WorldWideScience

Sample records for dar es salaam

  1. Accessibility, Congestion and Travel Delays in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, Dea Christine; Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Kiduanga, Juma R.; Busck, Anne Gravsholt

    2015-01-01

    present a review of research into travel speed levels and congestion in Dar es Salaam. A set of city-wide maps of accessibility and delay levels are constructed based on available speed data and road network data obtained from the OpenStreetMap project and the findings are discussed with respect to the...

  2. CHALLENGES OF TOUR OPERATORS : DAR-ES-SALAAM, TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    NKONOKI, SYMON

    2012-01-01

    This research is commissioned by Development research organization (DROrg). This is a non-governmental organization based in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania which is dealing with conducting various scientific researches with an emphasis on promoting economic development in the country. The aim of this research is to study the challenges of tour operators and suggesting the appropriate measures to eradicate such challenges. Quantitative research method is the method which is applied in this thesis...

  3. A Browning process : The case of Dar es Salaam city

    OpenAIRE

    Mng'ong'o, Othmar Simtali

    2005-01-01

    The study is about how green spaces and structures of Dar es Salaam city, quantitatively and qualitatively, are browning out. It also tries to explore the different reasons behind the browning tendency, and what it means to the function of the city and to the daily form of life of the inhabitants. Finally there is a discussion about how to counteract the tendency by involving the inhabitants in planning procedures following the communicative approach to planning. The main investigations have ...

  4. Saltwater intrusion and nitrate pollution in the coastal aquifer of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mtoni, Y.; Mjemah Chikira, I.; Bakundukize, C.; Camp, M.; Martens, K.; Walraevens, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dar es Salaam Quaternary coastal aquifer is a major source of water supply in Dar es Salaam City used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. However, groundwater overdraft and contamination are the major problems affecting the aquifer system. This study aims to define the principal hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater quality in the coastal strip of Dar es Salaam and to investigate whether the threats of seawater intrusion and pollution are influencing groundwater qual...

  5. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dongus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2 was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92. Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  6. Green infrastructure for flood risk management in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mguni, Patience; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    The risk of flooding in urban areas could be better approached by complementing conventional sewer systems with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) for storm-water management. This may be the case for developing world cities like Dar es Salaam with incomplete sewer services, as well as cities...... like Copenhagen with fully developed sewer systems. This paper explores some theories relevant to understanding how the implementation of SUDS may be one option for supporting a transition towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM). Using interviews, document analysis and observation, a...... comparison of the opportunities and barriers to the implementation of SUDS in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen is presented. The results indicate that a bottom-up approach in Dar es Salaam is important, with the community level taking the lead, while in Copenhagen the top-down approach currently employed is...

  7. Urban Water Management in Dar es Salaam: A case for an Integrated Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Mushi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine water access and use characteristics of household in Dar es Salaam in order to determine how the integrated urban water management (IUWM) approach can be applied in solving the water crisis in the city as well as other challenges of urban water supply and sanitation. A limited household water access and use survey was carried out in all three districts of Dar es Salaam. It was found that some of the principles of IUWM such “fit for purpose use...

  8. Students' Experiences and Challenges of Blended Learning at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raphael, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), especially eLearning, have heightened the need for University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) to supplement on-campus face-to-face delivery as well as meeting increased students' enrolments through blended distance learning. Since 2008, the University has been offering three

  9. Child Labour in Urban Agriculture: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlozi, Malongo R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam was found to use child labor of both children with parents of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Discusses policy implications and calls for the education of parents of lower SES not to expect an economic contribution from their children's labor, and the education of children about their rights. (LZ)

  10. Imagined disease and racial segregation: multiple dreams of open space in Kinshasa and Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Beeckmans, Luce

    2015-01-01

    It is strange to encounter an open space in the middle of Tanzanias congested capital, Dar es Salaam. Similarly, one might wonder why there exists a golf course and a zoo besieged by traffic jams in the bustling city centre of Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The key to understanding the intriguing anomalies in the urban geographies of these capital cities lies in tracing back their histories. After the First World War colonial governments in British Dar es Sala...

  11. Towards sustainable ground water management in Dar Es Salaam city, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater pollution in urban areas is a worldwide growing environmental problem in this millennium. Many major cities in the world depend on groundwater for water supplies. However, urbanization processes threaten its quality. The problem is more pronounced in urban areas in developing countries like Tanzania, which are characterized with inadequate infrastructure for waste management. In Tanzania, the situation is more threatening in Dar Es Salaam City, which experiences acute deficiency in infrastructure provision: housing, water supply, sanitation, transportation and energy. The existing challenge is to protect groundwater resources amidst rapid growing Dar Es Salaam city, of which failure can lead to escalating costs for provision of drinking water with overall results of decreased public health conditions. A research conducted from 1997 to 2002, revealed that almost 50% of the water supply in Dar Es Salaam city comes from groundwater and that groundwater is being threatened by indiscriminate disposal practices of both domestic and industrial wastes. For example about 88% of the urban population use on-site sanitation systems, which discharge partially treated sewage to the groundwater. About 60 tonnes/day of chemical oxygen demand (COD) are transported to the groundwater through domestic sewage. Analysis of groundwater quality in the city indicated that the unconfined aquifer is starting to degrade. For instance, more than 40% of groundwater samples analysed for nitrate, chloride and faecal coliform bacteria, did not comply with the national standards for drinking water. Recognising the fact that demand for groundwater is on the increase in the city and that the aquifers have shown signs of degradation, a groundwater management plan is required to ensure sustainable utilization of the resource. This paper discusses the groundwater situation in Dar Es Salaam city and finally puts forward measures towards establishment of a management strategy. (author)

  12. Patterns of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Swai Andrew; Majigo Mtebe; Mmari Eunice; Mhalu Fred; Mbwana Judica; Chalamilla Guerino; Urassa Willy; Sandstrom Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Syndromic management of STIs has been advocated as simplified and cheap approach. Youth have been reported to be at increased risk of acquiring STIs which can facilitate HIV transmission. We have investigated the relationship between the syndromic management and specific aetiology diagnosis and its relationship with HIV infection and health seeking behaviour among youth attending a reproductive health clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Between September 1998 and Fe...

  13. IMPROVING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE DAR ES SALAAM COASTAL BELT, TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Maziku, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the factors which influence the state of solid waste management in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Belt, Tanzania. The research used semi-structured and structured interviews, group discussions, field observations and review of various literatures as the major methods of the study. Questionnaires were used for interviews. Results showed poor community awareness (except students and beach goers) of solid waste management and its significance; and...

  14. Storage, Collection and Disposal of Kariakoo Market Wastes in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yhdego, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid waste management in Kariakoo market, Dar es Salaam. The main problems identified were poor market design and lack of a well organized waste storage, collection and disposal systems. Two-thirds of the wa...

  15. Storage, Collection and Disposal of Kariakoo Market Wastes in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    YHDEGO, MICHAEL

    2011-01-01

    In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid waste management in Kariakoo market, Dar es Salaam. The main problems identified were poor market design and lack of a well organized waste storage, collection and disposal systems. Two-thirds of the...

  16. Green infrastructure for flood risk management in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mguni, Patience; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    The risk of flooding in urban areas could be better approached by complementing conventional sewer systems with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) for storm-water management. This may be the case for developing world cities like Dar es Salaam with incomplete sewer services, as well as cities like Copenhagen with fully developed sewer systems. This paper explores some theories relevant to understanding how the implementation of SUDS may be one option for supporting a transition towards sus...

  17. A Review of Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City from the Physical Planning Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Robert B. Kiunsi

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the major problems facing Dar es Salaam City and is attributed by a number of factors including rapid population increase, inadequate and poor road infrastructure, city structure, rapid increase in number of cars and lack of physical plan to control city development. The city is already implementing a number of strategies in order to minimize traffic congestion. However, many of the strategies are focusing on improving the capacity of roads in terms of increasing ...

  18. Body-Art Practices Among Undergraduate Medical University Students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Chacha Emmanuel Chacha; Kazaura, Method R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University st...

  19. Determinants of acceptance of cervical cancer screening in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe how demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer influence screening acceptance among women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling was carried out in 45 randomly selected streets in Dar es Salaam. Women between the ages of 25--59 who lived in the sampled streets were invited to a cervical cancer screening; 804 women accepted and 313 rejected the invitation. Information on demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer were obtained through structured questionnaire interviews. RESULTS: Women aged 35--44 and women aged 45--59 had increased ORs of 3.52 and 7.09, respectively, for accepting screening. Increased accepting rates were also found among single women (OR 2.43) and among women who had attended primary or secondary school (ORs of 1.81 and 1.94). Women who had 0--2 children were also more prone to accept screening in comparison with women who had five or more children (ORs 3.21). Finally, knowledge of cervical cancer and awareness of the existing screening program were also associated with increased acceptance rates (ORs of 5.90 and 4.20). CONCLUSION: There are identifiable subgroups where cervical cancer screening can be increased in Dar es Salaam. Special attention should be paid to women of low education and women of high parity. In addition, knowledge and awareness raising campaigns that goes hand in hand with culturally acceptable screening services will likely lead to an increased uptake of cervical cancer screening.

  20. Study of a Two-Storey Family House in theDar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Tina; Ekvall, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This final project is made as a Minor Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world and this is reflected in the way they live. Many people live in simple houses made out of mud, but the house that have been studied for this final project are a luxurious house from a Tanzanian perspective. The company that builds these houses are National Housing Corporation and it is this company that have provided drawings, information and educational visits. ...

  1. Acceptance of contraceptives among women who had an unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; Yambesi, Fortunata; Bergstrom, Staffan

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for post-abortion contraception and to determine if women who had an unsafe abortion will use a contraceptive method to avoid repeated unwanted pregnancies and STDs/HIV. METHOD: Women attending Temeke Municipal Hospital, Dar es Salaam, after an unsafe abortion or an...... induced abortion performed at the hospital (n=788) were counselled about contraception and the risk of contracting STDs/HIV. A free ward-based contraceptive service was offered and the women were asked to return for follow-up. RESULTS: Participants (90%) accepted the post-abortion contraceptive service...

  2. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a stu...

  3. Urban lymphatic filariasis in the metropolis of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Pedersen, Erling M; Mosha, Franklin W.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    The last decades have seen a considerable increase in urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is estimated that over 50% of the population will live in urban areas by 2040. Rapid growth of cities combined with limited economic resources often result in informal settlements and slums with favorable conditions for proliferation of vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Dar es Salaam, which has grown more than 30 times in population during the past 55 years (4.4 million inhabitants in 2012)...

  4. Sexual history and contraception among women with induced and spontaneous abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Mary, V; Urassa, E; Bergstrom, S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create sexual history profiles of women with illegally induced abortion (IA) and women with spontaneous abortion (SA) and describe the women's knowledge of, attitude to, and practice of contraception. The study was carried out in two settings, Temeke District Hospital (TDH) and Muhimbili Medical Centre (MMC) in Dar es Salaam. At TDH 362/603 (60 per cent) were identified as IA and 241/603 (40 per cent) as SA. At MMC the figures were 68/220 (31 per cent) IA and 1...

  5. Body-art practices among undergraduate medical university students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacha Emmanuel Chacha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98% of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52% reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.

  6. Basic analysis of climate and urban bioclimate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Better understanding of urban microclimate and bioclimate of any city is imperative today when the world is constrained by both urbanisation and global climate change. Urbanisation generally triggers changes in land cover and hence influencing the urban local climate. Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania is one of the fast growing cities. Assessment of its urban climate and the human biometeorological conditions was done using the easily available synoptic meteorological data covering the period 2001-2011. In particular, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated using the RayMan software and results reveal that the afternoon period from December to February (DJF season) is relatively the most thermal stressful period to human beings in Dar es Salaam where PET values of above 35 C were found. Additionally, the diurnal cycle of the individual meteorological elements that influence the PET index were analysed and found that air temperature of 30-35 C dominate the afternoon period from 12:00 to 15:00 hours local standard time at about 60 % of occurrence. The current results, though considered as preliminary to the ongoing urban climate study in the city, provide an insight on how urban climate research is of significant importance in providing useful climatic information for ensuring quality of life and wellbeing of city dwellers.

  7. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other hand, 12.4% of agricultural land and 16.1% of green areas would be lost in the low density development scenario of unplanned settlements of max. 150 persons per hectare. Relocating the population living in flood prone areas in the case of Addis Ababa and keeping those areas free from further settlements in the case of Dar es Salaam would result in even lower losses (agricultural land: -10.0%, green areas: -5.6%) as some flood prone areas overlap with agricultural/ green areas. The scenario models introduced in this research can be used by planners as tools to understand and manage the different outcomes of distinctive urban development strategies on growth patterns and how they interact with different climate change drivers such as loss of green infrastructure and effects such as frequent flooding hazards. Due to the relative simplicity of their structure and the single modeling environment, the models can be transferred to similar cities with minor modifications accommodating the different conditions of each city. Already, in Addis Ababa the results of the model will be used in the current revision of the Master plan of the city. Keywords: GIS, modeling, Urban Dynamics, Dar es Salaam, Addis Ababa, urbanization

  8. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like flooding out. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ?U.S. $17 to remove ?200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  9. Provision of Vocational Skills Education to Orphans: Lessons from Orphanage Centres in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Benjamin Mbeba

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises data from a study that investigated the efficacy of vocational skills training provided to orphans from three orphanages in Temeke District, Dar es Salaam. The three orphanage centres that were studied are Kurasini National Children Home, Saudia and Don Bosco Vocational Centre. The sample comprised of 45 orphans, an official

  10. Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities through interdisciplinary methods and analysis. Climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, droughts and heat waves has been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability provide insights how communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards; vulnerability of informal settlements to floods has been assessed for a case study area (Suna sub ward) and a GIS based identification of urban residential hotspots to flooding is completed. Furthermore, a set of indicators has been identified and the most relevant for Dar es Salaam has been selected by local stakeholders to identify particular vulnerable high risk areas and communities. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance system and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability has inter-alia suggested severe institutional deficits including over-centralized institutions for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. A multi-risk framework considering climate-related hazards, and physical and social fragilities has been set up.

  11. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from infants and children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matee Mecky I

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few studies have been done in Tanzania to detect and classify diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains among children with diarrhea. This study aimed at investigating DEC among children in Dar es Salaam aged less than five years hospitalized due to acute/persistent diarrhea. Methods DEC were isolated from stool samples collected from two hundred and eighty children with acute/persistent diarrhea at Muhimbili National Hospital and Ilala and Mwananyamala Municipal Hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A multiplex PCR system method was used to detect a species specific gene for E.coli and ten different virulence genes for detection of five pathogroups of DEC namely enteroaggregative- (EAEC, enteropathogenic- (EPEC, enterotoxigenic- (ETEC, enteroinvasive- (EIEC and enterohemorghagic- Escherichia coli (EHEC. Results Sixty-four patients (22.9% harbored DEC. Forty-one of them (14.6% were categorized as EAEC. Most of the EAEC (82.9% were classified as typical EAEC possessing the aggR gene, and 92.6% carried the aat gene. Isolates from thirteen patients were EPEC (4.6% and most of these (92.3% were typical EPEC with both eae and bfpA genes. Ten isolates were identified as ETEC (3.6% with only the heat stable toxin; either st1a or st1b but not both. Age wise, EAEC and EPEC were significantly more prevalent among the age group 06 months (p stx1 and stx2 and EIEC (ial were not detected in this study group. Conclusion The results show a high proportion of DEC among Tanzanian children with diarrhea, with typical EAEC and typical EPEC predominating. The use of primers for both variants of ST1 (st1a and st1b increased the sensitivity for detection of ETEC strains.

  12. Predictors of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Kamuhabwa AR; Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Appolinary R Kamuhabwa, Emmanuel CharlesUnit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Tanzania has recently experienced a significant rise in the burden of diabetes, and it is estimated that more than 400,000 people are living with diabetes. A major concern in the management of diabetes is the occurrence of diabetic complications that occur as a result of poor glycemic control. Identification o...

  13. Food habits of the blue swimming crab portunus pelagicus along the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mgaya, Y.D.; Chande, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The food habits of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus were investigated using the stomachs of 3948 crabs collected from Kunduchi sub-littoral shallow waters, Msasani Bay and Mzinga creek along the coast of Dar es Salaam. The main food items included mollusks (51.3%), crustaceans (24.1%), fish bones (18%) and unidentified food items (6.6%). The dominant food item was the bivalve Arcuatula arcuatula Hanley, 1844. Other molluscs included the gastropod genera Nassarius, Littoraria and Conu...

  14. Condom Use among HIV-Positive Sexually Active Adults and Partners HIV Status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Younge, Sinead; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Consistent and proper use of condoms has been found to be effective in preventing HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted diseases. We examined the predictors of condom use and knowledge of partners HIV status among 731 HIV-positive individuals who had sex in the past six months. Data are from an incoming service form administered to clients who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between ...

  15. Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, C.; Masamu, E. T.; Kiama, M. G.; Keto, A. J.; Kinenekejo, M.; Ichimori, K.; Lines, J

    1995-01-01

    A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor envi...

  16. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kannady Khadija; Kanamori Shogo; Tsuruta Atsuko; Castro Marcia C; Mkude Sixbert

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on commu...

  17. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mshinda Hassan; Mtasiwa Deo; Shirima Rudolf; Mayagaya Valeliana; Govella Nicodemus J; Emidi Basiliana; Chaki Prosper; Geissbhler Yvonne; Fillinger Ulrike; Lindsay Steven W; Kannady Khadija; de Castro Marcia; Tanner Marcel; Killeen Gerry F

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN) is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of ...

  18. Mothers Agency in Managing Breastfeeding and Other Work in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and New Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Omer-Salim, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Combining breastfeeding and other forms of work is desirable from both public health and labour productivity perspectives. This is often challenging, especially in low- or middle-income fast-growing urban settings. The aim of this thesis was to gain a deeper understanding of mothers perspectives on combining breastfeeding and other work in the urban contexts of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and New Delhi, India. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with community mothers (n=8) and...

  19. Jamii ya wahalifu. The growth of crime in a colonial African urban centre: Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika, 1919-19611

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article contains a description of the growth of a ‘modern’ criminal culture in Dar es Salaam under British rule. It provides an analysis of the possible causes of increasing criminality in colonial Tanganyika: including urbanisation, shifting definitions of criminality arising from state intervention, the penetration of the cash nexus and economic differentiation. The growth and changing shape of property crime in the city are outlined, as are the emerging criminal networks that helped f...

  20. Air pollution by motor traffic in Dar-es-Salaam. Measurements and state of the art description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricson, Daniel

    1999-06-01

    Dar-es-Salaam was the capital of Tanzania until 1973, when it was moved to Dodoma. The city is still the largest and holds about 1.6 million inhabitants. The aim of the project is to measure air pollution from traffic close to people and set a foundation for future studies. Besides that finding ways to reduce air pollution and improve traffic situation in Dar-es-Salaam with an emphasis on the central city parts. Previous studies on air pollution in Dar-es-Salaam have all been rather rushed and mostly with old and not very precise equipment. For that reason you could say this project is like a pilot study. Measurements were made on NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and VOC (hydrocarbons) during two different measuring weeks. Average temperature, wind velocity and traffic flow was measured on both weeks. Traffic flow was 12 000 vehicles/day. The percentage of accelerating/retarding vehicles and average speed was also studied. Average speed was 20 km/h. The result above show levels somewhat exceeding the guidelines. The levels can not be said to be alarmingly high, but bearing the rapid increase in the number of vehicles in mind, air pollution will soon be a major problem. It would have been preferred to also measure lead, particles and carbon monoxide, especially particles since previous reports indicates very high levels. To create a better air quality in Dar-es-Salaam there has to be an improvement of public transport and at the same time increased parking fees and fuel prices. Finally, fuel quality has to improve and unleaded petrol has to be introduced as soon as possible 10 refs, 4 figs, 15 tabs

  1. The changing nature of the Peri-Urban Zone in Africa: evidence from Dar-es-Salaam,Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, J.A.; Mwamfupe, D.

    1999-01-01

    Research on the peri-urban zones of African cities since the mid-1980s has focused around three main themes, these being peri-urban agriculture as a survival strategy, debates about the relative efficiencies of peri-urban agriculture, and the question of production priorities. Drawing on recent evidence from Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania, this paper suggest that a combination of structural adjustment measures and the eased economic crisis in Tanzania has changed conditions, the result of which ha...

  2. Patterns of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swai Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syndromic management of STIs has been advocated as simplified and cheap approach. Youth have been reported to be at increased risk of acquiring STIs which can facilitate HIV transmission. We have investigated the relationship between the syndromic management and specific aetiology diagnosis and its relationship with HIV infection and health seeking behaviour among youth attending a reproductive health clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Between September 1998 and February 1999 among 1895 adolescents and youth below 25 years seen in the clinic 199 (10.5% were randomly selected and consented to participate in the study. A standard questionnaire was administered. Blood and vaginal or urethral specimens were taken and investigated for STI causative agents. Results Among a total of 199 studied adolescents and youth 22.6 % were teenagers, with fewer females 17.8% than males; 27.5% (p Conclusion The burden of STIs in this youth population is large indicating that youth are at increased risk of STIs and will certainly require youth friendly clinics. There is a need to refine the current syndromic management guidelines.

  3. Determinants of acceptance of cervical cancer screening in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne; Mwaiselage, Julius; Ngoma, Twalib; Tersbol, Britt; Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    --44 and women aged 45--59 had increased ORs of 3.52 and 7.09, respectively, for accepting screening. Increased accepting rates were also found among single women (OR 2.43) and among women who had attended primary or secondary school (ORs of 1.81 and 1.94). Women who had 0--2 children were also more prone...... to accept screening in comparison with women who had five or more children (ORs 3.21). Finally, knowledge of cervical cancer and awareness of the existing screening program were also associated with increased acceptance rates (ORs of 5.90 and 4.20). CONCLUSION: There are identifiable subgroups where...... cervical cancer screening can be increased in Dar es Salaam. Special attention should be paid to women of low education and women of high parity. In addition, knowledge and awareness raising campaigns that goes hand in hand with culturally acceptable screening services will likely lead to an increased...

  4. The health-related microbiological quality of bottled drinking water sold in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassenga, Gabriel R

    2007-03-01

    The consumption of bottled and plastic-bagged drinking water in Tanzania has increased largely because of the deteriorating quality of tap water. It is uncertain whether these water products are safe for drinking. In this study, the microbiological quality of bottled and plastic-bagged drinking water sold in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was investigated. One hundred and thirty samples representing 13 brands of bottled water collected from shops, supermarkets and street vendors were analysed for total coliform and faecal coliform organisms as well as heterotrophic bacteria. These were compared with 61 samples of tap water. Heterotrophic bacteria were detected in 92% of the bottled water samples analysed. Total and faecal coliform bacteria were present in 4.6% and 3.6%, respectively, of samples analysed with a tendency for higher contamination rates in plastic-bagged drinking water. Microbiological quality of tap water was found to be worse compared with bottled water, with 49.2% and 26.2% of sampling points showing the presence of total coliform and faecal coliform organisms, respectively. The results suggest caution and vigilance to avert outbreaks of waterborne diseases from these types of drinking water. PMID:17402289

  5. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome--Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have impaired immunologic responses to combat infections. Infection and ulceration of the hand is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in certain populations in Africa; however, the condition is less well recognized than foot infections and is not classified generally as a specific diabetes complication. Hand ulceration and infection in diabetic patients was first described in the United States in 1977 and in Africa in 1984. Subsequently, the majority of reported cases have been from various parts of the African continent. The term "tropical diabetic hand syndrome" (TDHS) has been used to describe diabetes among patients who have progressive, fulminant hand sepsis. More recently, TDHS has been reported among patients in India. These data suggest that TDHS occurs primarily in diabetic patients who live in tropical or coastal areas and might result in loss of hand function, amputation, or death. This report describes the characteristics of 72 patients with TDHS examined at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Early recognition by patients, prompt medical attention, and improved glycemic control might reduce the incidence of disability or death. PMID:12433020

  6. Exploring Sustainable Urban Food Provisioning: The Case of Eggs in Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc C. A. Wegerif

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Global food supply is dominated by transnational corporations, which have great power and are widely critiqued for the negative environmental and social impacts of their operations. Many argue that this industrial food system is unsustainable, yet its expansion seems inevitable and alternatives are seen as incapable of feeding the worlds growing and increasingly urban population. Since much of the worlds future population growth is going to happen in the cities of the developing world, they have become the frontline for the expansion of the industrial food system, raising the serious challenge of ensuring food security for residents. This paper, based on a qualitative study of patterns of egg provisioning in Dar es Salaam, explores whether existing patterns of food supply in this rapidly growing city, of over four million people, provide workable alternatives. Eggs are an important source of nutrition and patterns of egg supply offer a lens through which to explore the sustainability of different modes of provisioning. A range of non-corporate provisioning patterns, based on small-scale enterprises, are found to have social, economic and environmental advantages, challenging assumptions that corporate food chains are necessary, or desirable, to feed cities sustainably.

  7. The role of local government in promoting sustainable urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    As a multifunctional activity and land use, urban agriculture supports a range of objectives, from urban greening to food security. However, it is often left out of urban policy. As a result of the highly contextual and cross-cutting nature of urban agriculture, there are relatively few comprehensive and formalized regulatory tools to draw from. Different cities around the world are now deciding how to fit urban agriculture into the urban agenda; however, in many places urban agriculture continues to operate in the absence of legitimization due to its relatively mobile and dynamic nature. This article looks at the importance of local and central governments in promoting sustainable urban agriculture. Through participatory action research, it examines the cases of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Copenhagen, Denmark to understand stakeholder interactions, as well as present and future barriers to the conservation of existing urban agriculture and future initiatives. The findings suggest that municipal recognition and institutional support for urban agriculture is an important component in increasing the sustainability of related initiatives. Local and central government plays a role in the legitimization and institutionalization of urban agriculture through the facilitation of multi-stakeholder processes, policy development and the conservation and allocation of land. 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  8. Integrated urban malaria control: a case study in dar es salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas de Castro, Marcia; Yamagata, Yoichi; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jurg; Keiser, Jennifer; Singer, Burton H

    2004-08-01

    The rapid growth of cities in sub-Saharan Africa, much of it driven by rural-urban migration, is associated with complex transformations of these ecosystems and an intricate set of challenges for malaria control. Urban malaria transmission is substantially less intense and much more focal than in rural and peri-urban settings. However, the danger of epidemics is higher and the presence of substantial non-immune populations places people of all ages at comparable levels of risk. The limited number of breeding sites in urban centers suggests that prevention strategies based on vector control, with emphasis on environmental management, should be a central feature of urban malaria control programs. We focus on malaria in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Following a brief review of the 100-year history of malaria control in this urban center, we describe and evaluate a control program that operated from 1988 to 1996 as a consequence of a bilateral agreement between the governments of Tanzania and Japan. We present an innovative urban malaria risk mapping methodology based on high-resolution aerial photography with ground-based validation. This strategy clarifies that remote sensing technology at a level of resolution of one meter is essential if this kind of information is to play a role in guiding the detailed specification of intervention strategies for urban malaria control. The Tanzania-Japan multiple-intervention malaria control program, adaptively implemented over time, is described and evaluated with implications for urban malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa more generally. PMID:15331826

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM WATER BODIES IN DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  10. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  11. Food cravings, aversions and pica among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaruhucha, C N M

    2009-01-01

    Food cravings, aversions and pica are common during pregnancy and may have a significant input on pregnancy progress and outcome. A study was carried out to determine the frequency and duration of pronounced dietary cravings, aversions and pica during pregnancy among 204 pregnant and lactating women attending two health facilities in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Nausea and vomiting were reported by 82.8% of all women of which 43.2% experienced severe nausea alone, 9.5% severe vomiting alone and 35.5% experienced severe vomiting and nausea. Mild cases of each of the symptoms either occurring alone or both of them occurring together were also reported. Both behaviours were observed more in tea and stiff porridge were also avoided. Reasons given for avoiding foods were unpleasant smell/taste (10.3%), to reduce nausea (11.8%), no particular reason (58.3%) and dislike by foetus (belief) (3.9%). Pica was experienced by 63.7%% of the women and soil, ice and ash were the most commonly non-food substances eaten. The frequency of nausea and vomiting was highest in the early months of pregnancy and most women experienced the symptoms during morning hours. Craving in most women was more intense in the first trimesters. Most women craved for meat and sour and savoury foods, and avoided rice, meat and fish. Soil consumption was the pica observed in most women. Since aversions and cravings are closely linked to dietary intake of pregnant woman understanding these behaviours is important in addressing maternal nutrition. PMID:19445102

  12. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaki Prosper P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8% of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9% had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431 and 55.7% (127/228 of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508. The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2% or window screens (75.5%. Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake.

  13. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of the night was estimated by human landing catch in 216 houses and 1,064 residents were interviewed to determine usage of protection measures and the proportion of each hour of the night spent sleeping indoors, awake indoors, and outdoors. Results Hourly variations in biting activity by members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were consistent with classical reports but the proportion of these vectors caught outdoors in Dar es Salaam was almost double that of rural Tanzania. Overall, ITNs confer less protection against exophagic vectors in Dar es Salaam than in rural southern Tanzania (59% versus 70%. More alarmingly, a biting activity maximum that precedes 10 pm and much lower levels of ITN protection against exposure (38% were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of modest importance locally, but which predominates transmission in large parts of Africa. Conclusion In a situation of changing mosquito and human behaviour, ITNs may confer lower, but still useful, levels of personal protection which can be complemented by communal transmission suppression at high coverage. Mosquito-proofing houses appeared to be the intervention of choice amongst residents and further options for preventing outdoor transmission include larviciding and environmental management.

  14. The magnitude and factors associated with delays in management of smear positive tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ngadaya Esther; Mtandu Rugola; Kimaro Godfather; Kahwa Amos; Mutayoba Beatrice K; Mfinanga Sayoki G; Egwaga Said; Kitua Andrew Y

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the magnitude and factors responsible for delay in TB management. Design A cross sectional hospital based survey in Dar es Salaam region, May 2006. Results We interviewed 639 TB patients. A total of 78.4% of patients had good knowledge on TB transmission. Only 35.9% had good knowledge on the symptoms. Patient delay was observed in 35.1% of the patients, with significantly (X2 = 5.49, d.f. = 1, P = 0.019) high proportion in females (41.0%) than in males (31.5%). Di...

  15. The spectrum of dermatological disorders among primary school children in Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgonda Yassin M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 2.8 years; range 6-19 years. The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05. Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor being the commonest (20%. Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420; the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41 and higher (21.8% in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045. Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%. All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4% with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420 followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1% whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7% followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%. Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%. Thirty six children (8.6% had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2% in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004. The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4% and pediculosis capitis (3.6%. Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%, non-specific dermatoses (10.7%, non-specific ulcers (5% and atopic eczema (2.6%. Rare conditions (prevalence Conclusions Skin disorders are common in primary school children; infectious dermatoses are still rampant and many children do not seek medical assistance.

  16. Gender differences in diet and nutrition among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Isanaka, Sheila; Liu, Enju; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Noor, Ramadhani A; Spiegelman, Donna; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected males have poor treatment outcomes after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared to HIV-infected women. Dietary factors might mediate the association between sex and disease progression. However, the gender difference in diet among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine differences in dietary intake among HIV-infected men and women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of dietary questionnaire data from 2038 adults initiating ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to assess whether nutrient adequacy differed by sex. We dichotomized participants' nutrient intakes by whether recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) were met and estimated the relative risk (RR) of meeting RDAs in males using binomial regression models. We also estimated the mean difference in intake of foods and food groups by gender. We found poorer dietary practices among men compared to women. Males were less likely to meet the RDAs for micronutrients critical for slowing disease progression among HIV patients: niacin (RR = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.55), riboflavin (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91), vitamin C (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.00), and zinc (RR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.24). Intake of thiamine, pantothenate, vitamins B6, B12, and E did not vary by gender. Males were less likely to eat cereals (mean difference [servings per day] = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.001) and vegetables (mean difference = -0.47, 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.07) in their diet, but more likely to have meat (mean difference = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.21). We conclude that male HIV patients have poorer dietary practices than females, and this may contribute to faster progression of the disease in males. PMID:25562355

  17. Green infrastructure for flood risk management in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen : exploring the potential for transition towards sustainable urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mguni, Patience; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2015-01-01

    The risk of flooding in urban areas could be better approached by complementing conventional sewer systems with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) for stormwater management. This may be the case for developing world cities like Dar es Salaam with incomplete sewer services, as well as cities like Copenhagen with fully developed sewer systems. This paper explores some theories relevant to understanding how the implementation of SUDS may be one option for supporting a transition towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM). Using interviews, document analysis and observation, a comparison of the opportunities and barriers for the implementation of SUDS in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen is presented. The results indicate that a bottom-up approach in Dar es Salaam is important, with the community level taking the lead, while in Copenhagen the top-down approach currently employed is promising. The ability of the institutional frameworks of both cities to support the implementation of SUDS is also discussed.

