Chang, Robert Chen-Hao; Chen, Hou-Ming; Cheng, Wang-Chuan; Chia, Chu-Hsiang; Lei, Pui-Sun; Lin, Zong-Yui
This study utilizes a new adaptive sense current controller to get an accurate power supply. The proposed controller effectively reduces output ripple voltage of converters operated over the load current range. This reduction is realized using an adaptive sense current circuit that automatically adjusts the inductor current according to operational conditions. The proposed boost converter is designed and fabricated with a standard TSMC 3.3/5V 0.35-µm 2P4M CMOS technology. The experimental results show that the power-conversion efficiency of the proposed boost converter is 2-5% higher than that of the conventional converter with a current-limited circuit. The proposed circuit greatly reduces (i.e. by 76%) output ripple voltage compared with the conventional circuit at a 10mA loading current.
Multilevel modular DC/DC converter for regenerative braking using supercapacitors
Massot Campos, Miquel; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Bergas Jané, Joan Gabriel; Rufer, Alfred
2012-01-01
Regenerative braking is presented in many electric traction applications such as electric and hybrid vehicles, lifts and railway. The regenerated energy can be stored for future use, increasing the efficiency of the system. This paper outlines the benefits of the MMC (modular multilevel converter) in front of the cascaded or series connection of converters to achieve high voltage from low voltage storage elements such as supercapacitors. The paper compares three different solutions and sho...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Energy harvesting systems stimulate the development of power management for low power consumption applications. Improving the converter efficiency of power management circuits has become a significant issue in energy harvesting system design. This paper presents a variable step-down conversion ratio switched capacitor (SC) DC-DC converter to advance the converter efficiency of charge on the stored capacitor in a wireless monitoring system of orthopedic implants. The converter is designed to work at 1 MHz switching frequency and achieves 15 to 2 V conversion. Measurement results show that the converter efficiency can reach 42% including all circuit power consumption, which is much higher than previous work. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nittala S K Sastry
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new PWM Multi phase DC-DC converter under current mode control with an auxiliary circuit which provides zero voltage switching in order to meet the power supply requirements of the processors of modern electronic equipments like laptops, mobiles, and PDAs etc which require more than 70 A current, lower voltage and better transient response.The multi phase topology benefits in high current, good efficiency and better current transient response. High current multi phase buck converters found applications in advanced data control, solid state lasers, communication equipment and Pentium processors etc. In this paper designed of three phase DC-DC converter 100W, 12V/1V under current mode control is discussed in detail and the simulation results are presented to support the theoretical analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolong Shi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel extended-single-phase shift (ESPS control strategy of isolated bidirectional full-bridge DC-DC converters (IBDCs which are a promising alternative as a power electronic interface in microgrids with an additional function of galvanic isolation. Based on the mathematical models of ESPS control under steady-state conditions, detailed theoretical and experimental analyses of IBDC under ESPS control are presented. Compared with conventional single-phase-shift (CSPS control, ESPS control can greatly improve the efficiency of IBDCs in microgrids through decreasing current stress and backflow power considerably over a wide input and output voltage range under light and medium loads. In addition, ESPS control only needs to adjust one single phase-shift angel to control transmission power, thus it retains implementation simplicity in comparison with dual-phase-shift (DPS control for microgrid applications. Furthermore, an efficiency-optimized modulation scheme based on ESPS and CSPS control is developed in the whole power range of IBDC for power distribution in microgrids. A 10 kW IBDC prototype is constructed and the experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, showing that the proposed strategy can enhance the overall efficiency up to 30%.
An Effective High Step-Up Interleaved DC-DC Converter Photovoltaic Grid Connection System
G. Lakpathi,; S. ManoharReddy,; K. Lakshmi Ganesh,; G. Satyanarayana,
2013-01-01
Within the photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems in the market, the ac PV module has shown obvious growth. However, a high voltage gain converter is concentrate for the module’s grid connection with dc-ac inverter. This paper proposed a converter that employs a floating active switch to isolate energy from the PV panel when the ac module is OFF; this particular design protects installers and users from electrical hazards. Without extreme duty ratios and numerous turns-ratio of a coupled ...
Design of DC-DC Converter and its Control for a Wind Generation System Connected to an Isolated Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Ramírez Gómez
2013-11-01
Full Text Available A method to design a Buck converter and its control, which are associated to a wind generation system that is feeding an isolated load, is presented in this paper. To design the converter a Thevenin equivalent is deduced, which represents the behavior of the wind turbine, the permanent magnet synchronous generator, and the rectifier. The design of the converter elements guarantees input/output voltages and inductor current ripples of 5 % or less. The output voltage control is developed with a proportional-integral-derivative controller and as design criteria a damping of 0,707 and cutoff frequency of 1/5 converter commutation frequency are selected. The designed controller regulates the output voltage faced load perturbations and wind speed variations.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Carlos Alejandro, Ramírez; Andrés Julián, Saavedra-Montes; Carlos Andrés, Ramos-Paja.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre sistemas eólicos de micro generación. La revisión analiza cuatro tópicos: la topología del sistema, su modelado, el diseño de los convertidores de potencia y el control de los mismos. Finalmente, la revisión resalta los problemas de investig [...] ación abiertos, así como las oportunidades para mejorar soluciones comúnmente utilizadas Abstract in english This paper presents a literature review analyzing four topics concerning wind systems for micro-generation: system topologies, system modeling, power converters design, and power converter controllers. The review also reveals the open research problems in the literature, and the opportunities to imp [...] rove commonly adopted solutions
A New Active Soft Switching Technique for Pulse Width Modulated Full Bridge DC-DC Converters
Naga Brahmendra Yadav Gorla; N. Lakshmi Narasamma
2014-01-01
A new active soft switching circuit for Zero Voltage Switched Pulse Width Modulated (ZVS-PWM) full bridge converter is presented in this paper. The proposed circuit has two auxiliary circuit cells (Auxiliary circuit cell-1, Auxiliary circuit cell-2), one for each ground referred active switch. Auxiliary circuit cell consists of an active switch, a diode, a resonant inductor and a capacitor, and a coupled winding derived from main power transformer. Auxiliary circuit when gated properly create...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2009-01-01
Abstract-In this paper, an extended run time DC UPS system structure with fuel cell and supercapacitor is investigated. A wide input range bi-directional dc-dc converter is described along with the phase-shift modulation scheme and phase-shift with duty cycle control, in different modes. The delivered power and peak current are analyzed and calculated. The key parameters of the bi-directional dc-dc converter, the relationships between the input voltage, phase-shift angle, ratio of the transformer and leakage inductance are analyzed and optimized. Build the system mathematic model and a novel input voltage combined with load current feedback using PI controller with anti-windup scheme to realize closed-loop control of the whole system, and verify the feasibility of the control scheme proposed by simulation. A 1kW prototype controlled by TMS320F2808 DSP is implemented and tested. Experimental results show the validity of design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the characterization of a DC/DC converter prototype when its power integrated circuit (PIC) chip is exposed to total dose, dose rate, neutron, and heavy ion environments. This fully resonant, 1-MHZ, 25-Watt, DC/DC converter is composed of a brassboard, populated with input/output filters, isolation transformers, output rectifier, capacitors, resistors, and PIC chip, integrating the primary-side control circuitry, secondary-side control circuitry, power switch, gate-drive circuitry, and voltage references. The brassboard is built using commercial off-the-shelf components; and the PIC chip is fabricated using AT and T's rad-hard, bipolar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS)/high-voltage process. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate that the PIC chip is fabricated with a radiation-hardened process and to demonstrate that various analog, digital, and power functions can be effectively integrated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mechouma Rabiaa
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, power demand of industrial applications has increased significantly reaching some megawatts. The use of multilevel converters for applications of medium and high powers is proposed as a solution to drawback semiconductor technology. A multilevel converter not only achieves high power ratings, but also enables the use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic can be easily interfaced to a multilevel converter system for a high power application. This paper presents the simulation study in Matlab/Simulink of a grid connected photovoltaic three phase Neutral Point Clamped (NPC inverter with DC/DC boost converter for constant and variable solar radiation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe
2013-01-01
This paper presents a parallel-connected Single Active Bridge (SAB) dc-dc converter for high-power applications. Paralleling lower-power converters can lower the current rating of each modular converter and interleaving the outputs can significantly reduce the magnitudes of input and output current ripples without increasing switching losses or device stresses. Analysis of both the input and output current characteristics and design aspects of the transformer, the filter inductor, and the input and output filter capacitors will be presented. Considering the high maintenance cost and fault tolerant requirements, this modular converter concept is expected to be highly beneficial especially for the offshore wind farm application.
Development of TMS320F2810 DSP Based Bidirectional buck-boost Chopper
Mr. K.S. Chakradhar*1,; M.Ayesha siddiqa2; T.Vandhana3
2014-01-01
A DC - DC converter is an electronic circuit which converts a source of direct current (DC) from one voltage level to another. It is a class of power converter. One common application of DC - DC converters is DC motor control. The Buck - Boost Chopper is a type of DC - DC converter. They are static devices which are used to obtain variable DC voltage from the source of constant DC voltage. Besides the saving in power, Buck-Boost choppers offer greater efficiency, faster respon...
Arshak, Khalil; Almukhtar, Basil
2000-01-01
In this work a step by step planar transformer design proccdare for Flybock switch-mode DC-DC converter application is presented. This transformer has a maximum dimention of 2cm x 2cm x 0.4cm aiming to achieve an efficiency of 99% at an operating frequency of 500kHz. This planar transformer is designed specially for thick film technology development.
Modelling and performance evaluation of a MEMS dc/dc converter
Hill, Martin; Mahony, C. O.
2006-06-01
Microelectromechanical (MEMS) structures for dc voltage conversion on a silicon substrate are presented. The boost conversion replaces the normal inductor for energy storage in a magnetic field by energy storage in a mechanical system. The mechanical design of the MEMS voltage converter is presented with good agreement between analytical and finite-element modelling (FEM) methods. A discrete analytical model for the converter output voltage at each MEMS actuation cycle is developed and results are compared with electrical device simulation in the PSpice environment. The model takes account of parasitic components in the system implementation, in particular in the blocking diode/switch. Typical MEMS and diode capacitance values are investigated and the voltage gain in these conditions is found to be negligible. The use of a MEMS switch in the blocking diode role can minimize these problems at the cost of more expensive control circuitry and increased power consumption. A suitable application in an RF receiver with intermittent electrostatic actuation of an array of MEMS resonators requiring high transient voltages is described. The efficiency of operation is less than 1.4% but total power consumption is around 1 mJ and this may be acceptable in this intermittent mode of operation.
Olivar, Gerard
1997-01-01
Esta tesis estudia el fenómeno del caos en las ecuaciones que modelan un convertidor buck con control PWM. Desde el punto de vista matemático, contribuye al estudio de los sistemas lineales a trozos tridimensionales, con émfasis en las perspectivas geométrica y de cálculo numérico. Se consiguen resultados analíticos pero, finalmente, deben emplearse métodos numéricos para calcular efectivamente las órbitas periódicas, bifurcaciones, variedades invariantes y cuencas de atracción. Desde el punt...
High-Efficiency Self-Adjusting Switched Capacitor DC-DC Converter with Binary Resolution
Kushnerov, Alexander
2010-01-01
Switched-Capacitor Converters (SCC) suffer from a fundamental power loss deficiency which make their use in some applications prohibitive. The power loss is due to the inherent energy dissipation when SCC operate between or outside their output target voltages. This drawback was alleviated in this work by developing two new classes of SCC providing binary and arbitrary resolution of closely spaced target voltages. Special attention is paid to SCC topologies of binary resolution. Namely, SCC systems that can be configured to have a no-load output to input voltage ratio that is equal to any binary fraction for a given number of bits. To this end, we define a new number system and develop rules to translate these numbers into SCC hardware that follows the algebraic behavior. According to this approach, the flying capacitors are automatically kept charged to binary weighted voltages and consequently the resolution of the target voltages follows a binary number representation and can be made higher by increasing t...
Béthoux, O.; Cathelin, J.
2010-12-01
Consuming chemical energy, fuel cells produce simultaneously heat, water and useful electrical power [J.M. Andújar, F. Segura, Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 13, 2309 (2009)], [J. Larminie, A. Dicks, Fuel Cell Systems Explained, 2nd edn. (John Wiley & Sons, 2003)]. As a matter of fact, the voltage generated by a fuel cell strongly depends on both the load power demand and the operating conditions. Besides, as a result of many design aspects, fuel cells are low voltage and high current electric generators. On the contrary, electric loads are commonly designed for small voltage swing and a high V/I ratio in order to minimize Joule losses. Therefore, electric loads supplied by fuel cells are typically fed by means of an intermediate power voltage regulator. The specifications of such a power converter are to be able to step up the input voltage with a high ratio (a ratio of 10 is a classic situation) and also to work with an excellent efficiency (in order to minimize its size, its weight and its losses) [A. Shahin, B. Huang, J.P. Martin, S. Pierfederici, B. Davat, Energy Conv. Manag. 51, 56 (2010)]. This paper deals with the design of this essential ancillary device. It intends to bring out the best structure for fulfilling this function. Several dc-dc converters with large voltage step-up ratios are introduced. A topology based on a coupled inductor or tapped inductor is closely studied. A detailed modelling is performed with the purpose of providing designing rules. This model is validated with both simulation and implementation. The experimental prototype is based on the following specifications: the fuel cell output voltage ranges from a 50 V open-voltage to a 25 V rated voltage while the load requires a constant 250 V voltage. The studied coupled inductor converter is compared with a classic boost converter commonly used in this voltage elevating application. Even though the voltage regulator faces severe FC specifications, the measured efficiency reaches 96% at the rated power whereas conventional boost efficiency barely achieves 91.5% in the same operating conditions.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Andrés Mauricio, López-Cañón; Rafael Fernando, Diez-Medina; Gabriel, Perilla-Galindo; Diego Alejandro, Patiño-Guevara.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Neste artigo analisa-se e desenha-se um conversor multinível em topologia tipo escada para una aplicação de alta voltagem (3000 V). Este conversor é comparado com outra estrutura conhecida chamada flying capacitors e mostra sua simplicidade na implementação e no controle. Adicionalmente, analisam as [...] quedas de voltagem a topologia tipo escada em função do número de celular e da corrente de carga. Por outro lado, implementa-se o conversor, que alcança satisfatoriamente 3000 V 100 mA e com os resultados obtidos validam-se as análises teóricas. O conversor é testado com dois tipos diferentes de condensadores e, assim, determina-se qual deles tem o melhor desempenho. Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analiza y se diseña un convertidor multinivel en topología escalera para una aplicación de alto voltaje (3.000 V). Este convertidor se compara con otra estructura conocida llamada flying capacitors y muestra su sencillez en la implementación y en el control. Adicionalmente, se an [...] alizan las caídas de voltaje de la topología escalera en función del número de celdas y de la corriente de carga. Por otro lado, se implementa el convertidor, que alcanza satisfactoriamente 3000 V 100 mA y con los resultados obtenidos se validan los análisis teóricos. El convertidor se prueba con dos tipos diferentes de condensadores y, así, se determina cuál de ellos tiene el mejor desempeño. Abstract in english This article analyzes and designs a ladder multilevel converter topology for a high voltage application (3000 V). This converter is compared to other well-known structures called Flying Capacitors showing its simplicity for implementation and control. In addition, an analysis of the voltage drop of [...] the ladder topology is carried out as a function of the number of cells and of the load current. Furthermore, the converter is implemented and successfully achieves 3000 V 100 mA. The theoretical analysis is validated by the results. The converter is tested with two different types of capacitors in order to determine which one offers a better performance.
GENERALIZATION OF ZAD STRATEGY: AN APPLICATION TO A DC-DC BUCK CONVERTER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FABIOLA ANGULO GARCIA
2011-01-01
Full Text Available En la última década se ha reportado la estrategia de control Zero Average Dynamics (ZAD como una alternativa al control de los convertidores de potencia, garantizando frecuencia fi ja de conmutación y bajo error. Sin embargo la estabilidad del sistema depende fuertemente de la carga, por lo cual no es robusto. Cuando se pierde la estabilidad la frecuencia fi ja de conmutación se pierde también. En este artículo se presenta la generalización de la técnica ZAD dentro del marco de la teoría de probabilidades. Usando este marco es posible recuperar el ZAD tal como ha sido analizado hasta ahora y se pueden generar nuevas estrategias de control, las cuales son más estables que las usadas en el ZAD. Por este motivo a esta técnica se le ha llamado Generalized Zero Average Dynamics (GZAD. Presentamos algunas simulaciones del GZAD aplicado a un convertidor de potencia reductor. Esta nueva estrategia no puede ser obtenida con el ZAD clásico. Las simulaciones numéricas muestran buen desempeño del controlador con bajo error de regulación y robustez ante cambio en la carga.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schaltz, Erik; Li, Zhihao
2009-01-01
Battery/Ultra-capacitor based electrical vehicles (EV) combine two energy sources with different voltage levels and current characteristics. This paper focuses on design and control of a multiple input DC/DC converter, to regulate output voltage from different inputs. The proposed multi-input converter is capable of bi-directional operation and is responsible for power diversification and optimization. A fixed switching frequency strategy is considered to control its operating modes. A portion of New York City Cycle that includes these operation modes is used to perform the analyses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeevan Naik
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a design and control for the buck-boost converter, i.e., 1-plus-D converter with a positive output voltage, is presented, which combines the 1-plus-D converter and the synchronous rectified (SR buck converter. By doing so, the problem in voltage bucking of the 1-plus-D converter can be solved, thereby increasing the application capability of the 1-plus-D converter. Since such a converter operates in continuous conduction mode inherently, it possesses the nonpulsating output current, thereby not only decreasing the current stress on the output capacitor but also reducing the output voltage ripple. Above all, both the 1-plus-D converter and the SR buck converter, combined into a buck–boost converter with no right-half plane zero, use the same power switches, thereby causing the required circuit to be compact and the corresponding cost to be down. Furthermore, during the magnetization period, the input voltage of the 1-plus-D converter comes from the input voltage source, whereas during the demagnetization period, the input voltage of the 1-plus-D converter comes from the output voltage of the SR buck converter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih-Lung Shen
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated three-voltage-booster DC-DC (direct current to direct current converter is proposed to achieve high voltage gain for renewable-energy generation systems. The proposed converter integrates three voltage-boosters into one power stage, which is composed of an active switch, a coupled-inductor, five diodes, and five capacitors. As compared with conventional high step-up converters, it has a lower component count. In addition, the features of leakage-energy recycling and switching loss reduction can be accomplished for conversion efficiency improvement. While the active switch is turned off, the converter can inherently clamp the voltage across power switch and suppress voltage spikes. Moreover, the reverse-recovery currents of all diodes can be alleviated by leakage inductance. A 200 W prototype operating at 100 kHz switching frequency with 36 V input and 400 V output is implemented to verify the theoretical analysis and to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter.