  18. Primary antimicrobial resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients in Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Ronald

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Republic of Tanzania is one of the 22 high M. tuberculosis burden countries. Data collected between 2002 and 2007 indicate that the global prevalence of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis including MDR vary greatly. The varied drug-resistance patterns make continuous surveillance of drug resistance an essential component of tuberculosis control program. Findings M. tuberculosis isolates were obtained from consenting adult tuberculosis patients involved in a placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of multivitamin supplements on response to anti-Tb treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on four antimicrobial agents namely streptomycin, isoniazid, ethambutol and rifampicin. HIV testing and CD4+ T lymphocytes enumeration were also done. A total of 280 M. tuberculosis isolates from 191 (68% males and 89 (32% female patients with no previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment exceeding 4 weeks in the previous 12 months were tested. Among these, 133 (47% patients were HIV seropositive. Fourteen (5.0% isolates were resistant to any of the anti-tuberculosis drugs. The prevalence of primary resistance was 5.0%, 0.7%, 0.4% and 0% for isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampicin and ethambutol respectively. One isolate (0.4% was MDR, with resistance to isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin. Conclusion M. Tb primary resistance rate in a selected population in Dar es Salaam Tanzania is low and efforts should be undertaken to support the Tuberculosis program.

  19. A first insight into the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, assessed by spoligotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfinanga Sayoki GM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a high tuberculosis incidence, and genotyping studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the country are necessary in order to improve our understanding of the epidemic. Spoligotyping is a potentially powerful genotyping method due to fast generation of genotyping results, high reproducibility and low operation costs. The recently constructed SpolDB4 database and the model-based program 'Spotclust' can be used to assign isolates to families, subfamilies and variants. The results of a study can thus be analyzed in a global context. Results One hundred forty-seven pulmonary isolates from consecutive tuberculosis patients in Dar es Salaam were spoligotyped. SpolDB4 and 'Spotclust' were used to assign isolates to families, subfamilies and variants. The CAS (37%, LAM (22% and EAI (17% families were the most abundant. Despite the dominance of these three families, diversity was high due to variation within M. tuberculosis families. Of the obtained spoligopatterns, 64% were previously unrecorded. Conclusion Spoligotyping is useful to gain an overall understanding of the local TB epidemic. This study demonstrates that the extensive TB epidemic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is caused by a few successful M. tuberculosis families, dominated by the CAS family. Import of strains was a minor problem.

  20. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  1. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es Salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Mchumvu, Y; Mmary, V

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked for...... socio-economic details, contraceptive knowledge/use, age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners. In the qualitative part, 51 teenage girls were interviewed in-depth about their relationships with their partners, sexual behaviour, contraceptive use and reasons for non-use, and why they became...

  2. A call for parental monitoring to improve condom use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlunde Linda B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been decreasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but prevalence of the infection remains unacceptably high among young people. Despite the alarming pervasiveness of the virus, young people in this region continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In developed countries, parents can play important roles in protecting young people from such behaviors, but evidence regarding the impact of parental involvement is still limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional study among 2,217 male and female students aged 15 to 24 years from 12 secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. From October to November 2011, we collected data using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 665 (30.3% secondary school students reported being sexually active within the year prior to data collection. Among them, 41.7% had multiple sexual partners, 10.5% had concurrent sexual partners, and 41.1% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. A higher level of parental monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of condom use at last sexual intercourse among male students (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32; p?=?0.03 but not among female students (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.71-3.37; p?=?0.28. The association between parental communication and condom use at last sexual intercourse among both male and female students was not statistically significant. Conclusions A high level of parental monitoring is associated with more consistent condom use among male students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania -- many of whom have engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors such as multiple sexual partnerships, concurrent sexual partnerships, and unprotected sexual intercourse in the past one year. Interventions should thus be strengthened to reduce multiple sexual partnerships, concurrent sexual partnerships, and to improve parental monitoring among such students toward increasing condom use.

  3. Urbanization and Its Impacts to Food Systems and Environmental Sustainability in Urban Space: Evidence from Urban Agriculture Livelihoods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wakuru Magigi

    2013-01-01

    Urbanisation is the key factor underpinning and catalysing changes in food systems, environmental quality, climate change and agriculture livelihoods in the overall urban ecosystem setting and its sustainability. The paper explores Dar es Salaam, a rapidly expanding city in Sub-Saharan Africa, and shows that urban agriculture provides urban ecosystem services and contributes to environmental sustainability. The interconnections of environmental justice, urban ecosystem ...

  4. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, M; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    girls are not aware about their right to such services. The paper concludes that the vulnerability of adolescent girls increases without the recognition that sexuality education and contraceptive services do not constitute a licence to practice illicit sex - but rather a means to create more mature and......Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent...... girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also...

  5. Air pollution in southern Africa: The case of motor vehicle exhaust contribution in Dar Es Salaam city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to review air pollution problems in the Southern Africa region and establish the quality of ambient air in Dar Es Salaam city in Tanzania with respect to three vehicular pollutants which are sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matters (SPM). These pollutants were measured in eight different locations in Dar-Es Salaam city which are Fire, Morocco, Tazara, Kariakoo, Ubungo, Posta, UCLAS, and Akiba. With the exception of South Africa and Botswana, other countries in the Southern Africa Region which include Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi. Zambia, Zimbabwe. Angola and Namibia do not have air pollution standards, and regular air pollution monitoring is not carried out in these countries. Diesel fueled vehicles in South Africa are responsible for one third of all smog-forming nitrogen dioxides and almost two-thirds of all particulate pollution emitted by all vehicles. The measurement methods used in Dar Es Salaam study were pararosaniline method for SO2, Saltzman for measuring nitrogen dioxide, and filtration method for suspended particulate matters. The following was observed from the analysis: Hourly sulphur dioxide concentration ranged from 558 -1385 ?g/m3. These measured values were above the recommended WHO guidelines with an hourly objective value of 350 ?g/m3. Hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration was found to range from 18 to 53 ?g/m3. The maximum hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration at 53 ?g/m3 was below the recommended WHO guidelines with a value of 200 ?g/m3. The hourly suspended particulate matter (SPM) was found to range from 744 to 1161 ?g/m3. The measured suspended particulate matter concentrations were above the recommended hourly maximum value by WHO guidelines which is 230?g/m3. The correlation coefficient of pollutants and the number of vehicles counted for different sampling points was determined and found to be fair reasonable with a value of 0.906 for suspended particulate matter (SPM), 0.64 for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 0.74 for sulphur dioxide (SO2). Gaussian , model NO2 predictions were comparable to the measured NO2 concentration. The average ratio of model calculated and measured concentrations is 0.60. The correlation coefficient between the measured concentrations and those predicted by the model was found to be 0.6. Remedial measures recommended include development of exhaust pipe emission standards and enforcing them in all countries in the Southern Africa Region. Annual check up of emission levels of SO2 and SPM for motor vehicles is recommended. It is further recommended that imported used vehicles should be tested for emission level prior to their registration, and regular ambient air pollutants levels monitoring activities be introduced in cities and municipalities within the Southern Africa Region for selected gaseous pollutants which should include SO2, NO2, and SPM. (author)

  6. Low quality of routine microscopy for malaria at different levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtasiwa Deo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory capacity to confirm malaria cases in Tanzania is low and presumptive treatment of malaria is being practiced widely. In malaria endemic areas WHO now recommends systematic laboratory testing when suspecting malaria. Currently, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs is recommended for the diagnosis of malaria in lower level peripheral facilities, but not in health centres and hospitals. In this study, the following parameters were evaluated: (1 the quality of routine microscopy, and (2 the effects of RDT implementation on the positivity rate of malaria test results at three levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods During a baseline cross-sectional survey, routine blood slides were randomly picked from 12 urban public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Sensitivity and specificity of routine slides were assessed against expert microscopy. In March 2007, following training of health workers, RDTs were introduced in nine public health facilities (three hospitals, three health centres and three dispensaries in a near-to-programmatic way, while three control health facilities continued using microscopy. The monthly malaria positivity rates (PR recorded in health statistics registers were collected before (routine microscopy and after (routine RDTs the intervention in all facilities. Results At baseline, 53% of blood slides were reported as positive by the routine laboratories, whereas only 2% were positive by expert microscopy. Sensitivity of routine microscopy was 71.4% and specificity was 47.3%. Positive and negative predictive values were 2.8% and 98.7%, respectively. Median parasitaemia was only three parasites per 200 white blood cells (WBC by routine microscopy compared to 1226 parasites per 200 WBC by expert microscopy. Before RDT implementation, the mean test positivity rates using routine microscopy were 43% in hospitals, 62% in health centres and 58% in dispensaries. After RDT implementation, mean positivity rates using routine RDTs were 6%, 7% and 8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RDTs using expert microscopy as reference were 97.0% and 96.8%. The positivity rate of routine microscopy remained the same in the three control facilities: 71% before versus 72% after. Two cross-sectional health facility surveys confirmed that the parasite rate in febrile patients was low in Dar es Salaam during both the rainy season (13.6% and the dry season (3.3%. Conclusions The quality of routine microscopy was poor in all health facilities, regardless of their level. Over-diagnosis was massive, with many false positive results reported as very low parasitaemia (1 to 5 parasites per 200 WBC. RDTs should replace microscopy as first-line diagnostic tool for malaria in all settings, especially in hospitals where the potential for saving lives is greatest.

  7. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the most common type of diarrhoea in children under five years in Dar es Salaam and is predominantly due to DEC, C. parvum, rotaviruses and noroviruses. Constant antibiotic surveillance is warranted as bacteria were highly resistant to various antimicrobial agents including co-trimoxazole and erythromycin which are currently recommended for empiric treatment of diarrhoea.

  8. Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study has the potential to provide empirical evidence to promote large scale monitoring and education campaigns in Africa to improve health and reduce the burden of waterborne disease.

  9. Prevalence of enteropathogenic viruses and molecular characterization of group A rotavirus among children with diarrhea in Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maselle Samwel Y

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different groups of viruses have been shown to be responsible for acute diarrhea among children during their first few years of life. Epidemiological knowledge of viral agents is critical for the development of effective preventive measures, including vaccines. Methods In this study we determined the prevalence of the four major enteropathogenic viruses rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus was determined in 270 stool samples collected from children aged 0 60 months who were admitted with diarrhea in four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, using commercially available ELISA kits. In addition, the molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus was investigated using reverse transcriptase multiplex polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results At least one viral agent was detected in 87/270 (32.2% of the children. The prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus was 18.1%, 13.7%, 2.6% and 0.4%, respectively. In most cases (62.1% of viruses were detected in children aged 712 months. The G and P types (VP7 and VP4 genotypes respectively were further investigated in 49 rotavirus ELISA positive samples. G9 was the predominant G type (81.6%, followed by G1 (10.2% and G3 (0.2%. P[8] was the predominant P type (83.7%, followed by P[6] (0.4% and P[4] (0.2%. The following G and P types were not detected in this study population; G2, G4, G8 G10, P[9], P[10] and P[11]. The dominating G/P combination was G9P[8], accounting for 39 (90.7% of the 43 fully characterized strains. Three (6.1% of the 49 rotavirus strains could not be typed. Conclusion Nearly one third of children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in Dar es Salaam had one of the four viral agents. The predominance of rotavirus serotype G9 may have implication for rotavirus vaccination in Tanzania.

  10. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3 to 4 C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of adaptation can be reduced with prolonged exposure to high temperature and humidity. The expected persistence of long-lived heat waves lasting approximately 1.5-2 weeks is clearly longer with respect to the climatological period (1961-1990). During 100 years, short lived but more intense waves are more than doubled in duration. It is evident the needs for the national health services to develop strategies for the mitigation of the heat wave effects, to enhance the resilience of the population, particularly the elder people.

  11. Low utilization of health care services following screening for hypertension in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania): a prospective population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Lengeler Christian; Balampama Marianna; Mkamba Mashombo; Gervasoni Jean-Pierre; Bovet Pascal; Paccaud Fred

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Drug therapy in high-risk individuals has been advocated as an important strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease in low income countries. We determined, in a low-income urban population, the proportion of persons who utilized health services after having been diagnosed as hypertensive and advised to seek health care for further hypertension management. Methods A population-based survey of 9254 persons aged 2564 years was conducted in Dar es Salaam. Among the 540 persons...

  12. Monitoring mosquitoes in urban Dar es Salaam: Evaluation of resting boxes, window exit traps, CDC light traps, Ifakara tent traps and human landing catches

    OpenAIRE

    Mpangile John M; Chaki Prosper P; Govella Nicodem J; Killeen Gerry F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ifakara tent traps (ITT) are currently the only sufficiently sensitive, safe, affordable and practical method for routine monitoring host-seeking mosquito densities in Dar es Salaam. However, it is not clear whether ITT catches represent indoors or outdoors biting densities. ITT do not yield samples of resting, fed mosquitoes for blood meal analysis. Methods Outdoors mosquito sampling methods, namely human landing catch (HLC), ITT (Design B) and resting boxes (RB) were con...

  13. INVESTIGATION OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION AND HEALTH RISKS DUE TO FARMING ACTIVITIES ON A FORMER DUMPSITE IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Caroline; Heiskala, Linnea

    2014-01-01

    The heavy metal pollution from a former solid waste disposal site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, that is currently used for urban farming was investigated. The pollution was assessed by measuring the content of copper, lead, zinc and chromium in soil, plants and leachate from the site as well as in the adjacent river. The safe daily intake of onsite cultivated vegetables, in regard to the heavy metal content, was calculated. The analysis showed that there is a health risk connected to consuming ...

  14. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Govella Nico J; Chaki Prosper P; Geissbhler Yvonne; Nyika Dickson; Dongus Stefan; Vanek Michael J; William George; Kannady Khadija; Fillinger Ulrike; Mathenge Evan M; Singer Burton H; Mshinda Hassan; Lindsay Steven W; Tanner Marcel; Mtasiwa Deo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs). New vector surveillance, larv...

  15. The problem of illegally induced abortion: results from a hospital-based study conducted at district level in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E; Bergstrm, S

    2000-01-01

    Illegal abortion is known to be a major contributor to maternal mortality. The objective of the study was firstly to identify women with illegally induced abortion, (IA) and to compare them with women admitted with a spontaneous abortion (SA) or receiving antenatal care (AC), and secondly to describe the circumstances which characterized the abortion. The population of this cross-sectional questionnaire study comprised patients from Temeke District Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. After an in-...

  16. Sexual motivation, sexual transactions and sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh C; Nyoni, Joyce E; Ross, Michael W; Mbwambo, Jessie; Markham, Christine M; McCurdy, Sheryl A

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the associations between sexual motivation and sexual risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) is critical for developing effective HIV prevention interventions. To examine these associations, we employed data from a survey of 200 MSM in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, recruited through respondent driven sampling. Results showed that 44.5 % of surveyed participants most often looked for love/affection when having sex, and 36.5 % most often looked for money. Money-motivated MSM were more likely to identify themselves as bisexual, more likely to have anal sex, and had significantly higher numbers of partners of both sexes. Those who most often looked for love/affection were less likely to ask for condom use, to actually use a condom, and to use lubrication in anal sex. MSM with different sexual motivations had dissimilar sexual risk behaviors. Tailored health interventions for each group to reduce these sexual risks for STIs/HIV prevention are needed. PMID:24890184

  17. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults aged 18 - 65 years in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from April 2007 to April 2008. Methods Random sampling of households was performed. Interviews and anthropometric measurement were carried out to eligible and consenting members of the selected households. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Out of 1249 subjects recruited, 814 (65.2% were females. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19.2% (240/1249. However, obesity was significantly more prevalent in women (24.7% than men (9%, p Conclusion This study revealed a higher prevalence of obesity among Kinondoni residents than previously reported in other parts of the country. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, marriage and cohabitation, high SES, female sex and less vigorous physical activities.

  18. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are nowallowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls are not aware about their right to such services. The paper concludes that the vulnerability of adolescent girls increases without the recognition that sexuality education and contraceptive services do not constitute a licence to practice illicit sex - but rather a means to create more mature and responsible attitudes and to increase sexual and reproductive health.

  19. Application of Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process to Prioritize the Challenges Facing Public Transportation in Dar Es Salaam City-Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick P. Massami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is a key to the economy and social welfare; it makes mobility more accessible and enhances the social and economic interactions. On the other hand, the increase of urban population, pollution and other negative impacts has directly affected the existing transportation system in Dar es Salaam City - Tanzania. As the transportation challenges cannot be overcome simultaneously due to the scarcity of financial resources, a decision support tool is needed to prioritize these challenges. In this study, a composite model of Vague Set Theory (VST and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is applied to appraise the challenges. The Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process (VAHP uses opinions of experts collected from a survey questionnaire. The computational results reveal the ranking in descending order of the urban transportation challenges as poor traffic management, inadequacy of proper public transit service and inadequacy of road transport infrastructure. The results also depict that the VAHP model is a useful decision support tool for transport planners, transport policy makers and other industry stakeholders.

  20. Determinants of Anemia Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Adults at Care and Treatment Clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraro, Paul; Duggan, Christopher; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Makubi, Abel; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Helen; Sando, David; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-02-01

    Anemia is often a comorbidity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Many cross-sectional studies have been conducted on anemia and HIV, but few, if any, have addressed incidence of anemia prospectively. A longitudinal analysis was conducted in 48,068 nonpregnant HIV-infected adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, seen at Management and Development for Health-U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief HIV care and treatment programs between 2004 and 2011. Almost 56% (N = 27,184) of study participants had anemia (hemoglobin anemia. Low BMI and low CD4 T-cell count were independently significantly associated with an increased risk for iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Higher BMI status and ART use were associated with recovery from anemia. Anemia, including IDA, is a comorbidity that is associated with other adverse consequences (e.g., low BMI and CD4 T-cell count) among individuals with HIV infection, including those on ART. Interventions to prevent anemia and its complications need to be examined in the context of future studies. PMID:26666698

  1. Modeling approaches and strategies for data-scarce aquifers: example of the Dar es Salaam aquifer in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Marc; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Al Farrah, Nawal; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-03-01

    Management of groundwater resources can be improved by using groundwater models to perform risk analyses and to improve development strategies, but a lack of extensive basic data often limits the implementation of sophisticated models. Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is an example of a city where increasing groundwater use in a Pleistocene aquifer is causing groundwater-related problems such as saline intrusion along the coastline, lowering of water-table levels, and contamination of pumping wells. The lack of a water-level monitoring network introduces a problem for basic data collection and model calibration and validation. As a replacement, local water-supply wells were used for measuring groundwater depth, and well-top heights were estimated from a regional digital elevation model to recalculate water depths to hydraulic heads. These were used to draw a regional piezometric map. Hydraulic parameters were estimated from short-time pumping tests in the local wells, but variation in hydraulic conductivity was attributed to uncertainty in well characteristics (information often unavailable) and not to aquifer heterogeneity. A MODFLOW model was calibrated with a homogeneous hydraulic conductivity field and a sensitivity analysis between the conductivity and aquifer recharge showed that average annual recharge will likely be in the range 80-100 mm/year.

  2. Bacteria isolated from bloodstream infections at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: antimicrobial resistance of isolates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Moyo; S, Aboud; M, Kasubi; S Y, Maselle.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A bloodstream infection (BSI) is a life-threatening condition. We studied the causative agents of BSIs and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of blood culture resul [...] ts obtained at MNH from January 2005 to December 2009 was done. Blood culture isolates judged to be clinically significant and antimicrobial susceptibility results of the bacteria were included. The frequencies and proportions of bacteria isolated and antimicrobial susceptibility results were analysed and compared using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test where applicable, or the Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: A total of 13 833 blood cultures were performed. Bacterial pathogens were detected in 1 855 (13.4%), Gram-positive bacteria (1 523; 82.1%) being significantly more prevalent than Gramnegative bacteria (332; 17.9%) (p=0.008). The most common bacterial pathogens isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (1 250; 67.4%), S. aureus (245; 13.2%), Escherichia coli (131; 7%) and Klebsiella spp. (130; 7.0%). All bacteria isolated showed high resistance to penicillin G (70.6%), tetracycline (63.8%), cefotaxime (62.5%) and ampicillin (62.3%). Moderate to high resistance was seen against chloramphenicol (45.2%), erythromycin (35.0%), ciprofloxacin (29.3%), co-trimoxazole (25.0%) and gentamicin (23.5%). Of S. aureus isolates, 23.3% were resistant to methicillin. CONCLUSION: CoNS accounted for two-thirds of the bacterial pathogens isolated. High-level resistance was seen to first-line and inexpensive antimicrobial agents. Routine screening for extendedspectrum beta-lactamase production and methicillin resistance among Gram-negative rods and S. aureus from blood cultures should be instituted to monitor spread of multidrug-resistant isolates.

  3. Criteria-based audit on management of eclampsia patients at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindmark Gunilla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the introduction of a criteria-based audit in a tertiary hospital in an African setting, assesses the quality of care among eclampsia patients and discusses possible interventions in order to improve the quality of care. Methods We conducted a criteria based audit of 389 eclampsia patients admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam Tanzania between April 14, 2006 and December 31, 2006. Cases were assessed using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. Results Antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum eclampsia constituted 47%, 41% and 12% of the eclampsia cases respectively. Antepartum eclampsia was mostly (73% preterm whereas the majority (71% of postpartum eclampsia cases ware at term. The case fatality rate for eclampsia was 7.7%. Medical histories were incomplete, the majority (75% of management plans were not reviewed by specialists in obstetrics, specialist doctors live far from the hospital and do not spend nights in hospital even when they are on duty, monitoring of patients on magnesium sulphate was inadequate, and important biochemical tests were not routinely done. Two thirds of the patient scheduled for caesarean section did not undergo surgery within agreed time. Conclusion Potential areas for further improvement in quality of emergency care for eclampsia relate to standardizing management guidelines, greater involvement of specialists in the management of eclampsia and continued medical education on current management of eclampsia for junior staff.

  4. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  5. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannady Khadija

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. Methods A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR, logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Results Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.050.3, p Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Conclusion Although environmental management was historically coordinated by authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial resources for initial cleaning and structural repairs, and inter-sectoral collaboration. Such effort not only is expected to reduce malaria transmission, but has the potential to empower communities, improve health and environmental conditions, and ultimately contribute to poverty alleviation and sustainable development.

  6. Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C; Masamu, E T; Kiama, M G; Keto, A J; Kinenekejo, M; Ichimori, K; Lines, J

    1995-01-01

    A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7704932

  7. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrgg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. PMID:25649406

  8. Elemental and ionic components of atmospheric aerosols and associated gaseous pollutants in and near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Albert G.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja S.; Bencs, László; McCrindle, Robert I.; Van Grieken, René

    2013-10-01

    Elemental and water-soluble ionic compounds (WSICs) of atmospheric aerosols (total suspended particulate - TSP) and some gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2 and O3) from a coastal, semi-urban and rural site in and near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were investigated during dry and wet seasons of January 2005-November 2007. Na+, Ca2+, SO42-, NO3- and Cl- made up the dominant fraction of WSICs during the dry season with average concentrations ranging from non-detectable (n.d.)-5.4, 0.26-2.6, 0.74-14.7, 0.4-1.5 and 1.1-3.4 μg m-3, respectively, while in the wet season, from n.d. up to 1.7, 1.2, 4.4, 2.1 and 3.0 μg m-3, respectively. The total air concentrations of the detected elements (Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn) showed seasonal and site-specific variation in the range of 7.5-26.6 with an average of 14.5 μg m-3. Most of the air concentrations of pollutants were observed to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal site, which is under urban and industrial pollutant emissions. Sulphur and nitrogen oxidation ratios during the dry season ranged from 0.08 to 0.91 and 0.013 to 0.049, respectively, while they were between 0.09-0.65 and 0.002-0.095, respectively, in the wet season. These values indicate the photochemical oxidation of SO2 and a high extent of NO3-formation in the atmosphere. Neutralization ratios revealed the presence of acidic SO42- and NO3- aerosols. Principal component analysis identified sea spray, local combustion, vehicular traffic, biomass burning and re-suspended road dust as dominant sources of aerosols at the studied coastal and semi-urban sites. However, at the rural site, besides sea spray, crustal sources, soil dust re-suspension and long-range transport are the possible origins of suspended particulates.

  9. The magnitude and factors associated with delays in management of smear positive tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadaya Esther

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the magnitude and factors responsible for delay in TB management. Design A cross sectional hospital based survey in Dar es Salaam region, May 2006. Results We interviewed 639 TB patients. A total of 78.4% of patients had good knowledge on TB transmission. Only 35.9% had good knowledge on the symptoms. Patient delay was observed in 35.1% of the patients, with significantly (X2 = 5.49, d.f. = 1, P = 0.019 high proportion in females (41.0% than in males (31.5%. Diagnosis delay was observed in 52.9% of the patients, with significantly (X2 = 10.1, d.f. = 1, P = 0.001 high proportion in females (62.1% than in males (47.0%. Treatment delay was observed in 34.4% of patients with no significant differences among males and females. Several risk factors were significantly associated with patient's delays in females but not in males. The factors included not recognizing the following as TB symptoms: night sweat (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.20, 3.05, chest pain (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.1, 2.37, weight loss (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.03, 2.32, and coughing blood (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.01, 2.16. Other factors included: living more than 5 Km from a health facility (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.41, 3.55, no primary education (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.01, 3.05 and no employment (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.20, 2.60. In multiple logistic regression, five factors were more significant in females (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.14, 4.31 than in males (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.44, 1.11. These factors included not knowing that night sweat and chest pain are TB symptoms, a belief that TB is always associated with HIV infection, no employment and living far from a health facility. Conclusion There were significant delays in the management of TB patients which were contributed by both patients and health facilities. However, delays in most of patients were due to delay of diagnosis and treatment in health facilities. The delays at all levels were more common in females than males. This indicates the need for education targeting health seeking behaviour and improvement in health system.

  10. Monitoring mosquitoes in urban Dar es Salaam: Evaluation of resting boxes, window exit traps, CDC light traps, Ifakara tent traps and human landing catches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpangile John M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ifakara tent traps (ITT are currently the only sufficiently sensitive, safe, affordable and practical method for routine monitoring host-seeking mosquito densities in Dar es Salaam. However, it is not clear whether ITT catches represent indoors or outdoors biting densities. ITT do not yield samples of resting, fed mosquitoes for blood meal analysis. Methods Outdoors mosquito sampling methods, namely human landing catch (HLC, ITT (Design B and resting boxes (RB were conducted in parallel with indoors sampling using HLC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps (LT and RB as well as window exit traps (WET in urban Dar es Salaam, rotating them thirteen times through a 3 3 Latin Square experimental design replicated in four blocks of three houses. This study was conducted between 6th May and 2rd July 2008, during the main rainy season when mosquito biting densities reach their annual peak. Results The mean sensitivities of indoor RB, outdoor RB, WET, LT, ITT (Design B and HLC placed outdoor relative to HLC placed indoor were 0.01, 0.005, 0.036, 0.052, 0.374, and 1.294 for Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (96% An. gambiae s.s and 4% An. arabiensis, respectively, and 0.017, 0.053, 0.125, 0.423, 0.372 and 1.140 for Culex spp, respectively. The ITT (Design B catches correlated slightly better to indoor HLC (r2 = 0.619, P 2 = 0.231, P = 0.001 than outdoor HLC (r2 = 0.423, P 2 = 0.228, P = 0.001 for An. gambiae s.l. and Culex spp respectively but the taxonomic composition of mosquitoes caught by ITT does not match those of the indoor HLC (?2 = 607.408, degrees of freedom = 18, P An. gambiae caught indoors was unaffected by the use of an LLIN in that house. Conclusion The RB, WET and LT are poor methods for surveillance of malaria vector densities in urban Dar es Salaam compared to ITT and HLC but there is still uncertainty over whether the ITT best reflects indoor or outdoor biting densities. The particular LLIN evaluated here failed to significantly reduce house entry by An. gambiae s.l. suggesting a negligible repellence effect.

  11. Trace metal pollution and its influence on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of trace metal pollution on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs was investigated in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast. Significant enrichment of As, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Zn in sediments was recorded. Redundancy analysis indicated that trace metal pollution contributed 68% of the variation in community structure. Monte Carlo permutation test showed that As and Sb contributed significantly to variation in species composition. T-value biplots and van Dobben circles showed that the gastropods Acteon fortis, Assiminea ovata, and Littoraria aberrans, were negatively affected by As and Sb, while the bivalve Semele radiata and the gastropod Conus litteratus were only negatively affected by As. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Mo and Zn occurred in the bivalve Mactra ovalina and the gastropod Polinices mammilla. This calls for regular monitoring and management measures.

  12. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongus Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1 community-based development of sketch maps and (2 verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa.

  13. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es Salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked for socio-economic details, contraceptive knowledge/use, age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners. In the qualitative part, 51 teenage girls were interviewed in-depth about their relationships with their partners, sexual behaviour, contraceptive use and reasons for non-use, and why they became pregnant. The girls were sexually active at an early age and having sex mainly with men older than themselves. Although most of the girls were in love with and enjoyed sex with their partners, they also entered these relationships to obtain money or gifts in exchange for sex. Most were not using contraception or condoms though they were also at risk of STDs and HIV. These girls were getting pregnant expecting their boyfriends to marry them, or because they did not think they could become pregnant or failed to use contraception correctly. Most adolescent girls are not aware of the 1994 Tanzanian policy that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among adolescent girls.

  14. A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlunde, Linda Beatrice; Sunguya, Bruno Fokas; Mbwambo, Jessie Kazeni; Ubuguyu, Omary Said; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a baseline cross-sectional study as part of a prospective cohort study of people who inject drugs. We included 578 participants comprising of new enrollees of the integrated methadone-assisted treatment program and those who were selected from the communities but not enrolled in the program. We interviewed new enrollees preceding their enrollment and receipt of services from the program. We measured participants high-risk behaviors and their utilization of screening services. We analyzed the data descriptively and used multiple logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with ever being screened for infectious diseases. Results Of 578 participants, 14.2% shared injection needles. Of 547 sexually active participants, 37.5% had multiple sexual partners and only 17.4% used a condom. Of all participants, however, only 36.0% had ever been screened for HIV infection, 18.5% for tuberculosis, 11.8% for any other sexually transmitted infection, and 11.6% for hepatitis B/C. They were more likely to have ever been screened for HIV infection if they had education levels above primary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.544.20), had a history of transactional sex (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.016.84), and were new enrollees of the program (AOR: 7.41, 95% CI: 4.4112.86). Conclusions People who inject drugs practice high-risk behaviors but their utilization of screening services for infectious diseases is poor in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is crucial to increase the coverage of screening services for them and strengthen the counseling of safer sexual practices. PMID:26849802

  15. Improved quality of management of eclampsia patients through criteria based audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bridging the quality gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidanto Hussein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits (CBA have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the use of a CBA to improve quality of care among eclampsia patients admitted at a University teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Objective The prevalence of eclampsia in MNH is high (?6% with the majority of cases arriving after start of convulsions. In 20042005 the case-fatality rate in eclampsia was 5.1% of all pregnant women admitted for delivery (MNH obstetric data base. A criteria-based audit (CBA was used to evaluate the quality of care for eclamptic mothers admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania after implementation of recommendations of a previous audit. Methods A CBA of eclampsia cases was conducted at MNH. Management practices were evaluated using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. The Ministry of Health (MOH guidelines, local management guidelines, the WHO manual supplemented by the WHO Reproductive Health Library, standard textbooks, the Cochrane database and reviews in peer reviewed journals were adopted. At the initial audit in 2006, 389 case notes were assessed and compared with the standards, gaps were identified, recommendations made followed by implementation. A re-audit of 88 cases was conducted in 2009 and compared with the initial audit. Results There was significant improvement in quality of patient management and outcome between the initial and re-audit: Review of management plan by senior staff (76% vs. 99%; P=0.001, urine for albumin test (61% vs. 99%; P=0.001, proper use of partogram to monitor labour (75% vs. 95%; P=0.003, treatment with steroids for lung maturity (2.0% vs. 24%; P=0.001, Caesarean section within 2 hours of decision (33% vs. 61%; P=0.005, full blood count (28% vs. 93%; P=0.001, serum urea and creatinine (44% vs. 86%; P=0.001, liver enzymes (4.0% vs. 86%; P=0.001, and specialist review within 2 hours of admission (25% vs. 39%; P=0.018. However, there was no significant change in terms of delivery within 24 hours of admission (69% vs. 63%; P=0.33. There was significant reduction of maternal deaths (7.7% vs. 0%; P=0.001. Conclusion CBA is applicable in low resource setting and can help to improve quality of care in obstetrics including management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.