A prototype of a fuel cell PEM emulator based on a buck converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsala, Giuseppe; Cirrincione, Maurizio; Miraoui, Abdellatif [FClab- SET, Universite de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM), Belfort (France); Pucci, Marcello; Vitale, Gianpaolo [ISSIA-CNR (Institute on Intelligent Systems for the Automation), Via Dante, 12, Palermo (Italy)
2009-10-15
After a brief introduction about fuel cell systems, and their modelling, this paper proposes a possible solution to emulate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) system by using a DC-DC buck converter. The fuel cell system, including all its auxiliaries and related control systems, is emulated by a buck converter realized experimentally and controlled in the DSPACE environment. The realization of the buck converter allows the behaviour of any fuel cells to be easily emulated since only the modification of the control law of the switch is necessary. The proposed emulator can be applied easily to other fuel cell systems if the polarization curve has the same current rate and maximum power. In this way it is possible to utilize the converter and perform the necessary tests to optimize a fuel cell system by avoiding the waste of hydrogen and the purchase of cells as well as any cell damage. With regard to current other types of emulators, the one presented here has the following characteristics: (1) all the auxiliaries of the system have been considered, each including its own control system, as in a real FCS, (2) the converter is a classical buck converter with a free-wheeling diode and is designed to have a high bandwidth and to be practically always in conduction mode (discontinuous mode appears only at very low currents) (3) the voltage control is made by a space-state controller, able to fix properly the closed loop poles of the system, thus guaranteeing the desired bandwidth of the control system and (4) it can be used in laboratory as a stand-alone low-cost system for design and experimental purposes. (author)
A prototype of a fuel cell PEM emulator based on a buck converter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
After a brief introduction about fuel cell systems, and their modelling, this paper proposes a possible solution to emulate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) system by using a DC-DC buck converter. The fuel cell system, including all its auxiliaries and related control systems, is emulated by a buck converter realized experimentally and controlled in the DSPACE environment. The realization of the buck converter allows the behaviour of any fuel cells to be easily emulated since only the modification of the control law of the switch is necessary. The proposed emulator can be applied easily to other fuel cell systems if the polarization curve has the same current rate and maximum power. In this way it is possible to utilize the converter and perform the necessary tests to optimize a fuel cell system by avoiding the waste of hydrogen and the purchase of cells as well as any cell damage. With regard to current other types of emulators, the one presented here has the following characteristics: (1) all the auxiliaries of the system have been considered, each including its own control system, as in a real FCS, (2) the converter is a classical buck converter with a free-wheeling diode and is designed to have a high bandwidth and to be practically always in conduction mode (discontinuous mode appears only at very low currents) (3) the voltage control is made by a space-state controller, able to fix properly the closed loop poles of the system, thus guaranteeing the desired bandwidth of the control system and (4) it can be used in laboratory as a stand-alone low-cost system for design and experimental purposes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2012-01-01
This paper presents a low-cost bidirectional isolated dc–dc converte, derived from dual-active-bridge converter for the power sources with variable output voltage like supercapacitors. The proposed converter consists of push-pull-forward circuit half-bridge circuit (PPFHB) and a high-frequency transformer; this structure minimizes the number of the switching transistors and their associate gate driver components. With phase-shift control strategy, all the switches are operated under zero-voltage switching (ZVS) condition. Furthermore, in order to optimize the converter performance and increase efficiency, optimal design methods and criteria are investigated, including coupled inductors design, bidirectional power flow analysis, harmonics analysis, and ZVS range extension. Based on all the optimal parameters, higher efficiency can be achieved. Finally, prototypes are built in laboratory controlled by digital signal processor for comparison purpose. Detailed test results verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate the validity of optimization design method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel on-chip frequency compensation circuit for a voltage-mode control DC/DC converter is presented. By employing an RC network in the two signal paths of an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), the proposed circuit generates two zeros to realize high closed-loop stability. Meanwhile, full on-chip integration is also achieved due to its simple structure. Hence, the number of off-chip components and the board space is greatly reduced. The structure of the dual signal path OTA is also optimized to help get a better transition response. Implemented in a 0.5 ?m CMOS process, the voltage mode control DC/DC converter with the proposed frequency compensation circuit exhibits good stability. The test results show that both load and line regulations are less than 0.3%, and the output voltage can be recovered within 15 ?s for a 400 mA load step. Moreover, the compensation components area is less than 2% of the die's area and the board space is also reduced by 11%. The efficiency of the whole chip can be up to 95%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senouci, N.
1998-07-01
This work belongs to the European Barmint project which final goal is the realization of a micro-system, implanted in the human body, and devoted to the regulation of the blood pressure of patients. The aim of this thesis is the realization of the miniaturized power supply of this micro-system. The different approaches allowing to reach the required voltage levels from the 3.5 V initial level are analysed first. A solution based on the integration of DC-DC converters with their control loop has been retained. A control loop based on a single-cycle control principle and completed with a technique of control of the maximum current has been applied for the first time to a boost converter in order to eliminate the disturbances coming from the output of the photovoltaic cells. A first prototype with a single converter and with such a control loop has been successfully built and validated. Then a full system has been built which comprises: a DC-DC converter with its control loop for the 5 V-130 mA power supply and two parallel converters with their control loop for the 60 V output supply. This loop comprises an energy saving circuit which switches on the converters only when required by the health situation of the patient. It includes also a charge pump circuit which allows to supply the different 5 V control loop blocks using the 3.5 V input voltage. The entire system represents a 17.5 mm{sup 2} silicon surface. The second part of this work concerns the integration of a coil on a silicon surface. Iron/nickel alloy deposits on silicon substrates have been obtained and characterized. (J.S.)
DC-DC conversion powering schemes for the CMS tracker at Super-LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, houses the largest silicon strip tracker ever built. For the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the Super-LHC, however, a completely new silicon tracker will have to be constructed. One out of several major improvements currently under consideration is the implementation of a track trigger, with tracking information being provided to the first level trigger. Such an intelligent tracker design, utilising fast digital readout electronics, will most certainly lead to an increased power consumption, compared to today's tracker. In combination with the desire to reduce the amount of passive material inside the tracking volume and the impracticality to exchange or even add additional supply cables, a novel powering scheme will be inevitable. In this article a powering scheme based on DC-DC conversion is proposed, and requirements for the DC-DC converters are discussed. Studies of important DC-DC converter quantities such as the power efficiency, conducted and radiated noise levels, and material budget are presented, and a possible implementation of DC-DC buck converters into one proposed track trigger layout is sketched.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.
2013-01-01
This paper presents an isolated dual-input DC-DC converter with a PWM plus phase-shift control for fuel cell hybrid energy systems. The power switches are controlled by phase shifted PWM signals with a variable duty cycle, and thus the two input voltages as well as the output voltage can be regulated effectively. By using the second input capacitor and the high side switches as an inherent active clamping circuit, zerovoltage switching (ZVS) for the power MOSFETs on the primary side, and zero-current switching (ZCS) for the diodes on the secondary side are achieved respectively to improve the performance of the proposed PWM converter. The principle of operation is analyzed and some design considerations are discussed. Simulation results using PLECS are given to verify the proposed analysis and design. An experimental converter prototype has been designed, constructed and tested in the laboratory to verify the validity of the theoretical analysis and also demonstrate the converter’s performance over wide variations in input voltage.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) isolated dc-dc converter which combines a boost halfbridge (BHB) cell and a full-bridge (FB) cell, so that two different type of power sources, i.e. both current-fed and voltage-fed, can be coupled effectively by the proposed converter for various applications, such as fuel cell and super-capacitor hybrid energy system. By fully using two high frequency transformers and a shared leg of switches, number of the power devices and associated gate driver circuits can be reduced. With phase-shift control, the converter can achieve ZVS turn-on of active switches and zero-current switching (ZCS) turn-off of diodes. In this paper, derivation, analysis and design of the proposed converter are presented. Finally, a 25~50 V input, 300~400 V output prototype with a 600 W nominal power rating is built up and tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed converter topology.
Two-Phase Interleaved Buck Converter with a new Digital Self-Oscillating Modulkator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Lars TØnnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new Digital Self-Oscillating Modulator (DiSOM) for DC/DC converters. The DiSOM modulator alllows the digital control algorithm to sample the output voltage at a sampling frequency higher than the converter switching frequency. This enables higher control loop bandwidth than for traditional digital PWM modulators given a certain switching frequency. A synchronised version of the DiSOM modulator is derived for interleaved converters. A prototype interleaved Buck converter for Point of Load applications has been designed and built to test the performance of DiSOM modulator. The DiSOM modulator and a digital control algorithm have been implemented in an FPGA. Experimental results show that the converter has a very fast transient response when a loadstep is applied to the output. For a loadstep of 50% of nominal output current the output voltage overshoot is less than 2.5% of the nominal output voltage and the settling time is just 8 switching periods.
Two phase interleaved buck converter for driving high power LEDs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig
2011-01-01
The goal of this paper is to evaluate an interleaved buck topology for driving high current light-emitting diodes. Low output capacitor value allows the use of non-electrolytic capacitors extending the lifetime of the converter. Converter is operated as a constant, regulated current source which increases luminous efficacy of LED compared to PWM dimmed system. Because of the low dynamic resistance of LEDs the duty cycle of the converter does not change greatly with controlled current. By setting the input voltage of the buck converter to around twice the voltage of diode strings, converter can be operated close to the 50% duty cycle, where the ripple attenuation is the highest.
A High Step up DC-DC Converter with Coupled Inductor for AC AND DC Module Applications
Anand.S; Eranna
2014-01-01
The grid connected AC module is an alternative solution in photovoltaic (PV) generation systems. It combines a PV panel and a micro inverter connected to grid. A high step up converter is used because the input is about 15V to 40V for a single PV panel. The proposed converter employs a zeta converter and a coupled inductor without extreme duty ratios generally needed for coupled inductor to achieve high step up voltage conversion,the leakage inductor energy of the coupled induc...
A High Step up DC-DC Converter with Coupled Inductor for AC AND DC Module Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anand.S
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The grid connected AC module is an alternative solution in photovoltaic (PV generation systems. It combines a PV panel and a micro inverter connected to grid. A high step up converter is used because the input is about 15V to 40V for a single PV panel. The proposed converter employs a zeta converter and a coupled inductor without extreme duty ratios generally needed for coupled inductor to achieve high step up voltage conversion,the leakage inductor energy of the coupled inductor is efficiently recycled to the load. A 25V input vo
Design And Implementation Of Luo Converter For Electric Vehicle Applications
Manikandan, A.; N.Vadivel
2013-01-01
This paper proposes the stable and ripple free output voltage from the design of developed Dc-Dc converter topology. Dc voltage provided by battery contains high voltage ripples and it is not constant enough voltage, thus it is not applicable for most devices like electric-vehicle controller, dc-chargers, etc. Dc-Dc converters are employed to attenuate the ripples regardless of change in the load voltage. In the existing method, the classical buck converter for electric vehicle applications d...
Thermal Modeling and Design of On-board DC-DC Power Converter using Finite Element Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Zhang, Zhe
2014-01-01
Power electronic converters are widely used and play a pivotal role in electronics area . The temperature causes around 54 % of all power converters failures. Thermal loads are nowadays one of the bottlenecks in the power system design and the cooling efficiency of a system is primarily determined by numerical modeling techniques. Therefore, thermal design through thermal modeling and simulation is becoming an integral part of the design process as less expensive compared to the experimenta l cut - and - try approach. Here the investigation is performed using finite element method - based modeling , and also the potential of such analysis was demonstrated by real - world measurements and comparison of obtained results . Thermal modeling was accomplishe d using finite element anal ysis software COMSOL and thermo - imaging camera was used to measure the thermal field distribution. Also, the improved configuration of power converter was proposed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalantar, M.; Mousavi G., S.M. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran)
2010-10-15
In this paper, modeling, analysis, design, simulation and control of a single ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) are discussed for renewable energy applications. Because the traditional control methods such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and classical half-cycle Posicast controllers based on feedforward are sensitive to noise and variations in natural frequency, a Posicast control with feedback structure is proposed and designed to reduce or rejection undesirable sensitivity greatly, to suppress measurement noise and to eliminate the overshoot in the output response. The SEPIC converter is modeled using average value modeling analysis. Dynamic modeling and simulation are accomplished using MATLAB Simulink trademark 7.2. (author)
Self-Starting DC:DC Boost Converter for Low-Power and Low-Voltage Microbial Electric Generators
Degrenne, Nicolas; Buret, François; Morel, Florent; Adami, Salah-Eddine; Labrousse, Denis; Allard, Bruno; Zaoui, Abderrahime
2011-01-01
This paper describes and evaluates an original boost converter able to harvest energy from low-power and lowvoltage power sources. Design and sizing are made according to specifications issued from the stringent characteristics of microbial electric generators such as microbial fuel cells and microbial desalination cells. The harvested power is 10mW under input voltage Vin=0.3V (33mA input current). The design of the converter is adapted from a classical boost topology. It includes a self-osc...
Soft Computing Module of High Step-Up DC–DC Converter for PV Module using Simulink Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Vinoth Kumar
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Within the photovoltaic (PV power-generation market, the PV module has shown obvious growth. However, a high voltage gain converter is essential for the module’s grid connection through a dc–ac inverter. This paper proposes a converter that employs a floating active switch to isolate energy from the PV panel when the ac module is OFF; this particular design protects installers and users from electrical hazards. Without extreme duty ratios and the numerous turns-ratios of a coupled inductor, this converter achieves a high step-up voltage-conversion ratio; the leakage inductor energy of the coupled inductor is efficiently recycled to the load. These features explain the module’s high-efficiency performance. The detailed operating principles and steady-state analyses of continuous, discontinuous, and boundary conduction modes are described. A 15V input voltage, 200V output voltage, and 100W output power prototype circuit of the proposed converter has been implemented; its maximum efficiency is up to 95.3% and full-load efficiency is 92.3%.
R. Ramesh1,2,3,4; U. Subathra
2014-01-01
Single phase ac-dc converters having high frequency isolation are implemented in buck, boost, buck-boost configuration with improving the power quality in terms of reducing the harmonics of input current. The paperpropose the circuit configuration, control mechanism, and simulation result for the single phase ac-dc converter.
Simulation of High Step-Up DC–DC Converter for Photovoltaic Module Application using MATLAB/SIMULINK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.Daison Stallon
2013-06-01
Full Text Available As per the present scenario lot of power shortages are there in all over the world especially country like India the grid transferring problem is also high. Almost the power from the fossil fuels are becoming so less some of the examples of the fossil fuels are (coal, lignite, oil, and gases.So most of them looking in forward for the power from green or renewable based energies like solar, wind, biomass, tidal etc. Which does not cause any pollution to the environment. In this paper the simulation and analysis of the PV panel and also high efficient boost converter design and simulation is also performed. Even though the solar based systems are renewable based energies when compared to other renewable energies like wind, biomass it does not connect to more number of grid connections. Lot of necessary steps want to be taken one of the main important factor that high efficient boost converter is needed, here in this paper the input voltage to the boost converter is given as 15V and receives the output voltage of 55.64V
Computer simulations of optimum boost and buck-boost converters
Rahman, S.
1982-01-01
The development of mathematicl models suitable for minimum weight boost and buck-boost converter designs are presented. The facility of an augumented Lagrangian (ALAG) multiplier-based nonlinear programming technique is demonstrated for minimum weight design optimizations of boost and buck-boost power converters. ALAG-based computer simulation results for those two minimum weight designs are discussed. Certain important features of ALAG are presented in the framework of a comprehensive design example for boost and buck-boost power converter design optimization. The study provides refreshing design insight of power converters and presents such information as weight annd loss profiles of various semiconductor components and magnetics as a function of the switching frequency.
A NEW GENERATION VLSI APPROACH FOR THE PWM CONTROL OF AN INTEGRATED FOUR-PORT DC-DC CONVERTER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SANGAMESH SAKRI
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In the recent years, the increase in the petroleum prices, the rapid run out tendency of fossil fuel reserves and their unavoidable harmful effects and political instabilities in the regions of energy sources have been accelerated the studies on the renewable energy systems. Although various renewable energy power generations are in practice today, the most popular is using photovoltaic (PV arrays and wind generators. Since PV and wind sources can meet the required demand but either source alone provides an intermittent supply and energy storage is needed to deliver a reliable supply. However these two sources complement each other. A combined plant (hybrid therefore has higher availability than either individual source and so needs less storage capacity. This paper proposes a novel converter topology that interfaces four power ports: two sources (PVand wind source, one bidirectional storage port, and one isolated load port. Power electronic converter is needed to interface and concurrently control multiple renewable energy sources with the load along with energy storage in stand-alone or grid-connected residential, commercial and automobile applications. The power electronic interface also contains some level of monitoring and control functionality to ensure that the distributed energy system can operate as required. In the proposed scheme, a unique VLSI chip called Digital Signal Controller (DSC is used to implement the controller operation which has the features of both microcontroller and digital signal processor (DSP. In this work, dsPIC30F2010 DSC chip is used to program the phase shift angles and generate the PWM pulses for the converter switches. The results of proposed system are recorded and analyzed. The experimental results have verified the proposed scheme of PWM control. The proposed topology and control is particularly relevant to battery-backed power systems having multiple renewable sources.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Daowd
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small as possible. Without an appropriate balancing system, the individual cell voltages will differ over time and battery system capacity will decrease quickly. These issues will limit the electric range of the electric vehicle (EV and some cells will undergo higher stress, whereby the cycle life of these cells will be shorter. Quite a lot of cell balancing/equalization topologies have been previously proposed. These balancing topologies can be categorized into passive and active balancing. Active topologies are categorized according to the active element used for storing the energy such as capacitor and/or inductive component as well as controlling switches or converters. This paper proposes an intelligent battery management system (BMS including a battery pack charging and discharging control with a battery pack thermal management system. The BMS user input/output interfacing. The battery balancing system is based on battery pack modularization architecture. The proposed modularized balancing system has different equalization systems that operate inside and outside the modules. Innovative single switched capacitor (SSC control strategy is proposed to balance between the battery cells in the module (inside module balancing, IMB. Novel utilization of isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC is proposed to balance between the modules with the aid of the EV auxiliary battery (AB. Finally an experimental step-up has been implemented for the validation of the proposed balancing system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe
2012-01-01
The Dielectric Electro Active Polymer (DEAP) material is a very thin (~80 ?m) silicone elastomer film with a compliant metallic electrode layer on both sides. The DEAP is fundamentally a capacitor that is capable of very high strain. The property that the polymer changes its shape, as a result of the electrostatic forces generated by an applied voltage, can be used in actuators, for instance to adapt the trailing edges of wind turbine blades, for maximum efficiency and increased energy output. Conventional actuator technologies have not proven feasible solutions for driving the wind turbine flaps. With the DEAP based high power actuator, it is expected to make a reliable and light solution with superior controllability. The current DEAP technology requires high DC voltage in the range of kV to fully utilize the DEAP material as an actuator. In this paper we propose a flyback converter topology to obtain high voltage at low current, for driving the DEAP actuator. Simulation and experimental results for uni-directional flyback converter topology are shown.
DC-DC Powering for the CMS Pixel Upgrade
Feld, Lutz Werner; Marcel Friedrichs; Richard Hensch; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David Michael; Sammet, Jan Domenik; Wlochal, Michael
2013-01-01
The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.
DC–DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC–DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC–DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC–DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC–DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed
Research on Variable Structure Control Strategy Based on Direct BUCK AC-AC Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Geng
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The researches on direct AC-AC convertors have been an important field. The DC-modulated method, which was used in DC-DC convertors before, is used in AC-AC convertors to realize a direct AC-AC converting now. The method as regulating the duty of switch periods can control the circuit to output an acceptable sinusoid voltage wave. But this method can always bring forth a small phase shift between input and output. In this paper, variable structure control (VSC is used in BUCK circuit. Simulations for these different control strategies based on the Simulink platform are used to analyze and compare. The result shows that the VSC can reduce the phase shift hardly to zero. In the same time, the switch period of VSC is not unchanged. It’s changing following the error. Compared to PWM control method, the VSC can gain a smaller response time and a balance between reducing switching loss and improving quality of output.
A 0.35?m 50V CMOS Sliding-Mode Control IC for Buck Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
HØyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a hysteretic (sliding mode) control IC for a buck DC/DC converter for use as an envelope tracking power supply to increase the efficiency of an RF power amplifier. The IC integrates a high-bandwidth error amplifier, a comparator with hysteresis, and a high-side driver for an external N-channel power MOSFET. The total control loop delay using the implemented IC is 35ns, this is shown to be a 30% reduction compared to a state-of-the-art discrete IC based solution. The presented results also show that it is viable to integrate a 100MHz operational amplifier on the same die as a high-voltage MOSFET driver operating with slew rates in excess of 5V/ns. The IC is demonstrated in a tracking power supply with 30W output power and 3?s rise/fall time, running from a 40V input. The complete IC, including pads, takes up 4mm2 in a 0.35?m 50V CMOS process.
Design of a Fully Integrated Three-Level Buck Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Neelima*,
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Dynamic response of a converter plays an important role in many applications which change load in a rapid manner, especially in POL (Point of load applicant ions. Here a new method for improving the dynamic response of a converter is presented. Here separate control schemes are implemented during steady state as well as transient load conditions. A three level buck converter topology with fast transient response is discussed here. This topology does not require a soft start up circuitry for three level buck converters. Simulation model is done in Matlab/Simulink and the result shows a great improvement in dynamic response of the system. The 3-level converter enables smaller inductors (1 NH than a buck, while generating a wide range of output voltages compared to a 1/2 model capacitor converter. The test-chip prototype delivers up to 0.85 a load current while generating output voltages from 0.4 to 1.4 V from a 2.4 V input supply. It achieves 77% peak efficiency at power density of 0.1 W/mm and 63% efficiency at maximum power density of 0.3 W/mm.
Digital Linear and Nonlinear Controllers for Buck Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shyama M
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Both linear PID controllers and fuzzy controllers are designed and implemented for a buck converter. Comparison between the two controllers is made in the aspect of design, implementation and experimental results. Design of fuzzy controllers is based on heuristic knowledge of the converter and tuned using trial and error, while the design of linear PID and PI controllers is based on the frequency response of the buck converter. Implementation of linear controllers is quite straightforward, while implementation of fuzzy controllers has its unique issues. A comparison of experimental results indicates that the performance of the fuzzy controller is superior to that of the linear PID and PI controllers. The fuzzy controller is able to achieve faster transient response, has more stable steady-state response, and is more robust under different operating points.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe
2014-01-01
This paper presents a digital control technique to achieve valley switching in a bidirectional flyback converter used to drive a dielectric electro active polymer based incremental actuator. The incremental actuator consists of three electrically isolated, mechanically connected capacitive actuators. The incremental actuator requires three high voltage (~2.5 kV) bidirectional DC-DC converters, to accomplish the incremental motion by charging and discharging the capacitive actuators. The bidirectional flyback converter employs a digital controller to improve efficiency and charge/discharge speed using the valley switching technique during both charge and discharge processes, without the need to sense signals on the output high-voltage side. Experimental results verifying the bidirectional operation of a single high voltage flyback converter are presented, using a film capacitor as the load. Energy efficiency measurements are provided.