  16. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions remain higher among university students. This calls for understanding the knowledge on contraceptive use and sexual behaviours among this high risk group if the incidence of unintended pregnancy, illegal abortions and high sexual risky behaviour are to be minimized. This study aimed to assess ssexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among undergraduate female students in the two Universities located in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania. The study period was from June 2013 to October 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 281 students. Of these, 253 were retrieved, giving a response rate of 90%. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows version 17.0. Descriptive statistics were summarized. The chi square test was used to examine relationship between various sociodemographic and sexual behaviours variables with contraceptive use. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Results showed that majority (70.4%) of the students have had sexual intercourse. All participants had knowledge of contraception. More than half, 148 (58.5%) of sexually active women reported ever used contraception before while 105 (41.5%) were current contraceptive users. Majority (74.7%) of the sexually active group started sexual activity at young age (1924 years). Condom, 221(24.3%) and pills, 153 (16.8%) were the known contraceptive methods. The most popular method of contraception used were condoms, withdrawal and periodic abstinence. The main sources of information about contraception were from friends, radio and school (39.5%, 36% and 24%) respectively. Forty (15.8%) women had pregnancies. Of these, 11 (27%) have had unwanted pregnancies among which 54.6% have had induced abortion. Marital status, age at first sex, ever had sex, ever been pregnant and unwanted pregnancies were associated with use of contraception. Conclusions Most of the students had knowledge of contraception. However, rate of contraception use is still low. Majority of the respondent were sexually active, with the majority started sexual activity at young age. This needs advocacy for adolescence reproductive health education to promote the use of the available contraceptive services amongst university students. PMID:25099502

  17. Sanitary inspection of wells using risk-of-contamination scoring indicates a high predictive ability for bacterial faecal pollution in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mushi, Douglas; Byamukama, Denis; Kirschner, Alexander K.T.; Mach, Robert L.; Brunner, K.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    The sanitary inspection of wells was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures using risk-of-contamination (ROC) scoring to determine the capacity of ROC scoring to predict bacterial faecal pollution of well water in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The analysis was based on a selection of wells representing environments with low to high presumptive faecal pollution risk and a multi-parametric data set of bacterial indicators, generating a c...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans

  19. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: A case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massila Mariam

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics. In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live.

  20. The second African Federation of Neurological Surgeons course in the East, Central, and Southern Africa region held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahamba, Joseph F; Assey, Anthony B; Dempsey, Robert J; Qureshi, Mahmood M; Hrtl, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The second International African Federation of Neurological Surgeons course was organized on January 24 to 28, 2011, at the Seacliff Hotel and Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete graced the official opening with high ranking government officials in attendance. The targeted participants were young neurosurgeons in the East, Central, and South African region. More than 80 surgeons, residents, and neurosurgical nurses came from Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The objectives of the course were to teach and train young local surgeons in the essential-relevant for the region-and current techniques and management principles of brain and spinal diseases, acquire new skills through hands-on practical sessions, and share experiences. The course consisted of didactic sessions, practical aspects on spine internal fixation, cadaver dissections, and live microscopic and endoscopic surgery. Experienced faculty from different states of the United States, Spain, Turkey, India, Egypt, and Ethiopia facilitated the course. The objectives of the course were met with a favorable evaluation report. The collaboration and experience gained will be reinvested in organizing similar courses in the region. PMID:22120325

  1. Putting the genie back in the bottle? Availability and presentation of oral artemisinin compounds at retail pharmacies in urban Dar-es-Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Carolyn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently global health advocates have called for the introduction of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies to help curb the impact of drug-resistant malaria in Africa. Retail trade in artemisinin monotherapies could undermine efforts to restrict this class of medicines to more theoretically sound combination treatments. Methods This paper describes a systematic search for artemisinin-containing products at a random sample of licensed pharmacies in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in July 2005. Results Nineteen different artemisinin-containing oral pharmaceutical products, including one co-formulated product, one co-packaged product, and 17 monotherapies were identified. All but one of the products were legally registered and samples of each product were obtained without a prescription. Packaging and labeling of the products seldom included local language or illustrated instructions for low-literate clients. Packaging and inserts compared reasonably well with standards recommended by the national regulatory authority with some important exceptions. Dosing instructions were inconsistent, and most recommended inadequate doses based on international standards. None of the monotherapy products mentioned potential benefits of combining the treatment with another antimalarial drug. Conclusion The findings confirm the widespread availability of artemisinin monotherapies that led the World Health Organization to call for the voluntary withdrawal of these drugs in malaria-endemic countries. As the global public health community gathers resources to deploy artemisinin-containing combination therapies in Africa, planners should be mindful that these drugs will coexist with artemisinin monotherapies in an already well-established market place. In particular, regulatory authorities should be incorporated urgently into the process of planning for rational deployment of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies.

  2. Maternal and neonatal colonisation of group B streptococcus at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group B streptococcus (GBS, which asymptomatically colonises the vaginal and rectal areas of women, is the leading cause of septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in neonates. In Tanzania no studies have been done on GBS colonisation of pregnant women and neonates. This study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to determine the prevalence of GBS colonisation among pregnant women, the neonatal colonisation rate and the antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for treatment and prevention regarding perinatal GBS diseases. Methods This cross sectional study involved 300 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic and their newborns delivered at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH between October 2008 and March 2009. High vaginal, rectal, nasal, ear and umbilical swabs were cultured on Todd Hewitt Broth and in 5% sheep blood agar followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer method. Results GBS colonisation was confirmed in 23% of pregnant women and 8.9% of neonates. A higher proportion of GBS were isolated from the vagina (12.3% as compared to the rectum (5%. Prolonged duration of labour (>12 hrs was significantly shown to influence GBS colonisation in neonates P Conclusion Our findings seem to suggest that a quarter of pregnant women attending ANC clinic at MNH and approximately 10% of their newborns are colonised with GBS. All isolates were found to be sensitive to vancomycin and ampicillin which seem to be the most effective antibiotics for the time being. However there is a need for continuous antibiotics surveillance of GBS to monitor trend of resistance. The high isolation frequency of GBS among pregnant women suggests routine antenatal screening at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation in order to provide antibiotic prophylaxis to GBS carrier.

  3. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govella Nico J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs. New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.637.6%; p = 0.04. Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience.

  4. Balancing collective responsibility, individual opportunities and risks: a qualitative study on how police officers reason around volunteering in an HIV vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakari Muhammad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from HIV vaccine trials on potential volunteers will contribute to global efforts to develop an HIV vaccine. The purpose of this study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was to explore the underlying reasons that induce people to enrol in an HIV vaccine trial. Methods We conducted discussions with eight focus groups, containing a total of 66 police officers. The information collected was analyzed using interpretive description. Results The results showed that participants were motivated to participate in the trial by altruism, and that the participants experienced some concerns about their participation. They stated that altruism in the fight against HIV infection was the main reason for enrolling in the trial. However, young participants were seriously concerned about a possible loss of close relationships if they enrolled in the HIV vaccine trial. Both men and women feared the effect of the trial on their reproductive biology, and they feared interference with pregnancy norms. They were unsure about risks such as the risks of acquiring HIV infection and of suffering physical harm, and they were unsure of the intentions of the researchers conducting the trial. Further, enrolling in the trial required medical examination, and this led some participants to fear that unknown diseases would be revealed. Other participants, however, saw an opportunity to obtain free health services. Conclusions We have shown that specific fears are important concerns when recruiting volunteers to an HIV vaccine trial. More knowledge is needed to determine participants' views and to ensure that they understand the conduct of the trial and the reasons it is being carried out.

  5. Towards a holistic perspective on city-level vulnerability assessment : A multidimensional approach to a spatial MCE using GIS in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    The deliverable introduces a map of the vulnerability to flooding in Dar es Salaam at the resolution of the finest administrative level (the subward/mtaa; comprising approx. 5-15 000 residents). Overlaying a hydrological model, representing the areas of the city most likely to become flooded, the high-risk areas may be identified. That is, where the flood-prone areas coincide with the highly vulnerable subwards. The deliverable explores in a step-by-step manner how to capture, measure and process spatial data of multiple dimensions and integrating them into a Geographical Information System (GIS). The overall approach is a spatial multiple criteria evaluation (S-MCE) process, following a series of steps, whereby the most important multi-dimensional indicators of vulnerability to flooding are selected, measured and analyzed. Eventually the output is presented as a product in one, aggregated dimension, easy to comprehend for policy- and decision-makers. The deliverable also presents how the stakeholders of a city are introduced to this process at an early stage, and how they as an expertise group, are providing with vital information and insight, that give the study relevance and are facilitating the subsequent steps of the methodology. The preceding Deliverable 3.3 compiled a comprehensive list of relevant indicators of vulnerability to flooding. This deliverable (D3.4) takes off from there with the selection and weighting of indicators by the stakeholders. Subsequently the stakeholders provide valuable input to (proxy) variables to the indicators and how they may be measured. An important conclusion from these participatory processes is that the selected set of most important vulnerability indicators is highly distinct in space (site-specific). The stakeholder interactions in Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa show that the selected indicators are only partially overlapping, which would discourage from generating a common subset of indicators for all flood-prone cities. Taking the standpoint in the multi-dimensional setup (a conceptual framework developed by CLUVA Task 2.3), the deliverable presents ample examples of how to work with indicators spatially. Detailed introductions are given to how the more GIS-related indicators, like mobility and low-lying areas, as well as the more intangible indicators, like institutional capacity and trust, may be measured and mapped. However, taking on the task of an S-MCE approach in a developing country also reveals its limitations. The methodology here was developed with the comprehension that the data availability and accessibility might be limited. Consequently, there was a hope that the bulk of the input data would be already available at project start generated from conventional GIS procedures and originated from routine data collection techniques. However, later in the project it turned out that some parts of the data supply was insufficient, and that alternative sources had to be consulted, which initiated a lengthy and difficult process of data accessibility. The final vulnerability map for Dar es Salaam is indicating that vulnerability is strongly associated with the informal residential areas (characteristically the unplanned settlements), but the relationship is not fully conclusive. Thus, there are examples of densely populated low-income residential areas where the vulnerability not necessarily is high. Taking the flood-prone areas into account shows that the main high-risk areas (subwards) are located to the west of the city center. Yet again, looking at the individual vulnerability indicators, they reveal that there is no common subset of indicators explaining the vulnerability of the subwards in the high-risk areas. Consequently, the indicators relating to high vulnerability of one subward in the high-risk area, may not be the same in a nearby subward in the same flood-prone area. Furthermore, there is a distinction between the vulnerable subwards in the peripheral areas compared to them closer to the city center. Among the subwards in the outskirts of the city the vul

  6. Risky behaviours among young people living with HIV attending care and treatment clinics in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania: implications for prevention with a positive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisa Mhalu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to reduce new instances of HIV infection. Risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS are the cornerstone for this approach. Understanding the extent to which infected individuals practice risky behaviours is fundamental in designing appropriate population-specific interventions. With the HIV infection transmission rates remaining high among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, continued prevention among them remains a priority. This study therefore seeks to describe the magnitude and determinants of risky sexual behaviours among young people living with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and July 2010 in selected Care and Treatment Clinics (CTCs in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 282 HIV-positive patients aged 1524 were interviewed about their sexual behaviours using a questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of unprotected sex was 40.0% among young males and 37.5% among young females (p<0.001. Multiple sexual partnerships were reported by 10.6% of males and 15.9% of females (p<0.005. More than 50% of the participants did not know about the HIV status of their sexual partners. A large proportion of participants had minimal knowledge of transmission (46.7% males vs. 60.4% females and prevention (65.3% males vs. 73.4% females of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent predictors of condom use included non-use of alcohol [adjusted odds ratio (AOR, 0.40 95% confidence interval (CI; 0.170.84] and younger age (1519 years (AOR, 2.76, 95% CI: 1.057.27. Being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR, 0.38, 95% CI: 0.170.85 and not knowing partners HIV sero-status (AOR, 2.62, 95% CI: 1.145.10 predicted the practice of multiple sexual partnership. Conclusions: Unprotected sex and multiple sexual partnerships were prevalent among young people living with HIV. Less knowledge on STI and lack of HIV disclosure increased the vulnerability and risk for HIV transmission among young people. Specific intervention measures addressing alcohol consumption, risky sexual behaviours, and STI transmission and prevention knowledge should be integrated in the routine HIV/AIDS care and treatment offered to this age group.

  7. Effects of seasonal change and seawater intrusion on water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes, in coastal aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia; Sweya, Lukuba Ngalya; Luciani, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater is the major source to meet domestic, industrial and agricultural needs in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, population growth, increasing urbanization, industrialization and tourism, and climatic changes have caused an intensive exploitation of groundwater resources leading the aquifers become more vulnerable to seawater intrusion. The aim of this study is to examine the variations of groundwater chemistry (as resulting from natural and anthropogenic inputs) depending on seasonal changes, in order to evaluate water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. Physical and chemical data come from the analysis of groundwater samples, collected from 72 wells, used for the evaluation of water quality parameters, during a year of monitoring. Pattern diagrams, geochemical modeling techniques and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been used to identify the main factors influencing groundwater composition. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: (a) Na-Cl, (b) Ca-Cl, (c) mixed Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl (d) mixed Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. The geochemical modeling results show that groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by evaporation process, as it is suggested by the increase of Na and Cl ions concentrations. According to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA, most water samples from dry and rainy seasons, distributed in category C2-S1, C3-S1, C3-S2, C4-S2 highlighting medium to very high salinity hazard and low to medium sodium content class. PCA evidenced the role of seawater intrusion, evaporation process and anthropogenic pollution (i.e. high NO3 levels due to agricultural activities), as the major factors that influenced the water chemistry, and hence the water quality. Based on Pearson correlation matrix, the presence of high correlations (>0.8) among Na, Cl, Mg and SO4, in association with EC, were interpreted as the seawater intrusion effects. In this area groundwater quality is generally low, and often exceeds permissible limits of standard guideline values of WHO and FAO, referred to EC and chloride values. The high salinity and the groundwater level depletion create serious problems for current use of water supplies as well as future exploitation.

  8. Low utilization of health care services following screening for hypertension in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengeler Christian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy in high-risk individuals has been advocated as an important strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease in low income countries. We determined, in a low-income urban population, the proportion of persons who utilized health services after having been diagnosed as hypertensive and advised to seek health care for further hypertension management. Methods A population-based survey of 9254 persons aged 2564 years was conducted in Dar es Salaam. Among the 540 persons with high blood pressure (defined here as BP ? 160/95 mmHg at the initial contact, 253 (47% had high BP on a 4th visit 45 days later. Among them, 208 were untreated and advised to attend health care in a health center of their choice for further management of their hypertension. One year later, 161 were seen again and asked about their use of health services during the interval. Results Among the 161 hypertensive persons advised to seek health care, 34% reported to have attended a formal health care provider during the 12-month interval (63% public facility; 30% private; 7% both. Antihypertensive treatment was taken by 34% at some point of time (suggesting poor uptake of health services and 3% at the end of the 12-month follow-up (suggesting poor long-term compliance. Health services utilization tended to be associated with older age, previous history of high BP, being overweight and non-smoking, but not with education or wealth. Lack of symptoms and cost of treatment were the reasons reported most often for not attending health care. Conclusion Low utilization of health services after hypertension screening suggests a small impact of a patient-centered screen-and-treat strategy in this low-income population. These findings emphasize the need to identify and address barriers to health care utilization for non-communicable diseases in this setting and, indirectly, the importance of public health measures for primary prevention of these diseases.

  9. Informal support to first-parents after childbirth: a qualitative study in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbekenga Columba K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care for the women and delimited male involvement. Men's involvement in reproductive and child health programmes has the potential for improving family health after childbirth. The discourses conveyed contradicting messages that may be a source of worry and confusion for the new parents. Recognition, respect and raising awareness for different social actors' competencies and limitations can potentially create a health-promoting environment among families after childbirth.

  10. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 2039 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines for blood transfusions.

  11. Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swai Ndeniria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1 anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2 anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80 in intervention and 32% (9-54 in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72 in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35 in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26. The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22% and control HF (60% (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70. Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic prescription increased from 49% before to 72% after intervention (Risk ratio 1.47, 95%CI 1.37-1.59. Conclusions Programmatic implementation of mRDTs in a moderately endemic area reduced drastically over-treatment with anti-malarials. Properly trained clinicians with adequate support complied with the recommendation of not treating patients with negative results. Implementation of mRDT should be integrated hand-in-hand with training on the management of other causes of fever to prevent irrational use of antibiotics.

  12. The perceptions on male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV infection and considerations in scaling up of the services: a qualitative study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarimo Edith AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent randomized controlled trials, male circumcision has been proven to complement the available biomedical interventions in decreasing HIV transmission from infected women to uninfected men. Consequently, Tanzania is striving to scale-up safe medical male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. However, there is a need to investigate the perceptions of male circumcision in Tanzania using specific populations. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceptions of male circumcision in a cohort of police officers that also served as a source of volunteers for a phase I/II HIV vaccine (HIVIS-03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews with 24 men and 10 women were conducted. Content analysis informed by the socio-ecological model was used to analyze the data. Results Informants perceived male circumcision as a health-promoting practice that may prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. They reported male circumcision promotes sexual pleasure, confidence and hygiene or sexual cleanliness. They added that it is a religious ritual and a cultural practice that enhances the recognition of manhood in the community. However, informants were concerned about the cost involved in male circumcision and cleanliness of instruments used in medical and traditional male circumcision. They also expressed confusion about the shame of undergoing circumcision at an advanced age and pain that could emanate after circumcision. The participants advocated for health policies that promote medical male circumcision at childhood, specifically along with the vaccination program. Conclusions The perceived benefit of male circumcision as a preventive strategy to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is important. However, there is a need to ensure that male circumcision is conducted under hygienic conditions. Integrating male circumcision service in the routine childhood vaccination program may increase its coverage at early childhood. The findings from this investigation provide contextual understanding that may assist in scaling-up male circumcision in Tanzania.

  13. A study of HIV-positive women in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.:An assessment on how Tanzanian women respond to getting their HIV-diagnosis, how they cope with being infected, and how they are treated by people in their local society. Additionally a collection of reader?s feed back

    OpenAIRE

    Lund,Kristine Marie Aarberg; Corell,Siv

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Objective: To investigate how Tanzanian women respond to getting their HIV-diagnosis, to understand how they cope with being infected, and to assess how they are treated by people in their local society. Additionally to collect reader?s feed back on FEMINA?S two booklets, ?Living positively with HIV/AIDS? and ?AIDS in our community.? Design: Qualitative design. Setting: In the office of the organization FEMINA located in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, in the period 5.-25. of December 200...

  14. Homeowner's Architectural Responses to Crime in Dar Es Salaan : Its impacts and implications to urban architecture, urban design and urban management

    OpenAIRE

    Bulamile, Ludigija Boniface

    2009-01-01

    HTML clipboardThis study is about Homeowners architectural responses to crime in Dar es Salaam Tanzania: its impacts and implications to urban architecture, urban design and urban management. The study explores and examines the processes through which homeowners respond to crimes of burglary, home robbery and fear of it using architectural or physical elements. The processes are explored and examined using case study methodology in three cases in Dar es Salaam. The cases are residentia...

  15. The role of local government in promoting sustainable urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    As a multifunctional activity and land use, urban agriculture supports a range of objectives, from urban greening to food security. However, it is often left out of urban policy. As a result of the highly contextual and cross-cutting nature of urban agriculture, there are relatively few comprehensive and formalized regulatory tools to draw from. Different cities around the world are now deciding how to fit urban agriculture into the urban agenda; however, in many places urban agriculture continu...

  16. New tools for public participation in urban planning - a case from Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma R Kiduanga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Public Participation GIS har i efterhnden en del r vret foreslet som et relevant redskab for bedre byplanlgning ogs i de hastigt voksende storbyer i udviklingslandene. Der synes dog ikke at vre s mange eksempler p, at PPGIS er velintegreret i planprocessen. Denne artikel handler om nye tekniske muligheder for flles kortlgning, registrering og deling af geografiske informationer gennem web-baserede services som f.eks. ArcGIS-Online. Vil sdanne kunne tages i anvendelse af berrte borgere og medvirke til en bedre byplanprocess og en forbedret retslig stilling for storbyens marginaliserede grupper, sdan som det har vret foreslet?

  17. Housing Themselves : Transformations, Modernisation and Spatial qualities in Informal Settlements in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Nguluma, Huba

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to address issues of housingtransformation in informal settlements. Transformation ofhouses is seen to be associated with modernisation forceswhereby people adapt their houses to suit their needs anddesires. On one hand the desire to own a“modernhouse”may lead to deterioration of spatial qualities, onthe other hand fulfilment of the desire may contribute to themodernisation of urban settlements. The informal settlement ofHanna Nassif was chosen as a case study to ill...

  18. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Angela N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

  19. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Angela N; van Roosmalen Jos; Mogren Ingrid; Kidanto Hussein L; Massawe Siriel N; Nystrom Lennarth; Lindmark Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR). Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of...

  20. Formal and Informal Practices for Affordable Urban housing : Case study: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mushumbusi, Medard Zephyrin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis attempts to ascertain the magnitude of the urban housingproblem in Tanzania and endeavours to evaluate the strategies that thegovernment has been employing to address this problem. Informal andformal practices in urban housing are compared. The role of networksand power relations are explored and discussed in relation to how theymay facilitate the provision of urban housing. By looking at urbanhousing from a governance perspective, the thesis explores thepotentials for delivery of...

  1. Managing Informal Settlements : A Study Using Geo-Information in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    liuas, Ri?ardas Vytautas

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often associated with the urbanization of poverty, and with the extensive development of informal settlements. This thesis examines how Geographic Information Technology (GIT) could be used to improve the ability of local governments in SSA manage such settlements. Three themes are at the core of this research: the evolution of thinking in the field of urban planning and management and the role of GIT as a planning support tool are discussed togethe...

  2. Acceptance of contraceptives among women who had an unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; Yambesi, Fortunata; Bergstrom, Staffan

    2004-01-01

    . Of these, 86% stated they were still using contraception 1-6 months after discharge. Initially, 55% of the women accepted to use condoms either alone or as part of double protection. After 1-6 months this proportion had dropped to 18%. Single women were significantly more likely to use condoms...

  3. Anaemia in women of reproductive age in Tanzania : A study in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Massawe, Siriel Nanzia

    2002-01-01

    The overall aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age and to investigate the underlying causes, as well as assess the effectiveness of antenatal care (ANC) interventions for anaemia prevention. Consecutive pregnant women booking for ANC (n=2235) were screened for anaemia, followed up and screened again late in pregnancy. Basic ANC interventions included iron and folate supplementation, malaria chemoprophylaxis and referral of severe anaemia cas...

  4. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Marion W. Jenkins; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities...

  5. Sources of salinity and urban pollution in the Quaternary sand aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraevens, Kristine; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Mtoni, Yohana; Van Camp, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater is globally important for human consumption, and changes in quality can have serious consequences. The study area is within a coastal aquifer where groundwater quality is influenced by various potential sources of salinity that determine the composition of water extracted from wells. Groundwater chemistry data from the aquifer have been acquired to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in this area and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Analysis of groundwater samples shows that the dominant watertype is mostly NaCl with pH < 7 in both aquifers (i.e. upper and lower) except for the shallow wells where CaHCO3 prevails with pH ? 7, and boreholes located near the Indian Ocean, where coral reef limestone deposits are located and the watertype evolves towards CaHCO3. In the lower aquifer, Cl- is higher than in the upper aquifer. The origin of salinity in the area is strongly influenced by groundwater ascending from deep marine Miocene Spatangid Shales through faults, seawater incursion on the border of the Indian Ocean, and throughout, there is some salinity within the Quaternary aquifer, especially in intercalated deltaic clays in the fluviatile deposits, showing some marine influences. The seawater intrusion is linked to the strongly increasing groundwater exploitation since 1997. Another process that plays a major role to the concentration of major ions in the groundwater is calcite dissolution. Next to geogenic salinity and seawater intrusion, anthropogenic pollution as well is affecting groundwater quality in the aquifer. An important result of this study is the observation of high nitrate concentrations, that call for improved sanitation in the area, where domestic sewage with on-site sanitation (mainly pit latrines) also threatens the groundwater resource.

  6. Determinants of Anemia in Postpartum HIV-Negative Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Petraro, Paul; Duggan, Christopher Paul; Urassa, Willy; Msamanga, Gernard; Makubi, Abel; Spiegelman, Donna Lynn; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The determinants of anemia during both pregnancy and postpartum recovery remain incompletely understood in sub-Saharan African women. Subjects/methods: In a prospective cohort study among pregnant women, we assessed dietary, biochemical, anthropometric, infectious and sociodemographic factors at baseline. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we examined predictors of incident anemia (hemoglobin

  7. Storage, Collection and Disposal of Kariakoo Market Wastes in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yhdego, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of medicated soaps commonly used by Dar es Salaam residents in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K D Mwambete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923, Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853 and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922 were tested at three different soaps? concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml. A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps? ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01 between zones of inhibition and soaps? concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency and Dalan exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex , Roberts , Family and Protector were equally effective (P<0.01 against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps? antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora.

  9. The extension of Ubungo power plant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to a combined cycle - A prestudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinneland, L.; Oehrstroem, K.

    1996-05-01

    The report deals with the consequences concerning a future extension of Ubungo Power Plant. Today the power plant consists of four gas turbines, two of model General Electric LM6000 and two of model ABB Stal GT10 of which the latter were the ones focused on. In the report four different applications are presented; Simple two pressure system, Two pressure system with reheat, Two pressure system with heat exchange between feedwater and condensate, and single pressure system with an additional evaporating loop. The calculations are divided into three sections; thermodynamic calculations, calculations of the heat exchanger surface areas, and economic calculations. From the thermodynamic calculations the applications with the highest thermal efficiency was selected. The power output increased with about 55% and the thermal efficiency of the complete combined cycle is 48.2%. This is, of course, a theoretical value calculated without consideration to a number of losses that will decrease both the power output and the thermal efficiency. At part load (50% load assumed, i.e. one gas turbine is operating) the thermal efficiency is 46.7%. The economic calculations indicated that the extension is highly worthwhile in an economic point of view; both cases studied have a payback time of less than six years for full load operation, provided that the charging system which is to be imposed by the World Bank has come into force. 18 refs, 33 figs

  10. A call for parental monitoring to improve condom use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mlunde Linda B; Poudel Krishna C; Sunguya Bruno F; Mbwambo Jessie K K; Yasuoka Junko; Otsuka Keiko; Ubuguyu Omary; Jimba Masamine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of people newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been decreasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but prevalence of the infection remains unacceptably high among young people. Despite the alarming pervasiveness of the virus, young people in this region continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In developed countries, parents can play important roles in protecting young people from such behaviors, but evidenc...

  11. Critical Analysis of the Challenges of Solid Waste Management Initiatives in Keko Machungwa Informal Settlement, Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Samson Elisha Kasala

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste is inevitable because by nature every human activity generates a certain amount of solid waste. The rate of solid waste generated tends to increase with the increase in population. Despite existence of various efforts on solid waste collection, still the quantity of solid waste collected is small compared to the solid waste generated. The situation is even worse in unplanned settlements of developing countries, where, ineffective solid waste collection is contributed to by haphaza...

  12. Living with HIV/AIDS:Women's perspectives regarding care/support provided in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Semguruka, Elizabeth Marton

    2004-01-01

    Background: More than half of adults living with HIV today are women Worldwide. In Tanzania HIV prevalence was about 1.5 times higher for women than men among blood donors (12.5% and 9.1% respectively). While care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS is taking a new role, the use of anti-retroviral therapy remains unaffordable to many women living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. There are limited care and support programmes in the country and ARVs are not part of it due to restrictive costs...

  13. Community response to artemisinin-based combination therapy for childhood malaria: a case study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyato Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug. Implementation of ACT-based treatment guidelines must be complemented with educational campaigns to insure that mothers seek prompt help for their children within 24 hours of the onset of fever. Improved communication between health care providers and mothers of sick children can facilitate better adherence to ALu's recommended dosage. Community level interpretations of anti-malarials are multifaceted; integrating knowledge of local beliefs and practices surrounding consumption of anti-malarials into programmatic goals can help to significantly improve malaria control interventions.

  14. Breast Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, and Screening Practices among Women Seeking Care at District Hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Perry Morse; Bertha Maegga; Gertrud Joseph; Susan Miesfeldt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited disease awareness among women may impact breast cancer stage-at-diagnosis in Tanzania, reducing survival. This study assessed breast cancer knowledge, screening practices, and educational preferences among outpatients at Tanzanian government-supported hospitals. METHODS A convenience sample of women was surveyed regarding (1) knowledge/beliefs of breast cancer etiology, risk factors, symptoms, treatment, (2) early detection knowledge/practice, and (3) educational preference...

  15. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel

    2008-01-01

    included counselling on HIV and condom use. Questionnaire interviews about contraceptive use were conducted at the time of inclusion and 12 months after the abortion. Additionally, in-depth interviews were performed 6-12 months after the abortion. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the women accepted...... postabortion contraception. Follow-up information was obtained 12 months after the abortion among 59 percent of the women. Among these, 79 percent of the married women and 84 percent of the single women stated they were using contraception at 12 months. Condom use among the single women increased significantly...... HIV and condom use should be considered an essential aspect of postabortion care....

  16. Smear microscopy and culture conversion rates among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients by HIV status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mfinanga Sayoki G; Senkoro Mbazi; Mrkve Odd

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tanzania ranks 15th among the world's 22 countries with the largest tuberculosis burden and tuberculosis has continued to be among the major public health problems in the country. Limited data, especially in patients co infected with HIV, are available to predict the duration of time required for a smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patient to achieve sputum conversion after starting effective treatment. In this study we assessed the sputum smear and culture conversion ...

  17. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postabortion contraceptive service is considered an effective means in addressing the problem of unsafe abortion; in spite this fact this component remains one of the weakest parts of postabortion care. In this context, the paper aims to describe the impact of a postabortion contraceptive service intervention among women admitted with complications from unsafe abortions and to explore the women's long-term contraceptive adherence. METHODS: 392 women having experienced unsafe abortion were identified by an empathetic approach and offered postabortion contraceptive service, which included counselling on HIV and condom use. Questionnaire interviews about contraceptive use were conducted at the time of inclusion and 12 months after the abortion. Additionally, in-depth interviews were performed 6-12 months after the abortion. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the women accepted postabortion contraception. Follow-up information was obtained 12 months after the abortion among 59 percent of the women. Amongthese, 79 percent of the married women and 84 percent of the single women stated they were using contraception at 12 months. Condom use among the single women increased significantly during the 12 months follow up. CONCLUSION: Postabortion contraceptive services appear to be well accepted by women who are admitted with complications after an unsafe abortion and should thus be recognized as an important means in addressing the problem of unsafe abortion. In addition, counselling about HIV and condom use should be considered an essential aspect of postabortion care.