Accurate Sliding-Mode Control System Modeling for Buck Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
HØyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2007-01-01
This paper shows that classical sliding mode theory fails to correctly predict the output impedance of the highly useful sliding mode PID compensated buck converter. The reason for this is identified as the assumption of the sliding variable being held at zero during sliding mode, effectively modeling the hysteretic comparator as an infinite gain. Correct prediction of output impedance is shown to be enabled by the use of a more elaborate, finite-gain model of the hysteretic comparator, which takes the effects of time delay and finite switching frequency into account. The demonstrated modeling approach also predicts the self-oscillating switching action of the sliding-mode control system correctly. Analytical findings are verified by simulation as well as experimentally in a 10-30V/3A buck converter.
Highly efficient PWM synchronous buck converter with optimized LDMOS
Roy, Swarnil; Mukherjee, Sagar; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar
2015-07-01
In this work, a design of high efficiency synchronous buck converter with an optimized LDMOS is presented which works in VHF frequency domain. The circuit performance of the buck converter is then analyzed and optimized to increase the efficiency and to reduce the power losses without modifying the circuit. The analysis and optimization is performed by varying the different device parameters like drift region doping concentration (DDrift) and drift region length (LDrift) along with the circuit level parameters like the dead time and the switching frequency. The effect of the parameters is found to reduce the power losses of the circuit. The circuit with optimized parameters yields 80% efficiency at 100 MHz switching frequency.
Pulse Skipping Modulated Buck Converter - Modeling and Simulation
Ramamurthy Srinivasan; Vanaja Ranjan P.
2010-01-01
Modeling and simulation results of a pulse skipping modulated buck converter for applications involving a source with widely varying voltage conditions with loads requiring constant voltage from full load down to no load is presented. The pulses applied to the switch are blocked or released on output voltage crossing a predetermined value. The regulator worked satisfactorily over a wide input voltage range with good transient response but with higher ripple content. Input current spectrum ind...
Integrated design & control of a buck boost converter
Martin J. Pomar Garcia; Julio E. Normey-Rico; Gloria Gutierrez; César de Prada
2009-01-01
This paper presents the integrated design and control of a buck boost converter (BBC). In the proposed methodology the design tool provides simultaneously the controller tuning and BBC design parameters in such a way that some closed-loop pre-specified static and dynamic behavior is obtained. This approach contrasts with the traditional methodology, where the design of BBC is performed without taking into account its dynamical behavior. An optimization procedure is used to obtain the electron...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Thulasiyammal
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study provides a comprehensive review of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT techniques applied to Photovoltaic (PV power system. Also this study presents a comparative study between three most fashionable techniques such as Incremental conductance (Inc algorithm and Perturb and Observation (P&O algorithm and fuzzy logic controller. These three techniques have been applied to converters such as Boost and SEPIC for analyzing the performance in various climatic conditions of PV. The analysis of each technique with converters has been carried out by using MATLAB/simulink software. From the results few comparisons has been made and found that the boost converter with Incremental conductance algorithmic technique offered best and optimum results when compared with other techniques. This PV system can supply the maximum power to the load at all times due to which the entire PV system operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum power.
Design Of Converter For Low Power Photovoltaic Conversion System
SWAPNIL ZADEY, SUBROTO DUTT
2013-01-01
The solar energy conversion system is an alternative for conventional power generating system. It has no running cost due to freely available and non polluting solar radiations. The voltage which is available from solar array is variable and to obtain a stable voltage from solar panels, DC-DC converters are required for constant power production. There are mainly three converters namely Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters which can be used for either increasing or decreasing the voltage. Th...
C. Thulasiyammal; Sutha, S
2014-01-01
This study provides a comprehensive review of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques applied to Photovoltaic (PV) power system. Also this study presents a comparative study between three most fashionable techniques such as Incremental conductance (Inc) algorithm and Perturb and Observation (P&O) algorithm and fuzzy logic controller. These three techniques have been applied to converters such as Boost and SEPIC for analyzing the performance in various climatic conditions of PV. The...
DC-DC conversion powering for the CMS tracker at SLHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A tracker powering scheme based on DC-DC converters close to the detector modules can supply more power through thinner cables. This will allow to satisfy the increased power demands of tracking systems at the SLHC. This article describes the development of DC-DC converters for upgrades of the CMS pixel and tracking systems and addresses system integration issues.
The DC-DC Conversion Power System of the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Upgrade
Klein, Katja
2014-01-01
The power system of the Phase-1 pixel detector will be described and the performance of the new components, including DC-DC converters, DC-DC converter motherboards and various power distribution boards, will be detailed. The outcome of system tests in terms of electrical behaviour, thermal management and pixel module performance will be discussed.
Uno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Koji
Series connections of energy-storage modules such as electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries result in voltage imbalance because of the nonuniform properties of individual modules. Conventional voltage equalizers based on traditional dc-dc converters require numerous switches and/or transformers, and therefore, their costs and complexity tend to increase. This paper proposes a novel single-switch equalization charger using multiple stacked buck-boost converters. The single-switch operation not only reduces the circuit complexity but also contributes to increasing the reliability. The fundamental operating principles and design procedures of key components are presented in detail. An experimental charge test using a 25W prototype of the proposed equalization charger was performed for four series-connected EDLC modules whose initial voltages were intentionally imbalanced. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed equalization charger could charge the series-connected modules preferentially in the order of increasing module voltage and that all the modules could be charged up to a uniform voltage level.
Integrated design & control of a buck boost converter
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Martin J. Pomar, Garcia; Julio E., Normey-Rico; Gloria, Gutierrez; César de, Prada.
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the integrated design and control of a buck boost converter (BBC). In the proposed methodology the design tool provides simultaneously the controller tuning and BBC design parameters in such a way that some closed-loop pre-specified static and dynamic behavior is obtained. This a [...] pproach contrasts with the traditional methodology, where the design of BBC is performed without taking into account its dynamical behavior. An optimization procedure is used to obtain the electronic components of the BBC and the tuning parameters of the controller, minimizing an objective function that considers the set of performance specifications. Although the methodology can be applied to any converter and any control strategy, in this particular case an ideal BBC and a Sliding Model Control (SMC) strategy are used. Some simulation results show the advantages and principally the flexibility that can be obtained with this approach.
Integrated design & control of a buck boost converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin J. Pomar Garcia
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the integrated design and control of a buck boost converter (BBC. In the proposed methodology the design tool provides simultaneously the controller tuning and BBC design parameters in such a way that some closed-loop pre-specified static and dynamic behavior is obtained. This approach contrasts with the traditional methodology, where the design of BBC is performed without taking into account its dynamical behavior. An optimization procedure is used to obtain the electronic components of the BBC and the tuning parameters of the controller, minimizing an objective function that considers the set of performance specifications. Although the methodology can be applied to any converter and any control strategy, in this particular case an ideal BBC and a Sliding Model Control (SMC strategy are used. Some simulation results show the advantages and principally the flexibility that can be obtained with this approach.
Implementation of PV System with Two Inductor Buck Boost Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.Jeevanandham, M.Raja
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The project proposes a new converter for photovoltaic system which is substantially high performance oriented. Furthermore, the lack of batteries replacement water pumping systems without the use of chemicals are responsible for the failure of such systems in isolated areas. The converter is designed to drive a three-phase induction motor directly from photovoltaic system. The majority of commercial systems use low-voltage (PV energy. The use of three-phase induction motor presents a suitable replacement of dc motor though by the use of dc motor we can directly drive by means of converter dc supply, but due to its lack of performance and reliability, we have opted for three phase induction motor. In the developed technique, there is no specialized personnel for operating and the system is based on a current-fed multi-resonant converter also maintaining these motors. Here, we make use of the TIBC topology such that they are found to be made of Buck Boost converter which will both stabilize and boost the output supply. Thus, the project will be a low cost high efficiency water supply duo for agricultural industry. Though solar energy based water supply system is being developed for the past 20 years, this project will be a phenomenal change and development of renewable energy that could be used in agricultural industry projects.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius
2013-01-01
This paper introduces a new zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) isolated DC-DC converter with two input ports which can be utilized in hybrid energy systems, for instance, in a fuel cell and super-capacitor system. By fully using two high frequency transformers, the proposed converter can effectively integrate a current-fed boost half-bridge (BHB) and a full-bridge (FB) into one equivalent circuit configuration which has dual-input ability and additionally it can reduce the number of the power devices. With the phase-shift control, it can achieve zero-voltage switching turn-on of active switches and zero-current switching (ZCS) turn-off of diodes leading to negligible reverse recovery loss. Voltage conversion ratio is higher compared to the conventional boost converter owing to the BHB circuit and the corresponding control. Finally, a 25~50 V input, 300~400 V output prototype with a 600 W nominal power rating are built up and tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed converter topology.
Extended time-delay autosynchronization for the buck converter
Batlle, C; Olivar, G
1996-01-01
Time-delay autosynchronization (TDAS) can be used to stabilize unstable periodic orbits in dynamical systems. The technique involves continuous feedback of signals delayed by the orbit's period. One variant, ETDAS, uses information further in the past. In both cases, the feedback signal vanishes on the target periodic orbit and hence the stabilized periodic orbit is one of the original dynamical system. Furthermore, this control method only requires the knowledge of the period of the unstable orbit. The amount of feedback gain needed to achieve stabilization varies with the bifurcation parameter(s) of the system, resulting in a domain of control. In this paper we compute the domain of control of the unstable periodic orbits of the \\textit{buck} converter. We obtain a closed analytical expression for the curve $g:S^1 \\rightarrow\\C$ whose index determines the stability, and this index is then numerically computed. We run several simulations of the controlled system and discuss the results.
Nonlinear program based optimization of boost and buck-boost converter designs
Rahman, S.; Lee, F. C.
1981-01-01
The facility of an Augmented Lagrangian (ALAG) multiplier based nonlinear programming technique is demonstrated for minimum-weight design optimizations of boost and buck-boost power converters. Certain important features of ALAG are presented in the framework of a comprehensive design example for buck-boost power converter design optimization. The study provides refreshing design insight of power converters and presents such information as weight and loss profiles of various semiconductor components and magnetics as a function of the switching frequency.
Mechouma Rabiaa; Azoui Boubekeur
2014-01-01
In recent years, power demand of industrial applications has increased significantly reaching some megawatts. The use of multilevel converters for applications of medium and high powers is proposed as a solution to drawback semiconductor technology. A multilevel converter not only achieves high power ratings, but also enables the use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic can be easily interfaced to a multilevel converter...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amjadi, Zahra; Williamson, Sheldon
2010-09-15
This paper presents the analysis and novel hybrid controller design for an interleaved 2-quadrant switched capacitor (SC) bidirectional DC/DC converter for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) dual energy storage system. The designed novel control strategy enables simpler dynamics compared to a standard buck converter with input filter, good regulation capability, low EMI, lower source current ripple, ease of control, and continuous input current waveform in both buck as well as boost modes of operation.
Degrenne, Nicolas; Allard, Bruno; Buret, François; Morel, Florent; Adami, Salah-Eddine; Labrousse, Denis
2011-01-01
This paper describes and evaluates 3 original step-up converter architectures able to harvest energy from low-voltage and low-power generators. Design and sizing are made according to specifications issued from the stringent characteristics of microbial fuel cells. The maximum harvested power is 10mW under input voltage Vin=0.3V (33mA input current). The considered converters include self-oscillating circuits for autonomous operation. The 2 first topologies are respectively adapted from boost...
Sliding-Mode Control Design of a Boost-Buck Switching Converter for AC Signal Generation
Biel Sol??, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Fossas Colet, Enric; Chavarr??a Ro??, Javier
2004-01-01
This paper presents a sliding-mode control design of a boost???buck switching converter for a voltage step-up dc???ac conversion without the use of any transformer. This approach combines the step-up/step-down conversion ratio capability of the converter with the robustness properties of sliding-mode control. The proposed control strategy is based on the design of two slidingcontrol laws, one ensuring the control of a full-bridge buck converter for proper dc???ac conversion, and the other one...
Active pre-filters for dc/dc Boost regulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an active pre-filter to mitigate the current harmonics generated by classical dc/dc Boost regulators, which generate current ripples proportional to the duty cycle. Therefore, high output voltage conditions, i.e., high voltage conversion ratios, produce high current harmonics that must be filtered to avoid damage or source losses. Traditionally, these current components are filtered using electrolytic capacitors, which introduce reliability problems because of their high failure rate. The solution introduced in this paper instead uses a dc/dc converter based on the parallel connection of the Boost canonical cells to filter the current ripples generated by the Boost regulator, improving the system reliability. This solution provides the additional benefits of improving the overall efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. Finally, the solution is validated with simulations and experimental results.
Application of Theory of Hybrid Systems to Control the Switching of Buck Converter
Benmiloud, Mohammed
2013-08-01
The field of power electronics poses challenging control problems that can’t be treated in a complete manner using traditional modeling. In this paper, the buck converter operating in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM) is represented analytically by hybrid automaton model and graphically representation is also given. The hybrid trajectory and the model behavior are presented. The control problem of buck switching converters is transformed to a guard selection problem. The guard selection calculation formulas of buck converter are derived from the basic circuit laws. The stability of the switching is established analytically by the use of multiple Lyapunov functions to ensure the convergence and Poincare map to assess the local stability of the limit cycle. Numerical results clearly bring out the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed control law under varying line voltage and load conditions. Simulation studies are carried out in Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, H. [Kyungnam University (Korea, Republic of)
1996-10-27
A soft switching method with small switching loss was proposed for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a DC-DC boost converter which converted a DC current generated by solar cells to a variable DC current. Existing current converters are supplemented by using a snubber circuit around the switch so as to protect the switch by a hard switching action. However, with an increase of the output current, snubber loss is increased, reducing the efficiency. In order to solve this problem, the partial resonant switch method was applied to the converter; with this method of partially forming a resonant circuit only at the time of turning on/off of the switch, the switching loss was reduced through the soft switching, thereby making the proposed converter operate with high efficiency. Moreover, the resonant element of the partial resonant circuit using a snubber condenser, the energy accumulated in the condenser was regenerated on the power supply side without loss of snubber. With the regenerated energy, the proposed converter was provided with a smaller ratio of switching to use than the conventional converter. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Simulation and Implementation a Non-Isolated Buck Converter at ZCS Condition
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Nahid Hematian
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A new soft-switching resonant inverting-buck converter with high efficiency is presented. The proposed converter steps down and inverts the input voltage. The zero-current-switching (ZCS technique is employed to reduce switching losses and Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI. An LLC resonant network is utilized to provide soft-switching conditions for all semiconductor devices. Experimental results verify the integrity of the proposed converter operation and the presented theoretical analysis.
Design Of Converter For Low Power Photovoltaic Conversion System
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SWAPNIL ZADEY, SUBROTO DUTT
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The solar energy conversion system is an alternative for conventional power generating system. It has no running cost due to freely available and non polluting solar radiations. The voltage which is available from solar array is variable and to obtain a stable voltage from solar panels, DC-DC converters are required for constant power production. There are mainly three converters namely Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters which can be used for either increasing or decreasing the voltage. This paper presents mobile charging circuit with a PV source. The circuit structure of the proposed system adopts buck converter combined PWM MPPT technique. In this research, buck converter is used as a charger for charging mobile battery. The input voltage can typically change from (12V initially, down to (5V, and provide a regulated voltage within the range of the 4.5V required for the charging of mobile batteries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on the fact that the real inductor and the real capacitor are fractional order in nature and the fractional calculus, the transfer function modeling and analysis of the open-loop Buck converter in a continuous conduction mode (CCM) operation are carried out in this paper. The fractional order small signal model and the corresponding equivalent circuit of the open-loop Buck converter in a CCM operation are presented. The transfer functions from the input voltage to the output voltage, from the input voltage to the inductor current, from the duty cycle to the output voltage, from the duty cycle to the inductor current, and the output impedance of the open-loop Buck converter in CCM operation are derived, and their bode diagrams and step responses are calculated, respectively. It is found that all the derived fractional order transfer functions of the system are influenced by the fractional orders of the inductor and the capacitor. Finally, the realization of the fractional order inductor and the fractional order capacitor is designed, and the corresponding PSIM circuit simulation results of the open-loop Buck converter in CCM operation are given to confirm the correctness of the derivations and the theoretical analysis
Electrodeposited Nanolaminated CoNiFe Cores for Ultracompact DC-DC Power Conversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, J; Kim, M; Herrault, F; Park, JY; Allen, MG
2015-09-01
Laminated metallic alloy cores (i.e., alternating layers of thin film metallic alloy and insulating material) of appropriate lamination thickness enable suppression of eddy current losses at high frequencies. Magnetic cores comprised of many such laminations yield substantial overall magnetic volume, thereby enabling high-power operation. Previously, we reported nanolaminated permalloy (Ni-80 Fe-20) cores based on a sequential electrodeposition technique, demonstrating negligible eddy current losses at peak flux densities up to 0.5 T and operating at megahertz frequencies. This paper demonstrates improved performance of nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300-500-nm-thick CoNiFe films that exhibit superior magnetic properties (e.g., higher saturation flux density and lower coercivity) than permalloy. Nanolaminated CoNiFe cores can be operated up to a peak flux density of 0.9 T, demonstrating improved power handling capacity and exhibiting 30% reduced volumetric core loss, attributed to lowered hysteresis losses compared to the nanolaminated permalloy core of the same geometry. Operating these cores in a buck dc-dc power converter at a switching frequency of 1 MHz, the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores achieved a conversion efficiency exceeding 90% at output power levels up to 7 W, compared to an achieved permalloy core conversion efficiency below 86% at 6 W.
Push-Pull Converter Fed Three-Phase Inverter for Residential and Motor Load
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Samuel Rajesh Babu
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The proposed paper is an new approach for power conditioning of a PV (photo-voltaic cell array. The main objective is to investigate an approach to provide and improve the delivered electric energy by means of power conditioning structures with the use of alternative renewable resources (ARRs for remote rural residential or industrial non-linear loads. This approach employs a series-combined connected boost and buck boost DC-DC converter for power conditioning of the dc voltage provided by a photo-voltaic array. The input voltage to the combined converters is 100 V provided from two series connected PV cells, which is converted and increased to 200 V at the dc output voltage. Series-combined connected boost and buck-boost DC-DC converters operate alternatively. This helps to reduce the input ripple current and provide the required 400 Vdc on a sinusoidal PWM three-phase inverter. Analysis of the two series-combined DC-DC converters is presented along with simulation results. Simulations of the series-combined DC-DC converters are presented with an output DC voltage of 200 V and a maximum output load of Po = 600 W.
Space-state robust control of a Buck converter with amorphous core coil and variable load
Morales Cabrera, Rafael; Somolinos Sanchez, Jose Andres; Moron Fernandez, Carlos; Garcia Garcia, Alfonso
2013-01-01
Pulse-width modulation is widely used to control electronic converters. One of the most frequently used topologies for high DC voltage/low DC voltage conversion is the Buck converter. These converters are described by a second order system with an LC filter between the switching subsystem and the load. The use of a coil with an amorphous magnetic material core rather than an air core permits the design of smaller converters. If high switching frequencies are used to obtain high quality voltag...
Cheng, Pengming; Vasic, Miroslav; García Suárez, Oscar; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2011-01-01
In this paper, an interleaved multiphase buck converter with minimum time control strategy for envelope amplifiers in high efficiency RF power amplifiers is proposed. The solution for the envelope amplifier is to combine the proposed converter with a linear regulator in series. High efficiency of envelope amplifier can be obtained through modulating the supply voltage of the linear regulator. Instead of tracking the envelope, the buck converter has discrete output voltage that corresponding t...