  18. Neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; aetiology, antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhada Tumaini V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal sepsis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among young infants. The aetiological agents as well as their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents are dynamic. This study determined aetiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical outcome of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital. Methods Three hundred and thirty neonates admitted at the Muhimbili National Hospital neonatal ward between October, 2009 and January, 2010 were recruited. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain demographic and clinical information. Blood and pus samples were cultured on MacConkey, blood and chocolate agars and bacteria were identified based on characteristic morphology, gram stain appearance and standard commercially prepared biochemical tests. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed for ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone on Mueller Hinton agar using the Kirby Bauer diffusion method. Results Culture proven sepsis was noted in 24% (74/330 of the study participants. Isolated bacterial pathogens were predominantly Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli. Klebsiella spp 32.7% (17/52 was the predominant blood culture isolate in neonates aged below seven days while Staphylococcus aureus 54.5% (12/22 was commonest among those aged above seven days. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pus swabs isolate for both neonates aged 0–6 days 42.2% (98/232 and 7–28 days 52.3% (34/65. Resistance of blood culture isolates was high to ampicillin 81.1% (60/74 and cloxacillin 78.4% (58/74, moderate to ceftriaxone 14.9% (11/74 and cefuroxime 18.9% (14/74, and low to amikacin 1.3% (1/74. Isolates from swabs had high resistance to ampicillin 89.9% (267/297 and cloxacillin 85.2 (253/297, moderate resistance to ceftriaxone 38.0% (113/297 and cefuroxime 36.0% (107/297, and low resistance to amikacin 4.7% (14/297. Sepsis was higher in neonates with fever and hypothermia (p=0.02, skin pustules (p Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus was predominant isolate followed by Klebsiella and Escherichia coli. There was high resistance to ampicillin and cloxacillin. Mortality rate due to neonatal sepsis was high in our setting. Routine antimicrobial surveillance should guide the choice of antibiotics for empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis.

  19. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postabortion contraceptive service is considered an effective means in addressing the problem of unsafe abortion; in spite this fact this component remains one of the weakest parts of postabortion care. In this context, the paper aims to describe the impact of a postabortion contraceptive service intervention among women admitted with complications from unsafe abortions and to explore the women's long-term contraceptive adherence. METHODS: 392 women having experienced unsafe abortion...

  20. Habitat characterization and spatial distribution of Anopheles sp. mosquito larvae in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) during an extended dry period

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner Marcel; Premji Zul; Kiama Michael; Mtasiwa Deo; Sattler Michael A; Killeen Gerry F; Lengeler Christian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Introduction By 2030, more than 50% of the African population will live in urban areas. Controlling malaria reduces the disease burden and further improves economic development. As a complement to treated nets and prompt access to treatment, measures targeted against the larval stage of Anopheles sp. mosquitoes are a promising strategy for urban areas. However, a precise knowledge of the geographic location and potentially of ecological characteristics of breeding sites is of major i...

  1. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent gi...... responsible attitudes and to increase sexual and reproductive health....

  2. No asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia found among 108 young children at one health facility in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Strm, Gro Elizabeth Ann; Tellevik, Marit Gjerde; Fataki, Maulidi; Langeland, Nina; Blomberg, Bjrn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been reported in areas with high malaria transmission. It may serve as a reservoir for continued transmission, and furthermore complicates diagnostics, as not all individuals with a positive malaria test are necessarily ill due to malaria, although they may present with malaria-like symptoms. Asymptomatic malaria increases with age as immunity to malaria gradually develops. As mortality and morbidity of malaria is higher among younge...

  3. Low quality of routine microscopy for malaria at different levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Mtasiwa Deo; D'Acremont Valerie; Kahama-Maro Judith; Genton Blaise; Lengeler Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Laboratory capacity to confirm malaria cases in Tanzania is low and presumptive treatment of malaria is being practiced widely. In malaria endemic areas WHO now recommends systematic laboratory testing when suspecting malaria. Currently, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) is recommended for the diagnosis of malaria in lower level peripheral facilities, but not in health centres and hospitals. In this study, the following parameters were evaluated: (1) the quality of ...

  4. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambikile Joel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD, depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. Methodology A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. Results The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The economic challenges were poverty, child care interfering with various income generating activities in the family, and extra expenses associated with the child’s illness. Conclusion Caregivers of mentally ill children experience various psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges. Professional assistance, public awareness of mental illnesses in children, social support by the government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are important in addressing these challenges.

  5. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Ambikile Joel; Outwater Anne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20?% of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD), depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of ...

  6. Motivating Factors and Psychosocial Barriers to Condom Use among out-of-School Youths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Survey Using the Health Belief Model

    OpenAIRE

    Katikiro, E.; B. Njau

    2012-01-01

    Condoms remain a cost-effective and relatively simple intervention to prevent HIV infection. However, condom use is still very low, particularly among youths aged 15 to 24. 348 individuals (186 males and 162 females) completed a pre-tested questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with condom use. Out of 348 respondents, 296 (85.0%) were sexually experienced, and 260 (87.8%) reported noncondom use in the past 3 months prior to the study. Among men, no...

  7. Motivating Factors and Psychosocial Barriers to Condom Use among out-of-School Youths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Survey Using the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikiro, E; Njau, B

    2012-01-01

    Condoms remain a cost-effective and relatively simple intervention to prevent HIV infection. However, condom use is still very low, particularly among youths aged 15 to 24. 348 individuals (186 males and 162 females) completed a pre-tested questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with condom use. Out of 348 respondents, 296 (85.0%) were sexually experienced, and 260 (87.8%) reported noncondom use in the past 3 months prior to the study. Among men, noncondom use was independently associated with feeling shy to buy condoms (AOR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.12-1.34), condoms reducing sexual pleasure (AOR = 8.19; 95% CI 3.98-17.01), and HIV is a serious and deadly disease (AOR = 0.36; 95% CI 0.28-0.46). Among women, experiencing forced sex (AOR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.10-2.78), condoms reduce sexual pleasure (AOR = 8.29; 95% CI 3.36-20.73), and inability to convince a partner to use condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.04-1.28) were predictors of noncondom use. In conclusion, sexually active youths in this population practice risky sexual behaviours, with low condom use practices. Strategies to improve condom use should address these psychosocial barriers associated with noncondom use. PMID:24052872

  8. Towards a GIS-T database design and implementation for public transit planning: the case study of Dar-Es-salaam metropolitan city, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngereja, Zakaria Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, we have witnessed tremendous advances and developments in the applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in terms of technological hardware, software, methods, and data models. One of the applications that have attracted much attention in the use of GIS is the transportation sector mainly for planning, public transport routing, management and operations. This has made it important to have a unified or universal GIS-T standard data model, specifically, in the are...

  9. USING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH OF RAPID MICROBIAL DETECTION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNITY EDUCATION TO REDUCE WATERBORNE ILLNESS IN DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Participatedin theUncommon Dialogue meeting, in which we were able to meet with local water authorities, tour various communities, and learn about the larger scale water challenges that unplanned communities face. Piloted rapid method in n...

  10. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es Salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, M; Mchumvu, Y; Mmary, V

    2000-01-01

    contraception or condoms though they were also at risk of STDs and HIV. These girls were getting pregnant expecting their boyfriends to marry them, or because they did not think they could become pregnant or failed to use contraception correctly. Most adolescent girls are not aware of the 1994 Tanzanian policy...

  11. THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN TANZANIA: A SURVEY OF MANUFACTURING COMPANIES QUOTED ON THE DAR ES SALAAM STOCK EXCHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Linus Naila

    2013-01-01

    There has been environmental pollution across the globe. Environmental activists are condemning manufacturing companies of environmental pollution. This has led to the establishment of environmental regulations and standards by government authorities across the globe. In complying with environmental regulations companies have found themselves incurring additional cost when compared to those companies which do not comply. However, the effect of compliance to environmental regulations on the fi...

  12. Cost and cost-effectiveness of community based and health facility based directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robberstad Bjarne

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying new approaches to tuberculosis treatment that are effective and put less demand to meagre health resources is important. One such approach is community based direct observed treatment (DOT. The purpose of the study was to determine the cost and cost effectiveness of health facility and community based directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in an urban setting in Tanzania. Methods Two alternative strategies were compared: health facility based directly observed treatment by health personnel and community based directly observed treatment by treatment supervisors. Costs were analysed from the perspective of health services, patients and community in the year 2002 in US $ using standard methods. Treatment outcomes were obtained from a randomised-controlled trial which was conducted alongside the cost study. Smear positive, smear negative and extra-pulmonary TB patients were included. Cost-effectiveness was calculated as the cost per patient successfully treated. Results The total cost of treating a patient with conventional health facility based DOT and community based DOT were $ 145 and $ 94 respectively. Community based DOT reduced cost by 35%. Cost fell by 27% for health services and 72% for patients. When smear positive and smear negative patients were considered separately, community DOT was associated with 45% and 19% reduction of the costs respectively. Patients used about $ 43 to follow their medication to health facility which is equivalent to their monthly income. Indirect costs were as important as direct costs, contributing to about 49% of the total patient's cost. The main reason for reduced cost was fewer number of visits to the TB clinic. Community based DOT was more cost-effective at $ 128 per patient successfully treated compared to $ 203 for a patient successfully treated with health facility based DOT. Conclusion Community based DOT presents an economically attractive option to complement health facility based DOT. This is particularly important in settings where TB clinics are working beyond capacity under limited resources.

  13. Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding: A comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas(low-lying lands and on river banks. This situation is caused by poverty and the inabilityof authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urbanpopulations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just oneof them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resortedto the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of peopleand properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as towhy this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategiesto flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommendingmeasures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections ofsigns of damage and deterioration, measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies,mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally,in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures throughstructural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptationstrategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations.However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houseswere compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah thanin Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in theuse of reinforced concrete (4.3% for constructing a buildings foundation, as well as in the useof ceramics (72.9% to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptationstrategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction ofstructures for adaptation, enhancing individual coping capacity, deployment of a workforcetrained in disaster risk and management and enforcement of relevant urban planning andenvironmental management laws in managing risky areas.

  14. Cervical cytological changes in HIV-infected patients attending care and treatment clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwakigonja Amos R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is among Sub-Saharan countries mostly affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic, females being more vulnerable than males. HIV infected women appear to have a higher rate of persistent infection by high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV strongly associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cervical carcinoma. Furthermore, although HIV infection and cervical cancer are major public health problems, the frequency and HIV/HPV association of cervical cancer and HSIL is not well documented in Tanzania, thus limiting the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Methods A prospective unmatched, case-control study of HIV-seropositive, ? 18 years of age and consenting non-pregnant patients attending the care and treatment center (CTC at Muhimbili National Hoospital (MNH as cases was done between 2005 and 2006. HIV seronegative, non-pregnant and consenting women recruited from the Cervical Cancer Screening unit (CCSU at ORCI were used as controls while those who did not consent to study participation and/or individuals under Results A total of 170 participants from the two centers were recruited including 50 HIV-seronegative controls were from the CCSU. Ages ranged from 20-66 years (mean 40.5 years for cases and 20-69 years (mean 41.6 years for controls. The age group 36-45 years was the most affected by HIV (39.2%, n = 47. Cervicitis, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL and carcinoma constituted 28.3% (n = 34, 38.3% (n = 46 and 5.8% (n = 7 respectively among cases, and 28% (n = 14, 34% (n = 17 and 2% (n = 1 for controls, although this was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.61. IHC showed that p53 was not detectable in HPV + Pap smears and cell blocks indicating possible degradation. Conclusions The frequency of SIL and carcinoma appeared to be higher among HIV-infected women on HAART compared to seronegative controls and as expected increased with age. HIV seropositive patients appeared to present earlier with SIL compared to those HIV seronegative suggesting a role of HIV in altering the natural history of HPV infection and cervical lesions. The absence of p53 immunoreactivity in HPV + lesions is indicative of the ability of HPV E6 proteins to interact with the tumor suppressor gene and pave way for viral-induced oncogenesis in the studied Tanzanian women.

  15. Absence of kdr resistance alleles in the Union of the Comoros, East Africa [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5fw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoosook Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knockdown resistance (kdr and CYP9K1 genotypes were detected by a MOLDI-TOF based SNP genotyping assay (Sequenom iPLEX in samples of Anopheles gambiae collected at 13 sites throughout the Union of the Comoros and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during February and March 2011. All A. gambiae specimens collected in the Comoros were homozygous for the susceptible kdr alleles (+/+ while 96% of A. gambiae from Dar es Salaam were homozygous for the East African kdr resistant genotype (E/E. In contrast, all specimens from Dar es Salaam and the Comoros were homozygous for the cyp3 allele (c3/c3 at the CYP9K1 locus; the locus has been implicated in metabolic resistance against pyrethroid insecticides in West Africa. All specimens had typical A. gambiae genotypes for SNPs within the divergence Islands on all three chromosomes. Although further spatial and temporal studies are needed, the distribution of kdr genotypes between the Comoros and Tanzania further supports isolation of the Comoros populations from A. gambiae populations on mainland Africa.

  16. The social impact of microfinance: what changes in well-being are perceived by women group borrowers after obtaining a group loan? : A participatory rural appraisal in Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    de Goey, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, poverty remains to be an obstacle to achieve sustainable development and improve the well-being of people. Microfinance has become a popular tool for poverty alleviation and it can now be found in poor countries across the world. Microfinance is based on the principle that poor people can initiate their own development out of poverty, given they have the starting capital to do so. The capital can be invested in income-generating activities and it is assumed that this will lead to a...

  17. Urbanisation and its discontents: urban refugees in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Sommers

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the different labels under which refugees in Dar es Salaam may be categorised. It identifies and profiles differentgroups of urban refugee in Dar es Salaam and considers some common assumptions about urban refugees.

  18. Urbanisation and its discontents: urban refugees in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Sommers

    1999-01-01

    This article explores the different labels under which refugees in Dar es Salaam may be categorised. It identifies and profiles differentgroups of urban refugee in Dar es Salaam and considers some common assumptions about urban refugees.

  19. Victims and/or active social agents? A study of adolescent girls with induced abortion in urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania......High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania...

  20. La "capacidad vial" del plan regulador chileno, es lo suficientemente buena para dar forma a un entorno edificado sostenible?/ The "road capacity" of the chilean master plan is it good enough for shaping a sustainable built environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crdenas Jirn, Luz Alicia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The "road capacity" of the Chilean Master Plan is a tool developed to measure the capacity of streets in terms of supporting the size of vehicle flow. This tool considers topics such as land use, population density and street width. The purpose of this technique is to incorporate it to the Master Plan, as a town planning instrument, so as to cope with traffic forecasting and congestion. However, the technique does not embrace any sustainability concept, this is due to a disregard of any district s social or environmental needs. Therefore a sustainable urban development would doubtfully be reached. It is argued that some other approaches are required for shaping a sustainable built environment in which it is understood that the streets are a public space for people rather than a platform for moving vehicles only. This means, to promote accessibility as well as mobility. In this paper the author reviews borrowed concepts such as "carrying capacity" and "environmental capacity" from bioregionalist and ecological disciplines using a case study in outskirts of Santiagos metro area./La "capacidad vial" del Plan Regulador chileno es una herramienta desarrollada para medir la capacidad de las calles en trminos de apoyar el tamao del flujo de vehculos. Esta herramienta considera temas como el uso de la tierra, la densidad de poblacin y ancho de la calle. El propsito de esta tcnica es su incorporacin al Plan Maestro, como un instrumento de planificacin de la ciudad, con el fin de hacer frente a la previsin del trfico y la congestin. Sin embargo, la tcnica no incluye ningn concepto de sostenibilidad. Por lo tanto un desarrollo urbano sostenible dudosamente sera alcanzado. Se argumenta que algunos otros enfoques son necesarios para dar forma a un medio ambiente sostenible integrado, en el que se entiende que las calles son un espacio pblico para las personas en lugar de una plataforma para mover los vehculos solamente. Esto significa, para promover la accesibilidad y la movilidad. En este trabajo la autora revisa conceptos prestados, tales como "la capacidad de carga" y "capacidad ambiental", desde el bioregionalist y disciplinas ecolgicas mediante un estudio de caso en las afueras del rea metropolitana de Santiago de Chile.

  1. Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemics and outbreaks of Paederus spp. keratoconjunctivitis ('Nairobi red eyes') and dermatitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Mbonile.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An epidemic of acute conjunctivitis in Dar es Salaam in 2010 demonstrated the importance of a strong infectious diseases epidemiological surveillance network to minimise disease outbreaks. Misunderstanding of the causes and management of diseases explains the repetitive nature of acute haemorrhagic [...] conjunctivitis (AHC) in Dar es Salaam. This paper discusses AHC and Paederus spp. keratoconjunctivitis and periorbital oedema ('Nairobi red eyes') that are confused as being associated with recurrent epidemics of conjunctivitis in Dar es Salaam.

  2. Dar olhando a quem: estudo sobre o Projecto "Todo Homem Meu Irmo" / Donner en regardant qui on donne: tude sur le projet "Tout homme est mon frre" / Do give looking at whom: Study on the project "Every man is my brother" / Dar mirando a quin: estudio acerca del Proyecto "Todo hombre es mi hermano"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo, Reis Mouro.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analisa o fenmeno da ddiva, atravs de um estudo de caso observado num dirio portugus - o Jornal de Notcias. Este jornal acolhe, h vrias dcadas, o Projecto "Todo Homem Meu Irmo". Este trabalho avalia quais os factores responsveis pelos diferentes valores atribudos aos dif [...] erentes beneficirios desse projecto. Conclui que so factores positivos a durao do pedido nas edies do jornal e o nmero de dependentes a cargo dos beneficirios. Conclui que so factores negativos a presena do beneficirio em categorias de rendimento superior assim como a autonomia de mobilidade. Os resultados mostram que o fenmeno da ddiva complexo onde entram tambm, com influncia, as caractersticas endgenas do beneficirio, para l das dimenses que a literatura apontou previamente. Abstract in spanish Este documento analiza el fenmeno de la ddiva a travs de un estudio de caso observado en un peridico portugus - el Jornal de Notcias. Ese peridico contiene, hace varias dcadas, el Proyecto "Todo hombre es mi hermano". Este trabajo evala cules son los factores responsables por los diferente [...] s valores atribuidos a los distintos beneficiarios de ese proyecto. Se concluye que son factores positivos la duracin del pedido en las ediciones del peridico y el nmero de dependientes a cargo de los beneficiarios. Adems se concluye que son factores negativos la presencia del beneficiario en categoras de rendimiento superior as como la autonoma de movilidad. Los resultados muestran que el fenmeno de la ddiva es complejo donde entran tambin, con influencia, las caractersticas endgenas del beneficiario para ms all de las dimensiones que la literatura seal previamente. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the gift phenomenon observing data from the Project "Every Man is my brother" (or Todo Homem Meu Irmo). This Project has been supported by the Portuguese newspaper Jornal de Notcias for more than 30 years. This work evaluates which determinants influence the values given to e [...] ach case. This work concluded that the number of weeks for exposing each case in the pages of the newspaper and the number of children supported by each beneficiary positively influence the values that were given to this beneficiary. Higher individual incomes and self-mobility negatively influence the values that were given. These results show that the gift phenomenon is rather complex and it is also influenced by the endogenous characteristics of each receiver.

  3. 75 FR 18889 - Notice of Quarterly Report (October 1, 2009-December 31, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...days ratio. Operating expense ratio. Enterprise Support...and maintenance cost recovery ratio (Dar es Salaam...and maintenance cost recovery ratio (Morogoro...the economic performance and profitability of the livestock sector...

  4. 2002 Willapa Bay LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne LiDAR of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The LiDAR data was processed to...

  5. Malocclusion and quality of life in Tanzanian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Mtaya, Matilda

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, its associated factors, its impact on quality of life and estimate its socio-dental treatment need in children living in Kinondoni and Temeke Districts of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: Cross sectional surveys of children aged 3-5 and 12-14 years, residing in two districts of Dar es Salaam region, was conducted from November 2005 to June 2006. A stratified proportionate two stage cluste...

  6. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct marketing research, identify opportunities for use of this technology, and to the extent possible, secure an agreement leading to a pre-commercialization demonstration or prototype plant. This was accomplished with the agreement to conduct the Noor al Salaam program as a tri-lateral project between Egypt, Israel, and the U.S. The tri-lateral project was led by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH); this included the Egyptian New and Renewable Energy Authority and the Israeli USISTC participants. This project, known was Noor al Salaam, was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Department of Energy (DOE). The Egyptian activity was under the auspices of the Egyptian Ministry of Energy and Electricity, New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) as part of Egypt's plans for renewable energy development. The objective of the Noor al Salaam project was to develop the conditions necessary to obtain funding and construct and operate an approximately 10 to 20 Megawatt hybrid solar/natural gas demonstration power plant in Zaafarana, Egypt that could serve both as a test bed for advanced solar technology evaluations, and as a forerunner to commercial plant designs. This plant, termed Noor Al Salaam, or “Light of Peace”, reached the initial phase of system definition before being curtailed, in part by changes in USAID objectives, coupled with various delays that were beyond the scope of the program to resolve. The background of the USISTF technology development and pre-commercialization effort is provided in this report, together with documentation of the technology developments conducted under the Noor al Salaam program. It should be noted that only a relatively small part of the Noor al Salaam funding was expended over the approximately five years for which UAH was prime contractor before the program was ordered closed (Reference 1) so that the remaining funds could be returned to USAID.

  7. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of Western Lewis County for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data set covers...

  8. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  9. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  10. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  11. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  12. Qu es la tica econmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Enderle

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Al observar la renuencia de muchos practicantes de la actividad empresarial para emplear la palabra tica o tan siquiera para estar dispuestos a discutir sobre tica, en este ensayo se hace un esfuerzo por definir lo que debera ser la tica econmica y empresarial. Se sugiere el nfasis sobre una nueva prctica, un enfoque que reconoce la prioridad de la practica sobre la teora. El centro de atencin esta en el mejoramiento de la calidad tica al tomar decisiones y al emprender acciones. Debe distinguirse tres niveles: el nivel micro o del individuo, el meso o nivel de las firmas y organizaciones, y el nivel macro de las economas nacionales y transnacionales. Tambin deben considerarse tres grupos de valores: personales, colectivos y generales. Siempre debe tenerse en mente las inter-relaciones entre estos niveles y valores. Se precisa de un modelo de cooperacin entre la economa y la tica que pueda superar los problemas del idealismo o de reducir la tica a un aparato instrumental. Un enfoque basado en la toma de decisiones ofrece la mayor de las promesas. Al mismo tiempo, debe enfrentarse el problema del pluralismo, problema que slo podr ser resuelto encontrando un consenso superpuesto. Lo simple de la pregunta -qu es la tica econmica?- va de la mano con la dificultad de dar una respuesta clara y comprehensiva. Es sumamente confuso, colorido y variado lo que hoy se escucha en nombre de la tica econmica y empresarial. Abundan las expectativas mltiples, e incluso contradictorias en este campo. Si bien soy muy consciente de estos problemas tratare, sin embargo, de dar algunas respuestas provisionales y, con suerte, aclaratorias a nuestra pregunta simple. Ellas tienen el color personal, influenciado por mi experiencia europeo-occidental, e inspiradas por mi esperanza de que los esfuerzos en el campo de la tica econmica contribuyan a hacer frente a los grandes retos de nuestro tiempo de manera ms inteligente y efectiva. Desde una perspectiva descriptiva y analtica, podramos preguntar qu es, en realidad, la tica econmica y empresarial aqu, en este pas o en otros pases del mundo. No lo voy a hacer, pues ya hay muchos artculos que resumen la situacin de varios pases (De George, 1987; Enderle, 1988 y 1991; Mahoney, 1990; Steinmann ylohr, 1991; van Luijk, 1990; y otros. Ms bien, discutir el tema de lo que debe ser la tica econmica y empresarial y cmo puede esto justificarse.

  13. Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TASK NAME:(NRCS) Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01254 Woolpert Order...

  14. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  15. Hawaii DAR Dealer Reporting System Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2000 January, the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) implemented a computerized data processing system for fish dealer data collected state-wide. Hawaii...

  16. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  17. USGS Atchafalaya 2 LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin project area. The entire survey area for Atchafalaya encompasses approximately...

  18. Orienteerumiskaart vs. LiDAR / Marek Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karm, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaureusetst, mille eesmrk oli vrrelda orienteerumiskaardi reljeefi LiDAR-i andmete phjal saadava reljeefimudeliga ning leida vastus ksimusele, kas o-kaart vib olla kasulik kooste- vi kontrollmaterjal mistahes reljeefimudelile

  19. Development of digital subtraction system DAR-1200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has been of widespread use clinically, and it has attracted considerable attention in angiographic examination today. The merits of Shimadzu high resolution digital subtraction system DAR-1200 are reported in this paper. Furthermore, the principle and clinical usefullness of a new method of DSA called the Peak-Hold DSA are explained especially in details. (author)

  20. qu es la psicologa?

    OpenAIRE

    Canguilhem, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Para el psiclogo, la pregunta "Qu es la psicologa?" parece ser ms molesta que para el filsofo la pregunta "Qu es la filosofa?". Porque a la filosofa la pregunta por su sentido y por su esencia la constituye ms que lo que la define la respuesta a esta pregunta. El hecho de que la pregunta renazca incesantemente, a falta de respuesta satisfactoria, es, para quien quisiera poderse llamar filsofo, una razn de humildad, y no una causa de humillacin. Pero para la psicologa la pregunt...

  1. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  2. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  3. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  4. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to complete the 2005 project for Yakima County. This project has partial coverage of Yakima County,...

  5. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 167 square miles and covers a...

  6. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  7. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish River Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) co-acquired Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Truecolor Orthophotographs of the Snohomish River Estuary, WA on July 20...

  8. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Rattlesnake

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on six days between September 15th and November 5th, and from November 6th ? 13th,...

  9. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  10. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Entiat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the...

  11. 2000 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 1,146 square miles and covers part...

  12. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Bare-Earth Topographic LiDAR: Lynnwood

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Lynnwood, Snohomish County, Washington. This...

  13. Direct Georeferencing of Stationary LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike mobile survey systems, stationary survey systems are given very little direct georeferencing attention. Direct Georeferencing is currently being used in several mobile applications, especially in terrestrial and airborne LiDAR systems. Georeferencing of stationary terrestrial LiDAR scanning data, however, is currently performed indirectly through using control points in the scanning site. The indirect georeferencing procedure is often troublesome; the availability of control stations within the scanning range is not always possible. Also, field procedure can be laborious and involve extra equipment and target setups. In addition, the conventional method allows for possible human error due to target information bookkeeping. Additionally, the accuracy of this procedure varies according to the quality of the control used. By adding a dual GPS antenna apparatus to the scanner setup, thereby supplanting the use of multiple ground control points scattered throughout the scanning site, we mitigate not only the problems associated with indirect georeferencing but also induce a more efficient set up procedure while maintaining sufficient precision. In this paper, we describe a new method for determining the 3D absolute orientation of LiDAR point cloud using GPS measurements from two antennae firmly mounted on the optical head of a stationary LiDAR system. In this paper, the general case is derived where the orientation angles are not small; this case completes the theory of stationary LiDAR direct georeferencing. Simulation and real world field experimentation of the prototype implementation suggest a precision of about 0.05 degrees (~1 milli-radian for the three orientation angles.

  14. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  15. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  16. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kittitas-Colockum Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on 6 days between September 15th and November 5th, 2010 for the Puget Sound LiDAR...

  17. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  18. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and...

  19. Aplicacin del LiDAR aerotransportado a la determinacin de la altura de grandes estructuras. Caso de estudio: Presas / Application of Airborne LiDAR to the Determination of the Height of Large Structures. Case Study: Dams

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubn, Martnez Marn; Juan Gregorio, Rejas Ayuga; Miguel, Marchamalo Sacristn.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La mejor forma de calcular la altura de una presa es realizar una nivelacin geomtrica de precisin. No obstante, este mtodo es demandante y costoso. La precisin de los datos obtenidos ha mejorado sustancialmente, esta tecnologa puede proveer precisiones de 2 a 3 centmetros, ms que suficiente [...] para determinar la altura de presa y utilizar sta como dato de partida para cualquier actividad posterior que as lo requiera. La densidad de adquisicin de los datos LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) es importante para establecer la bondad de los resultados. Finalmente, como los sistemas LiDAR aerotransportados estn basados en alturas elipsoidales, es necesario transformarlas a ortomtricas. Este trabajo muestra los resultados obtenidos usando un LiDAR de baja densidad (0.5 pts/m) y su validacin con observaciones GPS (Global Positioning System) en postproceso. Los resultados demuestran que se puede obtener una precisin del orden de 10-25 cm, suficiente para la mayora de las actividades relacionadas con la ingeniera civil. Abstract in english The best way to determine the height of dams is to level the top of the dam applying a geometric leveling. Nevertheless this task is very demanding and expensive. The accuracy potential of LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data has significantly improved. These systems can provide accuracy of 2-3 [...] cm level, which could be enough to be applied in the determination of the height of dams. The point acquisition density is an important factor involved in the process of determining the height using LiDAR technique. Finally, since the LiDAR technique is based on ellipsoidal heights, the coordinates must be transformed to the official orthometric system. This paper shows the results obtained using low density airborne LiDAR data (0.5 pts/m) and their validation with post-processed GPS (Global Positioning System) observations. Test results have shown LiDAR can be accurate enough (10-25 cm) to determine the height and to be applied in many civil engineering activities.

  20. Trapped in decline: a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru mountains Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Donge, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made a return visit to the area in November 1991 to look again at questions which arose during writing up. The research also reflects seven years' employment at the University of Dar es Salaam (1982-89). The Tan...

  1. qu es arquitectura virtual ?

    OpenAIRE

    Avella, Mg. Arq. Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    La pertinencia que tiene la arquitectura de entrar en el campo virtual a proponer desde su punto de vista y con su sistema de valores, es relevante como ya lo han hecho muchas otras ramas del conocimiento. Se busca establecer una base terica e histrica de contenidos y tendencias desarrolladas desde la investigacin y la experimentacin del medio virtual, la cual puede establecerse, no solo como relectura de conceptos en la arquitectura sino tambin en la formulacin de una semntica propi...

  2. Qu es conducta?

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Freixa i Baqu\\u00E9

    2003-01-01

    La definicin de la Psicologa como ciencia de la conducta adoptada por el Conductismo supone e implica a su vez una conceptualizacin clara y unvoca de dicho concepto. Pero tal definicin se enfrenta con una serie de malentendidos tenaces que dificultan no slo la comprensin de dicho concepto bsico sino tambin, en consecuencia, la propia conceptualizacin conductista. El propsito del presente trabajo es intentar exponer algunos de estos malentendidos, entre los que destac...

  3. Es posible matizar el individualismo de John Locke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Fernndez Peychaux

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El interrogante del que este artculo pretende dar cuenta es si el individualismo de John Locke responde a la radicalidad con la que la corriente de interpretacin ms difundida intenta caracterizarlo. La conclusin que se alcanza luego de una amplia presentacin de pruebas textuales, es que la necesaria matizacin del individualismo se deriva de la insistencia del autor en justificar el origen divino de los derechos y deberes. De este modo, en la medida en que se niegue que los hombres disponen de un derecho irrefrenable a seguir su deseo de autopreservacin, es posible concluir que el Estado no existe para resguardar esos presuntos derechos individuales, sino para restaurar la ley de naturaleza que ya no sirve, como debera, para determinar los derechos y deberes de los hombres.

  4. 2004 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Portland, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The all returns ASCII files contain the X,Y,Z values of all the LiDAR returns collected during the survey mission. In addition each return also has a time stamp,...

  5. Qu es el neozapatismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xchitl Leyva Solano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El levantamiento chiapaneco del primero de enero de 1994 descencaden la movilizacin de varios sectores de la sociedad mexicana. Del repudio unnime a la guerra naci un amplio movimiento ciudadano y popular que ?sin compartir los medios tcticos de la lucha armada? convergi con el Ejrcito Zapatista de Liberacin Nacional (EZLN en sus aspiraciones sociales y polticas: la lucha por la democracia, la justicia y la libertad. Por ser l, resulta pertinente calificarlo con el trmino de neozapatismo civil. Si sumamos a este conjunto de movilizaciones ciudadanas y populares el propio zapatismo armado ? advirtiendo su carcter socio-polticomilitar ? obtendremos el neozapatismo en su sentido ms amplio. Otra forma de entender el neozapatismo ?que desarrollaremos en la presente reflexin? es como un proceso dinmico constituido por una pluralidad de intereses, voluntades e identidades, que lo inscriben dentro de un campo de contradicciones y de tensiones no resueltas. Como primera premisa podemos apuntar que el neozapatismo no es ni homogneo ni mucho menos monoltico, sino que, como lo mostraremos a continuacin, tiene una naturaleza multifactica, polismica y fludica.