Design And Implementation Of Luo Converter For Electric Vehicle Applications
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A.Manikandan
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the stable and ripple free output voltage from the design of developed Dc-Dc converter topology. Dc voltage provided by battery contains high voltage ripples and it is not constant enough voltage, thus it is not applicable for most devices like electric-vehicle controller, dc-chargers, etc. Dc-Dc converters are employed to attenuate the ripples regardless of change in the load voltage. In the existing method, the classical buck converter for electric vehicle applications does not meet the load requirement containing more ripples on the output voltage and parasitic effects. To overcome this problem the advanced developed Dc-Dc luo-converter technology was introduced. luo converter is the developed converter derived from the buck-boost converter. In this proposed model the additional filter elements in the luo-converter eliminate the output ripples and effectively enhance the output voltage level. A computer simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK confirms the predicted results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Latha. S. C
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The portable devices development of semiconductor manufacturing technology, conversion efficiency, power consumption, and the size of devices have become the most important design criteria of switching power converters. For portable applications better conveniences extension of battery life and improves the conversion efficiency of power converters .It is essential to develop accurate switching power converters, which can reduce more wasted power energy. The proposed topology can achieve faster transient responses when the supply voltages are changed for the converter by making use of the feed forward network .With mode select circuit the conduction & switching losses are reduced the positive buck–boost converter operate in buck, buck–boost, or boost converter. By adding feed-forward techniques, the proposed converter can improve transient response when the supply voltages are changed. The designing, modeling & experimental results were verified in MATLAB/ Simulink. The fuzzy logic controller is used as controller.
Hoyos Velasco, Fredy Edimer; García, Nicolás Toro; Garcés Gómez, Yeison Alberto
In this paper, the output voltage of a buck power converter is controlled by means of a quasi-sliding scheme. The Fixed Point Inducting Control (FPIC) technique is used for the control design, based on the Zero Average Dynamics (ZAD) strategy, including load estimation by means of the Least Mean Squares (LMS) method. The control scheme is tested in a Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) system based on Digital Signal Processing (DSP) for dSPACE platform. The closed loop system shows adequate performance. The experimental and simulation results match. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce the load estimator by means of LMS, to make ZAD and FPIC control feasible in load variation conditions. In addition, comparison results for controlled buck converter with SMC, PID and ZAD-FPIC control techniques are shown.
Modelling and Simulation of Closed Loop Controlled Buck Converter Fed Pmbldc Drive System
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R. Dhanasekaran
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor (PMBLDC is one of the best electrical drives that has increasing popularity, due to their high efficiency, reliability, good dynamic response and very low maintenance. This makes the interest of modeling an ideal PMBLDC motor and it’s associated Drive System in simple and lucid manner. In this paper the drive system is proposed with a buck converter topology. It has the advantages of reduced switching losses, low inductor power loss, reduced ripple by using a pi-filter, which in turn makes the DC link voltage to be stable. The modeling and simulation of the PMBLDC motor is done using the software package MATLAB/SIMULINK. The operation principle of the buck converter is analyzed and the simulation results are presented in this paper to verify the theoretical analysis.
Bounding the Output Error in a Buck Power Converter Using Perturbation Theory
Fabiola Angulo; Enric Fossas; Seara, Tere M.; Gerard Olivar
2008-01-01
We show the main results obtained when applying the average theory to Zero Average Dynamic control technique in a buck power converter with pulse-width modulation (PWM). In particular, we have obtained the bound values for output error and sliding surface. The PWM with centered and lateral pulse configurations were analyzed. The analytical results have confirmed the numerical and experimental results already obtained in previous publications. Moreover, through an important lemma, we have gene...
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
C. A, Ramos-Paja; R, Giral; C, Carrejo.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Este artículo propone un pre-filtro activo para mitigar los armónicos de corriente generados por reguladores elevadores clásicos, los cuales producen rizados de corriente proporcionales al ciclo de trabajo. Por tanto, altos voltajes de salida, i.e., altos factores de transformación de voltaje, produ [...] cen armónicos de corriente que se deben filtrar para evitar daños o pérdidas de potencia en la fuente. Tradicionalmente, estas componentes se filtran usando condensadores electrolíticos, lo que introducen problemas de confiabilidad debido a su alta taza de falla. En contraste, la solución propuesta usa un convertidor dc/dc, basado en la conexión paralela de celdas canónicas Boost, para filtrar el rizado de corriente generado por el regulador Boost, lo que mejora la confiabilidad del sistema. Esta solución, además, incrementa la eficiencia total y el factor de transformación de voltaje. Finalmente, la solución se valida usando simulaciones y resultados experimentales. Abstract in english This paper proposes an active pre-filter to mitigate the current harmonics generated by classical dc/dc Boost regulators, which generate current ripples proportional to the duty cycle. Therefore, high output voltage conditions, i.e., high voltage conversion ratios, produce high current harmonics tha [...] t must be filtered to avoid damage or source losses. Traditionally, these current components are filtered using electrolytic capacitors, which introduce reliability problems because of their high failure rate. The solution introduced in this paper instead uses a dc/dc converter based on the parallel connection of the Boost canonical cells to filter the current ripples generated by the Boost regulator, improving the system reliability. This solution provides the additional benefits of improving the overall efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. Finally, the solution is validated with simulations and experimental results.
Evaluation of Arm Processor-based Bionic Intelligent Controller for a Buck-boost Converte
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M.V. Mini
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This study focuses on performance-comparison of different tuning methods for a PI controller applied to a buck-boost converter. Comparison between the controllers is made by analysis of design methodology implementation issues and empirically measured performance. Design of PI controller is based on frequency response of the converter. The optimization of PI controller is based on ant colony algorithm. Experimental results show that, tuning the PI controller using ACO algorithm gave better performance than the conventional algorithm. This is mainly due to the fact ACO is capable of reducing the overshoot without oscillation.
Stability Constrained Efficiency Optimization for Droop Controlled DC-DC Conversion System
Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos
2013-01-01
Paralleled dc converter systems are widely used in distribution systems and uninterruptable power supplies. This paper implements a hierarchical control in a droop-controlled dc-dc conversion system with special focus on improving system efficiency which is dealt within the tertiary regulation. As the efficiency of each converter changes with output power, virtual resistances (VRs) are set as decision variables for adjusting power sharing proportion among converters. It is noteworthy that apa...
Design and simulation of fuzzy controlled quasi resonant buck converter
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A. Rameshkumar
2009-07-01
Full Text Available A controller based on Fuzzy logic is implemented and its application to the regulation of power converter is investigated. Being free of complex equations and heavy computation, it achieves fast dynamic response and adapts to varying conditions of operation. The topology is modeled using MATLAB software and operated at finite higher switching frequency to evaluate its closed-loop performance in respect of line and load regulation. It is verified by transient characteristics that due to quasi-resonance there is a drastic change in peak overshoot and settling time and the proposed strategy has good rejection ability for supply and load disturbances.
Yang, Ning-Ning; Liu, Chong-Xin; Wu, Chao-Jun
2012-08-01
In this paper, the fractional-order mathematical model and the fractional-order state-space averaging model of the Buck—Boost converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) are established based on the fractional calculus and the Adomian decomposition method. Some dynamical properties of the current-mode controlled fractional-order Buck—Boost converter are analysed. The simulation is accomplished by using SIMULINK. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the analytical results and we find that bifurcation points will be moved backward as ? and ? vary. At the same time, the simulation results show that the converter goes through different routes to chaos.
Reduce Energy Losses and THD in Buck Converter Using Control Algorithm
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Vipul C. Rajyaguru, Keerti S.Vashishtha, K. C. Dave
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The paper will focus on modeling, analysis, and design and simulation buck converter architecture. This architecture is used for automotive dual power system to reduce filters, dynamic response and power. The converter is designed in CCM (continuous conduction mode. The voltage mode control strategy is proposed by using pulse width modulation (PWM with a proportional-integralderivative (PID. The effectiveness of the step down converter is verified through simulation results using control oriented simulator like MATLAB/Simulink tools.The proposed circuits operate at constant frequency and are regulated by conventional pulse width modulation (PWM using dedicated PWM and PID control techniques. The circuit operation, mathematical analysis, designs and simulation results for continuous current mode (CCM operation are mentioned in this paper.
Design and Analysis of PI like Fuzzy Logic Controlled Buck Converter
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M.SIVA RAMA KRISHNA
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel design of Proportional and Integral (PI - like Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC for Buck converters that integrates linear control techniques with Fuzzy Logic .The design procedure allows the small signal model of the converter and linear control design techniques to be used in the initial stages of FLC design. This simplifies the small signal design and stability assessment of the FLC.By exploiting the Fuzzy Logic structure of the controller, heuristic knowledge is incorporated in the design, which results in a nonlinear controller with improved Performance over linear PI controllers. The major advantage of the proposed design method for FLC is that compared to other methods is trial and error effort in the design is greatly reduced. MATLAB/SIMULINK is used for implementation and results shows the performance of the converter.
Bounding the Output Error in a Buck Power Converter Using Perturbation Theory
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Gerard Olivar
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We show the main results obtained when applying the average theory to Zero Average Dynamic control technique in a buck power converter with pulse-width modulation (PWM. In particular, we have obtained the bound values for output error and sliding surface. The PWM with centered and lateral pulse configurations were analyzed. The analytical results have confirmed the numerical and experimental results already obtained in previous publications. Moreover, through an important lemma, we have generalized the theory for any stable second-order system with relative degree 2, using properties related to transformations and stability of linear systems.
Steady-state analysis of dead-time effect on bidirectional buck converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bidoggia, Benoit; Maheshwari, Ram Krishan
2012-01-01
Half-bridge inverters, full-bridge inverters and bidirectional buck converters share a common topological structure, in which two switches and two diodes are present. In such a topology, a dead time between the two signals controlling the switches is inserted. This influences the relationship between output voltage, input voltage and duty cycle as a function of the output current. In the literature, the dead-time effect has been studied in relation with inverters, active filters, voltage regulated modules and high-precision power amplifiers, and dead-time compensation techniques have been proposed. However, the measurement of the current is normally required for all dead-time compensation strategies, which can be a problem when the current approaches or crosses zero. In this paper, the operation of a bidirectional buck converter in the region around zero current has been analytically analyzed. It has been shown that in a region around zero there is no dead-time effect. The analytical expression of the bordersbetween the areas where the dead-time effect is positive, zero or negative has been given. Moreover it has been shown that between these three areas, there are four other transitional areas. The analytical analysis has been confirmed by simulation and experimental results.
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M.S.SIVAGAMAUNDARI, DR.P.MELBA MARY, V.K.VELVIZHI
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Energy, especially alternative source of energy is vital for the development of a country. In future, the world anticipates to develop more of its solar resource potential as an alternative energy source to overcome the persistent shortages and unreliability of power supply. In order to maximize the power output the system components of the photovoltaic system should be optimized. For the optimization maximum power point tracking (MPPT is a promising technique that grid tie inverters, solar battery chargers and similar devices use to get the maximum possible power from one or more solar panels. Among the different methods used to track the maximum power point, Perturb and Observe method is a type of strategy to optimize the power output of an array. In this method, the controller adjusts the voltage by a small amount from the array and measures power, if the power increases, further adjustments in that direction are tried until power no longer increases. In this research paper the system performance is optimized by perturb and observe method using buck boost converter. By varying the duty cycle of the buck boost converter, the source impedance can be matched to adjust the load impedance to improve the efficiency of the system. The Performance has been studied by the MATLAB/Simulink.
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Xu Cheng
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance perspectives and theoretical limitations of trench power MOSFETs in synchronous rectifier buck converters operating in the MHz frequency range. Several trench MOSFET technologies are studied using a mixed-mode device/circuit modeling approach. Individual power loss contributions from the control and synchronous MOSFETs, and their dependence on switching frequency between 500Ã¢Â€Â‰kHz and 5Ã¢Â€Â‰MHz are discussed in detail. It is observed that the conduction loss contribution decreases from 40% to 4% while the switching loss contribution increases from 60% to 96% as the switching frequency increases from 500Ã¢Â€Â‰KHz to 5Ã¢Â€Â‰MHz. Beyond 1Ã¢Â€Â‰MHz frequency there is no obvious benefit to increase the die size of either SyncFET or CtrlFET. The RDS(ONÃƒÂ—QG figure of merit (FOM still correlates well to the overall converter efficiency in the MHz frequency range. The efficiency of the hard switching buck topology is limited to 80% at 2Ã¢Â€Â‰MHz and 65% at 5Ã¢Â€Â‰MHz even with the most advanced trench MOSFET technologies.
PERFORMANCE OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF PHOT OVOLTAIC MODULE WITH SIMULINK BUCK - BOOST CONVERTER
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Shahnam Baig
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Photovoltaic systems require interfacing power converters between the PV arrays and the buck - boost converter . In this paper is proposes the modeling, design and simulation of photovoltaic solar cell model considering the effect of solar irradiations and ch anges temperature. Its voltage current and power voltage characteristics are simulated with different conditions. It is noticed that output characteristics of PV array are affected by environmental conditions and conversion efficiency is low. The use math ematical analysis is done for the single diode model. The single diode model is employed to investigate the I - V and P - V characteristics of 36 W module systems. The effect of irradiation and temperature is also considered. This mathematical analysis approac h is a very flexible to change the parameters of the system.
A Tapped-Inductor Buck-Boost Converter for a Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer Generator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig
2014-01-01
Energy harvesting applications based on Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generators have been in the spotlight in recent years after the latter ones’ documented advantages against competing electromagnetic and field-activated technologies. Yet, the need for bidirectional energy flow under high step-up and high step-down voltage conversion ratios, accompanied by low-average but relatively high-peak currents, imposes great challenges on the design of the employed power electronic converter. In addition, the effective operational range of the converter is usually limited by the lack of commercially-available, high-efficient, high-voltage, low-power semiconductor devices. In this paper, a high-efficient bidirectional tapped-inductor buck-boost converter, addressing high step-up and high step-down voltage conversion ratios, is proposed for energy harvesting applications based on DEAP generators. The high-side switch of the converter is replaced by a string of three non-matched, non-thermally-coupled, off-the-shelf MOSFETs, extending its effective operational range. Experiments conducted on a standalone DEAP generator validate the applicability of the proposed converter by demonstrating energy harvesting of 0.42 J, at 0.75 Hz and 60 % delta-strain, characterized by a world-first; energy density equal to 2 J per kg of active material.
Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Fuel Cell/DC-DC Convertor System
Fan Li-Ping; Li Chong
2013-01-01
Maintaining a fuel cell system in a correct operating status requires good system control. An adaptive fuzzy control scheme is proposed in this study for the fuel cell/DC-DC converter system to realize constant voltage output under different loads. PID controller and fuzzy controller are used to compare with the proposed adaptive fuzzy controller. Simulation results show that the adaptive fuzzy controller can provide attractive control effects such as faste...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, Henrique Fioravanti Miguel
2009-08-15
This work presents the study and development of a processing power system that could be used in the connection of renewable energy sources to commercial power grid. The system consists of a ZETA converter associated with a bridge inverter operating at low frequency. The Zeta converter, operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM), plays the main role in this arrangement, producing a rectified sinusoidal current waveform synchronized with the electric grid. The function of the full-bridge inverter, connected in cascade with the Zeta converter, is to reverse every 180 deg the current generated by the Zeta converter. Initially it presents the analysis of the Zeta converter operating in DCM, as well as a design criterion. Following by the control strategy and the experimental results for the proposed system are presented and discussed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Onar, Omer C [ORNL
2011-01-01
This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe
2012-01-01
In this paper an analysis of two planar transformers designed for high-current switching applications is presented. Typical converter application is represented by fuel and electrolyser cell converters. The transformer designs are based on E+I and ER+I planar cores while the analysis focuses on winding resistance and leakage inductances which represent the main concerns related to low-voltage high-current applications. The PCB winding design has a one to one turn ratio with no interleaving between primary and secondary windings. The main goal was to determine if ER planar core could provide a significant advantage in terms of winding losses compared to planar E cores. Results from finite element analysis highlight that low frequency winding resistance is lower for the ER core since it is dominated by the lower mean turn length however, as the AC-resistance becomes dominating the winding eddy current losses increases more in the ER core than in the E core design. Calculated and simulated leakage inductances for the analyzed cores do not show relevant differences. A laboratory prototype based on E64 planar core is used as reference. Laboratory measurements highlight that FEM analysis provides more realistic results when computing the winding AC-resistance.
MPPT Using Fuzzy Logic Control and Buck Converter for Photovoltaic System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.Thulasi Priya*1,
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a fuzzy logic control (FLC is proposed to control the maximum power point tracking (MPPT for a photovoltaic (PV system. The proposed technique uses the fuzzy logic control to specify the size of incremental current in the current command of MPPT. As results indicated, the convergence time of maximum power point (MPP of the proposed algorithm is better than that of the conventional Perturb and Observation (P&O technique. The simulation results have been used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. The proposed method produces good efficiency with low switching loss. The nonlinearity and adaptiveness of fuzzy controller provided good performance under parameter variations such as solar irradiation. Tracking of the maximum power point (MPPT plays an important role in photovoltaic(PV power systems because they maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize they module efficiency. This work presents a fuzzy logic controller based MPPT algorithms using design of dc to dc new buck converter for photovoltaic applications. The introduction of fuzzy c
A High Step-Down Interleaved Buck Converter with Active-Clamp Circuits for Wind Turbines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chih-Lung Shen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a high step-down interleaved buck coupled-inductor converter (IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion has been studied. In high step-down voltage applications, an IBCC can extend duty ratio and reduce voltage stresses on active switches. In order to reduce switching losses of active switches to improve conversion efficiency, a IBCC with soft-switching techniques is usually required. Compared with passive-clamp circuits, the IBCC with active-clamp circuits have lower switching losses and minimum ringing voltage of the active switches. Thus, the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits for wind energy conversion can significantly increase conversion efficiency. Finally, a 240 W prototype of the proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits was built and implemented. Experimental results have shown that efficiency can reach as high as 91%. The proposed IBCC with active-clamp circuits is presented in high step-down voltage applications to verify the performance and the feasibility for energy conversion of wind turbines.
An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi
2013-01-01
This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range of output DC voltage. Moreover, the involved DC/DC buck conversion stage may only need to convert partial input power rather than full scale of input power, and therefore the system overall efficiency can be much improved. Through proper control of the buck converter, it is also possible to mitigate the double-line frequency ripple power that is inherent in a single-phase AC/DC system. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of this converter.
Quasi Y-Source Boost DC-DC Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siwakoti, Yam P.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
A new topology called “quasi-Y-source impedance network” is presented in this paper. It inherits all the advantages of the original Y-source network. In addition, the new topology draws continuous current from the source which is required for many renewable sources. It also has dc-current-blocking capacitors, which avoids saturation in the transformer core.
Designing Magnetic Components for High Frequency DC-DC Converters
McLyman, W. T.
1993-01-01
The conversion process in power electronics requires the use of tranformers and inductors, components which frequenly are the heaviest and bulkiest item in the conversion circuits. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Taufiq Ramadhan
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Penggunaan mobil listrik secara umum terkendala pada beban, kecepatan aktual, serta efisiensi energi. Pemanfaatan Fuzzy Logic Controller untuk pengaturan kecepatan motor DC pada mobil listrik diperlukan untuk meraih kecepatan aktual yang lebih presisi sehingga diperoleh efisiensi energi. Selain itu perlu juga menggunakan Bidirectional Buck-Boost Cascade Converter untuk pengaturan motor DC secara bidirectional, yakni pengaturan saat motoring dan saat pengereman regeneratif (regenerative braking. Hal ini berdasar pada energi yang terbuang percuma, baik itu rugi elektris maupun rugi mekanis saat pengereman.
Exploration of Charge Recycling DC-DC Conversion Using a Switched Capacitor Regulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mircea R. Stan
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The increasing popularity of DVFS (dynamic voltage frequency scaling schemes for portable low power applications demands highly efficient on-chip DC-DC converters. The primary aim of this work is to enable increased efficiency of on-chip DC-DC conversion for near-threshold operation of multicore chips. The idea is to supply nominal (high off-chip voltage to the cores which are then “voltage-stacked” to generate the near-threshold (low voltages based on Kirchhoff’s voltage law through charge recycling. However, the effectiveness of this implicit down-conversion is affected by the current imbalance among the cores. The paper presents a design methodology and optimization strategy for highly efficient charge recycling on-chip regulation using a push-pull switched capacitor (SC circuit. A dual-boundary hysteretic feedback control circuit has been designed for stacked loads. A stacked-voltage domain with its self-regulation capability combined with a SC converter has shown average efficiency of 78%–93% for 2:1 down-conversion with ILoad (max of 200 mA and workload imbalance varying from 0–100%.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Erick, Baethge; Alberto, Berzoy; Víctor, Guzmán; María Isabel, Giménez.
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Para obtener la máxima energía de un panel solar es necesario operarlo en el punto de máxima potencia, donde el producto de la tensión fotovoltaica generada y la corriente extraída es un máximo. En operación normal este punto cambia continuamente, lo que requiere de un sistema de seguimiento del pun [...] to de máxima potencia para optimizar la operación del panel. Los paneles solares presentan una característica no lineal en la curva corriente-voltaje, lo que hace difícil la utilización de algoritmos convencionales de seguimiento de puntos de operación donde se busca un máximo o un mínimo. Se ha demostrado que el algoritmo “perturbar y observar” (P&O) es adecuado para el seguimiento del punto de máxima transferencia de potencia sobre este sistema. Este trabajo presenta una simulación en Matlab Simulink del comportamiento del panel solar bajo irradiancias y temperaturas típicas. El modelo se usa para probar que un sistema de seguimiento del punto de máxima potencia del panel basado en el algoritmo P&O operando sobre un control predictivo de corriente aplicado a un convertidor CC-CC es capaz de encontrar y seguir eficientemente el punto de máxima transferencia de potencia frente a variaciones en las condiciones de irradiancia y temperatura en el panel. Abstract in english To get maximum energy from a solar panel it is necessary to operate in the maximum power point where the product of generated photovoltage and extracted current is a maximum. In normal operation this point changes continuously, therefore a maximum power point tracking system is required. Solar panel [...] s present a nonlinear characteristic in the current-voltage graph, complicating the use of standard operating point tracking algorithms to find a maximum power point. If has been shown that the "perturb and observe" (P&O) algorithm is adequate to achieve this task. This work presents a Simulink Matlab simulation of the solar panel behavior under constant irradiation and typical temperatures. This simulation is used to prove that a maximum power point tracking control based on the P&O algorithm manipulating a predictive current control applied to a DC-DC converter is able to find and efficiently follow the maximum power point under panel irradiance and temperature variations.
Stability Constrained Efficiency Optimization for Droop Controlled DC-DC Conversion System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav
2013-01-01
Paralleled dc converter systems are widely used in distribution systems and uninterruptable power supplies. This paper implements a hierarchical control in a droop-controlled dc-dc conversion system with special focus on improving system efficiency which is dealt within the tertiary regulation. As the efficiency of each converter changes with output power, virtual resistances (VRs) are set as decision variables for adjusting power sharing proportion among converters. It is noteworthy that apart from restoring the voltage deviation, secondary control plays an important role to stabilize dc bus voltage when implementing tertiary regulation. Moreover, system dynamic is affected when shifting VRs. Therefore, the stability is considered in optimization by constraining the eigenvalues arising from dynamic state space model of the system. Genetic algorithm is used in searching for global efficiency optimum while keeping stable operation. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
Diseño estático de un convertidor DC/DC reductor-elevador bidireccional
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcela González Valencia
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This paper shows a buck-boost converter static design with 3 switches and cascade connection. The main application of the converter is the battery management on uninterruptible power supplies, cotrolling energy flow and regulating the DC supply voltage for the different battery operation modes as source and sink.
A tapped-inductor buck-boost converter for a multi-DEAP generator energy harvesting system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig
2014-01-01
Interest on Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generators has aroused among scientists in recent years, due to the former ones' documented advantages against competing electromagnetic and field-activated technologies. Yet, the need for bidirectional energy flow under high step-up and high step-down voltage conversion ratios, accompanied by low-average but relatively high-peak currents, imposes great challenges on the design of the employed power electronic converter. On top of that, the shortage of commercially-available, high-efficient, high-voltage, low-power semiconductor devices limits the effective operational range of the power electronic converter. In this paper, a bidirectional tapped-inductor buck-boost converter is proposed, addressing high-efficient high step-up and high step-down voltage conversion ratios, for energy harvesting applications based on DEAP generators. The effective operational range of the converter is extended, by replacing its high-side switch with a string of three serialized MOSFETs, to accommodate the need for high-efficient high-voltage operation. Experiments conducted on a single DEAP generator - part of a quadruple DEAP generator energy harvesting system with all elements installed sequentially in the same circular disk with a 90 phase shift - validate the applicability of the proposed converter, demonstrating energy harvesting of 0.26 J, at 0.5 Hz and 60 % delta-strain; characterized by an energy density of 1.25 J per kg of active material.
A tapped-inductor buck-boost converter for a multi-DEAP generator energy harvesting system
Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig
2014-03-01
Interest on Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generators has aroused among scientists in recent years, due to the former ones' documented advantages against competing electromagnetic and field-activated technologies. Yet, the need for bidirectional energy flow under high step-up and high step-down voltage conversion ratios, accompanied by low-average but relatively high-peak currents, imposes great challenges on the design of the employed power electronic converter. On top of that, the shortage of commercially-available, high-efficient, high-voltage, low-power semiconductor devices limits the effective operational range of the power electronic converter. In this paper, a bidirectional tapped-inductor buck-boost converter is proposed, addressing high- efficient high step-up and high step-down voltage conversion ratios, for energy harvesting applications based on DEAP generators. The effective operational range of the converter is extended, by replacing its high-side switch with a string of three serialized MOSFETs, to accommodate the need for high-efficient high-voltage operation. Experiments conducted on a single DEAP generator - part of a quadruple DEAP generator energy harvesting system with all elements installed sequentially in the same circular disk with a 90° phase shift - validate the applicability of the proposed converter, demonstrating energy harvesting of 0.26 J, at 0.5 Hz and 60% delta- strain; characterized by an energy density of 1.25 J per kg of active material.
Liquid Nitrogen Temperature Operation of a Switching Power Converter
Ray, Biswajit; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard L.; Myers, Ira T.
1995-01-01
The performance of a 42/28 V, 175 W, 50 kHz pulse-width modulated buck dc/dc switching power converter at liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) is compared with room temperature operation. The power circuit as well as the control circuit of the converter, designed with commercially available components, were operated at LNT and resulted in a slight improvement in converter efficiency. The improvement in power MOSFET operation was offset by deteriorating performance of the output diode rectifier at LNT. Performance of the converter could be further improved at low temperatures by using only power MOSFET's as switches. The use of a resonant topology will further improve the circuit performance by reducing the switching noise and loss.
Digitally Controlled Point of Load Converter with Very Fast Transient Response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Lars TØnnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new Digital Self-Oscillating Modulator (DiSOM) that allows the duty cycle to be changed instantly. The DiSOM modulator is shown to have variable switching that is a function of the duty cycle. Compared to a more traditional digital PWM modulator based on a counter and comparator the DiSOM modulator allows the sampling frequency of the output voltage control loop to be higher than the switching frequency of the power converter, typically a DC/DC converter. The features of the DiSOM modulator makes it possible to design a digitally controlled DC/DC converter with linear voltage mode control and very fast transient response. The DiSOM modulator is combined with a digital PID compensator algorithm is implemented in a hybrid CPLD/FPGA and is used to control a synchronous Buck converter, which is used in typical Point of Load applications. The computational time is only three clock cycles from the time the A/D converter result is read by the control algorithm to the time the duty cycle command is updated. A typical POL converter has been built and the experimental results show that the transient response of the converter is very fast. The output voltage overshoot is only 2.5% of the nominal output voltage when a load step of 50% - 100% of nominal output current is applied to the converter. The settling time is approximately 8 PWM cycles.
Efficient Hybrid Optimal Design Method for Power Electronics Converters
AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)697719; Aguglia, Davide; Viarouge, Philippe; Cros, Jérôme
2015-01-01
This paper presents a novel design methodology for dimensioning optimal power-electronic converters, which is able to achieve the precision of numerical simulation-based optimization procedures, however minimizing the overall computation time. The approach is based on the utilization of analytical and frequency-domain design models for a numerical optimization process, a validation with numerical simulations of the intermediate optimal solutions, and the correction of the analytical design models precision from the numerical simulation results. This method allows using the numerical simulation in an efficient way, where typically less than ten correction iterations are required. In order to demonstrate the performances of the proposed methodology, the calculation of the control parameters for an H-bridge DC-DC converter and the optimal dimensioning of a damped output filter for a buck converter using the proposed approach is presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
RØdgaard, Martin SchØler; Andersen, Thomas
2012-01-01
Research and development within piezoelectric transformer (PT) based converters are rapidly increasing as the technology is maturing and starts to prove its capabilities. Especially for high voltage and high step-up applications, PT based converters have demonstrated good performance and DC/AC converters are widely used commercially. The availability of PT based converters for DC/DC applications are very limited and are not that developed yet. I this paper an interleaved multi layer Rosen-type PT for high step-up and high output voltage is developed, for driving a 2.5kV dielectric electro active polymer actuator [17]. The targeted application utilises an inductor-less half-bridge driving topology, where the reward of eliminating the series inductor is a reduction in component count, size and price. The absence of a series inductance calls for other means to avoid large hard switching losses and obtain soft switching capabilities. This can be achieved by utilising an advantageous PT structure, which is the main advantage of the interleaved Rosen-type PT. Furthermore the design should be further optimised, in order to achieve soft switching capability. The goal of this paper is to develop a soft switching optimised PT, capable of generating output voltages higher than 2kV from a 24V supply voltage. Furthermore finite element method (FEM) has been the main tool through the PT development.
Parallel connection of high-power DC/DC power supply based on IGBT device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parallel connection technique of DC/DC power supplies is adopted, and DC high-power supply is designed based on IGBT device, which can be used as the plasma displacement fast control power supply for EAST device. Based on the simulation and experiment, satisfactory dynamic and static performance of the DC/DC power supply was obtained. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) introduce a significant challenge to the power distribution of the detectors. DC-DC conversion is the preferred powering scheme proposed to be integrated for the CMS tracker to deliver high input voltage levels and performing a step-down conversion nearby the detector modules. In this work, we propose a step-up/step-down powering scheme by performing voltage step up at the CAEN supply unit and voltage step down near the detector. We designed step-up converters and investigate the pixel performance and power loss on the FPIX power distribution system. Tests are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chips on a forward pixel panel module and the DC-DC converters developed at CERN and Fermilab. Reliability studies include the voltage drop measurements on the readout chips and the power supply noise generated from the converter. Performance studies include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Comparison between step-down only and step-up/step-down conversion powering schemes are provided.
PERFORMANCE OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE WITH SIMULINK BUCK - BOOST CONVERTER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pixy Saxena
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The effective utilization of the solar panel and the constant power for small system to big energy system is required. A circuit based simulation model for a PV cell for estimating the IV characteristic curves of photovoltaic panel with respect to changes on environmental parameters (temperature and irradiance and cell parameters The simulation and modeling of the solar panel is the initial point to enter in the research related to the solar energy system. The power output is highly depending on the environme nt condition and solar radiation. Photovoltaic systems require interfacing power converters between the PV arrays and the use cuk converter
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Lina, Morales Laguado; Harold, Chamorro; Jairo, Soriano.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Este trabajo propone el análisis y diseño de dos estrategias de control para un conversor CC-CC reductor de corriente permanente. Tal tipo de dispositivos de electrónica de potencia convierten una tensión continua a otra de menor magnitud y cuyas características de no linealidad son evidenciadas. Se [...] presentan entonces, dos técnicas de control no lineal, la primera propuesta es un control óptimo PI (error proporcional e integral del error) convencional, basado en la minimización del criterio ITSE (integral del cuadrado del error ponderado en el tiempo). Para ello se obtiene un modelo de la planta en un punto de operación. La segunda propuesta es un control difuso cuyos conjuntos de entrada y salida son también definidos minimizando el criterio ITSE en el sistema general, y estableciendo como entradas el error proporcional y la integral del error. A continuación se realiza una variación de la carga para establecer la eficiencia del sistema con los dos controladores mencionados. Se debe tener en cuenta que este tipo de sistemas no debe presentar sobretensiones considerables, ya que puede ocasionar daño en él. En este sentido, los parámetros encontrados en el diseño de los dos controladores corresponden a una metodología analítica y descriptiva. Los resultados obtenidos en simulación, y estableciendo como figura de mérito el índice de desempeño mencionado (ITSE) y el consumo de potencia, muestra que la respuesta del sistema para el control difuso presenta un mayor consumo de potencia que el control óptimo, mientras que el ITSE obtenido es mayor para el control óptimo que para el difuso. Se concluye que la exploración de este tipo de conversores, utilizando técnicas de control no lineal y minimizando los diferentes índices de desempeño, es aplicable. Abstract in english This document proposes analysing and designing two control strategies for permanent current DC-DC buck converter. These kinds of electronic devices convert a constant-voltage to a lower constant-voltage (nonlinearity characteristics being demonstrated). Two nonlinear control techniques are shown. Th [...] e first is a conventional optimal proportional error and integral error (PI) controller based on minimising integral of time per squared errors (ITSE) criteria. A model of the plant at an operation point was thus obtained. The second one was fuzzy control where input and output sets were also defined by minimising ITSE criteria in the overall system and establishing inputs such as proportional error and integral error. Load was then varied to establish the system's efficiency with both the aforementioned controllers. It must be borne in mind that such systems should not present supervoltage since this can cause damage. The parameters found in designing both controllers thus corresponded to analytical and descriptive methodology. Simulation results, the performance index mentioned above (ITSE) and power consumption showed that the system's response for the fuzzy control drew more power consumption than the optimal controller; otherwise, obtained ITSE was larger for the optimal control than the fuzzy control. It is concluded that exploring these types of converter is applicable when using nonlinear control techniques and minimising the different performance indices.
Bifurcation-free design method of pulse energy converter controllers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a design method of pulse energy converter (PEC) controllers is proposed. This method develops a classical frequency domain design, based on the small signal modeling, by means of an addition of a nonlinear dynamics analysis stage. The main idea of the proposed method consists in fact that the PEC controller, designed with an application of the small signal modeling, is tuned after with taking into the consideration an essentially nonlinear nature of the PEC that makes it possible to avoid bifurcation phenomena in the PEC dynamics at the design stage (bifurcation-free design). Also application of the proposed method allows an improvement of the designed controller performance. The application of this bifurcation-free design method is demonstrated on an example of the controller design of direct current-direct current (DC-DC) buck converter with an input electromagnetic interference filter.
Bifurcation-free design method of pulse energy converter controllers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolokolov, Yury [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Informatics and Control, Yugra State University, 16 Chekhova str., Khanty-Mansiysk 628012 (Russian Federation); Ustinov, Pavel [Department of Design and Technology of Electronic and Computer Systems, Orel State Technical University, 29 Naugorskoye Shosse, Orel 302020 (Russian Federation); CReSTIC, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, Reims Cedex 2, 51687 (France)], E-mail: pavel-ustinov@yandex.ru; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz [CReSTIC, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, Reims Cedex 2, 51687 (France)
2009-12-15
In this paper, a design method of pulse energy converter (PEC) controllers is proposed. This method develops a classical frequency domain design, based on the small signal modeling, by means of an addition of a nonlinear dynamics analysis stage. The main idea of the proposed method consists in fact that the PEC controller, designed with an application of the small signal modeling, is tuned after with taking into the consideration an essentially nonlinear nature of the PEC that makes it possible to avoid bifurcation phenomena in the PEC dynamics at the design stage (bifurcation-free design). Also application of the proposed method allows an improvement of the designed controller performance. The application of this bifurcation-free design method is demonstrated on an example of the controller design of direct current-direct current (DC-DC) buck converter with an input electromagnetic interference filter.
A Closed Form Expression for Predicting Fast Scale Instability in Switching Buck Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El Aroudi Abdelali
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Fast scale instability is an undesired phenomenon in switching converters. In past studies, its prediction has been mainly carried out by deriving discrete time models and then linearizing the system in the vicinity of a fixed point. However, the results obtained from such an approach cannot be applied for design purpose except for simple cases of current mode control. Alternatively, in this paper, this phenomenon is analyzed by using a unified formal symbolic approach which can be applied for different control strategies. This approach is based on expressing the condition for fast scale instability occurrence using Fourier series and then converting the result into a matrix form expression which depends explicitly on the system parameters making the results directly applicable for design purpose. Under certain practical conditions concerning these parameters, the matrix form expression can be approximated by standard polynomial functions depending on the operating duty cycle. The approximating polynomial functions are widely related to the well known Clausen polynomial functions. The results presented in this work clearly generalize the well known stability condition of current mode control.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiara Freitas
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A new application of the three-phase buck-resonant converter is presented in this paper. It is shown that the analyzed converter is suitable to operate as the rectifier stage in low power wind energy conversion systems (WECS based on permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG with variable wind speed. As main features, it presents a single controlled switch, simple implementation and control, and operates with a high power factor and low harmonic distortion over all wind speed ranges. The converter topology, its design equations and its operation are presented, as well as the simulation results of the PMSG based conversion system. From the analysis carried out in the paper it is concluded that the converter is indicated to be employed in distributed generation and hybrid systems where wind generation is associated with other sources.
Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho
2015-06-01
We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.
Lee, F. C.; Yu, Y.; Mahmoud, M. F.
1980-01-01
Three basic switching regulators: buck, boost, and buck/boost, employing a multi-loop control module (SCM) were characterized by a common small signal block diagram. Employing the unified model, regulator performances such as stability, audiosusceptibility, output impedance and step load transient are analyzed and key performance indexes are expressed in simple analytical forms. More importantly, the performance characteristics of all three regulators are shown to enjoy common properties due to the unique SCM control scheme which nullifies the positive zero and provides adaptive compensation to the moving poles of the boost and buck/boost converters. This allows a simple unified design procedure to be devised for selecting the key SCM control parameters for an arbitrarily given power stage configuration and parameter values, such that all regulator performance specifications can be met and optimized concurrently in a single design attempt.