  6. A Comparison of LiDAR and Radiosonde Wind Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kumer, Valerie-Marie; Reuder, Joachim; Furevik, Birgitte Rugaard

    2014-01-01

    Doppler LiDAR measurements are already well established in the wind energy research and their accuracy has been tested against met mast data up to 100 m above ground. However, the new generation of scanning LiDAR have a much higher range and thus it is not possible to verify measurements at higher altitudes. Therefore, the LiDAR Measurement Campaign Sola (LIMECS) was conducted at the airport of Stavanger from March to August 2013 to compare LiDAR and radiosonde winds. It was a collaborativ...

  7. Para perfeccionar un idioma lo ms significativo es vivirlo

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Mora, Libia Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Soy docente del Instituto Tcnico Agropecuario Jorge Elicer Gaitn de la Salina y en este corto texto pretendo dar a conocer mi experiencia en el programa de inmersin en ingls en donde compart con diferentes colegas, con mi tutora Andrea McDonald y con habitantes de la isla en la posada Kennedy Lodge. El objetivo de este escrito es invitar a los docentes a participar y aprovechar cada una de las actividades de formacin ofrecidas por el Ministerio de Educacin y las diferentes Secretaras...

  8. Qu es un Modelo Econmico?

    OpenAIRE

    Puente-Ajovin, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Continuamente se critica a la ciencia econmica en base a que sus modelos son descripciones inexactas de una realidad inabarcable y que, por tanto, carecen de un valor real. En este artculo intento dar una descripcin propia de qu son los modelos econmicos y por qu son tan valiosos, no solo para el progreso de la ciencia econmica, sino para el razonamiento en trminos econmicos con el que nos debemos topar da a da. Continually, people criticizes economics on the grounds that their...

  9. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  10. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  11. Using LiDAR to characterize logjams in lowland rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalharth, Mahdi; Hassan, Marwan A.; Klinkenberg, Brian; Leung, Vivian; McCleary, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Logjams significantly influence watershed hydrology, flow regime, channel morphology and stability, and processes in lowland rivers. Consequently, logjams play a major role in the existence and conservation of the riparian and aquatic ecosystems along major waterways. In this paper, we attempt to detect and quantify logjams in river channels using LiDAR technology in conjunction with traditional fieldwork. To the best of our knowledge, LiDAR-based analysis has not been used to characterize logjams in streams. Overall, when applied in a lowland river environment, LiDAR-based analysis demonstrates a comprehensive solution for detecting logjams in relation to the fieldwork, with a low rate of omission. A filtered approach predicted the presence of 95% of fieldwork-reported logjams (a 5% rate of omission), but also identified six logjams not identified in the field (a 10% rate of commission). A nonfiltered approach identified 87% of field-reported logjams, producing a 13% rate of omission and a 6.7% rate of commission. Dimension measurements were more consistent in the filtered LiDAR approach, showing 53%, 34%, and 90% of R2 improvements for the length, width, and height, respectively, over the unfiltered LiDAR values. As vegetation cover hindered accurate delineation of logjam boundaries by LiDAR, field and LiDAR measurements of nonvegetation-obstructed logjams were more highly correlated than the field and LiDAR measurements of partially and completely vegetation-obstructed logjams.

  12. 2006 OSIP OGRIP Coastal Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  13. Lava flow texture LiDAR signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, P.; Garry, W. B.; Scheidt, S. P.; Irwin, R. P., III; Fox, J.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs) are used to investigate lava textures on the Big Island of Hawaii. An experienced geologist can distinguish fresh or degraded lava textures (e.g., blocky, a'a and pahoehoe) visually in the field. Lava texture depends significantly on eruption conditions, and it is therefore instructive, if accurately determined. In places where field investigations are prohibitive (e.g., Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Io and remote regions on Earth) lava texture must be assessed from remote sensing data. A reliable method for differentiating lava textures in remote sensing data remains elusive. We present preliminary results comparing properties of lava textures observed in airborne and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne data, in this study, were collected in 2011 by Airborne 1 Corporation and have a ~1m point spacing. The authors collected the terrestrial data during a May 2014 field season. The terrestrial scans have a heterogeneous point density. Points close to the scanner are 1 mm apart while 200 m in the distance points are 10 cm apart. Both platforms offer advantages and disadvantages beyond the differences in scale. Terrestrial scans are a quantitative representation of what a geologist sees "on the ground". Airborne scans are a point of view routinely imaged by other remote sensing tools, and can therefore be quickly compared to complimentary data sets (e.g., spectral scans or image data). Preliminary results indicate that LiDAR-derived surface roughness, from both platforms, is useful for differentiating lava textures, but at different spatial scales. As all lava types are quite rough, it is not simply roughness that is the most advantageous parameter; rather patterns in surface roughness can be used to differentiate lava surfaces of varied textures. This work will lead to faster and more reliable volcanic mapping efforts for planetary exploration as well as terrestrial geohazards.

  14. ES LA INCONMENSURABILIDAD INCOMPARABILIDAD?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daian Tatiana, Flrez Quintero.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es explorar qu aspectos constitutivos son comparables en dos teoras inconmensurables y mediante qu mecanismos puede hacerse la comparacin. Ya que la solucin al problema de la inconmensurabilidad que aqu pretendo sugerir se da bajo la perspectiva estructuralis [...] ta; la respuesta al planteamiento central del texto implica desarrollar un contraste entre la concepcin estndar y la concepcin estructuralista de la ciencia. Para lograr mis objetivos, expondr los conceptos bsicos de la tesis de la inconmensurabilidad con el fin de discutir sus problemas. As mismo, reconstruir las dos formulaciones de Kuhn sobre la tesis de la inconmensurabilidad, y analizar no slo las objeciones ms importantes que se interpusieron en su contra, sino tambin algunas implicaciones epistemolgicas y onto-semnticas relevantes Abstract in english This paper Intends to explore what constitutive aspects are comparable in two incommensurable theories and what mechanisms we can use to do the comparison. Since the solution to the problem of the incommensurability that I intend to suggest here is framed within the structuralist perspective, the [...] answer to my main question requires drawing a clear contrast between the standard view of science and the structuralist view of science. To achieve my ends, I shall outline the basic concepts of the thesis of incommensurability with the additional purpose of examining its problems. Likewise, I shall reconstruct Kuhns two formulations of the thesis of incommensurability and I shall analyze the main objections raised against this thesis as well as some epistemological and onto-semantic consequences that are relevant to this discussion.

  15. Darüşşifas Where Music Threapy was Practiced During Anatolian Seljuks and Ottomans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Erdal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMusic therapy, one of the oldest treatment methods known, dates back to thousands of years. Turks’ using music therapy practices in hospitals -Ottoman and Seljuk hospitals- built with appropriate acoustic in the treatment of mental disorders, utilizing the books which included the researches done by scientists such as İbni Sina, Razî, Farabî, Hasan Şuurî and in Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi in music therapy and improving music therapy practices exemplarily in the period of Ottomans and Seljukians is assessed as the first serious music therapy practices. Darüşşifa is one of the names given to medical and educational establishments which give people health service depending on practice and observation and treated patients in Turkish and Islamic world. Turks started various reconstruction activities following their settlement in Anatolia. Within a short period, they built several types of artifacts such as; caravansaries, madrasahs, mosques, darüşşifas. In Seljukian and Ottoman darüşşifas, medical subjects were taught according to researches and scientific principals, and surgeons were educated at medical madrasahs as well. Medical health care service was provided in those places. In this study, of darüşşifas where music therapy was practised the ones surviving today and having importance have been analyzed so as to emphasize how curative power of art history and music was used by Turkish people centuries ago. From this point of view, Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (Medical madrasah (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (Mosque and Hospital (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II. Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi and Şifahanesi (Medical Madrasah and Hospital (1556 have been examined in this study as the featured ones among the institutions where music therapy was practised.ÖzetMüziğin insanlar üzerinde bıraktığı psikolojik ve fiziksel etki günümüzde açıkça bilinmektedir. Bilinen en eski tedavi yöntemlerinden biri olan Müzikle tedavinin geçmişi binlerce yıl öncesine dayanır. Türklerin, müzikle tedavide İbn Sina, Razî, Farabî, Hasan Şuurî ve Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi gibi bilim adamlarının yaptıkları araştırmaların yer aldığı kitaplardan faydalanarak, Selçuklu ve Osmanlılar döneminde, akıl hastalıklarının tedavisine uygun akustikle inşa edilen hastaneler-darüşşifalarda kullanmaları, ilk ciddi müzikle tedavi uygulamaları olarak değerlendirilir. Darüşşifa, Türk ve İslam dünyasında pratiğe ve gözleme dayalı sağlık hizmetleri veren hastaları tedavi eden sağlık ve eğitim kurumlarına verilen isimlerden birisidir. Darüşşifalar Tıp mesleğinin uygulanmasına yönelik özel mimari anlayış içeren yapıları ile de ayrıcalıklı bir yere sahiptir. Türkler Anadolu’ya yerleşmeleri ile birlikte çeşitli imar faaliyetlerine başlamışlardır. Yapılan bu faaliyetler içerisinde kervansaraylar, medreseler ve camilerle birlikte darüşşifalar da bulunmaktadır. Selçuklu ve Osmanlı darüşşifalarında tıbbi konular araştırmalara ve bilimsel esaslara bağlı kalınarak işleniyor, aynı zamanda tıp medreselerinde cerrah yetiştiriliyordu. Yapılan eğitimler dışında tatbiki uygulamaların da yaptırıldığı bilinmektedir. Darrüşşifalar, Anadolu Selçuklu ve Osmanlı medreseleri plan şemasına uygun olarak tasarlanmıştır. Genelde derslerin verildiği ana eyvan ve farklı ihtiyaçlar için düzenlenmiş avlu etrafında yer alan odalardan oluşmaktaydı.Türk sanat tarihi içerisinde sıklıkla karşılaştığımız tıp siteleri aynı zamanda günümüz tıp fakültesi mantığı ile örtüşmektedir. Buralarda tedavi edici sağlık hizmetleri sunulmaktaydı. Müzikle tedavi yapılan darüşşifalardan günümüze ulaşan ve önem teşkil edenler bu çalışmada sanat tarihi ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün yüzyıllar öncesinde Türklerde nasıl kullanıldığını vurgulamak amacıyla ele alınmıştır. Buradan hareketle Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II.Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi ve Şifahanesi (1556 Enderun Hastanesi bu çalışmada müzikle tedavinin yapıldığı kurumlar arasında öne çıkanlar olarak incelenmiştir. Böylece Türk müziği makamları ve hastalıklar arasında kurulan ilişkiler Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Sanatı içinde müzikle tedavinin gerekleri düşünülerek inşa edilen bu yapıların yaşam amaçları ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün vurgulanması amaçlanmıştır.La musicothérapie pratiquée pendant le règne des Seldjoukides d’Anatolie et des OttomansRésuméLa musicothérapie, l’une des plus anciennes méthodes de traitement connues, remonte à des milliers d’années. La musicothérapie turque pratiquée dans les hôpitaux ottomans et seldjoukides utilisait l’acoustique appropriée au traitement des troubles mentaux avec la lecture des livres des savants comme Avicenne, Râzî, Fârabî, Hasan Shuurî et Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi. Ainsi la musicothérapie et l’amélioration de la musicothérapie de manière exemplaire à l’époque des Ottomans et Seldjoukides est la première pratique sérieuse de la musicothérapie. Darüşşifa est l’un des noms donnés aux établissements médicaux et éducatifs qui confèrent au peuple des services de santé en fonction de la pratique et de l’observation et qui traitent les patients dans le monde turc et islamique. Les Turcs ont commencé à reconstruire différents bâtiments selon leurs possibilités en Anatolie. Dans une courte période, ils ont construit plusieurs types de constructions tels que caravansérails, médersas, mosquées, darüşşifas. En seldjoukide et ottoman darüşşifas, les sujets médicaux ont été acquis d’après les recherches et suivant des principes scientifiques. De plus, les chirurgiens ont été formés dans des médersas médicales. Les services médicaux de soins de santé ont été rendus dans ces lieux. Dans cette étude, on a étudié les Darüşşifas où la musicothérapie a été pratiquée. Ils survivent aujourd'hui en ayant une importance pour souligner comment le pouvoir curatif de l’histoire de l’art et de la musique a été utilisé par les Turcs il ya des siècles. De ce point de vue, dans ce travail, on a examiné les institutions suivantes où la musicothérapie a été pratiquée : la Madrasa Médicale de Kayseri Gevher Nesibe (1206, la Mosquée de Divrigi Ulu et sa Darüşşifa (1228, la Darüşşifa d’Amasya (1309, La Darüşşifa de Fatih (1470, la Darüşşifa d’Edirne Sultan II. Bayezid (1488, La Madrasa Médicale de Suleymaniye et Son Hôpital (1556.

  16. Es tiempo de cambiar el curso de la Historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franois Houtart

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La situacin extrema de pobreza, marginalidad y todas las secuelas que derivan del actual orden histrico de la economa neoliberal globalizadora, es la principal caracterstica que define a la sociedad moderna como injusta, a la vez que depredadora del hombre y de la naturaleza. Enfrentamos a una sociedad que no ha sabido, ni querido, dar respuesta a las necesidades bsicas de sus ciudadanos ya que su principal inters contina siendo la acumulacin del capital y el desarrollo de la ideologa del mercado total. Esta historia no puede continuar porque ha llegado a su fin, al crear las condiciones infrahumanas que estn destruyendo paulatinamente las vidas de un alto porcentaje de seres humanos. Para cambiar el curso de la Historia, es necesario una conciencia crtica del colectivo humano reprimido contra el status quo.

  17. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model Li......DAR measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  18. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy; Tarp, Finn

    household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  19. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es Salaam. Results offer

  20. Access, Use and Perceptions of Teachers and Students towards Mobile Phones as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the access, use and perceptions of teachers and students towards mobile phones as a tool for facilitating teaching and learning beyond the classroom walls. A total of 29 pre-service teachers and four college instructors from Dar es salaam University College of Education (DUCE) as well as 12 in-service teachers and 40 students

  1. "Finding a Life" among Undocumented Congolese Refugee Children in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    The majority of undocumented Congolese refugee children living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, experience extreme poverty and social exclusion, harassment and discrimination. Their fear of deportation, forcible removal to refugee camps and imprisonment is coupled with a strong feeling that they are unwelcome in Tanzania. These realities require that

  2. Monitoring shoreline change using remote sensing and GIS: a case study of Kunduchi area, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Makota, V.; Sallema, R.; Mahika, C.

    2004-01-01

    Data from aerial photographs taken in 1981, 1992 and 2002 of the Kunduchi shoreline off the Dar es Salaam coast were integrated in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine shoreline change in that locality. It was found that considerable changes have taken place, and that the two techniques are effective for shoreline monitoring.

  3. Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse--A Qualitative Interview Study with Representatives of the Socio-Legal System in Urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisanga, Felix; Mbwambo, Jessie; Hogan, Norah; Nystrom, Lennarth; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews, this study explored perceptions and experiences of key players handling child sexual offense cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The informants included public police investigators, magistrates, legal workers, and social workers working with nongovernmental organizations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed

  4. Mapping tree genera using discrete LiDAR and geometric tree metrics / Mapeo del gnero de rboles usando LiDAR y mtricas geomtricas para rboles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Connie, Ko; Tarmo K, Remmel; Gunho, Sohn.

    Full Text Available Los mapas de gneros de rboles son tiles para el inventario forestal, planificacin urbana y el mantenimiento de la infraestructura de lneas de transmisin. Se presenta un estudio de caso de uso de datos LiDAR de alta densidad para el mapeo de gneros de rboles a lo largo del derecho de paso (RO [...] W) de un corredor de lnea de transmisin. El objetivo de la investigacin fue identificar rboles individuales que mostraban o posean una amenaza potencial a la infraestructura de la lnea de transmisin. Mediante el uso de mapas tridimensionales de LiDAR se derivaron mtricas de rboles que estn relacionadas con la geometra de stos (formas del rbol). Por ejemplo, la direccin del crecimiento dominante de los rboles es til para identificar rboles que crecen inclinados hacia las lneas de transmisin. Tambin se derivaron otras mtricas geomtricas que son tiles para determinar los gneros de los rboles, tales como altura, forma de la copa, tamao y estructura de ramas. El rea de estudio se ubic al norte de Thessalon, Ontario, Canad, a lo largo de los principales corredores de ROW y en los bosques aledaos. Los atributos geomtricos usados para la clasificacin de los gneros fueron categorizados en cinco amplias clases: 1) lneas, 2) agrupamiento, 3) volmenes, 4) amortiguamiento en 3D de puntos, y 5) forma general del rbol que provee parmetros como una entrada para el clasificador forestal aleatorio. Abstract in english Maps of tree genera are useful in applications including forest inventory, urban planning, and the maintenance of utility transmission line infrastructure. We present a case study of using high density airborne LiDAR data for tree genera mapping along the right of way (ROW) of a utility transmission [...] line corridor. Our goal was to identify single trees that showed or posed potential threats to transmission line infrastructure. Using the three dimensional mapping capability of LiDAR, we derived tree metrics that are related to the geometry of the trees (tree forms). For example, the dominant growth direction of trees is useful in identifying trees that are leaning towards transmission lines. We also derived other geometric indices that are useful in determining tree genera; these metrics included their height, crown shape, size, and branching structures. Our pilot study was situated north of Thessalon, Ontario, Canada along a major utility corridor ROW and surrounding woodlots. The geometric features used for general classification could be categorized into five broad categories related to: 1) lines, 2) clusters, 3) volumes, 4) 3D buffers of points, and 5) overall tree shape that provide parameters as an input for the Random Forest classifier.

  5. Mapping tree genera using discrete LiDAR and geometric tree metrics Mapeo del gnero de rboles usando LiDAR y mtricas geomtricas para rboles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps of tree genera are useful in applications including forest inventory, urban planning, and the maintenance of utility transmission line infrastructure. We present a case study of using high density airborne LiDAR data for tree genera mapping along the right of way (ROW of a utility transmission line corridor. Our goal was to identify single trees that showed or posed potential threats to transmission line infrastructure. Using the three dimensional mapping capability of LiDAR, we derived tree metrics that are related to the geometry of the trees (tree forms. For example, the dominant growth direction of trees is useful in identifying trees that are leaning towards transmission lines. We also derived other geometric indices that are useful in determining tree genera; these metrics included their height, crown shape, size, and branching structures. Our pilot study was situated north of Thessalon, Ontario, Canada along a major utility corridor ROW and surrounding woodlots. The geometric features used for general classification could be categorized into five broad categories related to: 1 lines, 2 clusters, 3 volumes, 4 3D buffers of points, and 5 overall tree shape that provide parameters as an input for the Random Forest classifier.Los mapas de gneros de rboles son tiles para el inventario forestal, planificacin urbana y el mantenimiento de la infraestructura de lneas de transmisin. Se presenta un estudio de caso de uso de datos LiDAR de alta densidad para el mapeo de gneros de rboles a lo largo del derecho de paso (ROW de un corredor de lnea de transmisin. El objetivo de la investigacin fue identificar rboles individuales que mostraban o posean una amenaza potencial a la infraestructura de la lnea de transmisin. Mediante el uso de mapas tridimensionales de LiDAR se derivaron mtricas de rboles que estn relacionadas con la geometra de stos (formas del rbol. Por ejemplo, la direccin del crecimiento dominante de los rboles es til para identificar rboles que crecen inclinados hacia las lneas de transmisin. Tambin se derivaron otras mtricas geomtricas que son tiles para determinar los gneros de los rboles, tales como altura, forma de la copa, tamao y estructura de ramas. El rea de estudio se ubic al norte de Thessalon, Ontario, Canad, a lo largo de los principales corredores de ROW y en los bosques aledaos. Los atributos geomtricos usados para la clasificacin de los gneros fueron categorizados en cinco amplias clases: 1 lneas, 2 agrupamiento, 3 volmenes, 4 amortiguamiento en 3D de puntos, y 5 forma general del rbol que provee parmetros como una entrada para el clasificador forestal aleatorio.

  6. Determining the half-lives of 253Es, 254Es, /sup 254m/Es, 255Es, 257Es, 256Fm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconductor alpha, gamma, and x-ray spectrometry has been used to identify einsteinium and fermium isotopes having mass numbers 253-257 in californium targets irradiated in the central channel of the high-flux SM-2 reactor. Half-life measurements have been made for 253Es, 254Es, /sup 254m/Es, 255Es, 257Es, 256Fm. The measurements are compared with published data

  7. An Interactive Segmentation Method of LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to alleviate the problems inherent of automatic segmentation of LiDAR data, an interactive graph-cut segmentation method of LiDAR data is proposed. Firstly, the research background and the basic conceptions of the interactive graph-cut algorithm are introduced. Secondly, by analyzing the characteristics of LiDAR data, four-dimensional feature vectors are extracted, which as the graph-cut algorithm's input. Thirdly, the optimal parameter is estimated according to a new Sample-fitting method. At last, the experimental results show that this interactive segmentation method of LiDAR data is able to accurately locate the buildings region with less interaction, and at the same time guarantee the accuracy rata when buildings and trees are connected to each other.

  8. 2009 PSLC-USGS Topographic LiDAR: Wenatchee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Wenatchee USGS area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 1nd ? May...

  9. LiDAR Boundary: Camas National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior This dataset represents the LiDAR boundary for the Camas National Wildlife Refuge in Jefferson and Clark County, Idaho. This data is projected into Idaho State...

  10. 2009 PSLC-USGS Topographic LiDAR: Wenatchee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Wenatchee USGS area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 1nd - May...

  11. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  12. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and...

  13. 2005 Mississippi Merged LiDAR Data (2005 LiDAR data merged with 2005 Post-Katrina LiDAR data to create a bare-earth product for flood plain mapping in coastal Mississippi).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Pre- and post-hurricane Katrina LiDAR datasets of Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties, MS, were merged into a seamless coverage by URS. The pre-Katrina LiDAR...

  14. La originalidad de las influencias en Rubén Darío The originality of the influences in Rubén Darío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Solares-Larrave

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Críticos como Max Henríquez Ureña y Enrique Anderson Imbert, entre otros, consideran las influencias que recibió Rubén Darío de autores previos como explicación de su producción. Un aspecto interesante de estas influencias es que no fueron involuntarias sino deliberadas, como lo revela la famosa frase dariana de 1891: "¿A quién debo imitar para ser original?" (EI: 121. Esta afirmación debe llevarnos a reconsiderar nuestras ideas sobre el valor de las influencias como método crítico, y contextualiza el fenómeno cultural del modernismo al enfatizar su naturaleza como respuesta cultural y resultado de una transculturación. Aunque este tema haya sido tratado por la crítica (Rama, 1970; Pacheco, 1970, tanto la idea de influencia que refleja esta declaración como sus resultados en su obra literaria nos llevan a reexaminar la noción de influencia, especialmente si se considera el modernismo como una formulación hispanoamericana de respuesta cultural, resultante de un proceso de transculturación. Este acercamiento servirá como explicación posible de los actos de apropiación de parte de Darío, quien, según Noé Jitrik, consideraba la literatura como un producto. Dentro de este contexto, cabe proponer que Darío veía estas apropiaciones como procesos modernos, orientados al mejoramiento de su producción. De este modo, al insertar elementos de obras europeas que decidió "imitar para ser original", no sólo altera el concepto crítico tradicional de la influencia, sino que establece un patrón de relaciones literarias y culturales entre América Hispana y Europa, visible en la interacción de sus obras y las fuentes que la inspiraron, como son "Sonatina" ("Le chevalier double" de Théophile Gautier, y "Palabras a la satiresa" ("Les ingénus" de Paul Verlaine.Max Henríquez Ureña and Enrique Anderson Imbert, among others, have viewed the influences Rubén Darío received from other writers as a way to explain the Nicaraguan poet's work. However, a particular aspect of these influences is that they were very deliberate on Darío's part, as his famous 1891 statement "Who should I imitate in order to be original?" (EI: 121 proves. In fact, this remark of Darío's leads us to reconsider our notions of what influence means as a critical category, and also adds context to the cultural phenomenon of transculturation, that gave place to Spanish American modernismo. Even though critics such as Angel Rama (1970 and José Emilio Pacheco (1970 have examined this topic, both, the idea of influence contained in Darío's statement, and its literary results have led me to reexamine influence as a strategy within modernismo's agenda of cultural reply. This approach to influence may explain Darío's own acts of literary appropriation, which, according to Noé Jitrik, stem from the poet's concept of literature as commodity. Within this context, we want to propose that Darío saw these appropriations, now known as influences, as part of a modernization process whose goal was the improvement of his own, as well as Spanish America's cultural production. Hence, his choice to "imitate in order to be original" not only questions the traditional notions of influence, but also forges a pattern of literary and cultural relationships between Spanish America and Europe. This pattern is evident in the relationship between his own works, and those on which his poems were inspired. With these ideas in mind, my essay examines Darío's use of French literature in "Sonatina" ("Le chevalier double" de Théophile Gautier, and "Palabras a la satiresa" ("Les ingénus" de Paul Verlaine.

  15. 2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Unclassified Topographic LiDAR: Puget Sound Lowlands Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 730 square miles and covers the...

  16. 2007 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  17. 2001-2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Clallam County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract with Clallam County. The data covers an area of approximately 524...

  18. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Chehalis River Watershed Area, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Chehalis River Watershed study area on January 28th, February 2nd-7th,...

  19. Assessing understory development in forest plantations using laser imaging detection and ranging (LiDAR) / Evaluacin del desarrollo del sotobosque en plantaciones forestales mediante LiDAR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JAIME, HERNNDEZ; M. PAZ, ACUA; PATRICIO, CORVALN; JAVIER A, SIMONETTI.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones forestales deberan ser manejadas de forma que conserven biodiversidad al tiempo que provean bienes y servicios. Este es un desafo significativo pues las plantaciones tienden a reducir la riqueza de especies nativas. La presencia de un sotobosque desarrollado incrementa el valor de [...] las plantaciones como hbitat para la fauna nativa. En este trabajo desarrollamos un mtodo sencillo para evaluar la disponibilidad de sotobosque en plantaciones forestales empleando imgenes LiDAR y RGB de alta resolucin. En base a datos de campo, LiDAR e imgenes areas para rodales de Pinus radiata en Chile central, el modelo digital de copa (DCM), obtenido de sustraer el modelo digital de terreno (DTM) del modelo digital de superficie (DSM) es un predictor ms confiable del desarrollo del sotobosque que variables como la pendiente del terreno, la exposicin, la edad de la plantacin y la altura del dosel de la plantacin en situaciones en las cuales en dosel superior no est completamente cerrado. La correlacin entre DCM y el sotobosque sin embargo decrece con la altura del dosel de la plantacin, lo que hace de DCM un estimador conservador del desarrollo del sotobosque. El uso de DCM permitir una evaluacin rpida y costo/efectiva de la disponibilidad de hbitat para fauna nativa en plantaciones forestales. Abstract in english Forestry plantations are expected to be managed in ways to conserve biodiversity while producing goods and services. This goal implies a significant challenge as plantations tend to reduce species richness. The presence of well developed understory enhances the value of plantations as habitat for na [...] tive fauna. Here, we develop a straightforward method to assess the availability of understory in forestry stands using laser imaging detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial RGB high resolution images. Based on field and airborne acquired data for Pinus radiata stands in central Chile, the digital crown model (DCM), derived from the subtraction of the digital terrain model (DTM) from the digital surface model (DSM) is a more reliable predictor of understory height that variables like terrain slope, aspect, plantation age and canopy height in forests and plantations which have not complete closed canopy. The correlation between DCM and understory though decreases while the actual height of the plantation canopy increases, rendering DCM a conservative estimate of understory development. The use of DCM will allow a fast and cost/effective estimate of habitat suitability in forestry plantations.

  20. 2012-2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Deliveries 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and...

  1. LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Griesbaum, Luisa; Kiefer, Andreas; Hmmerle, Martin; Eitel, Jan; Koma, Zsfia

    2015-04-01

    Our physical environment undergoes constant changes in space and time with strongly varying triggers, frequencies, and magnitudes. Monitoring these environmental changes is crucial to improve our scientific understanding of complex human-environmental interactions and helps us to respond to environmental change by adaptation or mitigation. The three-dimensional (3D) description of the Earth surface features and the detailed monitoring of surface processes using 3D spatial data have gained increasing attention within the last decades, such as in climate change research (e.g., glacier retreat), carbon sequestration (e.g., forest biomass monitoring), precision agriculture and natural hazard management. In all those areas, 3D data have helped to improve our process understanding by allowing quantifying the structural properties of earth surface features and their changes over time. This advancement has been fostered by technological developments and increased availability of 3D sensing systems. In particular, LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology, also referred to as laser scanning, has made significant progress and has evolved into an operational tool in environmental research and geosciences. The main result of LiDAR measurements is a highly spatially resolved 3D point cloud. Each point within the LiDAR point cloud has a XYZ coordinate associated with it and often additional information such as the strength of the returned backscatter. The point cloud provided by LiDAR contains rich geospatial, structural, and potentially biochemical information about the surveyed objects. To deal with the inherently unorganized datasets and the large data volume (frequently millions of XYZ coordinates) of LiDAR datasets, a multitude of algorithms for automatic 3D object detection (e.g., of single trees) and physical surface description (e.g., biomass) have been developed. However, so far the exchange of datasets and approaches (i.e., extraction algorithms) among LiDAR users lacks behind. We propose a novel concept, the LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA), which shall enhance sharing of i) reference datasets of single vegetation objects with rich reference data (e.g., plant species, basic plant morphometric information) and ii) approaches for information extraction (e.g., single tree detection, tree species classification based on waveform LiDAR features). We will build an extensive LiDAR data repository for supporting the development and benchmarking of LiDAR-based object information extraction. The LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA) uses international web service standards (Open Geospatial Consortium, OGC) for geospatial data access and also analysis (e.g., OGC Web Processing Services). This will allow the research community identifying plant object specific vegetation features from LiDAR data, while accounting for differences in LiDAR systems (e.g., beam divergence), settings (e.g., point spacing), and calibration techniques. It is the goal of LVISA to develop generic 3D information extraction approaches, which can be seamlessly transferred to other datasets, timestamps and also extraction tasks. The current prototype of LVISA can be visited and tested online via http://uni-heidelberg.de/lvisa. Video tutorials provide a quick overview and entry into the functionality of LVISA. We will present the current advances of LVISA and we will highlight future research and extension of LVISA, such as integrating low-cost LiDAR data and datasets acquired by highly temporal scanning of vegetation (e.g., continuous measurements). Everybody is invited to join the LVISA development and share datasets and analysis approaches in an interoperable way via the web-based LVISA geoportal.

  2. Automated Probabilistic LiDAR Swath Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, A.; Gonçalves, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    We recently developed a new point cloud registration algorithm. Compared to Iterated Closest Point (ICP) techniques, it is robust to noise and outliers, and easier to use, as it is less sensitive to initial conditions. It minimizes the entropy of the joint point cloud (including intensity attributes to help register areas with poor relief), uses a voxel space and B-Spline interpolation to accelerate computation. A natural application of registration is swath alignment in airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR). Indeed, due to uncertainty in the inertial navigation system (INS), attitude angles are subject to time-dependent errors. Such errors can be understood as a sum of three terms: 1) a global term, or boresight error, which can be addressed using several existing techniques; 2) a low-frequency term, which is modeled as a constant attitude error for regions several hundred meters along-track; 3) a high-frequency term, responsible for corduroy artifacts (not addressed here). We propose to use the new registration algorithm to correct the low-frequency attitude variations. Relative geometric errors are significantly reduced, as pairs of swaths are registered onto each other local corrections. Absolute geometric errors are reduced during a second step, by applying all the corrections together to the entire dataset. We used a test area of 200 km2 in Portugal, with a density of 3-4 pts/m2. The point clouds were derived from waveform data, and include predictive range uncertainties estimated within a Bayesian framework. The data collection was supported by FCT and FEDER as part of the AutoProbaDTM research project (2009-2012). Modeling and reducing geometric error helps build consistent uncertainty maps. After correction, residual errors are taken into account in the final 3D error budget. For gridded elevation models a vertical uncertainty map is computed. Finally, it is possible to use the inter-swath registration parameters to estimate the distribution of horizontal error, which is usually difficult to assess.