Fan, Haifeng
2011-12-01
The distributed renewable energy generation and utilization are constantly growing, and are expected to be integrated with the conventional grid. The growing pressure for innovative solutions will demand power electronics to take an even larger role in future electric energy delivery and management systems, since power electronics are required for the conversion and control of electric energy by most dispersed generation systems Furthermore, power electronics systems can provide additional intelligent energy management, grid stability and power quality capabilities. Medium-voltage isolated dc-dc converter will become one of the key interfaces for grid components with moderate power ratings. To address the demand of medium voltage (MV) and high power capability for future electric energy delivery and management systems, the power electronics community and industry have been reacting in two different ways: developing semiconductor technology or directly connecting devices in series/parallel to reach higher nominal voltages and currents while maintaining conventional converter topologies; and by developing new converter topologies with traditional semiconductor technology, known as multilevel converters or modular converters. The modular approach uses the well-known, mature, and cheaper power semiconductor devices by adopting new converter topologies. The main advantages of the modular approach include: significant improvement in reliability by introducing desired level of redundancy; standardization of components leading to reduction in manufacturing cost and time; power systems can be easily reconfigured to support varying input-output specifications; and possibly higher efficiency and power density of the overall system. Input-series output-parallel (ISOP) modular configuration is a good choice to realize MV to low voltage (LV) conversion for utility application. However, challenges still remain. First of all, for the high-frequency MV utility application, the low switching loss and conduction loss are must-haves for high efficiency, while bidirectional power flow capability is a must for power management requirement. To address the demand, the phase-shift dual-halfbridge (DHB) is proposed as the constituent module of ISOP configuration for MV application. The proposed ISOP DHB converter employs zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) technique combined with LV MOSFETs to achieve low switching and conduction losses under high frequency operation, and therefore high efficiency and high power density, and bidirectional power flow as well. Secondly, a large load range of high efficiency is desired rather than only a specific load point due to the continuous operation and large load variation range of utility application, which is of high importance because of the rising energy cost. This work proposes a novel DHB converter with an adaptive commutation inductor. By utilizing an adaptive inductor as the main energy transfer element, the output power can be controlled by not only the phase shift but also the commutation inductance, which allows the circulating energy to be optimized for different load conditions to maintain ZVS under light load conditions and minimize additional conduction losses under heavy load conditions as well. As a result, the efficiency at both light and heavy load can be significantly improved compared with the conventional DHB converter, and therefore extended high-efficiency range can be achieved. In addition, current stress of switch devices can be reduced. The theoretical analysis is presented and validated by the experimental results on a 50 kHz, 1 kW dc-dc converter module. Thirdly, input-voltage sharing and output-current sharing are critical to assure the advantages of the ISOP modular configuration. To solve this issue, an identically distributed control scheme is proposed in this work. The proposed control scheme, using only one distributed voltage loop to realize both input-voltage and output-current sharing, provides plug-and-play capability, possible high-level fault tolerance, and easy implementatio
Grid converter for LED based intelligent light sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Török, Lajos
2011-01-01
The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the applicability and effects of digital control to line connected switched mode power supplies with power factor correction. The main approach was cost effectiveness with high efficiency. This involved hardware design for increased switching frequency to reduce the size of the magnetic components. A description of different grid regulations was given followed by a set of converter topologies and controllers. Different control techniques were pointed out. Among the listed topologies and control solutions few were selected for further analysis, design and implementation. Many of different hardware and control solutions available on the market were investigated. Most of the commercial power supplies are controlled by dedicated analog controllers in form an integrated circuit. Thus a survey was conducted to analyze the available state-of-art analog controllers and their implemented control algorithms. As digital control has to be competitive with the existing solutions it was investigated what digital signal processing solutions exist. A performance and cost comparison was also presented. The chosen converter topologies were thoroughly analyzed. Different converters were chosen for different power levels. At low power simple boost converter as power factor corrector (PFC) and a RCD-clamped forward converter was chosen as DC-DC converter. This with has double output and coupled lter inductor. To design a digital controller with the tools of the classical control theory a small signal linearized model of the converter is needed. Detailed modeling and linearizing of the boost converter is presented. At high power level interleaving technique is frequently used to reduce the current stress on the switching components. Though the number of magnetic components is increased they became smaller in size resulting in smaller current ripple through them. An interleaved boost converter with two legs is selected as PFC converter. It was shown that the small signal model of theinterleaved converter is similar to the simple boost converter. Only the simple inductor has to be replaced by the paralleled inductors of each leg. This statement is valid only if the total inductor current is controlled rather than controlling the current in each leg. As second stage a phase-shifted full-bridge converter with synchronous rectication and current doubler was selected. It was shown that for output current and voltage control this topology can be modeled as a interleaved synchronous buck converter. As it can be seen interleaving technique is also present in this topology. For this topology a fuzzy logic voltage controller is proposed and compared to the traditional PI controller. After modeling the converters controllers can be designed. The controller design was interconnected with the hardware design and control platform. Thus two dfferent prototypes were designed and built with two dierent digital controllers and the controller design, analysis and implementation was based on these two case studies. The first prototype was a 70 W two-stage PFC and DC-DC converter with boost and forward converters. Average current mode control was selected, designed, simulated an implemented for the boost PFC converter. The two-loop control structure (fast internal current loop and lower bandwidth external voltage loop) was designed for nominal power but system behavior was also analyzed for low-load conditions. The controller was simulated in Matlab/Simulink using PLECS library and embedded Matlab function. All the parameters were treated and scaled just as they appear in the ADC interrupt of the 16 bit fixed point dsPIC30F1010 microcontroller. Peak current control was implemented for the forward converter, using analog comparator module of the digital-signal controller. The waveforms, eciency and power factor results were compared to the performance of an identical two stage 70 W power supply controlled with an analog PFC/PWM integrated circuit. The second prototype was a 600 W two-stage PFC and DC-DC converter with i
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach 2 x 1034 s-1cm-2 and 5 x 1034 s-1cm-2 around the years 2019 and 2024, respectively. After the second upgrade the LHC will be referred to as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to benefit from the higher luminosities, CMS foresees to upgrade its pixel detector during an extended winter shutdown of the LHC at the end of 2016 and the beginning of 2017. During a long shutdown of the LHC over the years 2022 and 2023, it is foreseen to install a completely new tracking system in CMS. Both upgrades are expected to result in the need to provide more electric current to the detector. However, power losses in cables already contribute 50% to the power consumption of the present tracker and rise with the current squared. Since no more space is available for cables, and thicker cables within the tracking volume spoil the material budget of the detector, new powering schemes are considered mandatory. CMS foresees the use of radiation tolerant DC-DC converters on the front-end to reduce power losses on cables. This thesis describes the new powering scheme of the CMS pixel detector and discusses the options with respect to a new strip tracker. A radiation and magnetic field tolerant DC-DC converter prototype, the PIXV8A, is introduced and the research that led to its development is summarised. The PIXV8A has been developed for the application in the pixel upgrade and is also a first approach for a DC-DC converter for the later upgrade of the CMS tracking system. The PIXV8A makes use of the AMIS4 chip, which has been proven to stay operational for total ionising doses of up to 1 MGy and fluences of up to 1015 neq/cm2. With an input voltage of 10 V, the PIXV8A converter provides an efficiency of about 80% for output voltages of 2.5 V and 3.0 V. Within this thesis the robustness of the novel powering scheme and the qualification of the PIXV8A are demonstrated in several tests, including system test measurements with silicon strip detector modules and silicon pixel detector modules in combination with an evaporative CO2 cooling system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sammet, Jan
2014-03-18
The instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach 2 x 10{sup 34} s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} and 5 x 10{sup 34} s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} around the years 2019 and 2024, respectively. After the second upgrade the LHC will be referred to as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to benefit from the higher luminosities, CMS foresees to upgrade its pixel detector during an extended winter shutdown of the LHC at the end of 2016 and the beginning of 2017. During a long shutdown of the LHC over the years 2022 and 2023, it is foreseen to install a completely new tracking system in CMS. Both upgrades are expected to result in the need to provide more electric current to the detector. However, power losses in cables already contribute 50% to the power consumption of the present tracker and rise with the current squared. Since no more space is available for cables, and thicker cables within the tracking volume spoil the material budget of the detector, new powering schemes are considered mandatory. CMS foresees the use of radiation tolerant DC-DC converters on the front-end to reduce power losses on cables. This thesis describes the new powering scheme of the CMS pixel detector and discusses the options with respect to a new strip tracker. A radiation and magnetic field tolerant DC-DC converter prototype, the PIXV8A, is introduced and the research that led to its development is summarised. The PIXV8A has been developed for the application in the pixel upgrade and is also a first approach for a DC-DC converter for the later upgrade of the CMS tracking system. The PIXV8A makes use of the AMIS4 chip, which has been proven to stay operational for total ionising doses of up to 1 MGy and fluences of up to 10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. With an input voltage of 10 V, the PIXV8A converter provides an efficiency of about 80% for output voltages of 2.5 V and 3.0 V. Within this thesis the robustness of the novel powering scheme and the qualification of the PIXV8A are demonstrated in several tests, including system test measurements with silicon strip detector modules and silicon pixel detector modules in combination with an evaporative CO{sub 2} cooling system.
Roermund, Arthur; Baschirotto, Andrea
2012-01-01
The book contains the contribution of 18 tutorials of the 20th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Each part discusses a specific to-date topic on new and valuable design ideas in the area of analog circuit design. Each part is presented by six experts in that field and state of the art information is shared and overviewed. This book is number 20 in this successful series of Analog Circuit Design, providing valuable information and excellent overviews of Low-Voltage Low-Power Data Converters - Chaired by Prof. Anderea Baschirotto, University of Milan-Bicocca Short Range Wireless Front-Ends - Chaired by Prof. Arthur van Roermund, Eindhoven University of Technology Power management and DC-DC - Chaired by Prof. M. Steyaert, Katholieke University Leuven Analog Circuit Design is an essential reference source for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to keep abreast with the latest development in the field. The tutorial coverage also makes it suitable for use in an advanced design.
Recovery Act: Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shepard, Kenneth L
2013-03-31
In this project, we have developed the use of thin-film magnetic materials to improve in energy efficiency of digital computing applications by enabling integrated dc-dc power conversion and management with on-chip power inductors. Integrated voltage regulators also enables fine-grained power management, by providing dynamic scaling of the supply voltage in concert with the clock frequency of synchronous logic to throttle power consumption at periods of low computational demand. The voltage converter generates lower output voltages during periods of low computational performance requirements and higher output voltages during periods of high computational performance requirements. Implementation of integrated power conversion requires high-capacity energy storage devices, which are generally not available in traditional semiconductor processes. We achieve this with integration of thin-film magnetic materials into a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process for high-quality on-chip power inductors. This project includes a body of work conducted to develop integrated switch-mode voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Soft-magnetic materials and inductor topologies are selected and optimized, with intent to maximize efficiency and current density of the integrated regulators. A custom integrated circuit (IC) is designed and fabricated in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to provide the control system and power-train necessary to drive the power inductors, in addition to providing a digital load for the converter. A silicon interposer is designed and fabricated in collaboration with IBM Research to integrate custom power inductors by chip stacking with the 45-nm CMOS integrated circuit, enabling power conversion with current density greater than 10A/mm2. The concepts and designs developed from this work enable significant improvements in performance-per-watt of future microprocessors in servers, desktops, and mobile devices. These new approaches to scaled voltage regulation for computing devices also promise significant impact on electricity consumption in the United States and abroad by improving the efficiency of all computational platforms. In 2006, servers and datacenters in the United States consumed an estimated 61 billion kWh or about 1.5% of the nation's total energy consumption. Federal Government servers and data centers alone accounted for about 10 billion kWh, for a total annual energy cost of about $450 million. Based upon market growth and efficiency trends, estimates place current server and datacenter power consumption at nearly 85 billion kWh in the US and at almost 280 billion kWh worldwide. Similar estimates place national desktop, mobile and portable computing at 80 billion kWh combined. While national electricity utilization for computation amounts to only 4% of current usage, it is growing at a rate of about 10% a year with volume servers representing one of the largest growth segments due to the increasing utilization of cloud-based services. The percentage of power that is consumed by the processor in a server varies but can be as much as 30% of the total power utilization, with an additional 50% associated with heat removal. The approaches considered here should allow energy efficiency gains as high as 30% in processors for all computing platforms, from high-end servers to smart phones, resulting in a direct annual energy savings of almost 15 billion kWh nationally, and 50 billion kWh globally. The work developed here is being commercialized by the start-up venture, Ferric Semiconductor, which has already secured two Phase I SBIR grants to bring these technologies to the marketplace.
Basic circuits to design switched-based DC-DC converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Sandoval-Ibarra
2007-01-01
Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es doble. Por un lado, se presentan conceptos básicos de circuitos conmutados para diseñar un convertidor CD–CD y, por el otro, se rescatan definiciones de electrónica de potencia asociadas a redes eléctricas simples. En el análisis de esas redes es necesario tomar en cuenta no solo las no idealidades de los convertidores sino también cómo minimizar pérdidas de potencia. Porque las perdidas de potencia pueden ser minimizadas aumentando la frecuencia de reloj de los convertidores conmutados, se presentan resultados experimentales de generadores de reloj. Estos circuitos fueron implementados con componentes de bajo costo.
The use of power DC-DC converters and gyrator structures for energy processing
Martínez García, Herminio
2014-01-01
This article provides a classification of high efficiency switching power-gyrator structures and their use as cells for energy processing in photovoltaic solar facilities. Having into account the properties of these topologies presented in the article, their inclusion in solar facilities allows increasing the performance of the whole installation. Thus, the design, simulation and implementation of a G-type power gyrator are carried out throughout the text. In addition, in order to obtain the ...
Dynamic back propagation based MRAC with fuzzy emulator for DC-DC converter
Kadwane, S.G.; Kumar, A.; Kuran, B.M.
2007-01-01
Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is commonly used in traditional neural network based adaptive controller design. Neural network based MRAC often requires plant emulator when neural controller is connected in between the plant and the control input. Several methodologies for constructing the plant emulator have been proposed but they require either off-line training of the plant emulator or an exact mathematical model of the plant. This limits the capability of a neural system to gener...
FC/Battery Power Management for Electric Vehicle Based Interleaved DC-DC Boost Converter Topology
Benrabah, Ali; Khoucha, Farid; Herizi, Omar; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Kheloui, Abdelaziz
2013-01-01
Due to the fact that the environmental issues have become more serious recently, interest in renewable energy systems, such as, fuel-cells (FCs) has increased steadfastly. Among many types of FCs, proton exchange membrane FC (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources due to its advantages, such as, low operation temperature, high power density and low emission. However, using only PEMFC for electric vehicle may not be feasible to satisfy the peak demand changes especially during accel...
Usign Planar Transformers in Soft Switching DC/DC Power Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Kacor
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the demand for wide applications of highly regulated, reliable power supplies, and the desire to have smaller size, lighter weight and higher efficiency of power electronics systems has been increased. The tallest and heaviest components on printed-circuit-boards are often magnetic components. The answer for miniaturization and material performance can be planar magnetic technology. This paper focuses on the power planar magnetic circuits, with respect to application possibilities of these alternative and attractive magnetic components in modern, soft switching, low profile power supplies.
High frequency capacitor-diode voltage multiplier dc-dc converter development
Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.
1977-01-01
A power conditioner was developed which used a capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide a high voltage without the use of a step-up transformer. The power conditioner delivered 1200 Vdc at 100 watts and was operated from a 120 Vdc line. The efficiency was in excess of 90 percent. The component weight was 197 grams. A modified boost-add circuit was used for the regulation. A short circuit protection circuit was used which turns off the drive circuit upon a fault condition, and recovers within 5 ms after removal of the short. High energy density polysulfone capacitors and high speed diodes were used in the multiplier circuit.
High efficiency DC-DC converter using GaN transistors
Tóma?, Cosmin-Andrei; Grecu, Cristian; Pantazic?, Mihaela; Marghescu, Ion
2015-02-01
The paper presents a new high-efficiency power switching supply using the Gallium Nitride (GaN) technology. There are compared two solutions, the first using standard MOS transistors and the second using the new GaN transistor. The actual green technologies for obtaining the maximum energy and minimum losses have pushed the semiconductor industry into a continuous research regarding high power and high frequency devices, having uses in both digital communications and switching power supplies.
A DC-DC Converter-Based PEM Fuel Cell System Emulator
Rezzak, Daoud; Khoucha, Farid; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Kheloui, Abdelaziz; Mamoune, Abdeslam
2011-01-01
The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is being investigated as an alternate power source for various applications as transportation and emergency power supplies. Fuel cell systems are characterized by high costs and complex auxiliary devices. For this reason, a fuel cell emulator can be used as a suitable and economic alternative to a real one for developing and testing a fuel cell power conditioning system. The fuel cell emulator must be able to reproduce the FC nonlinear output vol...
Analysis and design of multicell DC/DC converters using vectorized models
Meynard, Thierry
2015-01-01
Shows how the concepts of vectorization and design masks can be used to help the designer in comparing different designs and making the right choices. The book addresses series and parallel multicell conversion directly, and the concepts can be generalized to describe other topologies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tang, Yi; Zhu, Dexuan
2015-01-01
This paper presents a three-level quasi-two-stage single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter that has flexible output voltage and improved conversion efficiency. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and a wide range of output dc voltages, and it will be very suitable for high-power applications where the output voltage can be either lower or higher than the peak ac input voltage, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging systems. Moreover, the involved dc/dc buck conversion stage may only need to process partial input power rather than full scale of the input power, and therefore the system overall efficiency can be much improved. Through proper control of the buck converter, it is also possible to mitigate the double-line frequency ripple power that is inherent in a single-phase ac/dc system, and the resulting load end voltage will be fairly constant. The dynamic response of this regulation loop is also very fast and the system is therefore insensitive to external disturbances. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of this converter as well as its efficiency improvement against a conventional two-stage solution.
Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems:
Hackner, T.J.
2013-01-01
In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as a dc-dc converter and hence no additional front-end dc-dc converter is required. The influence of a multifunctional converter to the torque and losses in induction and PM synchronous machines were...
Power Converters Secure Electronics in Harsh Environments
2013-01-01
In order to harden power converters for the rigors of space, NASA awarded multiple SBIR contracts to Blacksburg, Virginia-based VPT Inc. The resulting hybrid DC-DC converters have proven valuable in aerospace applications, and as a result the company has generated millions in revenue from the product line and created four high-tech jobs to handle production.
Analysis and Design of Embedded Controlled Parallel Resonant Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. CHANDRASEKHAR
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Microcontroller based constant frequency controlled full bridge LC parallel resonant converter is presented in this paper for electrolyser application. An electrolyser is a part of renewable energy system which generates hydrogen from water electrolysis. The DC power required by the electrolyser system is supplied by the DC-DC converter. Owing to operation under constant frequency, the filter designs are simplified and utilization of magnetic components is improved. This converter has advantages like high power density, low EMI and reduced switching stresses. DC-DC converter system is simulated using MATLAB, Simulink. Detailed simulation results are presented. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results.
Design of Soft Switching Interleaved Boost Converter for Photovoltaic Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Prakash
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The objective of our study is to reduce the size of passive components and reduction of ripple in output voltage and input current by using interleaved soft switching dc-dc converter (interleaving action. The PV system converts solar energy into electrical energy but its output varies with variation of solar radiation and temperature. To provide impedance matching between PV and load a dc-dc converter with MPPT technique is used in PV (Photo Voltaic Systems. This study incorporates design of the interleaved soft switching dc-dc converter for PV System by using P&O (Perturb and Observe fuzzy logic controller. The P&O Fuzzy MPPT provides an accurate and fast converging under varying illumination and load conditions compared to conventional MPPT methods. The performance of the system is first analyzed by simulation using Matlab/Simulink software. The results of simulation were compared and analyzed.
Isolated and soft-switched power converter
Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Adams, Donald Joe (Knoxville, TN)
2002-01-01
An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.
A Single Phase to Three Phase PFC Half-Bridge Converter Using BLDC Drive with SPWM Technique.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srinu Duvvada
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a buck half-bridge DC-DC converter is used as a single-stage power factor correction (PFC converter for feeding a voltage source inverter (VSI based permanent magnet brushless DC motor (BLDC drive. The front end of this PFC converter is a diode bridge rectifier (DBR fed from single-phase AC mains. The BLDC is used to drive a compressor load of an air conditioner through a three-phase VSI fed from a controlled DC link voltage. The speed of the compressor is controlled to achieve energy conservation using a concept of the voltage control at DC link proportional to the desired speed of the BLDC. Therefore the VSI is operated only as an electronic commutator of the BLDC. The stator current of the BLDC during step change of reference speed is controlled by a rate limiter for the reference voltage at DC link. The proposed BLDC drive with voltage control based PFC converter is designed, modeled and its performance is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment for an air conditioner compressor driven through a 1.5 kW, 1500 rpm BLDC motor. The evaluation results of the proposed speed control scheme are presented to demonstrate an improved efficiency of the proposed drive system with PFC feature in wide range of the speed and an input AC voltage.
Asymptotic Tracking with DC-to-DC Bilinear Power Converters
Olm i Miras, Josep M.
2004-01-01
Avui en dia la conversió DC-AC té una important aplicació pràctica en el camp dels sistemes de potència ininterrompuda (SPI). Els convertidors commutats bàsics (el buck, lineal, i el boost i el buck-boost, no lineals) presenten una estructura molt simple, i al llarg dels últims quinze anys s'ha estudiat la possibilitat d'usar-los en esquemes de conversió DC-AC. L'objectiu de la tesi és aconseguir que els convertidors DC-DC de potència bàsics puguin seguir referències alternes mitjançant el vo...
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
J, Linares-Flores; A, Antonio-García; A, Orantes-Molina.
2011-06-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el diseño e implementación de un controlador de velocidad para un motor de CD a través de un convertidor reductor, el cual sigue una trayectoria de referencia suave diseñada mediante un polinomio de interpolación Bézier. El sistema reduce los picos súbitos de voltaje y c [...] orriente en el circuito de armadura del motor durante el arranque. El cálculo del control de velocidad se obtiene de una salida F llamada salida plana (calculada a través de la matriz de controlabilidad de Kalman). Este control se basa en la retroalimentación de todos los estados reescritos en términos de la salida plana y de sus derivadas sucesivas para el seguimiento de la trayectoria. Con la ayuda de la técnica de ubicación de polos es posible sintonizar adecuadamente el controlador en lazo cerrado. La efectividad del sistema se verifica experimentalmente mediante una plataforma que está compuesta por el convertidor reductor-motor CD y un modulador PWM. Abstract in english This article presents the design and implementation of a speed controller for a DC motor through a buck converter, which tracks a smooth reference trajectory designed by a Bezier polynomial interpolation. The system reduces voltage and current sudden peaks in the armature circuit of the motor during [...] the start. The calculation of the speed control is obtained from an output F called flat output (calculated through the Kalman controllability matrix). This control is based on feedback from all states rewritten in terms of the flat output and its successive derivatives for tracking the trajectory. With the aid of the pole placement technique it is possible to properly tune the controller in closed loop. The effectiveness of the system is verified experimentally by means of a platform that consists of the DC motor-buck converter and a PWM modulator.
Design of Feedback Controller for Boost Converter Using Optimization Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sesha Giri Rao Galam
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new method of controller design for boost type dc-dc converter is proposed. A feedback controller for DC-DC boost converter is designed to obtain constant output voltage of 24v.The optimal values of feedback controller is obtained using Genetic Algorithm (GA. Design equations are derived and it is modeled in MATLAB. Extensive simulation is carried out with linear controller parameters and the results are presented. To compare the output of the GA based design and BFOA, the controller parameters are also determined using conventional method (Z-N. Simulation results are validated through hardware results.
Design of Feedback Controller for Boost Converter Using Optimization Technique
Sesha Giri Rao Galam; Raghu, S.; Rajasekaran, N
2012-01-01
In this paper a new method of controller design for boost type dc-dc converter is proposed. A feedback controller for DC-DC boost converter is designed to obtain constant output voltage of 24v.The optimal values of feedback controller is obtained using Genetic Algorithm (GA). Design equations are derived and it is modeled in MATLAB. Extensive simulation is carried out with linear controller parameters and the results are presented. To compare the output of the GA based design and BFOA, the co...
Embedded Control of LCL Resonant Converter Analysis, Design, Simulation and Experimental Results
C.Christober Asir Rajan; S. Selvaperumal
2009-01-01
The Objective of this paper is to give more insight into CCM Operation of the LCL Converter to obtain op-timum design using state-space analysis and to verify the results using PSPICE Simulation for wide variation in loading conditions. LCL Resonant Full Bridge Converter (RFB) is a new, high performance DC-DC con-verter. High frequency dc-dc resonant converters are widely used in many space and radar power supplies owing to their small size and lightweight. The limitations of two element reso...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Venmathi M
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper analysis of an efficient topology of the three-port full bridge dc-dc converter is presented. This topology is promising with the view points of centralised control, compact design as it is capable of interfacing many numbers of ports with less number of switches, low cost, simple and fast power flow management with reduced conversion process. In a stand-alone system this topology is used to interface renewable energy sources and the load along with the energy storage device. Thus the proposed topology interfaces three ports: as one source port, one bidirectional storage port and an isolated output port. The key feature of this converter is that it performs buck-boost operation on the input port side to obtain power balance in the system with the centralised controller. The centralised controller was implemented by using proportional Integral (PI controller. Such that it is used to track maximum power from the Photovoltaic (PV system and to regulate output voltage by controlling the charging and the discharging characteristics of the battery. Zero voltage switching (ZVS is also achieved in all the switches by using the energy stored in the leakage inductance of the transformer, output filter inductance and capacitance.
DC to DC converters: operation; Hacheurs: fonctionnement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernot, F. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs de Tours, 37 (France)
2002-05-01
This article deals with pulse width modulation (PWM) and pulse position modulation (PPM) DC to DC converters. A tri-phase PWM converter is made of 6 simple DC/DC converters grouped together into 3 reversible converters of the same type: 1 - single-quadrant voltage lowering converters (hydraulic analogy, study with ideal elements, full scheme with input and output filters); 2 - single-quadrant voltage raising converters (hydraulic analogy, operation); 3 - two quadrants reversible converters (structure construction, quadrants of operation, reversible converter connected to a DC motor); 4 - four-quadrants reversible converters; 5 - other converters structure (current converters and converters with intermediate storage, asymmetrical converters, converters with capacitive storage, insulated converters, resonating converters, status); 6 - conclusion. (J.S.)
Commutation Processes in Multiresonant ZVS Bridge Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miroslaw Luft
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The analysis of the multiresonant ZVS DC/DC bridge converter is presented. The control system of the converter is basedon the method of frequency control at the constant time of transistor turn-off with a phase shift. The operation of the circuit is givenand the operating range of the converter is defined where ZVS switching operation is assured. Control characteristics are given andthe converter’s efficiency is defined. The circuit’s operation is analysed on the basis of results of the converter simulation tests using Simplorer programme.
Very-High-Frequency Resonant Boost Converters
Perreault, David J.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Rivas, Juan M.; Sagneri, Anthony D.; Anderson, David I.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a resonant boost topology suitable for very-high-frequency (VHF, 30-300 MHz) DC-DC power conversion. The proposed design features low device voltage stress, high efficiency over a wide load range, and excellent transient performance. Two experimental prototypes have been built and evaluated. One is a 110-MHz, 23-W converter that uses a high-performance RF lateral DMOSFET. The converter achieves higher than 87% efficiency at nominal input and output voltages, and maintains ...
Envelope Amplifier Based on a Hybrid Series Converter With The Slow-envelope Technique
Cheng, Pengming; García Suárez, Oscar; Vasic, Miroslav; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Montoro, G.; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2012-01-01
High frequency dc-dc switching converters are used as envelope amplifiers in RF transmitters. The dc-dc converter should operate at very high frequency to track an envelope in the MHz range to supply the power amplifier. One of the circuits suitable for this application is a hybrid topology composed of a switched converter and a linear regulator in series that work together to adjust the output voltage to track the envelope with accuracy. This topology can take advantage of the reduced slew-r...
DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF PWM FED TWO-PHASE INTERLEAVED BOOST CONVERTER FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE
MOUNICA GANTA, PALLAMREDDY NIRUPA, THIMMADI AKSHITHA, R.SEYEZHAI
2013-01-01
Recently dc-dc converters is serving many purposes and is usually required in any applications which has low output voltage such as Fuel cells, Batteries, photo voltaic cells. For designing high efficiency fuel cells which is a clean energy source and has a high energy storage capability, a suitable dc-dc converter is required. One of the challenges in designing the boost converter for high power application is to how to handle the high current at the input side. Among the various topologies ...
Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan
2011-01-01
This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation ratio. The dc-dc converter controls the battery charge/discharge current while the grid converter controls the common dc-link voltage and the grid current. The applied control structures and the hardware implementation of both converters are presented, together with their interaction. Experimental results of the test bench show good performance for the bidirectional power flow with a maximum operating power of 100 kW.
Martínez García, Herminio
2014-01-01
This article provides a classification of high efficiency switching power-gyrator structures and their use as cells for energy processing in photovoltaic solar facilities. Having into account the properties of these topologies presented in the article, their inclusion in solar facilities allows increasing the performance of the whole installation. Thus, the design, simulation and implementation of a G-type power gyrator are carried out throughout the text. In addition, in order to obtain the ...
Martínez García, Herminio
2014-01-01
This article provides a classification of high efficiency switching power-gyrator structures and their use as cells for energy processing in photovoltaic solar facilities. Having into account the properties of these topologies presented in the article, their inclusion in solar facilities allows increasing the performance of the whole installation. Thus, the design, simulation and implementation of a G-type power gyrator are carried out throughout the text. In addition, in order to obtain the ...
Simulation of High Step-Up DC–DC Converter for Photovoltaic Module Application using MATLAB/SIMULINK
S.Daison Stallon; K.Vinoth Kumar; S SURESH KUMAR; Justin Baby
2013-01-01
As per the present scenario lot of power shortages are there in all over the world especially country like India the grid transferring problem is also high. Almost the power from the fossil fuels are becoming so less some of the examples of the fossil fuels are (coal, lignite, oil, and gases).So most of them looking in forward for the power from green or renewable based energies like solar, wind, biomass, tidal etc. Which does not cause any pollution to the environment. In this paper the simu...
Díaz López, Daniel; García Suárez, Oscar; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio
2008-01-01
A boost derived topology, the two inductor boost with switch near ground presents some advantages over the conventional boost topology like continuous output current and MOSFET near ground [1]. The main advantage of this new topology is that the right half-plane (RHP) zero (inherent to the boost topology) can be cancelled by means of a new energy transference principle. This work presents a dynamic study of the topology and it shows that the RHP zero cancellation is not achieved for all desig...
Béthoux, O.; Cathelin, J.
2010-01-01
Abstract Consuming chemical energy, fuel cells produce simultaneously heat, water and useful electrical power [J.M. Andújar, F. Segura, Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 13, 2309 (2009)], [J. Larminie, A. Dicks, Fuel Cell Systems Explained, 2nd edn. (John Wiley & Sons, 2003)]. As a matter of fact, the voltage generated by a fuel cell strongly depends on both the load power demand and the operating conditions. Besides, as a result of many design aspects, fuel cells ar...
Commutation processes in multiresonant ZVS bridge converter
Luft, M.; Szychta, E.
2008-01-01
The analysis of the multiresonant ZVS DC/DC bridge converter is presented. The control system of the converter is based on the method of frequency control at the constant time of transistor turn-off with a phase shift. The operation of the circuit is given and the operating range of the converter is defined where ZVS switching operation is assured. Control characteristics are given and the converter’s efficiency is defined. The circuit’s operation is analysed on the basis of results ...
High Gain Interleaved Boost Converter for Fuel Cell Applications
R.Seyezhai; Anitha, R.; Mahalakshmi, S.; M. Bhavani
2013-01-01
Fuel cell is one of the promising technologies for distributed generation. For designing high efficiency fuel cell power systems, a suitable DC-DC converter is required. Among the various topologies, interleaved converters using switched capacitor are considered as a better solution for fuel cell systems due to high conversion efficiency. The objective of the paper is to design and implement a high gain interleaved converter using switched capacitors for fuel cell systems. In the proposed int...
Analysis and Design of Embedded Controlled Parallel Resonant Converter
Chandrasekhar, P; Sathi Rama REDDY
2009-01-01
Microcontroller based constant frequency controlled full bridge LC parallel resonant converter is presented in this paper for electrolyser application. An electrolyser is a part of renewable energy system which generates hydrogen from water electrolysis. The DC power required by the electrolyser system is supplied by the DC-DC converter. Owing to operation under constant frequency, the filter designs are simplified and utilization of magnetic components is improved. This converter has advanta...
Comparison of PID and Fuzzy Controlled DC to DC Converter with Inductor Resistance.
Anand, R; P.Melba Mary
2013-01-01
The DC-DC boost converter reveals highly non-linear and non-minimum phase properties, is very difficult task to design a controller that is healthy against load variation. For this purpose a Fuzzy PID Controller is proposed to control DC-DC boost converter which has a practical inductor and a series resistance. A balancing ProportionalIntegral-Differential (PID) controller to the parallel-damped passivity-based controller PD-PBC is also proposed for removing the steady state error even though...
Comparison of PID and Fuzzy Controlled DC to DC Converter with Inductor Resistance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.Anand
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The DC-DC boost converter reveals highly non-linear and non-minimum phase properties, is very difficult task to design a controller that is healthy against load variation. For this purpose a Fuzzy PID Controller is proposed to control DC-DC boost converter which has a practical inductor and a series resistance. A balancing ProportionalIntegral-Differential (PID controller to the parallel-damped passivity-based controller PD-PBC is also proposed for removing the steady state error even though the parasitic resistance. MATLAB simulations are performed under step changes and load perturbations to measure the improvement in performance of the proposed approach.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Spartacus, Gomáriz; Francesc, Guinjoan.
2008-11-01
Full Text Available En este trabajo, se diseña un controlador difuso del tipo Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) para un regulador elevador conmutado DC-DC que opera a diferentes tensiones en estado estacionario. Este controlador realiza tareas de supervisión mediante su característica zonal. Por un lado, el controlador asigna d [...] iferentes leyes lineales de control acorde al valor de tensión de régimen estacionario y de los límites de aplicación a perturbación en pequeña señal. Por otra parte, el controlador asegura un arranque correcto para alcanzar el valor deseado de tensión de estado estacionario, por medio de una adecuada saturación del modulador de ancho de pulso (PWM) de acuerdo con los principios de control en modo deslizamiento. Como resultado, se logra un comportamiento ecualizado en pequeña señal y un arranque controlado para diferentes tensiones de estado estacionario; por tanto, se amplían las características del regulador. Se presentan resultados de simulación y experimentales realizados sobre un regulador elevador controlado por corriente, operando sobre dos valores de tensión diferentes de estado estacionario que validan el diseño. Abstract in english A complete design of a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy controller for a PWM boost DC-DC switching regulator operating at different steady-state voltages is presented. This controller performs a supervisory role through its region characteristic. On the one hand, the controller assigns different linea [...] r control laws according to the steady-state voltage value and limits their application to small-signal perturbations. On the other hand, the controller ensures a proper start-up to reach the desired steady-state voltage by means of properly saturating the PWM according to sliding-mode control principles. As a result, both an equalized small signal behavior and a controlled start-up are achieved for different steady-state voltages, thus extending the features of the regulator. Simulation and experimental results carried out on a current-controlled boost regulator operating at two different steady-state
Cao, Dong
Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non-isolated or isolated PV inverter. For the non-isolated transformer-less solution, a semi-Z-source inverter for single phase photovoltaic systems has been proposed. The proposed semi-Z-source inverter utilizes only two switching devices with doubly grounded feature. The total cost have been reduced, the safety and EMI issues caused by the high frequency ground current are solved. For the transformer isolated solution, a boost half-bridge dc-ac micro-inverter has been proposed. The proposed boost half-bridge dc-dc converter utilizes only two switching devices with zero voltage switching features which is able to reduce the total system cost and power loss.
T. S. Saravanan; R.Seyezhai; Venkatesh, V
2012-01-01
Super lift converter is a new series of DC/DC converter possessing high voltage transfer gain, high efficiency, reduced ripple voltage and current. Super lift technique armed by split capacitors increases the output voltage in higher geometric progression. This paper focuses on splitting the input side capacitor of the additional series positive output super lift converter in order to obtain a high voltage transfer gain. The proposed super lift converter is modeled using state space averaging...
High Frequency Soft Switching Of PWM Boost Converter Using Auxiliary Resonant Circuit
C. P. Sai Kiran; M. Vishnu Vardhan
2014-01-01
This thesis presents High frequency Soft Switching DC-DC boost Converter. The circuit consists of a general Boost Converter with an additional resonant circuit which has a switch, inductor, capacitor and a diode.In general Boost Converter circuits have snubber circuits where switching losses are dissipated in external passive resistors; which is known as hard switching. As the switching frequency of PWM converters is increased its switching losses and conduction losses also in...
Active Clamped ZVS Forward Converter With Soft-Switched Synchronous Rectifier
AÇIK, Adnan; ÇADIRCI, I??k
2002-01-01
This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of an active-clamped, ZVS forward converter equipped with a soft-switched synchronous rectifier (ACFC-SR) proposed for high-efficiency, low output voltage dc-dc converter applications. The converter efficiency is maximized due to the soft-switching of the main, active clamp, synchronous rectifier and freewheeling MOSFET switches. The operating principles of the ACFC-SR are analyzed in detail and the converter performance is ...
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF 2D CONVERTER BY COMBINING SR & KY CONVERTERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Manoj Kumar
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Most of the portable equipments use battery as power source. The increasing use of low voltage portable devices and growing requirements of functionalities embedded into such devices. Thus an efficient power management technique is needed for longer battery life for them. Highly variable nature of batteries systems often require supply voltages to be both higher and lower than the battery. This is most efficiently generated by a buck-boost switching converter. But here the converter efficiency is decreased since the power loss occurs in the storage devices. Step by step, process of designing, feedback control and simulation of a novel voltage-buck boost converter, combining KY and synchronous Rectifier buck converter for battery power applications. Unlike the traditional buck–boost converter, this converter has the positive output voltage and system is stable, different from the negative output voltage and low stable of the traditional inverting buck–boost converters. Since such a converter operates in continuous conduction mode. Also it possesses the non-pulsating output current, thereby not only decreasing the current stress on the output capacitor but also reducing the output voltage ripple. Both the KY converter and the synchronous buck converter, combined into a positive buck– boost converter, uses the same power switches. Here it makes the circuit to be compact and the corresponding cost to be down. Voltage conversion ratio is 2D,so it is also called 2D converter.
This animation, created by faculty at Dartmouth University, is a boost converter. The resource features other animations such as buck and discontinuous converters. They also add simple diode, bridge and half-wave rectifiers. Although simple in design, this can still be a useful resource for those interested in electrical engineering.
R.Seyezhai
2014-01-01
This paper presents the analysis and implementation of a two-phase Multi Device Interleaved Boost Converter (MDIBC). Among the various DC-DC topologies, Multi device Interleaved converter is considered as a better solution for fuel cell hybrid vehicles as it reduces the input current ripple, output voltage ripple and the size of passive components. Detailed analysis has been done to investigate the benefits of Multi device Interleaved boost converter by comparing it with the conventio...
An Improved MPPT Interleaved Boost Converter for Solar Electric Vehicle Application
Khoucha, Farid; Benrabah, Ali; Herizi, Omar; Kheloui, Abdelaziz; Benbouzid, Mohamed
2013-01-01
An interleaved boost dc/dc converter is developed featuring smaller input/output filters, faster dynamic response and lower device stress than conventional designs, for solar electric vehicle (SEV) applications. The converter is connected between the photovoltaic power generation and dc bus in a multisource energy storage system of a SEV. Typically, interleaved converters require a current control loop to reduce the input current ripples, the output voltage ripples, and the size of passive co...
SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH GAIN INTERLEAVED BOOST CONVERTER FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS
DR. R.SEYEZHAI, R.ANITHA, S.MAHALAKSHMI, M.BHAVANI
2013-01-01
The objective of the paper is to design and implement a high gain interleaved converter using switched capacitors for fuel cell systems. Fuel cell is one of the promising technologies for distributed generation. For designing high efficiency fuel cell power systems, a suitable DC-DC converter is required. Among the various topologies, interleaved converters using switched capacitor are considered as a better solution for fuel cell systems due to high conversion efficiency. In the proposed int...
SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF PWM-CONTROLLED QUASI-RESONANT CONVERTER FOR DRIVES
Helen Priscilla A.S.; Ms. Ashly Mary Tom
2012-01-01
This paper presents the development of a new resonant capacitor assisted pulse width modulationcontrolled quasi resonant converter with an auxiliary circuit which does the load regulation by controlling the ripple of the resonant voltage. This resonant converter is simulated through MATLAB/SIMULINK. This newly developed quasi resonant DC-DC converter can regulate its DC output under a principle of constant frequency soft switching commutation by a controllable PWM duty cycle control scheme. T...
Analisys of Current-Bidirectional Buck-Boost Based Automotive Switch-Mode Audio Amplifier
Bolten Maizonave, Gert; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Kjærgaard, Claus; Lund, Kristian L.; Hansen, Lars B. R.
2011-01-01
The following study was carried out in order to assess quantitatively the performance of the buck-boost converter when used as switch-mode audio amplifier. It comprises of, to begin with, the delimitation of design criteria based on the state-ofthe- art solution, which is based in a differential mode buck-based amplifier with a boost converter as power supply. The averaged switch modelling of the differential mode current bidirectional topology is also used, in orde...
COMPARISON OF PUSH-PULLAND NON-ISOLATED HIGH STEP – DOWN DC TO DC CONVERTERS
S.DEVIKALA; P.NIRMALKUMAR
2013-01-01
This paper deals with comparison of Non-isolated buck converter and pushpull converter. Here 48VDC is converted into high frequency AC and it is stepped down to 12V level. The push-pull converter has advantages like reduced switching losses, stresses and EMI. The power output of push-pull converter seems to be of high value compared to the non-isolated buck converter. The simulation results of Non-isolated converter and Push-Pull converter are compared.
Model of Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Hybrid AC/DC Distribution System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riku Pasonen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, a simulation model and concept of two switch bi-directional isolated DC/DC converter is presented. Converter is based on flyback converter type. Also control method for voltage regulation with bi-directional power transfer is presented. Target application of the proposed converter was selected to be a hybrid AC/DC distribution system concept of which was briefly described. The requirement of galvanic isolation in the hybrid AC/DC concept comes from use of shared neutral wire; DC current runs with unbalanced part of AC current in neutral wire. Without galvanic isolation grounded neutral would cause short circuit if DC/DC converter is connected to three phase rectifier or inverter. Simulation was carried out with PSCAD electromagnetic transient simulator.
DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF PWM FED TWO-PHASE INTERLEAVED BOOST CONVERTER FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MOUNICA GANTA, PALLAMREDDY NIRUPA, THIMMADI AKSHITHA, R.SEYEZHAI
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Recently dc-dc converters is serving many purposes and is usually required in any applications which has low output voltage such as Fuel cells, Batteries, photo voltaic cells. For designing high efficiency fuel cells which is a clean energy source and has a high energy storage capability, a suitable dc-dc converter is required. One of the challenges in designing the boost converter for high power application is to how to handle the high current at the input side. Among the various topologies IBC is a better solution for fuel cell systems due to its increased efficiency, reduced size, current sharing on high power applications, low input current ripple and improved reliability. The various parameters of the PWM based IBC are compared to a conventional boost converter. Simulation studies has been carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL
2014-01-01
In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.
Modelling of Photovoltaic System with Converter Topology for Grid fed Operations.
UMADEVI K; P. NALANDHA; C. CHENN KESAVAN
2014-01-01
This paper presents the performance of a grid connected converter topology for PV array. The system containing solar cell, DC-DC boost converter, inverter and ac load (grid). This paper presents the simulation of a photovoltaic system using MATLAB, which can be representative of PV cell, module and array. The photovoltaic array is designed for 144 V. The proposed PV model was prepared on MATLAB scrip file and input parameters are solar irradiation and temperature. The output current and power...
High-Frequency Resonant SEPIC Converter With Wide Input and Output Voltage Ranges
Hu, Jingying; Sagneri, Anthony D.; Rivas, Juan M.; Han, Yehui; Davis, Seth M.; Perreault, David J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a resonant single-ended-primary-inductor-converter (SEPIC) converter and control method suitable for high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) dc-dc power conversion. The proposed design provides high efficiency over a wide input and output voltage range, up-and-down voltage conversion, small size, and excellent transient performance. In addition, a resonant gate drive scheme is presented that provides rapid startup and low-loss at HF and VHF frequencies. The conve...