  3. Mathematical modelling applied to LiDAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Estornell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the application of several mathematic calculations to LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging data to estimate vegetation parameters and modelling the relief of a forest area in the town of Chiva (Valencia. To represent the surface that describes the topography of the area, firstly, morphological filters were applied iteratively to select LiDAR ground points. From these data, the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN structure was applied to model the relief of the area. From LiDAR data the canopy height model (CHM was also calculated. This model allowed obtaining bare soil, shrub and tree vegetation mapping in the study area. In addition, biomass was estimated from measurements taken in the field in 39 circular plots of radius 0.5 m and the 95th percentile of the LiDAR height datanincluded in each plot. The results indicated a high relationship between the two variables (measurednbiomass and 95th percentile with a coeficient of determination (R2 of 0:73. These results reveal the importance of using mathematical modelling to obtain information of the vegetation and land relief from LiDAR data.

  4. Using LiDAR technology in forestry activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Abdullah Emin; O?uz, Hakan; Karas, Ismail Rakip; Aruga, Kazuhiro

    2009-04-01

    Managing natural resources in wide-scale areas can be highly time and resource consuming task which requires significant amount of data collection in the field and reduction of the data in the office to provide the necessary information. High performance LiDAR remote sensing technology has recently become an effective tool for use in applications of natural resources. In the field of forestry, the LiDAR measurements of the forested areas can provide high-quality data on three-dimensional characterizations of forest structures. Besides, LiDAR data can be used to provide very high quality and accurate Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for the forested areas. This study presents the progress and opportunities of using LiDAR remote sensing technology in various forestry applications. The results indicate that LiDAR based forest structure data and high-resolution DEMs can be used in wide-scale forestry activities such as stand characterizations, forest inventory and management, fire behaviour modeling, and forest operations. PMID:18365761

  5. Es la Pedagoga una ciencia?

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Moreno Castillo

    2009-01-01

    En este artculo se intenta demostrar que la pedagoga no es una ciencia, sino que es un lenguaje sin significado, un discurso vaco. Los argumentos que apoyan esta tesis son fundamentalmente cuatro. El primero, la resistencia de la pedagoga a usar el mtodo cientfico: si un sistema de enseanza no funciona, o se niegan los hechos, o se buscan las causas en cir- cunstancias sociales, pero no se cuestiona el sistema. El segundo, la multiplicacin de palabras, dando nuevos nombres a cosas que...

  6. Los vnculos de los que la familia es capaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Daza Navarrete

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available La familia es sujeto y objeto de transformaciones entretejidas en el curso de los acontecimientos que se suceden en la produccin econmica y social en el capitalismo occidental. Sin embargo, la posicin perifrica que ocupamos en l produce expresiones susceptibles de ser consideradas como constitutivas de nuestra singularidad, bien sea por el matiz especfico de su manifestacin, bien sea por su capacidad para ejercer resistencia al curso impuesto por la tendencia general. Este texto, prosiguiendo el acontecer de los cambios de lo social, describe la afectacin de los vnculos familiares en la propagacin de la normalizacin, en la generacin de los padres y de sus hijos, para dar paso, ms tarde, a una serie de prcticas afianzadas en una nueva expresin del poder, el control, cuya manifestaciones ms densas tienen lugar con la generacin de los nietos.

  7. Quin es el paciente limtrofe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gmez de Corts

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos trminos -lmite, limtrofe, fronterizo y borderline parecen aludir al mismo paciente. No obstante, diferentes definiciones surgen tras la revisin del concepto. Se refiere a un trastorno especfico de la personalidad, a un sndrome clnico, a un nivel de funcionamiento intermedio entre la neurosis y la psicosis, a un subgrupo de los trastornos afectivos de la esquizofrenia o la epilepsia? En gran parte, la confusin proviene de dos enfoques diferentes que se esfuerzan por definir el concepto: el enfoque descriptivo que pone el nfasis en la sintomatologa diagnostica frente al enfoque psicodinmico que destaca aspectos estructurales, dinmicos y de desarrollo como criterios diagnsticos. Estos dos enfoques aunque separados no dejan por ello de estar relacionados. Se han mantenido independientes porque las observaciones de ambos grupos provienen de contextos, metodologas y nfasis diferentes. Al contar con marcos tericos y mtodos distintos, sus conclusiones no pueden compararse aunque tericamente pueden complementarse. El enfoque descriptivo, representado por el DSM-IV, ve el concepto limtrofe como uno de los muchos trastornos de la personalidad que son distintos entre s, mientras que el enfoque psicodinmico de Kernberg lo considera como un nivel de funcionamiento psquico o de organizacin yoica estable ?entre la neurtica y la psictica? que puede dar cabida a distintos tipos de personalidades (dentro de este marco, se puede hablar de una personalidad narcisista con un nivel organizacional limtrofe...

  8. LA DIETA MEDITERRNEA: ES CARDIOPROTECTIVA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arredondo Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad coronaria es una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en USA, la intervencin de la dieta es una lnea primaria en el tratamiento y prevencin de la misma. El aumento de la evidencia cientfica muestra que la tradicional dieta mediterrnea puede reducir los riesgos de una enfermedad cardiovascular, los beneficios cardiovasculares de esta dieta superan lo de las dietas de baja grasa prescriptas clsicamente, la carga de las enfermedades cardiovasculares es enorme, y los aportes nutricionales que puedan optimizar la salida cardiovascular son esenciales. Las evidencias clnicas apoyan el role de la dieta mediterrnea en la salud cardiovascular, presentndose con mucho nfasis los efectos fisiolgicos de los cidos grasos omega -3. Se discuten las implicaciones en la prctica clnica y se enfocan futuras investigaciones.

  9. Darüşşifas Where Music Threapy was Practiced During Anatolian Seljuks and Ottomans / Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Darüşşifalarında Müzikle Tedavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Erdal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Music therapy, one of the oldest treatment methods known, dates back to thousands of years. Turks’ using music therapy practices in hospitals -Ottoman and Seljuk hospitals- built with appropriate acoustic in the treatment of mental disorders, utilizing the books which included the researches done by scientists such as İbni Sina, Razî, Farabî, Hasan Şuurî and in Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi in music therapy and improving music therapy practices exemplarily in the period of Ottomans and Seljukians is assessed as the first serious music therapy practices. Darüşşifa is one of the names given to medical and educational establishments which give people health service depending on practice and observation and treated patients in Turkish and Islamic world. Turks started various reconstruction activities following their settlement in Anatolia. Within a short period, they built several types of artifacts such as; caravansaries, madrasahs, mosques, darüşşifas. In Seljukian and Ottoman darüşşifas, medical subjects were taught according to researches and scientific principals, and surgeons were educated at medical madrasahs as well. Medical health care service was provided in those places. In this study, of darüşşifas where music therapy was practised the ones surviving today and having importance have been analyzed so as to emphasize how curative power of art history and music was used by Turkish people centuries ago. From this point of view, Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (Medical madrasah (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (Mosque and Hospital (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II. Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi and Şifahanesi (Medical Madrasah and Hospital (1556 have been examined in this study as the featured ones among the institutions where music therapy was practised. Özet Müziğin insanlar üzerinde bıraktığı psikolojik ve fiziksel etki günümüzde açıkça bilinmektedir. Bilinen en eski tedavi yöntemlerinden biri olan Müzikle tedavinin geçmişi binlerce yıl öncesine dayanır. Türklerin, müzikle tedavide İbn Sina, Razî, Farabî, Hasan Şuurî ve Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi gibi bilim adamlarının yaptıkları araştırmaların yer aldığı kitaplardan faydalanarak, Selçuklu ve Osmanlılar döneminde, akıl hastalıklarının tedavisine uygun akustikle inşa edilen hastaneler-darüşşifalarda kullanmaları, ilk ciddi müzikle tedavi uygulamaları olarak değerlendirilir. Darüşşifa, Türk ve İslam dünyasında pratiğe ve gözleme dayalı sağlık hizmetleri veren hastaları tedavi eden sağlık ve eğitim kurumlarına verilen isimlerden birisidir. Darüşşifalar Tıp mesleğinin uygulanmasına yönelik özel mimari anlayış içeren yapıları ile de ayrıcalıklı bir yere sahiptir. Türkler Anadolu’ya yerleşmeleri ile birlikte çeşitli imar faaliyetlerine başlamışlardır. Yapılan bu faaliyetler içerisinde kervansaraylar, medreseler ve camilerle birlikte darüşşifalar da bulunmaktadır. Selçuklu ve Osmanlı darüşşifalarında tıbbi konular araştırmalara ve bilimsel esaslara bağlı kalınarak işleniyor, aynı zamanda tıp medreselerinde cerrah yetiştiriliyordu. Yapılan eğitimler dışında tatbiki uygulamaların da yaptırıldığı bilinmektedir. Darrüşşifalar, Anadolu Selçuklu ve Osmanlı medreseleri plan şemasına uygun olarak tasarlanmıştır. Genelde derslerin verildiği ana eyvan ve farklı ihtiyaçlar için düzenlenmiş avlu etrafında yer alan odalardan oluşmaktaydı. Türk sanat tarihi içerisinde sıklıkla karşılaştığımız tıp siteleri aynı zamanda günümüz tıp fakültesi mantığı ile örtüşmektedir. Buralarda tedavi edici sağlık hizmetleri sunulmaktaydı. Müzikle tedavi yapılan darüşşifalardan günümüze ulaşan ve önem teşkil edenler bu çalışmada sanat tarihi ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün yüzyıllar öncesinde Türklerde nasıl kullanıldığını vurgulamak amacıyla ele alınmıştır. Buradan hareketle Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II.Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi ve Şifahanesi (1556 Enderun Hastanesi bu çalışmada müzikle tedavinin yapıldığı kurumlar arasında öne çıkanlar olarak incelenmiştir. Böylece Türk müziği makamları ve hastalıklar arasında kurulan ilişkiler Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Sanatı içinde müzikle tedavinin gerekleri düşünülerek inşa edilen bu yapıların yaşam amaçları ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün vurgulanması amaçlanmıştır. La musicothérapie pratiquée pendant le règne des Seldjoukides d’Anatolie et des Ottomans Résumé La musicothérapie, l’une des plus anciennes méthodes de traitement connues, remonte à des milliers d’années. La musicothérapie turque pratiquée dans les hôpitaux ottomans et seldjoukides utilisait l’acoustique appropriée au traitement des troubles mentaux avec la lecture des livres des savants comme Avicenne, Râzî, Fârabî, Hasan Shuurî et Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi. Ainsi la musicothérapie et l’amélioration de la musicothérapie de manière exemplaire à l’époque des Ottomans et Seldjoukides est la première pratique sérieuse de la musicothérapie. Darüşşifa est l’un des noms donnés aux établissements médicaux et éducatifs qui confèrent au peuple des services de santé en fonction de la pratique et de l’observation et qui traitent les patients dans le monde turc et islamique. Les Turcs ont commencé à reconstruire différents bâtiments selon leurs possibilités en Anatolie. Dans une courte période, ils ont construit plusieurs types de constructions tels que caravansérails, médersas, mosquées, darüşşifas. En seldjoukide et ottoman darüşşifas, les sujets médicaux ont été acquis d’après les recherches et suivant des principes scientifiques. De plus, les chirurgiens ont été formés dans des médersas médicales. Les services médicaux de soins de santé ont été rendus dans ces lieux. Dans cette étude, on a étudié les Darüşşifas où la musicothérapie a été pratiquée. Ils survivent aujourd'hui en ayant une importance pour souligner comment le pouvoir curatif de l’histoire de l’art et de la musique a été utilisé par les Turcs il ya des siècles. De ce point de vue, dans ce travail, on a examiné les institutions suivantes où la musicothérapie a été pratiquée : la Madrasa Médicale de Kayseri Gevher Nesibe (1206, la Mosquée de Divrigi Ulu et sa Darüşşifa (1228, la Darüşşifa d’Amasya (1309, La Darüşşifa de Fatih (1470, la Darüşşifa d’Edirne Sultan II. Bayezid (1488, La Madrasa Médicale de Suleymaniye et Son Hôpital (1556.

  10. Nitrogen concentration estimation with hyperspectral LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, O.; Hakala, T.; Suomalainen, J.; Kaasalainen, S.

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural lands have strong impact on global carbon dynamics and nitrogen availability. Monitoring changes in agricultural lands require more efficient and accurate methods. The first prototype of a full waveform hyperspectral Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instrument has been developed at the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI). The instrument efficiently combines the benefits of passive and active remote sensing sensors. It is able to produce 3D point clouds with spectral information included for every point which offers great potential in the field of remote sensing of environment. This study investigates the performance of the hyperspectral LiDAR instrument in nitrogen estimation. The investigation was conducted by finding vegetation indices sensitive to nitrogen concentration using hyperspectral LiDAR data and validating their performance in nitrogen estimation. The nitrogen estimation was performed by calculating 28 published vegetation indices to ten oat samples grown in different fertilization conditions. Reference data was acquired by laboratory nitrogen concentration analysis. The performance of the indices in nitrogen estimation was determined by linear regression and leave-one-out cross-validation. The results indicate that the hyperspectral LiDAR instrument holds a good capability to estimate plant biochemical parameters such as nitrogen concentration. The instrument holds much potential in various environmental applications and provides a significant improvement to the remote sensing of environment.

  11. 2011 USGS Topographic LiDAR: Suwannee River Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce USGS Task Order No. G10PD00236 USGS Contract No. G10PC00093 The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River Expansion in...

  12. Forest structures retrieval from LiDAR onboard ULA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Marnas, Fabien; Sanak, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Following the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the assessment of forest carbon stock is one of the main elements for a better understanding of the carbon cycle and its evolution following the climate change. The forests sequester 80% of the continental biospheric carbon and this efficiency is a function of the tree species and the tree health. The airborne backscatter LiDAR onboard the ultra light aircraft (ULA) can provide the key information on the forest vertical structures and evolution in the time. The most important structural parameter is the tree top height, which is directly linked to the above-ground biomass using non-linear relationships. In order to test the LiDAR capability for retrieving the tree top height, the LiDAR ULICE (Ultraviolet LIdar for Canopy Experiment) has been used over different forest types, from coniferous (maritime pins) to deciduous (oaks, hornbeams ...) trees. ULICE works at the wavelength of 355 nm with a sampling along the line-of-sight between 15 and 75 cm. According to the LiDAR signal to noise ratio (SNR), two different algorithms have been used in our study. The first algorithm is a threshold method directly based on the comparison between the LiDAR signal and the noise distributions, while the second one used a low pass filter by fitting a Gaussian curve family. In this paper, we will present these two algorithms and their evolution as a function of the SNR. The main error sources will be also discussed and assessed for each algorithm. The results show that these algorithms have great potential for ground-segment of future space borne LiDAR missions dedicated to the forest survey at the global scale. Acknowledgements: the canopy LiDAR system ULICE has been developed by CEA (Commissariat l'Energie Atomique). It has been deployed with the support of CNES (Centre National d'Etude Spariales) and ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). We acknowledge the ULA pilots Franck Toussaint for logistical help during the ULA campaign.

  13. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 1 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Vermillion, Iberia, St. Mary, Terrebonne, and Lafourche...

  14. 2007 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Jacksonville District US Virgin Islands LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) bare-earth classified LAS dataset is a topographic survey conducted for the USACE USVI LiDAR Project. These data were...

  15. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 1 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Vermillion, Iberia, St. Mary, Terrebonne, and Lafourche...

  16. 2004 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Bare Earth Topographic LiDAR: Connecticut River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce LiDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. The LiDAR files were converted from .PTS format to LAS...

  17. 2007 South Carolina LiDAR: Charleston (partial), Jasper, and Colleton Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce LiDAR data collection was performed utilizing a Leica ALS-50 sensor, collecting multiple return x, y, and z data as well as intensity data. LiDAR data was processed...

  18. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 2 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany Parishes,...

  19. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 2 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany Parishes,...

  20. Adolescents' Communication with Parents, Other Adult Family Members and Teachers on Sexuality: Effects of School-Based Interventions in South Africa and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namisi, Francis; Aar, Leif Edvard; Kaaya, Sylvia; Kajula, Lusajo J; Kilonzo, Gad P; Onya, Hans; Wubs, Annegreet; Mathews, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Cluster-randomized controlled trials were carried out to examine effects on sexual practices of school-based interventions among adolescents in three sites in sub-Saharan Africa. In this publication, effects on communication about sexuality with significant adults (including parents) and such communication as a mediator of other outcomes were examined. Belonging to the intervention group was significantly associated with fewer reported sexual debuts in Dar es Salaam only (OR 0.648). Effects on communication with adults about sexuality issues were stronger for Dar es Salaam than for the other sites. In Dar, increase in communication with adults proved to partially mediate associations between intervention and a number of social cognition outcomes. The hypothesized mediational effect of communication on sexual debut was not confirmed. Promoting intergenerational communication on sexuality issues is associated with several positive outcomes and therefore important. Future research should search for mediating factors influencing behavior beyond those examined in the present study. PMID:25724974

  1. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Jefferson and Clallam Counties, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Jefferson/Clallam study area on March 23rd-25th, April 13th-15th, and May...

  2. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: LiDAR for the North East

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce USGS Contract: G10PC00026, Task Order Number: G10PD02143 Task Order Numbers: G10PD01027 (ARRA) and G10PD02143 (non-ARRA) The LiDAR for the North East Project,...

  3. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  4. Es posible el capitalismo sostenible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James OConnor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Es posible el capitalismo sostenible? En este artculo se analiza una evidencia relativa a esta pregunta, haciendo nfasis en algunos de los diferentes conceptos de "sostenibilidad" planteados por los verdes y por el sector empresarial. Se hace un breve recuento de las condiciones de sostenibilidad econmica y se discute la "primera" contradiccin del capitalismo y la naturaleza de la acumulacin capitalista, adems de un breve examen del proceso de formacin de una crisis mundial en la dcada de los ochenta.

  5. Estatinas en insuficiencia cardaca: "dar o no dar" / Statins in heart failure: "to give or not to give" / Estatinas na insuficincia cardaca: "dar ou no dar"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Andrs, Len; Silvia, Moro.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com nveis de colesterol aumentados representam uma populao em risco de sofrer eventos cardiovasculares e morte por doena vascular. As estatinas demonstraram ser efetivas em reduzir o colesterol e, portanto diminuir os eventos cardiovasculares em pacientes com doena arterial coronria [...] ou com alto risco de desenvolvlas. Na insuficincia cardaca crnica (ICC), baixos nveis de colesterol esto associados com o aumento da mortalidade. Este fenmeno, conhecido como epidemiologia inversa no se apresenta somente em IC, seno tambm em doenas crticas dos idoso. Uma possvel explicao a hiptese da endotoxina, a qual se refere que o colesterol cumpre uma funo de "purificador" das endotoxinas.As estatinas no s diminuem o colesterol, mas tambm tm efeitos pleiotrpicos, como antiinflamatrios e melhoria da funo endotelial. Faz-se necessrio uma reviso nos mecanismos farmacolgicos dos efeitos do tratamento com estatinas, para tratar de conciliar estes efeitos contraditrios. Neste trabalho revisaremos os efeitos prejudiciais e benficos do tratamento com estatinas em modelos animais e em humanos com ICC. Faz-se necessrio uma maior investigao no modelo de ICC em humanos. Abstract in spanish Pacientes con niveles de colesterol aumentados representan una poblacin en riesgo de sufrir eventos cardiovasculares y muerte por enfermedad vascular. Las estatinas han demostrado ser efectivas en reducir el colesterol y por lo tanto disminuir los eventos cardiovasculares en pacientes con enfermeda [...] d arterial coronaria o con alto riesgo de desarrollarla. En insuficiencia cardaca crnica (ICC), bajos niveles de colesterol estn asociados con aumento de la mortalidad. Este fenmeno, conocido como epidemiologa reversa no se presenta slo en ICC, sino tambin en enfermedades crticas del anciano. Una posible explicacin es la hiptesis de la endotoxina, la cual refiere que el colesterol cumple una funcin de"purificador" de las endotoxinas. Las estatinas no slo disminuyen el colesterol, tambin tienen efectos pleiotrpicos, como antiinflamatorios y mejora de la funcin endotelial. Se hace necesario revisar los mecanismos farmacolgicos de los efectos del tratamiento con estatinas, para tratar de conciliar estos efectos contradictorios. En este trabajo revisaremos los efectos dainos y beneficiosos del tratamiento con estatinas en modelos animales y en humanos con ICC. Se hace necesaria una mayor investigacin en el modelo de ICC en humanos. Abstract in english Patients with increased cholesterol levels are at increased risk to experience cardiovascular events and to die from vascular disease. Statins have been proven to effectively reduce cholesterol levels and subsequently reduce cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease or at increa [...] sed risk to develop coronary artery disease. However, in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), low levels of cholesterol are related to increased mortality. This phenomenon of reverse epidemiology is not unique to CHF, but also exists in other critical disease and in the elderly in general as well. An important rationale has been provided by the endotoxin hypothesis, which suggests that cholesterol has an important scavenger function regarding harmful en dotoxins. Indeed, these lines of evidence predict a harmful effect of statin treatment in patients with CHF. However, statins not only lower cholesterol, but also have been reported to exhibit pleiotropic effects, including reduction of inflammation and improvement of endothelial function. In order to reconcile these contradictory lines of evidence, it is necessary to examine the pharmacological mechanisms of effects of statin treatment. In this review, we provide the available lines of evidence in animal models and humans predicting both harmful and beneficial effects of statin treatment in CHF. We emphasize the importance of additional research specifically in CHF models and patients.

  6. Monitoring coastal change using terrestrial LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, P; Gibson, A.; Jones, L.; Poulton, C.; G. Jenkins; Pearson, S.; Freeborough, K.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes recent applications by the British Geological Survey (BGS) of the technique of mobile terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveying to monitor various geomorphological changes on English coasts and estuaries. These include cliff recession, landslides and flood defences, and are usually sited at remote locations undergoing dynamic processes with no fixed reference points. Advantages, disadvantages and some practical problems are discussed. The role of GPS in las...

  7. Watertight Scenes from Urban LiDAR and Planar Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lankveld, Thijs; van Kreveld, Marc; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    The demand for large geometric models is increasing, especially of urban environments. This has resulted in production of massive point cloud data from images or LiDAR. Visualization and further processing generally require a detailed, yet concise representation of the scene's surfaces. Related work generally either approximates the data with the risk of over-smoothing, or interpolates the data with excessive detail. Many surfaces in urban scenes can be modeled more concisely by planar approx...

  8. Volume component analysis for classification of LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Nina M.; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2015-03-01

    One of the most difficult challenges of working with LiDAR data is the large amount of data points that are produced. Analysing these large data sets is an extremely time consuming process. For this reason, automatic perception of LiDAR scenes is a growing area of research. Currently, most LiDAR feature extraction relies on geometrical features specific to the point cloud of interest. These geometrical features are scene-specific, and often rely on the scale and orientation of the object for classification. This paper proposes a robust method for reduced dimensionality feature extraction of 3D objects using a volume component analysis (VCA) approach.1 This VCA approach is based on principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is a method of reduced feature extraction that computes a covariance matrix from the original input vector. The eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues of the covariance matrix are used to describe an image. Block-based PCA is an adapted method for feature extraction in facial images because PCA, when performed in local areas of the image, can extract more significant features than can be extracted when the entire image is considered. The image space is split into several of these blocks, and PCA is computed individually for each block. This VCA proposes that a LiDAR point cloud can be represented as a series of voxels whose values correspond to the point density within that relative location. From this voxelized space, block-based PCA is used to analyze sections of the space where the sections, when combined, will represent features of the entire 3-D object. These features are then used as the input to a support vector machine which is trained to identify four classes of objects, vegetation, vehicles, buildings and barriers with an overall accuracy of 93.8%

  9. Portadores de VIH/SIDA e HCC: dar voz a relatos de sofrimento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sofia Santanna, Gandra; Zlia, Teixeira.

    Full Text Available inquestionvel que o diagnstico de se ser portador de uma doena crnica alberga muitas implicaes. Contudo, o diagnstico de Vrus da Imunodeficincia Humana (VIH)/ Sndrome da Imunodeficincia Adquirida (SIDA) tem um impacto particular na vida do portador, e nas relaes com as pessoas para si [...] significativas, nomeadamente quando consideramos o estigma a ele associado. O contacto com estes sujeitos fez-nos perceber que mesmo quando estes so internados por complicaes relacionadas com a hepatite, culpabilizam o VIH e no a Hepatite C Crnica (HCC). A principal implicao psicolgica a ansiedade, encontrada em todos os sujeitos, o que nos surpreendeu dado que a literatura coloca a depresso como sintoma psicolgico mais frequentemente associado infeco pelo VIH/SIDA, no se tendo encontrado idntica constatao em relao HCC. A metodologia qualitativa utilizada visou dar a este trabalho um contorno exploratrio, descritivo e analtico das experincias e vivncias de 17 indivduos portadores de VIH/SIDA e de HCC, a quem tentamos dar voz, na expresso do seu sofrimento fsico, psicolgico e social. Abstract in spanish Es incuestionable que serse portador de una enfermedad crnica engloba muchas implicaciones. Sin embargo, el diagnstico del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) / Sndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA) tiene un impacto particular en la vida del portador y en las relaciones con las per [...] sonas significativas, sobre todo considerando el estigma que est asociado a l. El contacto con estos sujetos permiti que entendiramos que mismo cuando estos son internados debido a complicaciones relacionadas con la hepatitis, culpabilizan el VIH e no la hepatitis C Crnica (HCC). La principal implicacin psicolgica es la ansiedad, percibida en todos los sujetos, facto que nos sorprendi ya que la literatura coloca la depresin como sntoma psicolgico ms frecuentemente asociado a la infeccin por va VIH/SIDA, no se verificando idntica constatacin relativamente a la HCC. La metodologa cualitativa utilizada se fij en dar a este trabajo un carcter exploratorio, descriptivo y analtico de las experiencias y vivencias de 17 sujetos portadores de VIH/SIDA y de HCC, a los cuales intentamos dar voz, en la expresin de su sufrimiento fsico, psicolgico y social. Abstract in english It is undeniable that being diagnosed with a chronic disease sets numerous implications. However, the diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) seems to have a particular impact on the persons life and relationships, especially if considering the st [...] igma associated to it. Being in touch with these individuals made us realize that, even when hospitalized due to complications related to hepatitis, they tend to blame the HIV instead of the Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC). The main psychological condition found in all patients was, unexpectedly, anxiety, given the fact that literature places depression as the most frequent psychological symptom associated to HIV/AIDS, not having found any similar information relating to CHC. The qualitative methodology we applied meant to give this article an exploratory, descriptive and analytical outline of the experiences of 17 HIV/AIDS and CHC infected, to whom we gave voice to express their physical, psychological and social anguish.

  10. Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base height, but this has many potential sources of error. LiDAR may be a way forward to better characterize ladder fuels, but has only been used to address this question peripherally and in only a few instances. After establishing that landscape fuel treatments reduced canopy and ladder fuels at our site, we tested which LiDAR-derived metrics best differentiated treated from untreated areas. The percent cover between 2 and 4 m had the most explanatory power to distinguish treated from untreated pixels across a range of spatial scales. When compared to independent plot-based measures of ladder fuel classes, this metric differentiated between high and low levels of ladder fuels. These findings point to several immediate applications for land managers and suggest new avenues of study that could lead to possible improvements in the way that we model wildfire behavior across forested landscapes in the US.

  11. Rockfall hazard analysis using LiDAR and spatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hengxing; Martin, C. Derek; Zhou, Chenghu; Lim, Chang Ho

    2010-05-01

    Rockfalls have been significant geohazards along the Canadian Class 1 Railways (CN Rail and CP Rail) since their construction in the late 1800s. These rockfalls cause damage to infrastructure, interruption of business, and environmental impacts, and their occurrence varies both spatially and temporally. The proactive management of these rockfall hazards requires enabling technologies. This paper discusses a hazard assessment strategy for rockfalls along a section of a Canadian railway using LiDAR and spatial modeling. LiDAR provides accurate topographical information of the source area of rockfalls and along their paths. Spatial modeling was conducted using Rockfall Analyst, a three dimensional extension to GIS, to determine the characteristics of the rockfalls in terms of travel distance, velocity and energy. Historical rockfall records were used to calibrate the physical characteristics of the rockfall processes. The results based on a high-resolution digital elevation model from a LiDAR dataset were compared with those based on a coarse digital elevation model. A comprehensive methodology for rockfall hazard assessment is proposed which takes into account the characteristics of source areas, the physical processes of rockfalls and the spatial attribution of their frequency and energy.

  12. LiDAR observation of the flow structure in typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Taiwan is subject to 3.4 landfall typhoons each year in average, generally occurring in the third quarter of every year (July-September). Understanding of boundary-layer turbulence characteristics of a typhoon is needed to ensure the safety of both onshore and offshore wind turbines used for power generation. In this study, a floating LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) was deployed in a harbor to collect data of wind turbulence, atmospheric pressure, and temperature in three typhoon events (Matmo typhoon, Soulik typhoon, Trami typhoon). Data collected from the floating LiDAR and from meteorological stations located at Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung are adopted to analyse the wind turbulence characteristics in the three typhoon events. The measurement results show that the maximum 10-min average wind speed measured with the floating LiDAR is up to 24 m/s at a height of 200 m. Compared with other normal days, the turbulence intensity is lower in the three typhoon events where the wind speed has a rapid increase. Changes of wind direction take place clearly as the typhoons cross Taiwan from East to West. Within the crossing intervals, the vertical momentum flux is observed to have a significant pattern with both upward and downward propagating waves which are relevant to the flow structure of the typhoons.

  13. Qu es una revista cientfica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Capurro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El artculo busca responder la pregunta qu es una revista cientfica? Para ello, comienza analizando algunos momentos histricos en su desarrollo. Por ejemplo, el surgimiento de las revistas LeJournal des savans, primera revista considerada cientfica, Nouvelles de la rpublique des lettres, la primera revista con periodicidad mensual y Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, revista orientada hacia las ciencias experimentales. En la segunda parte, se expone la crisis informacional ocurrida al fin de la Modernidad, que tiene como uno de sus resultados la pregunta antes planteada. En la tercera parte, se intentar responder qu es una revista cientfica en la era digital? Se puede considerar la creacin de Internet y, en forma ms general, el impacto de la tecnologa digital en todos los mbitos de la vida como ndice de una nueva era. Si la imprenta y con ella el libro y la revista son hijos de la Modernidad, Internet y la circulacin global de datos digitales son hijos de lo que podemos llamar era digital. El artculo culmina con un estudio sobre el ttulo de la revista Informatio, identificando su etimologa, estableciendo su conexin con el trmino informacin y mencionando el mbito de investigacin abierto de la revista del Instituto de Informacin de la Facultad de Informacin y Comunicacin de la Universidad de la Repblica.

  14. Update 2012 der ESC-Guidelines zum Management von Vorhofflimmern - Was gibt es Neues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kurzfassung: Das Guideline-Update der ESC zum Management von Vorhofflimmern betrifft vor allem die Bereiche Antikoagulation, medikamentse Rhythmuskontrolle und Katheterablation. Im Bereich der Antikoagulation stellen die Etablierung des CHADSVASc- und des HAS-BLEDScores zur Risikostratifizierung sowie die Einfhrung der neuen Antikoagulantien die wichtigsten Neuerungen dar. Hinsichtlich der medikamentsen Therapie kommt es in den Guidelines zu einer Erst- bzw. Neubewertung von Vernakalant zur medikamentsen Kardioversion und von Dronedaron zur rhythmuserhaltenden Therapie. Der Stellenwert der Katheterablation von VHF wird durch die Guidelines weiter gesteigert.

  15. Über das Trauma schreiben und es korrigieren: Eine Irritation der autoethnografischen Darstellungsweise

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Wie können wir sinnvoll und ethisch über Verlust und Trauma sprechen? Dieser Text setzt sich mit der Verwendung traumatischer Erfahrungen in der Autoethnografie auseinander. Es wird über den Einfluss unserer wirren und unvernünftigen Erlebnisse in geordneten und vernünftigen Darstellungen nachgedacht sowie darüber, ob und wie wir teilnehmende Beobachter/innen unserer eigenen Lebensvollzüge werden. Bezeugungs-Praktiken sind durch Diskurs-Normen begrenzt. Damit werden unsere Möglichkeiten besch...

  16. Es la marihuana una droga maldita?

    OpenAIRE

    Pea, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Con curiosidad hemos observado que en el ltimo ao han aparecido numerosas publicaciones en revistas de reconocido prestigio mdico cientfico en la que se hacen planteamientos acerca de un posible papel teraputico de la Cannabis sativa, ms conocida como marihuana. Parece que esta polmica planta, famosa en Colombia por ocupar un lugar destacado entre las "exportaciones no tradicionales", est reuniendo argumentos para dar el gran salto al privilegiado grupo de las "Plantas Medicinales"....

  17. Using Satellite and Airborne LiDAR to Model Woodpecker Habitat Occupancy at the Landscape Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vierling, Lee A; Vierling, Kerri T.; Adam, Patrick; Hudak, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) relative to airborne-based LiDAR to model the north Idaho breeding distr...

  18. NASA Goddards LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) Airborne Imager

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong Ly; Paul M. Montesano; Kenneth J. Ranson; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Joel T. McCorkel; Morton, Douglas C; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Nelson, Ross F.; Lawrence A. Corp; Cook, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of LiDAR and optical remotely sensed data provides unique information about ecosystem structure and function. Here, we describe the development, validation and application of a new airborne system that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR hyperspectral and thermal components in a compact, lightweight and portable system. Goddards LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) airborne imager is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation structure, fo...

  19. Segmenting tree crowns from terrestrial and mobile LiDAR data by exploring ecological theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shengli; Wu, Fangfang; Guo, Qinghua; Wang, Yongcai; Li, Wenkai; Xue, Baolin; Hu, Xueyang; Li, Peng; Tian, Di; Li, Chao; Yao, Hui; Li, Yumei; Xu, Guangcai; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-12-01

    The rapid development of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) techniques is advancing ecological and forest research. During the last decade, numerous single tree segmentation techniques have been developed using airborne LiDAR data. However, accurate crown segmentation using terrestrial or mobile LiDAR data, which is an essential prerequisite for extracting branch level forest characteristics, is still challenging mainly because of the difficulties posed by tree crown intersection and irregular crown shape. In the current work, we developed a comparative shortest-path algorithm (CSP) for segmenting tree crowns scanned using terrestrial (T)-LiDAR and mobile LiDAR. The algorithm consists of two steps, namely trunk detection and subsequent crown segmentation, with the latter inspired by the well-proved metabolic ecology theory and the ecological fact that vascular plants tend to minimize the transferring distance to the root. We tested the algorithm on mobile-LiDAR-scanned roadside trees and T-LiDAR-scanned broadleaved and coniferous forests in China. Point-level quantitative assessments of the segmentation results showed that for mobile-LiDAR-scanned roadside trees, all the points were classified to their corresponding trees correctly, and for T-LiDAR-scanned broadleaved and coniferous forests, kappa coefficients ranging from 0.83 to 0.93 were obtained. We believe that our algorithm will make a contribution to solving the problem of crown segmentation in T-LiDAR scanned-forests, and might be of interest to researchers in LiDAR data processing and to forest ecologists. In addition, our research highlights the advantages of using ecological theories as guidelines for processing LiDAR data.

  20. Measurement procedures for characterization of wind turbine wakes with scanning Doppler wind LiDARs

    OpenAIRE

    Iungo, G.V.; Port-Agel, F.

    2013-01-01

    The wake flow produced from an Enercon E-70 wind turbine is investigated through three scanning Doppler wind LiDARs. One LiDAR is deployed upwind to characterize the incoming wind, while the other two LiDARs are located downstream to carry out wake measurements. The main challenge in performing measurements of wind turbine wakes is represented by the varying wind conditions, and by the consequent adjustments of the turbine yaw angle needed to maximize power production. Co...

  1. DAR O NO DAR PAPAYA: EL ROMPECABEZAS DE LA CONFIANZA INTERPERSONAL / THE PUZZLE OF INTERPERSONAL TRUST

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Gabriel, Gmez Albarello.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Un aspecto no suficientemente considerado en la solucin del dilema social de la redistribucin de la riqueza es el papel mediador de la confianza. En este artculo presento evidencia preliminar a este respecto. Posteriormente considero varios mecanismos que pueden explicar los niveles de confianza [...] interpersonal observados en 54 pases incluidos en la quinta Encuesta Mundial de Valores (2005-2008). Los resultados de un modelo estadstico multivariado indican que las variables con mejor desempeo son el nivel de riqueza, la estabilidad poltica y, con un efecto negativo, la participacin einclusin en los procesos de toma de decisin. Sin embargo, un anlisis de los niveles de confianza interpersonal con base en las encuestas del Latinobarmetro realizadas entre 1996 y 2010 arroja resultados parcialmente distintos. Modelos posteriores podran resolver esta disparidad tomando en cuenta la variedad de trayectorias histricas en cada regin o modelando el efecto de los mecanismos derivados de la estructura social, econmica y poltica de modo distinto. Abstract in english One aspect not sufficiently considered in solving the social dilemma of redistribution of wealth is the mediating role of trust. In this article, I present preliminary evidence in this regard. Later, I consider several mechanisms that may explain the observed levels of interpersonal trust in 54 coun [...] tries included in the fifth World Values ??Survey (2005-2008). The results of a multivariate statistical model indicate that the best performing variables are the level of wealth, political stability, with a negative effect , participation and inclusion in decision -making processes . However, an analysis of the levels of interpersonal trust based on surveys conducted between 1996 and Latinobarometer 2010 shows partly different results. Later models could resolve this disparity considering the variety of historical trajectories in each region or modeling the effect of mechanisms from social, economic and political structure differently.

  2. Performance testing of LiDAR exploitation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Gonzlez, M.; Gonzlez-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-04-01

    Mobile LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the field of geoscience. One of most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing. Several software solutions for data processing are available in the market, but users are often unknown about the methodologies to verify their performance accurately. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and six different suites are studied: QT Modeler, AutoCAD Civil 3D, Mars 7, Fledermaus, Carlson and TopoDOT (all of them in x64). Results depict as QTModeler, TopoDOT and AutoCAD Civil 3D allow the loading of large datasets, while Fledermaus, Mars7 and Carlson do not achieve these powerful performance. AutoCAD Civil 3D needs large loading time in comparison with the most powerful softwares such as QTModeler and TopoDOT. Carlson suite depicts the poorest results among all the softwares under study, where point clouds larger than 5 million points cannot be loaded and loading time is very large in comparison with the other suites even for the smaller datasets. AutoCAD Civil 3D, Carlson and TopoDOT show more threads than other softwares like QTModeler, Mars7 and Fledermaus.

  3. Qu es la justicia global?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thomas, Pogge.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ya existen ms libros y ensayos sobre "justicia global" en este milenio que en el anterior, al menos segn lo que indican las computadoras. Algunos de los temas ms amplios que se discuten hoy bajo el ttulo "justicia global" se vienen tratando desde hace siglos, inclusive desde el principio de la c [...] ivilizacin, pero se los discuta bajo distintos rtulos, tales como "justicia internacional", "tica internacional" y "la ley de las naciones". Este ensayo explora el significado de tal desplazamiento en la terminologa. Un rasgo distintivo del marco filosfico asociado con la expresin "justicia global" es el hecho de destacar el anlisis causal y moral del orden institucional global contra el trasfondo de sus alternativas viables y alcanzables. Dentro de este enfoque general de la justicia global, las diferentes concepciones de la justicia global diferirn en los criterios especficos de justicia global que proponen. No obstante ello, esos criterios coincidirn en enfatizar la cuestin sobre cmo funciona nuestro orden institucional global en comparacin con sus alternativas viables y alcanzables, en lo que respecta a los intereses humanos fundamentales que resultan relevantes desde un punto de vista moral. Al extender el anlisis institucional moral ms all del estado, esta pregunta centra la atencin sobre de qu manera la incidencia masiva actual de la violencia y la pobreza extrema, y los profundos excesos de mortalidad y morbilidad que provocan, se pueden evitar -no sencillamente a travs de una mejor conducta por parte de los gobiernos, en el plano interno y el internacional sino tambin, y de manera mucho ms efectiva, a travs de reformas institucionales globales que, entre otras cosas, mejoraran esa conducta gubernamental al modificar las opciones a disposicin de los gobiernos y los incentivos que enfrentan. Abstract in english There are more books and essays on 'global justice' in this millennium already than in the preceding one, at least as far as computers can tell. Some of the broad topics currently debated under the heading of "global justice" have been discussed for centuries, back to the beginnings of civilization. [...] But they were discussed under different labels, such as "international justice", "international ethics," and "the law of nations." This essay explores the significance of this shift in terminology. Distinctive of the philosophical framework associated with the increasingly prominent expression "global justice." is the focus on the causal and moral analysis of the global institutional order against the background of its feasible and reachable alternatives. Within this general global-justice approach, distinct conceptions of global justice will differ in the specific criteria of global justice they propose. But such criteria will coincide in their emphasis on the question of how well our global institutional order is doing, compared to its feasible and reachable alternatives, in regard to the fundamental human interests that matter from a moral point of view. Extending institutional moral analysis beyond the state, this question focuses attention on how today's massive incidence of violence and severe poverty, and the huge excesses of mortality and morbidity they cause might be avoided not merely through better government behavior, internally and internationally, but also, and much more effectively, through global institutional reforms that would, among other things, elevate such government behavior by modifying the options governments have and the incentives they face.

  4. Qu es la justicia global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pogge

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ya existen ms libros y ensayos sobre "justicia global" en este milenio que en el anterior, al menos segn lo que indican las computadoras. Algunos de los temas ms amplios que se discuten hoy bajo el ttulo "justicia global" se vienen tratando desde hace siglos, inclusive desde el principio de la civilizacin, pero se los discuta bajo distintos rtulos, tales como "justicia internacional", "tica internacional" y "la ley de las naciones". Este ensayo explora el significado de tal desplazamiento en la terminologa. Un rasgo distintivo del marco filosfico asociado con la expresin "justicia global" es el hecho de destacar el anlisis causal y moral del orden institucional global contra el trasfondo de sus alternativas viables y alcanzables. Dentro de este enfoque general de la justicia global, las diferentes concepciones de la justicia global diferirn en los criterios especficos de justicia global que proponen. No obstante ello, esos criterios coincidirn en enfatizar la cuestin sobre cmo funciona nuestro orden institucional global en comparacin con sus alternativas viables y alcanzables, en lo que respecta a los intereses humanos fundamentales que resultan relevantes desde un punto de vista moral. Al extender el anlisis institucional moral ms all del estado, esta pregunta centra la atencin sobre de qu manera la incidencia masiva actual de la violencia y la pobreza extrema, y los profundos excesos de mortalidad y morbilidad que provocan, se pueden evitar -no sencillamente a travs de una mejor conducta por parte de los gobiernos, en el plano interno y el internacional sino tambin, y de manera mucho ms efectiva, a travs de reformas institucionales globales que, entre otras cosas, mejoraran esa conducta gubernamental al modificar las opciones a disposicin de los gobiernos y los incentivos que enfrentan.There are more books and essays on 'global justice' in this millennium already than in the preceding one, at least as far as computers can tell. Some of the broad topics currently debated under the heading of "global justice" have been discussed for centuries, back to the beginnings of civilization. But they were discussed under different labels, such as "international justice", "international ethics," and "the law of nations." This essay explores the significance of this shift in terminology. Distinctive of the philosophical framework associated with the increasingly prominent expression "global justice." is the focus on the causal and moral analysis of the global institutional order against the background of its feasible and reachable alternatives. Within this general global-justice approach, distinct conceptions of global justice will differ in the specific criteria of global justice they propose. But such criteria will coincide in their emphasis on the question of how well our global institutional order is doing, compared to its feasible and reachable alternatives, in regard to the fundamental human interests that matter from a moral point of view. Extending institutional moral analysis beyond the state, this question focuses attention on how today's massive incidence of violence and severe poverty, and the huge excesses of mortality and morbidity they cause might be avoided not merely through better government behavior, internally and internationally, but also, and much more effectively, through global institutional reforms that would, among other things, elevate such government behavior by modifying the options governments have and the incentives they face.

  5. Preliminary application and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP for detection of bovine theileriosis and trypanosomosis in Tanzania : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M.M. Thekisoe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of LAMP, PCR and microscopy to detect Theileria spp. and Trypanosoma congolense in field-derived bovine blood samples from Tanzania was evaluated and compared. No parasites were detected by microscopy. Furthermore, no bovine Theileria spp. were detected by LAMP and PCR from all the 24 samples collected from Arusha. Four and one out of 24 samples were positive for Theileria congolense infection by LAMP and PCR respectively while, 18 and nine out of 40 samples from Dar es Salaam were positive by LAMP and PCR for Theileria spp. Infection, respectively. Although all samples from Dar es Salaam were negative for Trypanosoma congolense infections by PCR, 12 out of 40 samples were LAMP positive. Whilst PCR is an established gene amplification method for the detection of Theileria and trypanosome parasites, this study introduces LAMP as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool that could be used in large-scale epidemiological surveys.

  6. 2001-2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Island County and Northeast Jefferson County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 525 square miles and covers all of...

  7. Mapping tree genera using discrete LiDAR and geometric tree metrics Mapeo del gnero de rboles usando LiDAR y mtricas geomtricas para rboles

    OpenAIRE

    Connie Ko; Tarmo K. Remmel; Gunho Sohn

    2012-01-01

    Maps of tree genera are useful in applications including forest inventory, urban planning, and the maintenance of utility transmission line infrastructure. We present a case study of using high density airborne LiDAR data for tree genera mapping along the right of way (ROW) of a utility transmission line corridor. Our goal was to identify single trees that showed or posed potential threats to transmission line infrastructure. Using the three dimensional mapping capability of LiDAR, we derived...

  8. Los mdicos cuentan con herramientas suficientes para dar la orden de no reanimar? Aspectos bioticos en la atencin del paciente terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Reyes Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: en su formacin profesional, los mdicos no cuentan con la currcula necesaria para atender pacientes con enfermedades terminales. Objetivo: conocer si los mdicos tienen los conocimientos bsicos para evaluar los sntomas y condiciones generales del estado del paciente terminal. Material y mtodo: estudio observacional en el que, previa firma del consentimiento informado, se aplic un cuestionario semiestructurado del conocimiento que poseen los mdicos de las escalas de evaluacin general y sntomas ms frecuentes en los pacientes terminales. Se realiz un anlisis descriptivo con medidas de tendencia central. Se evaluaron 72 mdicos de un hospital que da cuidados a pacientes geritricos y con enfermedades discapacitantes. Resultados: 75% de los mdicos atienden pacientes con en- fermedades crnicas y degenerativas, pero solamente 50% ha recibido algn tipo de adiestramiento en cuidados paliativos y casi siempre ha sido financiado por ellos mismos. No hay un programa institucional de enseanza mdica continua que los capacite en el manejo de los cuidados paliativos de pacientes terminales. Muchos de ellos poseen los conceptos generales de lo que es la medicina paliativa; sin embargo, cuando se requieren conocimientos especficos del rea no son capaces de dar descripciones detalladas de los mismos, en especial de enfermedades terminales, ya sea renales, cardiacas, pulmonares o, incluso, demencias. Conclusin: los mdicos no tienen la capacidad de dar la orden de no reanimar. Es necesario aplicar criterios generalizados para el establecimiento de normas de atencin en cuidados pa- liativos a nivel institucional. Es urgente que el personal mdico obtenga capacitacin apropiada en dicha materia.

  9. Jean Lafitte 2013, 1.0 Meter LiDAR, Classified point cloud

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Jean Lafitte,G13PD00214, 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area in south of New Orleans and encompasses 77...

  10. FY12 St Johns River Water Management LiDAR Survey: Putnam (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the FY12 St Johns River Water Management LiDAR Survey, project area in north-central Florida and...

  11. Dia de Dar Gracias. Modulo Nivel Primario. (Day to Give Thanks. Module Primary Level.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Delia; Lopez, Santiago, III

    Dia de Dar Gracias (Thanksgiving) is the subject of this primary level unit. The unit objectives are to: (1) know about El Dia de Dar Gracias as it is celebrated in the United States; (2) know how the Mayas celebrated it; (3) understand the context of the stories in the unit; (4) know about the main food used, the turkey; (5) distinguish other

  12. Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TASK NAME: Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS CONTRACT: 07CRCN0006 TASK ORDER NUMBER: G09PD00300...

  13. 2011-2013 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Lake Michigan Watershed Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Indiana's Statewide LiDAR data is produced at 1.5-meter average post spacing for all 92 Indiana Counties covering more than 36,420 square miles. New LiDAR data was...

  14. Applications and benefits of airborne LiDAR technology for transmission line asset management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ussyshkin, R.V.; Sitar, M. [Optech, Inc., Downsview, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed applications and benefits of airborne LiDAR technology for transmission line asset management. There are many challenges to satisfy the growing energy demands, such as acquiring rights-of-way for new power lines; maximizing capacity and up-rating of existing lines; and changing detection and monitoring. One option is to use airborne LiDAR technology for power line asset management. Optech's airborne laser terrain mapper (ALTM) is a solution for power line corridor surveys. LiDAR technology for surveying applications include ground-based or airborne laser scanning. The specific topics that were discussed in this presentation were ALTM applications; airborne LiDAR for corridor surveys; advantages of airborne LiDAR; LiDAR workflow; engineering and profile sheets; sag analysis; clearance analysis; vegetation encroachment; and LiDAR data accuracy. The benefits of ALTM for power line surveys were also presented, with particular reference to compactness; installation flexibility; data collection efficiency; and high density of points. Field data for ALTM-Orion was illustrated. It was concluded that Optech's ALTM airborne LiDAR system provides the best solution for power line survey applications. tabs., figs.

  15. In the way of clean and safe drinking water : exploring limitations to improvement of the water supply in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bemspng, Josefina; Segerstrm, Rebecka

    2009-01-01

    Bagamoyo District, in the Pwani region in Tanzania, supplies a large part of Tanzania'sbiggest city, Dar es Salaam, with water. At the same time many people in rural villages in thedistrict do not have access to clean and safe water. This thesis aims to explore what limitationsthere are to improvement of the rural water supply in Bagamoyo District. Specific attention ispaid to the organizational structure of the water sector and how roles and responsibilities aredivided, defined and communica...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance among producers and non-producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in urinary isolates at a tertiary Hospital in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamuya Eligius F; Kasubi Mabula; Aboud Said; Moyo Sabrina J; Maselle Samuel Y

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Published data on the existence and magnitude of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in urinary pathogens in local setting is limited. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and ESBL production among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp from urine samples in a tertiary hospital. This was a cross sectional study conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Findings A total of 270 E.coli ...

  17. Motherhood and dental disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Flemming; Blum, Vibeke; Matee, Mecky I M; Mwangosi, Ibrahim

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether motherhood is associated with tooth mortality, dental caries or destructive periodontal disease. DESIGN: An analytical cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Magomeni mother and child health clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PARTICIPANTS: An age stratified total sample consisting of 500 mothers and pregnant women. Outcome measures Loss of a tooth, caries in a tooth or loss of periodontal attachment on a tooth. RESULTS: Controlling for current age and age at first ...

  18. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. ...

  19. A multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jalyer, Fatameh; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Jrgensen, Gertrud; Kabisch, Sigrun; Kombe, Wilbard; Lindley, Sarah J.; Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Pauleit, Stephan; Printz, Andreas; Vedeld, Trond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment framework for understanding the impacts of climate change-induced hazards in Sub- Saharan African cities. The research was carried out within the European/African FP7 project CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, which investigated climate change-induced risks, assessed vulnerability and proposed policy initiatives in five African cities. Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) was used as a main case with a particular...

  20. A longitudinal study on different models of postabortion care in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; McHomvu, Yasinta; Mkamba, Mashombo; Bergstrm, Staffan

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify women having unsafe abortions and elucidate whether an acceptable follow-up rate among these women can be retrieved. STUDY POPULATION: One thousand three hundred and fifty-seven women attended Temeke Municipal Hospital, Dar es Salaam with an abortion-related diagnosis. METHODS: Women having unsafe abortions were identified by an empathetic dialogue, offered a contraceptive service and asked to return for follow-up. Three different ways of achieving follow-up information we...

  1. Supply chain challenges for sustainability: the case of waste textiles as raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Pammi; Tipi, Nicoleta S.; Day, Claire L.; Domvolgou, D.; Beverley, Katharine J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the growing problem of textile waste in the rapidly developing cities of subSaharan Africa and examines, from a supply chain perspective, the potential for waste textile materials to be transformed into the raw materials for new consumer products. Research Approach: The paper reflects on the outcomes of a field trip to Dar es Salaam in which stakeholders in a hypothesised textile waste supply chain were interviewed and waste textile materials were ...

  2. Planning the unplanned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant contributions to human health, livelihoods and food security, urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam has received relatively little political support from central and local government due to its informal state. As a result, many urban farmers' experience insecurity of land access and ownership, and are unable to invest in the improvement of their land, inputs and infrastructure. Although there have been several attempts by various international and foreign organizations to legiti...

  3. The design and implementation of an information literacy training course that integrated information literacy and library science conceptions of information literacy, educational theory and information behaviour research: a Tanzanian pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Hepworth; Evans Wema

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the implementation of an Information Literacy Training course at the University of Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania. The training lasted seven days and involved Masters students from the Faculty of Education. The course was created as part of a PhD research project on information literacy that was undertaken by the second author of this paper at the Department of Information Science at Loughborough University. The objective was to develop a training course that inculcated info...

  4. Malaria in patients with sickle cell anemia: burden, risk factors, and outcome at the outpatient clinic and during hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Makani, Julie; Komba, Albert N; Cox, Sharon E; Oruo, Julie; Mwamtemi, Khadija; Kitundu, Jesse; Magesa, Pius; Rwezaula, Stella; Meda, Elineema; Mgaya, Josephine; Pallangyo, Kisali; Okiro, Emelda; Muturi, David; Charles R. Newton; Fegan, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 280 000 children are born with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in Africa annually, yet few survive beyond childhood. Falciparum malaria is considered a significant cause of this mortality. We conducted a 5-year prospective surveillance study for malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria, and severe malarial anemia (SMA) in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, between 2004 and 2009. We recorded 10 491 visits to the outpatient clinic among 1808 patients with SCA and 773 visits among 679 patients without...

  5. Waste is a resource:A study on the opportunities in a new solid waste management in Iringa municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Eirin

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste in a solid form, produced in the daily day life of a society such as packaging, food scrapes, grass clippings, clothing, furniture, paper, electronics and so on. It is called municipal solid waste because it is in the responsibility of the local government and comes from our homes, schools, hospitals and businesses. It is produced 108 tons municipal solid waste in Iringa each day. Iringa district is located approximately 500km from Dar Es Salaam and 263...

  6. A multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lise Byskov Herslund, Fatemeh Jalayer, Nathalie Jean-Baptiste, Gertrud Jørgensen, Sigrun Kabisch, Wilbard Kombe , Sarah Lindley, Patrik Karlsson Nyed, Stephan Pauleit, Andreas Printz, Trond Vedeld

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment framework for understanding the impacts of climate change-induced hazards in Sub-Saharan African cities. The research was carried out within the European/African FP7 project CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, which investigated climate change-induced risks, assessed vulnerability and proposed policy initiatives in five African cities. Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) was used as a main case with a particul...

  7. DO TANZANIAN COMPANIES PRACTICE PECKING ORDER THEORY, AGENCY COST THEORY OR TRADE-OFF THEORY? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TANZANIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ntogwa Ng'habi Bundala

    2012-01-01

    The empirical study was focused predominantly on validity tests of the three theories on capital structures, the static trade-off theory, the pecking order theory (information asymmetry theory), and agency cost theory in the Tanzanian context. The study used secondary data from eight of the non-financial companies listed in Dar Es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE) from 2006-2012. The study used descriptive (quantitative) approach to test the practicality of the theories in Tanzania. The multiple re...

  8. LiDAR bore-sight calibration: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonalves, G. R.; Jalobeanu, A.

    2011-12-01

    Within the AutoProbaDTM project, we plan to develop fast and fully automated techniques to derive topographic maps from full-waveform airborne LiDAR data, based on a probabilistic approach to modelling surfaces and data acquisition, solving inverse problems and handling uncertainty. Bayesian inference provides a rigorous framework for unsupervised reconstruction of the DEM and error propagation from the data to the end result, treating all quantities as random variables. Automatic sensor calibration plays a major role in this project. In fact, the overall accuracy and uncertainty obtained from the LiDAR technology depends on the assembly and calibration of the three system components: the GPS (Global Positioning System), the INS (Inertial Navigation System) and the laser-scanner device. Bore-sight angles are the angular offsets in X,Y and Z directions between the scanner frame and the INS frame measured at the centre of the INS body frame. In this paper we evaluate some of the principal bore-sight calibration methods and we propose a novel method based on the Bayesian inference to address this problem as well. The first contribution is to use not only the 3D points extracted from the raw waveforms but their uncertainty as well, and to apply a probabilistic surface matching with spatially variable point accuracy in order to obtain the attitude corrections. The second contribution consists of using all the flight lines, where most methods only use the calibration cross. This way we can also estimate the attitude drift and correct for temporal attitude variations as well. Finally, we use the probabilistic framework for error propagation and propose a probability distribution of the calibrated bore-sight angles.

  9. Dynamic LiDAR-NDVI classification of fluvial landscape units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrez-Nez, Carolina; Parrot, Jean-Franois

    2015-04-01

    The lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos River is a wide floodplain in which, during the wet season, local and major flooding are distinguished. Both types of floods, intermittent and regional, are important in terms of resources; the regional flood sediments enrich the soils of the plains and intermittent floods allow obtaining aquatic resources for subsistence during the heatwave. In the floodplain different abandoned meanders and intermittent streams are quickly colonized by aquatic vegetation. However, from the 1990s, the Coatzacoalcos River floodplain has important topographic changes due to mining, road and bridges construction; erosion and sedimentation requires continuous parcel boundaries along with the increasing demand of channel reparation, embankments, levees and bridges associated to tributaries. NDVI data, LiDAR point cloud and various types of flood simulations taking into account the DTM are used to classify the dynamic landscape units. These units are associated to floods in relation with water resources, agriculture and livestock. In the study area, the first returns of the point cloud allow extracting vegetation strata. The last returns correspond to the bare earth surface, especially in this area with few human settlements. The surface that is not covered by trees or by aquatic vegetation, correspond to crops, pastures and bare soils. The classification is obtained by using the NDVI index coupled with vegetation strata and water bodies. The result shows that 47.96% of the area does not present active vegetation and it includes 31.53% of bare soils. Concerning the active vegetation, pastures, bushes and trees represent respectively 25.59%, 11.14% and 13.25%. The remaining 1.25% is distributed between water bodies with aquatic vegetation, trees and shrubs. Dynamic landscape units' classification represents a tool for monitoring water resources in a fluvial plain. This approach can be also applied to forest management, environmental services and habitat analysis. Thus, the unsupervised LiDAR-NDVI approach coupled with flood simulation developed here, allows studying environmental behavior without introducing subjective considerations.

  10. Individual Tree Segmentation from LiDAR Point Clouds for Urban Forest Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop new algorithms for automated urban forest inventory at the individual tree level using LiDAR point cloud data. LiDAR data contain three-dimensional structure information that can be used to estimate tree height, base height, crown depth, and crown diameter. This allows precision urban forest inventory down to individual trees. Unlike most of the published algorithms that detect individual trees from a LiDAR-derived raster surface, we worked directly with the LiDAR point cloud data to separate individual trees and estimate tree metrics. Testing results in typical urban forests are encouraging. Future works will be oriented to synergize LiDAR data and optical imagery for urban tree characterization through data fusion techniques.

  11. Extraction of Urban Power Lines from Vehicle-Borne LiDARData

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR has been traditionally used for power line cruising. Nevertheless, data acquisition with airborne LiDAR is constrained by the complex environments in urban areas as well as the multiple parallel line structures on the same power line tower, which means it is not directly applicable to the extraction of urban power lines. Vehicle-borne LiDAR system has its advantages upon airborne LiDAR and this paper tries to utilize vehicle-borne LiDAR data for the extraction of urban power lines. First, power line points are extracted using a voxel-based hierarchical method in which geometric features of each voxel are calculated. Then, a bottom-up method for filtering the power lines belonging to each power line is proposed. The initial clustering and clustering recovery procedures are conducted iteratively to identify each power line. The final experiment demonstrates the high precision of this technique.

  12. Using a multiwavelength LiDAR for improved remote sensing of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Deric J; Anderson, John; Nelson, Jean; Edwards, Jarrod

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes research to characterize the benefits of a multiwavelength oceanographic LiDAR for various water types. Field measurements were conducted to establish endmembers representative of both typical and extremely challenging natural conditions. Laboratory tests were performed using a prototype multiwavelength LiDAR in water tanks with optical conditions simulating both sediment-laden and biologically rich water types. LiDAR models were used to simulate the LiDAR signal from both field and laboratory experiments. Our measurements and models show that using a laser wavelength of 470-490nm in the open ocean leads to an improvement factor of 1.50-1.75 compared to a 532nm system. In more turbid areas using a laser wavelength of 560-580nm leads to an improvement factor of 1.25. We conclude by demonstrating how using multiple LiDAR wavelengths can help detect and characterize constituents in the water column. PMID:26560612

  13. LDL-Cholesterin: Wie stark soll es gesenkt werden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulweber B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Der klinische Nutzen einer LDL-C-Senkung mittels Statinen wurde in zahlreichen Studien zweifelsfrei nachgewiesen. Die im letzten Jahr verffentlichten ATP III-Richtlinien stellen eine gute und praxisnahe Hilfestellung fr die Entscheidung dar, ob eine Statintherapie eingeleitet und welche Zielwerte angestrebt werden sollen. Die wichtige Frage, ob eine noch aggressivere LDL-C-Senkung zu niedrigeren Zielwerten, als sie in diesen Richtlinien empfohlen werden (unter 80 mg/dl, einen zustzlichen Nutzen bringt, ist noch nicht beantwortet. Wenn ein solcher Zusatznutzen erzielbar ist, so mu er jedenfalls gegen das mglicherweise erhhte Nebenwirkungsrisiko einer dazu erforderlichen hochdosierten Statintherapie abgewogen werden. Es ist zu erwarten, da die Ergebnisse laufender randomisierter Doppelblindstudien zur Klrung dieser Frage in den nchsten Jahren wesentlich beitragen werden. Die krzlich verffentlichten Ergebnisse der Heart Protection Study legen den Schlu nahe, da bei Hochrisikopatienten eine LDL-Senkung im Ausma von 30-40 % in jedem Fall erfolgen sollte, auch wenn ein niedriger Ausgangswert des LDL-C vorliegt. Aufgrund von Daten der SAPHIR-Studie (Salzburger Atherosklerose-Prventionsprogramm bei Personen mit hohem Infarkt-Risiko kann abgeschtzt werden, da gem ATP III etwa 20 % der Mnner zwischen 40 und 55 Jahren und etwa 8 % der Frauen zwischen 50 und 65 Jahren mit einem Statin behandelt werden sollten. Ein neues hochpotentes Statin (Rosuvastatin, mit dem die empfohlenen Zielwerte noch besser als mit bisher verfgbaren Statinen erreicht werden knnen, steht kurz vor der Markteinfhrung. Ezetimibe ist ein Vertreter einer neuen Medikamentenklasse, der selektiven Cholesterinresorptionshemmer. Die Kombination einer niedrigen Statindosis mit Ezetimibe fhrt zu einer sehr effektiven LDL-C-Senkung, die in derselben Grenordnung liegt, wie sie durch Maximaldosen hochpotenter Statine erzielt werden kann.

  14. LiDAR Forest Inventory with Single-Tree, Double-, and Single-Phase Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data at 0.5-2 m postings were used with double-sample, stratified procedures involving single-tree relationships in mixed, and single species stands to yield sampling errors ranging from 2.1% to 11.5%. LiDAR samples were selected with focal filter procedures and heights computed from interpolated canopy and DEM surfaces. Tree dbh and height data were obtained at various ratios of LiDAR, ground samples for DGPS located ground plots. Dbh-height and ground-LiDAR height models were used to predict dbh and compute Phase 2 estimates of basal area and volume. Phase 1 estimates were computed using the species probability distribution from ground plots in each strata. Phase 2 estimates were computed by randomly assigning LiDAR heights to species groups using a Monte Carlo simulation for each ground plot. There was no statistical difference between volume estimates from 0.5 m and 1 m LiDAR densities. Volume estimates from single-phase LiDAR procedures utilizing existing tree attributes and height bias relationships were obtained with sampling errors of 1.8% to 5.5%.