Implementation of PMBLDC motor using Cuk PFC converter
Padmini Sahu,; Prof. Anurag Singh Tomer,
2012-01-01
This paper aims at an improve speed quality employing Cuk DC-DC converter is used as a power factor correction (PFC) converter for feeding a voltage source inverter (VSI) based permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) driven air condition. This PFC converter is front end diode bridge rectifier (DBR) fed from single-phase AC mains and connected to a three phase voltage source (VSI) feeding the permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM). The PMBLDC Motor is used to drive a compressor lo...
Primary Parallel Isolated Boost Converter with Bidirectional Operation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen
2012-01-01
This paper presents a bidirectional dc/dc converter operated with batteries both in the input and output. Primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC) with transformer series connection on the high voltage side is preferred due to its ability to handle high currents in the low voltage side. The converter has been modeled using non-ideal components and operated without any additional circuitry for startup using a digital soft-start procedure. Simulated and measured loop gains have been compared for the validity of the model. On-the-fly current direction change has been achieved between input and output battery banks with a defined ramp.
CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR SEPIC CONVERTER USING MODEL ORDER REDUCTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BINOD KUMAR PADHI, ANIRUDHA NARAIN
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A SEPIC (Single-Ended Primary Inductor Converter is a DC-DC converter, capable of operating both in stepup or step-down mode and widely used in battery-operated applications. There are two possible modes of operation in the SEPIC converter: Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM and Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM. This paper presents modeling of a SEPIC converter operating in CCM using the State-Space Averaging (SSA technique. SEPIC converter consists of two inductor and two capacitor hence it is fourth order dc-dc converter. Design of feedback compensator for fourth order system is quite complex. In this paper, model order reduction technique is used for controller design of SEPIC converter. First small signal dynamic model for SEPIC converter is obtained using SSA technique which provides fourth order transfer function. Then this fourth order transfer function is reduced to second order using Padé approximation. Then the compensator is designed for the reduced order model of the SEPIC converter. Result shows that the compensator designed for reduced order model gives the quite satisfactory response with the original system
An Effective Wind Energy System based on Buck-boost Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Prakash
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In Domestic Wind Machines, if the wind speed is low, the output voltage is not sufficient to charge the battery as it is lower than the rated charging voltage of the battery. This limits the overall efficiency of the Wind Machine to 20%. This study proposed to design and develop a Buck Boost Controller for the effective utilization of the wind machine. By implementing a controller based Buck Boost converter, the voltage produced at the lower wind speeds can also be utilized effectively by boosting it to the rated charging voltage of the battery. Also if the wind speed is high (>14 m/s, the DC output voltage will increase to more than 65 V. The converter bucks this high voltage to the nominal battery charging voltage (52 V, thereby protecting the battery from over charging voltage. Thus the effective utilization of the wind machine has been achieved by the use of the proposed Buck Boost Controller.
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Lenny Andrés, Hernández Fonseca; Diego Ricardo, Gómez León; Oscar Mauricio, Hernández Gómez.
2012-07-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el modelo matemático y el diseño de controladores para el convertidor DC-DC tipo Boost, enfocado en la corrección del factor de potencia. El convertidor se diseñó a 24W de potencia, se muestran las simulaciones en MATLAB y los resultados experimentales obtenidos del conve [...] rtidor. Abstract in english This paper shows a mathematical model and corresponding controller design of a 24W DC-DC Boost converter used for power factor correction. Modeling and simulations are shown (using Matlab) together with experimental results. [...
Analysis and Design of a Higher Current ZVS-PWM Converter for Industrial Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Navid Golbon
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A new auxiliary circuit that can be implemented in DC-DC and AC-DC ZVS-PWM converters is proposed in the paper. The circuit is for ZVS-PWM converters used in applications where high-frequency operation is needed and the load current is higher than that of typical ZVS-PWM converters. In the paper, the operation of a new ZVS-PWM converter is described, its steady-state operation is analyzed, and a procedure for its design is derived and then demonstrated. The feasibility of the new converter is confirmed by experimental results obtained from a prototype.
High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pittini, Riccardo
2014-01-01
The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared to traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies as well as different dc-ac and dc-dc converter topologies are presented and analyzed. A new ac-dc topology for high efficiency data center applications is proposed and an efficiency characterization based on the fuel cell stack I-V characteristic curve is presented. The second part discusses the main converter components. Wide bandgap power semiconductors are introduced due to their superior performance in comparison to traditional silicon power devices. The analysis presents a study based on switching loss measurements performed on Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs, SiC MOSFETs and their respective gate drivers. Magnetic components are a fundamental part in most power converters and have a significant impact on power converters performance and cost. After basic introduction on magnetic components, planar magnetics are evaluated for fuel cell (high current) applications as possible candidate for reducing the cost of magnetic components especially for large production volumes. At last, the complete converter design is presented in detailed and characterized in efficiency terms. Both benefits, provided by SiC power devices and by a redesign of the converter layout increased the converter power density up to 2.2 kW/l, achieving efficiency above 98%. A flyback derived topology designed for low power high voltage applications is also presented as a side task in connection to the PhD project.
Yuhong Song; Junying Niu
2014-01-01
It was proposed in the former research that chaos control can be used to suppress electromagnetic interference (EMI) in DC–DC converters. Analysis on a half-bridge converter is detailed in this study. Here, the practical example of the power supply of personal computers is given to show that, with an external chaotic signal to a pulse width modulation control circuit, the proposed approach can reduce EMI by reducing the amplitudes of power signals such as transformer current and output induct...
Modelling, analyses and design of switching converters
Cuk, S. M.; Middlebrook, R. D.
1978-01-01
A state-space averaging method for modelling switching dc-to-dc converters for both continuous and discontinuous conduction mode is developed. In each case the starting point is the unified state-space representation, and the end result is a complete linear circuit model, for each conduction mode, which correctly represents all essential features, namely, the input, output, and transfer properties (static dc as well as dynamic ac small-signal). While the method is generally applicable to any switching converter, it is extensively illustrated for the three common power stages (buck, boost, and buck-boost). The results for these converters are then easily tabulated owing to the fixed equivalent circuit topology of their canonical circuit model. The insights that emerge from the general state-space modelling approach lead to the design of new converter topologies through the study of generic properties of the cascade connection of basic buck and boost converters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Regvart, B.; Malaric, K. [Univ. of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb (Croatia); Brakus, B. [Siemens AG, Munich (Germany)
2000-07-01
Due to the rapid development of communications networks, as for instance mobile telephony, voice/data and Internet, reliable and disturbance-free data processing and transmission are becoming increasingly important. In a mobile telecom system a large number of disturbances can be attributed to radiated electromagnetic emissions from various equipment. The paper describes the GTEM-cell designed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing in Zagreb that can be used for EMC measurements from 0.1 to 1 GHz. This cell was used in testing the immunity of the on-board power supply to the radiated electromagnetic emission. Finally, the paper presents the experimental data on high magnitude electromagnetic field impact on different on-board DC/DC modules. (orig.)
High Gain Interleaved Boost Converter for Fuel Cell Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Seyezhai
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Fuel cell is one of the promising technologies for distributed generation. For designing high efficiency fuel cell power systems, a suitable DC-DC converter is required. Among the various topologies, interleaved converters using switched capacitor are considered as a better solution for fuel cell systems due to high conversion efficiency. The objective of the paper is to design and implement a high gain interleaved converter using switched capacitors for fuel cell systems. In the proposed interleaved converter, the front end inductors are magnetically cross-coupled to improve the electrical performance and reduce the weight and size. Also, switched capacitors are used to improve the voltage gain of the converter. The proposed converter has been performed. Simulation study of interleaved converter using switched capacitors interfaced with fuel cells has been studied using Matlab/Simulink. A prototype has been developed to verify the simulation results.
High Gain Interleaved Boost Converter for Fuel Cell Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Seyezhai
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Fuel cell is one of the promising technologies for distributed generation. For designing high efficiency fuel cell power systems, a suitable DC-DC converter is required. Among the various topologies, interleaved converters using switched capacitor are considered as a better solution for fuel cell systems due to high conversion efficiency. The objective of the paper is to design and implement a high gain interleaved converter using switched capacitors for fuel cell systems. In the proposed interleaved converter, the front end inductors are magnetically cross-coupled to improve the electrical performance and reduce the weight and size. Also, switched capacitors are used to improve the voltage gain of the converter. The proposed converter has been performed. Simulation study of interleaved converter using switched capacitors interfaced with fuel cells has been studied using Matlab/Simulink. A prototype has been developed to verify the simulation results.
A New Topology for Power Factor Correction using Resonant Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V V Vijetha Inti
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A new parallel-connected power flow technique is proposed to improve the input power factor with simultaneously output voltage regulation taking consideration of current harmonic standards. Paralleling of converter modules is used in medium-power applications to achieve the desired output power by using smaller size of high frequency transformers. A parallel-connected interleaved structure offers smaller passive components with less loss in continuous conduction inductor current mode and also reduces the volt-ampere rating of resonant (DC/DC converter. MATLAB/SIMULINK is used for implementation and simulation results show the performance improvement.
Very High Frequency Interleaved Self-Oscillating Resonant SEPIC Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kovacevic, Milovan; Knott, Arnold
2013-01-01
This paper describes analysis and design procedure of an interleaved, self-oscillating resonant SEPIC converter, suitable for operation at very high frequencies (VHF) ranging from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. The presented circuit consists of two resonant SEPIC DC-DC converters, and a capacitive interconnection network between the switches which provides self-oscillating and interleaved operation. A design approach to ensure zero voltage switching (ZVS) condition of the MOSFET devices is provided. To verify the proposed method, an 11 W, 50 MHz prototype was built using low-cost VDMOS devices and experimental results are presented. Peak achieved efficiency was 87%.
Fuzzy Controlled Parallel AC-DC Converter for PFC
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Ch Sai Babu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Paralleling of converter modules is a well-known technique that is often used in medium-power applications to achieve the desired output power by using smaller size of high frequency transformers and inductors. In this paper, a parallel-connected single-phase PFC topology using flyback and forward converters is proposed to improve the output voltage regulation with simultaneous input power factor correction (PFC and control. The goal of the control is to stabilize the output voltage of the converter against the load variations. The paper presents the derivation of fuzzy control rules for the dc/dc converter circuit and control algorithm for regulating the dc/dc converter. This paper presents a design example and circuit analysis for 200 W power supply. The proposed approach offers cost effective, compact and efficient AC/DC converter by the use of parallel power processing. MATLAB/SIMULINK is used for implementation and simulation results show the performance improvement.
Mohamed Daowd; Mailier Antoine; Noshin Omar; Philippe Lataire; Peter Van Den Bossche; Joeri van Mierlo
2014-01-01
Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small ...
Multiphase Boost Converter with Reduced Input Current Ripple Using Direct Coupled Inductors
G. Kishor; D.SUBBARAYUDU
2014-01-01
The multi phase Boost topology is very popular in many applications. However, the current ripple in the input inductor affects its ability to meet EM1 requirements. This paper presents the concept of overall current ripple reduction of multiphase DC-DC converter by employing directly coupled inductors. An emphasis was also given to calculate the generalized expression of equivalent inductance. With the help of specified parameters, the design parameters are also determined. Th...
Design of a New AC–DC Single-Stage Full-Bridge PWM Converter with Two Controllers
R. Ramesh1,2,3,4; U. Subathra
2014-01-01
Single phase power factor correction ac-dc converters are widely used in industry for ac-dc power conversion from single phase ac mains to an required output dc voltage. In case of high power application these types of converter use an ac-dc boost converter followed by dc-dc converter. These converters has the features of excellent input power factor, continuous input and output currents, and intermediate dc bus voltage and reduce the number of semiconductor devices for such co...
Design of a New AC–DC Single-Stage Full-Bridge PWM Converter with Two Controllers
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R. Ramesh,
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Single phase power factor correction ac-dc converters are widely used in industry for ac-dc power conversion from single phase ac mains to an required output dc voltage. In case of high power application these types of converter use an ac-dc boost converter followed by dc-dc converter. These converters has the features of excellent input power factor, continuous input and output currents, and intermediate dc bus voltage and reduce the number of semiconductor devices for such cost-effective applications.
A Standalone Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation using Cuk Converter and Single Phase Inverter
Verma, A. K.; Singh, B.; Kaushika, S. C.
2013-03-01
In this paper, a standalone solar photovoltaic (SPV) power generating system is designed and modeled using a Cuk dc-dc converter and a single phase voltage source inverter (VSI). In this system, a dc-dc boost converter boosts a low voltage of a PV array to charge a battery at 24 V using a maximum power point tracking control algorithm. To step up a 24 V battery voltage to 360 V dc, a high frequency transformer based isolated dc-dc Cuk converter is used to reduce size, weight and losses. The dc voltage of 360 V is fed to a single phase VSI with unipolar switching to achieve a 230 Vrms, 50 Hz ac. The main objectives of this investigation are on efficiency improvement, reduction in cost, weight and size of the system and to provide an uninterruptible power to remotely located consumers. The complete SPV system is designed and it is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulated results are presented to demonstrate its satisfactory performance for validating the proposed design and control algorithm.
Multi-megawatt inverter/converter technology for space power applications
Myers, Ira T.; Baumann, Eric D.; Kraus, Robert; Hammoud, Ahmad N.
1992-01-01
Large power conditioning mass reductions will be required to enable megawatt power systems envisioned by the Strategic Defense Initiative, the Air Force, and NASA. Phase 1 of a proposed two phase interagency program has been completed to develop an 0.1 kg/kW DC/DC converter technology base for these future space applications. Three contractors, Hughes, General Electric (GE), and Maxwell were Phase 1 contractors in a competitive program to develop a megawatt lightweight DC/DC converter. Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center and the University of Wisconsin also investigated technology in topology and control. All three contractors, as well as the University of Wisconsin, concluded at the end of the Phase 1 study, which included some critical laboratory work, that 0.1-kg/kW megawatt DC/DC converters can be built. This is an order of magnitude lower specific weight than is presently available. A brief description of each of the concepts used to meet the ambitious goals of this program are presented.
Series-Connected Buck Boost Regulators
Birchenough, Arthur G.
2005-01-01
A series-connected buck boost regulator (SCBBR) is an electronic circuit that bucks a power-supply voltage to a lower regulated value or boosts it to a higher regulated value. The concept of the SCBBR is a generalization of the concept of the SCBR, which was reported in "Series-Connected Boost Regulators" (LEW-15918), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 7 (July 1997), page 42. Relative to prior DC-voltage-regulator concepts, the SCBBR concept can yield significant reductions in weight and increases in power-conversion efficiency in many applications in which input/output voltage ratios are relatively small and isolation is not required, as solar-array regulation or battery charging with DC-bus regulation. Usually, a DC voltage regulator is designed to include a DC-to-DC converter to reduce its power loss, size, and weight. Advances in components, increases in operating frequencies, and improved circuit topologies have led to continual increases in efficiency and/or decreases in the sizes and weights of DC voltage regulators. The primary source of inefficiency in the DC-to-DC converter portion of a voltage regulator is the conduction loss and, especially at high frequencies, the switching loss. Although improved components and topology can reduce the switching loss, the reduction is limited by the fact that the converter generally switches all the power being regulated. Like the SCBR concept, the SCBBR concept involves a circuit configuration in which only a fraction of the power is switched, so that the switching loss is reduced by an amount that is largely independent of the specific components and circuit topology used. In an SCBBR, the amount of power switched by the DC-to-DC converter is only the amount needed to make up the difference between the input and output bus voltage. The remaining majority of the power passes through the converter without being switched. The weight and power loss of a DC-to-DC converter are determined primarily by the amount of power processed. In the SCBBR, the unswitched majority of the power is passed through with very little power loss, and little if any increase in the sizes of the converter components is needed to enable the components to handle the unswitched power. As a result, the power-conversion efficiency of the regulator can be very high, as shown in the example of Figure 1. A basic SCBBR includes a DC-to-DC converter (see Figure 2). The switches and primary winding of a transformer in the converter is connected across the input bus, while the secondary winding and switches are connected in series with the output bus, so that the output voltage is the sum of the input voltage and the secondary voltage of the converter. In the breadboard SCBBR, the input voltage applied to the primary winding is switched by use of metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in a full bridge circuit; the secondary winding is center-tapped, with two MOSFET switches and diode rectifiers connected in opposed series in each leg. The sets of opposed switches and rectifiers are what enable operation in either a boost or a buck mode. In the boost mode, input voltage and current, and the output voltage and current are all positive; that is, the secondary voltage is added to the input voltage and the net output voltage can be regulated at a value equal or greater than the input voltage. In the buck mode, input voltage is still positive and the current still flows in the same direction in the secondary, but the switches are controlled such that some power flows from the secondary to the primary. The voltage across the secondary and the current into the primary are reversed. The result is that the output voltage is lower than the input voltage, and some power is recirculated from the converter secondary back to the input. Quantitatively, the advantage of an SCBBR is a direct function of the regulation range required. If, for example, a regulation range of 20 percent is required for a 500-W supply, th it suffices to design the DC-to-DC converter in the SCBBR for a power rating of only 1
Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters
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Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.
Buckli,J
1988-01-01
L'association du personnel a le plaisir d'accueillir Mons. James F.Buckli, astronaute, né en 1947. Il a participé à la mission Space Lab D1 qui pour la première fois mettait 8 personnes sur orbite.L'ass.du pers. remercie aussi Gordon White(s) de la mission américaine d'avoir permis d'organiser cette conférence
Matlab Simulation of Very High Frequency Resonant Converters for LED Lighting
Avinash.C.M*; Sharad Darshan.H.C2
2014-01-01
This Paper presents a Very High Frequency DcDC Converters are used in converting the unregulated DC input into a controlled DC output at a desired voltage level. It is been observed that from last one decade the focus on green and environmental friendly energy usage has been increased. This has lead to a large increasing in the use of Light Emitting Diodes (LED’s) for lighting purpose. The bulbs are quite expensive due to both expensive LEDs and the power converter needed to suppl...
Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters topologies, control, and design
Ruan, Xinbo
2014-01-01
Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters have been widely used in medium-to-high power dc-dc conversions for topological simplicity, easy control and high efficiency. Early works on soft-switching PWM full-bridge converter by many researchers included various topologies and modulation strategies. However, these works were scattered, and the relationship among these topologies and modulation strategies had not been revealed. This book intends to describe systematically the soft-switching techniques for pulse-width modulation (PWM) full-bridge converters, including the topologies, control and
An Innovative Reconfigurable Integrated Converter Topology Suitable for Distributed Generation
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Renato Rizzo
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The electricity market and environmental concerns, with wide utilization of renewable sources, have improved the diffusion of distributed generation units changing the operations of distribution grids from passive networks to microgrids. A microgrid includes a cluster of electrical loads, energy storage devices and microsources, which provide both power and heat to their local area. A microgrid has usually one connection point to the utility grid through power electronic converters placed at customers’ sites. This paper analyses a Reconfigurable Integrated Converter (RIC used for a domestic microgrid with inputs from the AC mains and photovoltaic arrays, and two DC outputs at different voltage levels. A RIC as a dual-boost DC-DC converter is proposed, modelled and analysed in the paper. The advantages of such a topology in comparison with traditional boost converters are outlined. Reported simulations results give evidence on the controllability of this converter and the capability of achieving the desired voltage outputs with reduced ripple.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Wang, Huai
2014-01-01
A method to selectively control the amount of dc link voltage ripple by processing desired reactive power by a DC/DC converter in isolated AC/DC or AC/DC/AC system is proposed. The concept can reduce the dc link capacitors used for balancing the input and output power and thereby limiting the voltage ripple. It allows the use of smaller dc link capacitor and hence a longer lifetime and at the same time high power density and low cost can be achieved. The isolated DC/DC converter is controlled to process the desired reactive power in addition to the active power. The control system to achieve this selective degree of compensation is proposed. Simulation results are also presented to support the idea.
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Karunya Christobal Lydia. S
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract-There is an increasing demand of power and load shedding is preferred as a solution. An interruption for a few cycles of power supply results in loss of data, mal functioning of various sensitive equipments. A model is developed to provide uninterrupted power supply to the consumers in the event of failure of the main input source. The different modes of operation that has been developed are normal, back-up and charging. The output of the integrated flyback converter is given to the multilevel inverter. A cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter is implemented using a single DC power source and capacitors. A standard cascaded multilevel inverter requires ‘n’ DC sources for ‘2n + 1’ levels. Without requiring transformers, the scheme proposed allows the use of a single DC power source (e.g., a battery, a fuel cell stack or photo voltaic panel with the remaining n?1 DC sources being capacitors. The DC voltage level of the capacitors can be maintained simultaneously and a fundamental frequency switching pattern can be chosen to produce a nearly sinusoidal output. The number of levels is increased up to fifteen by adding six bidirectional switches to a H-bridge inverter. The main objectives are to improve the power quality by reducing the total harmonic distortion to a very low value and the reduction of the per unit cost of electricity.