  15. Compression strategies for LiDAR waveform cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    J?kw, Grzegorz; Toth, Charles; Quirk, Mihaela; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Full-waveform LiDAR data (FWD) provide a wealth of information about the shape and materials of the surveyed areas. Unlike discrete data that retains only a few strong returns, FWD generally keeps the whole signal, at all times, regardless of the signal intensity. Hence, FWD will have an increasingly well-deserved role in mapping and beyond, in the much desired classification in the raw data format. Full-waveform systems currently perform only the recording of the waveform data at the acquisition stage; the return extraction is mostly deferred to post-processing. Although the full waveform preserves most of the details of the real data, it presents a serious practical challenge for a wide use: much larger datasets compared to those from the classical discrete return systems. Atop the need for more storage space, the acquisition speed of the FWD may also limit the pulse rate on most systems that cannot store data fast enough, and thus, reduces the perceived system performance. This work introduces a waveform cube model to compress waveforms in selected subsets of the cube, aimed at achieving decreased storage while maintaining the maximum pulse rate of FWD systems. In our experiments, the waveform cube is compressed using classical methods for 2D imagery that are further tested to assess the feasibility of the proposed solution. The spatial distribution of airborne waveform data is irregular; however, the manner of the FWD acquisition allows the organization of the waveforms in a regular 3D structure similar to familiar multi-component imagery, as those of hyper-spectral cubes or 3D volumetric tomography scans. This study presents the performance analysis of several lossy compression methods applied to the LiDAR waveform cube, including JPEG-1, JPEG-2000, and PCA-based techniques. Wide ranges of tests performed on real airborne datasets have demonstrated the benefits of the JPEG-2000 Standard where high compression rates incur fairly small data degradation. In addition, the JPEG-2000 Standard-compliant compression implementation can be fast and, thus, used in real-time systems, as compressed data sequences can be formed progressively during the waveform data collection. We conclude from our experiments that 2D image compression strategies are feasible and efficient approaches, thus they might be applied during the acquisition of the FWD sensors.

  16. ASTER GDEM validation using LiDAR data over coastal regions of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Srensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, Ren

    2011-01-01

    Elevation data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) campaigns are used in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global digital elevation model (GDEM) in Greenland. The LiDAR elevation data set is characterized by a high spatial resolution of about 1 m and elevation accuracy of 2030 cm root mean square error (RMSE). The LiDAR data sets used were acquired during ice-monitoring campaigns carried out from 2003 ...

  17. Identification of four Drosophila allatostatins as the cognate ligands for the Drosophila orphan receptor DAR-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, C; Williamson, M; Hansen, G N; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2001-01-01

    The allatostatins are generally inhibitory insect neuropeptides. The Drosophila orphan receptor DAR-2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor, having 47% amino acid residue identity with another Drosophila receptor, DAR-1 (which is also called dros. GPCR, or DGR) that was previously shown to be the receptor for an intrinsic Drosophila A-type (cockroach-type) allatostatin. Here, we have permanently expressed DAR-2 in CHO cells and found that it is the cognate receptor for four Drosophila A-type allatosta...

  18. Frontiers in Using LiDAR to Analyze Urban Landscape Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar Krishna Veer

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has facilitated extraordinary advances in our ability to remotely sense precise details of both built and natural environments. The inherent complexity of urban landscapes and the massive data volumes produced by LiDAR require unique methodological considerations for big data remote sensing over large metropolitan regions. The heterogeneous landscapes of the rapidly urbanizing Charlotte Metropolitan Region of North Carolina provided an ideal testing ground for developing methods of analysis for urban ecosystems over large regional extents, including: (1) fusion of LiDAR digital surface models (DSMs) with Landsat TM imagery to balance spatial resolution, data volume, and mapping accuracy of urban land covers, (2) comparison of LiDAR-derived metrics to fine grain optical imagery -- and their integration -- for detecting forest understory plant invaders, and (3) data reduction techniques for computationally efficient estimation of aboveground woody biomass in urban forests. In Chapter 1, I examined tradeoffs between potential gains in mapping accuracy and computational costs by integrating DSMs (structural and intensity) extracted from LiDAR with TM imagery and evaluating the degree to which TM, LiDAR, and LiDAR-TM fusion data discriminated land covers. I used Maximum Likelihood and Classification Tree algorithms to classify TM data, LiDAR data, and LiDAR-TM fusions. I assessed the relative contributions of LiDAR DSMs to map classification accuracy and identified an optimal spatial resolution of LiDAR DSMs for large area assessments of urban land cover. In Chapter 2, I analyzed combinations of datasets developed from categorized LiDAR-derived variables (Overstory, Understory, Topography, and Overall Vegetation Characteristics) and IKONOS imagery ( Optical) to detect and map the understory plant invader, Ligustrum sinense, using Random Forest (RF) and logistic regression (LR) algorithms, and I assessed the relative contributions of sensors and forest landscape structures. I compared the top performing models developed using RF and LR and used the best overall model to map the distribution of L. sinense occurrence across the urbanizing forest landscapes of the region. In chapter 3, I examined the effects of LiDAR point density and landscape context on the estimation of biomass (of general Urban Forest and of three specific Forest Types) using multiple linear regression. I compared biomass estimation accuracies of the Urban Forest and Forest Type models and between the top-performing models of these two Forest categories. For the effect of landscape context, I quantified the degree to which the presence of built development influenced biomass estimation, and I analyzed the effect of canopy stratification on the estimation of biomass. A unifying theme of my dissertation is to advance LiDAR analytics for accurate and detailed estimation of urban landscape heterogeneity over large regional extents. The results of the three studies suggest that establishing optimal resolution and point density for LiDAR data is a highly effective method of pursuing large area studies of urban landscape heterogeneity, and the fusion of LiDAR-derived variables and multispectral data is beneficial in some applications such as improving class discrimination of spectrally similar land cover types. Finally, the direct measurement of forest understory and overstory structure through LiDAR has proven valuable for the study of complex and heterogeneous ecosystems like urban forests.

  19. Was bedeutet es, Rechte zu haben?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birnbacher, Dieter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Artikel bietet eine Einfhrung in die Sprache der Rechte und in die Rolle, die Rechte in Ethik und Recht spielen, unter besondererBezugnahme auf die Rechte von Kindern. Es zeichnet sich ab, dass es eine ganze Reihe von Funktionen gibt, die fr die Sprache der Rechtecharakteristisch sind, sowohl in der Ethik als auch in der Rechtswissenschaft. Viele davon bieten die Mglichkeit, den Appell an moralische und juridische Prinzipien zu strken, whrend andere Fallen stellen, die es zu vermeiden gilt. Zum Schluss werden zwei theoretische Fragen, die Rechte aufwerfen, behandelt: Zum einen, ob das Konzept der Rechte ohne Verlust durch das Konzept der Pflichten ersetzt werden kann; zum anderen, ob Rechte als soziale Konstrukte, die von Verpflichtungen abgeleitet sind, gesehen werden sollten, oder ob es plausibler ist, die Priorittenfolge umzudrehen.

  20. Gibt es eine Rehabilitation der Cartesischen Psychologie?

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, Boris

    2000-01-01

    Exzerpt: Zu Beginn dieser Arbeit wird es beinahe ausschließlich um die Auslegung der Texte von Descartes gehen. Ich werde zunächst, beginnend mit eher philosophiehistorischen Bemerkungen, einige Grundbegriffe der cartesischen Philosophie gemäß der Reihenfolge ihres Auftretens erläutern. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb nötig, da es mir darum geht, Möglichkeiten der Anerkennung und Weiterverfolgung cartesischer Grundsätze aufzuzeigen, die üblicherweise nicht herausgestellt werden. Die eigentliche...

  1. Es la muerte importante para la vida?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ivn Flores Prez

    2002-01-01

    El fenmeno de muerte celular programada, o apoptosis, es actualmente uno de los ms estudiados en el campo de la biomedicina; su importancia radica en que varias enfermedades, que afectan tanto al hombre como a los animales, son causadas por una alteracin en este mecanismo fisiolgico tan relevante, a tal grado que sin la existencia de este fenmeno fisiolgico, la vida, como actualmente se conoce no sera posible. El propsito del presente trabajo es definir el fenmeno de apop...

  2. es posible una tica de las emociones?

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Luz Marina

    2011-01-01

    Analizo dos maneras de concebir la relacin entre emociones y moral. La primera concibe el sentido moral como expresin de sentimientos morales. La segunda enfatiza que las convicciones morales pueden controlar nuestras emociones, y que es posible justificar estados emocionales. Aunque la motivacin moral no tiene que ser racional, es posible la eleccin moral fundada en la coherencia interna de nuestras conviccionjes sobre la clase de persona que queremos ser y de las motivaciones adecuadas....

  3. Identification des espces d'arbres partir de donnes T-LiDAR Tree species identification using T-LiDAR data

    OpenAIRE

    Othmani, Ahlem,; Stolz, Christophe; Lew Yan Voon, Lfc.; Piboule, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    En raison de l'utilisation croissante des scanners LiDAR terrestre (T-LiDAR) dans le domaine forestier, le dveloppement d'outils logiciels pour la mesure automatique d'attributs d'inventaire forestier est devenu un domaine de recherche important. De nombreux travaux portant sur la localisation des arbres dans un nuage de points, la mesure du diamtre hauteur de poitrine (DHP) ou la mesure de la hauteur des arbres ont t dcrits dans la littrature. Cependant, le problme de l'identificati...

  4. 2006 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic LiDAR: Cumberland and York Counties, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce In the fall of 2006, Sanborn Map Company was contracted by Camp Dresser McKee, Inc (CDM) to execute a LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey campaign in the...

  5. 2006-2008 PAMAP LiDAR Data of Pennsylvania (Southern Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of classified LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation points produced by the PAMAP Program. Additional information is available at the...

  6. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Alameda County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data set is a survey of Alameda County in Northern California. The entire survey covers approximately 868.382 square miles....

  7. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square...

  8. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hillsborough/Little Manatee Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EarthData International collected ADS-50 derived LiDAR over a portion of Hillsborough and Manatee Counties with a one meter post spacing. The period of collection...

  9. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hernando County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This dataset is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management Districts FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  10. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hillsborough/Little Manatee Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce EarthData International collected ADS-50 derived LiDAR over a portion of Hillsborough and Manatee Counties with a one meter post spacing. The period of collection...

  11. 2008 Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) LiDAR: Inland Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of inland Okaloosa County, Florida not covered in the 2008 Florida Department of Emergency...

  12. 2012-2013 U.S. Geological Survey LiDAR: Territory of Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Territory of Guam, LiDAR Task G11PD01189 This task order is for production of surface model products of The Territory of Guam. The models are produced from data...

  13. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  14. 2012 USACE Post Hurricane Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  15. 2009 Puget Sound Lidar Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Nooksack River in Washington on February 20th - 22nd, 2009. The total area...

  16. 2008 - 2009 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) South Coast LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  17. 2006-2008 PAMAP LiDAR Data of Pennsylvania (Northern Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This dataset consists of classified LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation points produced by the PAMAP Program. PAMAP data are organized into blocks, which...

  18. 2006-2008 PAMAP LiDAR Data of Pennsylvania (Southern Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This dataset consists of classified LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation points produced by the PAMAP Program. Additional information is available at the...

  19. 2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (Connecticut)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The LiDAR data were processed to a bare-earth digital terrain model (DTM). Detailed breaklines and bare-earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were produced for the...

  20. Forest Roads Mapped Using LiDAR in Steep Forested Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A. White

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR-derived digital elevation models can reveal road networks located beneath dense forest canopy. This study tests the accuracy of forest road characteristics mapped using LiDAR in the Santa Cruz Mountains, CA. The position, gradient, and total length of a forest haul road were accurately extracted using a 1 m DEM. In comparison to a field-surveyed centerline, the LiDAR-derived road exhibited a positional accuracy of 1.5 m, road grade measurements within 0.53% mean absolute difference, and total road length within 0.2% of the field-surveyed length. Airborne LiDAR can provide thorough and accurate road inventory data to support forest management and watershed assessment activities.

  1. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hernando County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management Districts FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  2. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  3. LiDAR Elevation Data Collection - Putnam County, NY, 2008 (NYSDEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Summary of the surface elevation data collection project in Putnam County, NY (NYSDEC) 2008. Products generated include LiDAR point data in LAS Binary format v1.1....

  4. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square...

  5. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for the St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve...

  6. 2009 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic LiDAR: Fort Kent, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Camp Dresser McKee Inc. contracted with Sanborn Map Company to provide LiDAR mapping services for Fort Kent, Maine. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light Detection...

  7. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Alameda County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data set is a survey of Alameda County in Northern California. The entire survey covers approximately 868.382 square miles....

  8. 2006 Florida LiDAR: Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Walton Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce ESCAMBIA: The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Escambia County, Florida. These data were produced for Dewberry and...

  9. 2009 National Renewable Energy Labratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  10. 2008 NWFWMD (Northwest Florida Water Management District) Florida LiDAR: Inland Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of inland Okaloosa County, Florida not covered in the 2008 Florida Department of Emergency...

  11. 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  12. 2008 - 2009 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) South Coast LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  13. Improving Species Diversity and Biomass Estimates of Tropical Dry Forests Using Airborne LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Jos Luis Hernndez-Stefanoni; Juan Manuel Dupuy; Kristofer D. Johnson; Richard Birdsey; Fernando Tun-Dzul; Alicia Peduzzi; Juan Pablo Caamal-Sosa; Gonzalo Snchez-Santos; David Lpez-Merln

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of plant diversity and biomass informs management decisions to maintain biodiversity and carbon stocks in tropical forests. Optical remotely sensed data is often used for supporting such activities; however, it is difficult to estimate these variables in areas of high biomass. New technologies, such as airborne LiDAR, have been used to overcome such limitations. LiDAR has been increasingly used to map carbon stocks in tropical forests, but has rarely been used to esti...

  14. Detecting understory plant invasion in urban forests using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar K.; Davis, Amy J.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-06-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data are increasingly used to measure structural characteristics of urban forests but are rarely used to detect the growing problem of exotic understory plant invaders. We explored the merits of using LiDAR-derived metrics alone and through integration with spectral data to detect the spatial distribution of the exotic understory plant Ligustrum sinense, a rapidly spreading invader in the urbanizing region of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. We analyzed regional-scale L. sinense occurrence data collected over the course of three years with LiDAR-derived metrics of forest structure that were categorized into the following groups: overstory, understory, topography, and overall vegetation characteristics, and IKONOS spectral features - optical. Using random forest (RF) and logistic regression (LR) classifiers, we assessed the relative contributions of LiDAR and IKONOS derived variables to the detection of L. sinense. We compared the top performing models developed for a smaller, nested experimental extent using RF and LR classifiers, and used the best overall model to produce a predictive map of the spatial distribution of L. sinense across our country-wide study extent. RF classification of LiDAR-derived topography metrics produced the highest mapping accuracy estimates, outperforming IKONOS data by 17.5% and the integration of LiDAR and IKONOS data by 5.3%. The top performing model from the RF classifier produced the highest kappa of 64.8%, improving on the parsimonious LR model kappa by 31.1% with a moderate gain of 6.2% over the county extent model. Our results demonstrate the superiority of LiDAR-derived metrics over spectral data and fusion of LiDAR and spectral data for accurately mapping the spatial distribution of the forest understory invader L. sinense.

  15. Geospatial revolution and remote sensing LiDAR in Mesoamerican archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Arlen F.; Chase, Diane Z.; Fisher, Christopher T.; Leisz, Stephen J.; John F. Weishampel

    2012-01-01

    The application of light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a laser-based remote-sensing technology that is capable of penetrating overlying vegetation and forest canopies, is generating a fundamental shift in Mesoamerican archaeology and has the potential to transform research in forested areas world-wide. Much as radiocarbon dating that half a century ago moved archaeology forward by grounding archaeological remains in time, LiDAR is proving to be a catalyst for an improved spatial understandin...

  16. High-Density LiDAR Mapping of the Ancient City of Mayapn

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Hare; Marilyn Masson; Bradley Russell

    2014-01-01

    A 2013 survey of a 40 square kilometer area surrounding Mayapn, Yucatan, Mexico used high-density LiDAR data to map prehispanic architecture and related natural features. Most of the area is covered by low canopy dense forest vegetation over karstic hilly terrain that impedes full coverage archaeological survey. We used LiDAR at 40 laser points per square meter to generate a bare earth digital elevation model (DEM). Results were evaluated with comparisons to previously mapped areas and with ...

  17. Remote sensing of forest structure using LiDAR and SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Balzter, Heiko; Burwell, Claire; Rowland, Clare S.; Tansey, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Forests play an important role in the global climate system because they take up and store large amounts of carbon in the form of biomass. This paper examines techniques of retrieving structural forest information using the remote sensing techniques of LiDAR and SAR. Both sensing methods can provide information on the vertical structure of forests. Certain LiDAR instruments can record a vertical waveform of reflected radiation from the forest which can be related to vertical bioma...

  18. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar Uni...

  19. Modeling marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) habitat using LiDAR-derived canopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Eskelson, Bianca N.I.; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Nelson, S. Kim; Vesely, David G.

    2014-01-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) is an emerging remote-sensing tool that can provide fine-scale data describing vertical complexity of vegetation relevant to species that are responsive to forest structure. We used LiDAR data to estimate occupancy probability for the federally threatened marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in the Oregon Coast Range of the United States. Our goal was to address the need identified in the Recovery Plan for a more accurate estimate of the availability of nesting habitat by developing occupancy maps based on refined measures of nest-strand structure. We used murrelet occupancy data collected by the Bureau of Land Management Coos Bay District, and canopy metrics calculated from discrete return airborne LiDAR data, to fit a logistic regression model predicting the probability of occupancy. Our final model for stand-level occupancy included distance to coast, and 5 LiDAR-derived variables describing canopy structure. With an area under the curve value (AUC) of 0.74, this model had acceptable discrimination and fair agreement (Cohen's ??=?0.24), especially considering that all sites in our sample were regarded by managers as potential habitat. The LiDAR model provided better discrimination between occupied and unoccupied sites than did a model using variables derived from Gradient Nearest Neighbor maps that were previously reported as important predictors of murrelet occupancy (AUC?=?0.64, ??=?0.12). We also evaluated LiDAR metrics at 11 known murrelet nest sites. Two LiDAR-derived variables accurately discriminated nest sites from random sites (average AUC?=?0.91). LiDAR provided a means of quantifying 3-dimensional canopy structure with variables that are ecologically relevant to murrelet nesting habitat, and have not been as accurately quantified by other mensuration methods.

  20. Ground Filtering Algorithms for Airborne LiDAR Data: A Review of Critical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiguang Zhao; Nate Currit; Xuelian Meng

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews LiDAR ground filtering algorithms used in the process of creating Digital Elevation Models. We discuss critical issues for the development and application of LiDAR ground filtering algorithms, including filtering procedures for different feature types, and criteria for study site selection, accuracy assessment, and algorithm classification. This review highlights three feature types for which current ground filtering algorithms are suboptimal, and which can be improved upon...

  1. Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Sherba; Leonhard Blesius; Jerry Davis

    2014-01-01

    LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using th...

  2. Detection of large above ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jubanski; Ballhorn, U.; Kronseder, K.; Franke, J.; Siegert, F.

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of tropical forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB) over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia) through correlating airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were ana...

  3. Airborne LiDAR Detects Selectively Logged Tropical Forest Even in an Advanced Stage of Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi Kent

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying historical forest disturbances is difficult, especially in selectively logged areas. LiDAR is able to measure fine-scale variations in forest structure over multiple kilometers. We use LiDAR data from ca. 16 km2 of forest in Sierra Leone, West Africa, to discriminate areas of old-growth from areas recovering from selective logging for 23 years. We examined canopy height variation and gap size distributions. We found that though recovering blocks of forest differed little in height from old-growth forest (up to 3 m, they had a greater area of canopy gaps (average 10.2% gap fraction in logged areas, compared to 5.6% in unlogged area; and greater numbers of gaps penetrating to the forest floor (162 gaps at 2 m height in logged blocks, and 101 in an unlogged block. Comparison of LiDAR measurements with field data demonstrated that LiDAR delivered accurate results. We found that gap size distributions deviated from power-laws reported previously, with substantially fewer large gaps than predicted by power-law functions. Our analyses demonstrate that LiDAR is a useful tool for distinguishing structural differences between old-growth and old-secondary forests. That makes LiDAR a powerful tool for REDD+ (Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation programs implementation and conservation planning.

  4. Airborne Dual-Wavelength LiDAR Data for Classifying Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Kai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the potential of using dual-wavelength airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data to classify land cover. Dual-wavelength LiDAR data were acquired from two airborne LiDAR systems that emitted pulses of light in near-infrared (NIR and middle-infrared (MIR lasers. The major features of the LiDAR data, such as surface height, echo width, and dual-wavelength amplitude, were used to represent the characteristics of land cover. Based on the major features of land cover, a support vector machine was used to classify six types of suburban land cover: road and gravel, bare soil, low vegetation, high vegetation, roofs, and water bodies. Results show that using dual-wavelength LiDAR-derived information (e.g., amplitudes at NIR and MIR wavelengths could compensate for the limitations of using single-wavelength LiDAR information (i.e., poor discrimination of low vegetation when classifying land cover.

  5. Adaptive Covariance Estimation Method for LiDAR-Aided Multi-Sensor Integrated Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of measurements covariance is a fundamental problem in sensors fusion algorithms and is crucial for the proper operation of filtering algorithms. This paper provides an innovative solution for this problem and realizes the proposed solution on a 2D indoor navigation system for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs that fuses measurements from a MEMS-grade gyroscope, speed measurements and a light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor. A computationally efficient weighted line extraction method is introduced, where the LiDAR intensity measurements are used, such that the random range errors and systematic errors due to surface reflectivity in LiDAR measurements are considered. The vehicle pose change is obtained from LiDAR line feature matching, and the corresponding pose change covariance is also estimated by a weighted least squares-based technique. The estimated LiDAR-based pose changes are applied as periodic updates to the Inertial Navigation System (INS in an innovative extended Kalman filter (EKF design. Besides, the influences of the environment geometry layout and line estimation error are discussed. Real experiments in indoor environment are performed to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The results showed the great consistency between the LiDAR-estimated pose change covariance and the true accuracy. Therefore, this leads to a significant improvement in the vehicles integrated navigation accuracy.

  6. The first genetic map of pigeon pea based on diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi Ying Yang; Rachit A. Saxena; Pawan L. Kulwal; Gavin J. Ash; Anuja Dubey; John D. I. Harper; Hari D. Upadhyaya; Ragini Gothalwal; Andrzej Kilian; Rajeev K. Varshney

    2011-04-01

    With an objective to develop a genetic map in pigeon pea (Cajanus spp.), a total of 554 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers showed polymorphism in a pigeon pea F2 mapping population of 72 progenies derived from an interspecific cross of ICP 28 (Cajanus cajan) and ICPW 94 (Cajanus scarabaeoides). Approximately 13% of markers did not conform to expected segregation ratio. The total number of DArT marker loci segregating in Mendelian manner was 405 with 73.1% ($P \\gt 0.001$) of DArT markers having unique segregation patterns. Two groups of genetic maps were generated using DArT markers. While the maternal genetic linkage map had 122 unique DArT maternal marker loci, the paternal genetic linkage map has a total of 172 unique DArT paternal marker loci. The length of these two maps covered 270.0 cM and 451.6 cM, respectively. These are the first genetic linkage maps developed for pigeon pea, and this is the first report of genetic mapping in any grain legume using diversity arrays technology.

  7. Quantifying Forest Carbon and Structure with Terrestrial LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, A. E.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Current rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are a major concern with significant global ramifications, however, of the carbon (C) fluxes that are known to occur on Earth, the terrestrial sink has the greatest amount of uncertainty. Improved monitoring of forest cover and change is required for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). We determine C storage from volume measurements with a high-precision Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), substantially improving current standard ground validation techniques. This technology is utilized on several 30 m x 30 m plots in a Virginia temperate forest. Aboveground C is calculated on each of the study sites with commonly used allometric equations to offer a realistic comparison of field-based estimations to TLS-derived methods. The TLS and aerial LiDAR point cloud data are compared via the development of canopy height models at the plot scale. The novel method of point cloud voxelization is applied to our TLS data in order to produce detailed volumetric calculations in these complex forest ecosystems. Statistical output from the TLS data allows us to resolve and compare forest structure on scales from the individual plot to the entire forest landscape. The estimates produced from this research will be used to inform more widely available remote sensing datasets provided by NASA's Landsat satellites, significantly reducing the uncertainty of the terrestrial C cycle in temperate forests. Preliminary findings corroborate previous research, suggesting the potential for highly detailed monitoring of forest C storage as defined by the REDD initiative and analysis of complex ecosystem structure.

  8. Presin media de llenado sistmico: es el parmetro ideal para evaluar precarga ptima? / Mean systemic filling pressure: Is the ideal parameter to evaluate optimal preload?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo, Garca-Domnguez; Enrique, Monarez-Zepeda; Pedro, Barriga-Ferreyra.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los retos para el cardilogo es conseguir una volemia ptima, es decir, mejorar el gasto cardiaco, evitando un exceso de volemia que pudiera favorecer un pronstico negativo. Actualmente se sabe que el balance positivo se asocia con un incremento en la mortalidad; en la actualidad contamos co [...] n diversos parmetros para evaluar la precarga; sin embargo, ninguno es altamente fidedigno. El objetivo del presente artculo de revisin es dar un recordatorio de este concepto fisiolgico as como sus utilidades en el monitoreo del paciente. Abstract in english One challenge for the cardiologist is to achieve optimal blood volume for to improve cardiac output, and avoid excessive blood volume that could favor a negative prognosis. Now is known that the positive balance is associated with increased mortality; today we have different standards for assessing [...] preload yet none is highly reliable; the objective of this review is to give a reminder of its physiological concept and profits in patient monitoring.

  9. Qu es la CIE y por qu es importante en la psicologa?

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Geoffrey M.; Celia Anaya; Evans, Spencer C

    2012-01-01

    La Clasificacin Internacional de las Enfermedades (CIE) de la Organizacin Mundial de Salud (OMS) es muy poco conocida en el mbito de la psicologa en Espaa, y existe la falsa percepcin de que su importancia es escasa en el campo de la salud mental. El propsito de este artculo es familiarizar a los psiclogos y otros profesionales en salud mental con el sistema de clasificacin CIE, algo especialmente relevante al encontrarse actualmente en proceso de revisin. La OMS est haciendo un g...

  10. Independent evaluation of the SNODAS snow depth product using regional scale LiDAR-derived measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hedrick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR surveys are quickly becoming the de facto method for measuring spatial variability of montane snowpacks at high resolution. This study examines the potential of a 750 km2 LiDAR-derived dataset of snow depths, collected during the 2007 northern Colorado Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX-2, as a validation source for an operational hydrologic snow model. The SNOw Data Assimilation System (SNODAS model framework, operated by the US National Weather Service, combines a physically-based energy-and-mass-balance snow model with satellite, airborne and automated ground-based observations to provide daily estimates of snowpack properties at nominally 1 km resolution over the coterminous United States. Independent validation data is scarce due to the assimilating nature of SNODAS, compelling the need for an independent validation dataset with substantial geographic coverage. Within twelve distinctive 500 m 500 m study areas located throughout the survey swath, ground crews performed approximately 600 manual snow depth measurements during each of the CLPX-2 LiDAR acquisitions. This supplied a dataset for constraining the uncertainty of upscaled LiDAR estimates of snow depth at the 1 km SNODAS resolution, resulting in a root-mean-square difference of 13 cm. Upscaled LiDAR snow depths were then compared to the SNODAS-estimates over the entire study area for the dates of the LiDAR flights. The remotely-sensed snow depths provided a more spatially continuous comparison dataset and agreed more closely to the model estimates than that of the in situ measurements alone. Finally, the results revealed three distinct areas where the differences between LiDAR observations and SNODAS estimates were most drastic, suggesting natural processes specific to these regions as causal influences on model uncertainty.

  11. Transit timing analysis of the exoplanets TrES-1 and TrES-2

    OpenAIRE

    Rabus, M; Deeg, H. J.; Alonso, R.; Belmonte, J. A.; Almenara, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is a detailed analysis of transit light curves from TrES-1 and TrES-2, obtained over a period of three to four years, in order to search for variabilities in observed mid-transit times and to set limits for the presence of additional third bodies. Using the IAC 80cm telescope, we observed transits of TrES-1 and TrES-2 over several years. Based on these new data and previously published work, we studied the observed light curves and searched for variations in the differenc...

  12. ES Review: Selections from 2009 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, some of the best work from 2009-10. It features: (1) Teacher Quality (Teachers at Work: Improving Teacher Quality Through School Design (Elena Silva); Understanding Teachers Contracts (Andrew J. Rotherham); How Teachers Unions Lost the Media (Richard Whitmire and Andrew J.

  13. Geotechnical applications of LiDAR pertaining to geomechanical evaluation and hazard identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lato, Matthew J.

    Natural hazards related to ground movement that directly affect the safety of motorists and highway infrastructure include, but are not limited to, rockfalls, rockslides, debris flows, and landslides. This thesis specifically deals with the evaluation of rockfall hazards through the evaluation of LiDAR data. Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is an imaging technology that can be used to delineate and evaluate geomechanically-controlled hazards. LiDAR has been adopted to conduct hazard evaluations pertaining to rockfall, rock-avalanches, debris flows, and landslides. Characteristics of LiDAR surveying, such as rapid data acquisition rates, mobile data collection, and high data densities, pose problems to traditional CAD or GIS-based mapping methods. New analyses methods, including tools specifically oriented to geomechanical analyses, are needed. The research completed in this thesis supports development of new methods, including improved survey techniques, innovative software workflows, and processing algorithms to aid in the detection and evaluation of geomechanically controlled rockfall hazards. The scientific research conducted between the years of 2006-2010, as presented in this thesis, are divided into five chapters, each of which has been published by or is under review by an international journal. The five research foci are: (i) geomechanical feature extraction and analysis using LiDAR data in active mining environments; (ii) engineered monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR; (iii) optimization of LiDAR scanning and processing for automated structural evaluation of discontinuities in rockmasses; (iv) location orientation bias when using static LiDAR data for geomechanical analysis; and (v) evaluating roadside rockmasses for rockfall hazards from LiDAR data: optimizing data collection and processing protocols. The research conducted pertaining to this thesis has direct and significant implications with respect to numerous engineering projects that are affected by geomechanical stability issues. The ability to efficiently and accurately map discontinuities, detect changes, and standardize roadside geomechanical stability analyses from remote locations will fundamentally change the state-of-practice of geotechnical investigation workflows and repeatable monitoring. This, in turn, will lead to earlier detection and definition of potential zones of instability, will allow for progressive monitoring and risk analysis, and will indicate the need for pro-active slope improvement and stabilization.

  14. Correlation analysis between Patlack plot and DAR using 11C-methionine PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven patients were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) using 11C-methionine. All had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but one, who had Hodgkin's disease. By assuming a simple three-compartment model for dynamic data analysis, we used the graphic method proposed by Patlak et al., where Ki (K2K3/(K1+K3)) was compared with DAR (differential absorption ratio). Trichloroacetate was added to each plasma sample, and the activity of the acid-soluble fraction was counted to eliminate the influence of the protein-bound fraction of injected activity. Patlak data plots, using this acid-soluble fraction as an input factor, showed good linearity over the time of data collection. All tumors showed clear 11C-methionine accumulation. Tumor activity reached almost a plateau within 10 min and was kept at the same level for at least 30 min. Ki and DAR were 0.0700.035 and 4.641.85 (meanSD), respectively. There was no apparent correlation between histological type and Ki or DAR, while the correlation efficient between Ki and DAR was 0.875. Our conclusion is that DAR will give almost the same result as dynamic data in the analysis of methionine metabolism using PET. (author)

  15. Performance Assessment of High Resolution Airborne Full Waveform LiDAR for Shallow River Bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the performance of full waveform LiDAR decomposition algorithms with a high-resolution single band airborne LiDAR bathymetry system in shallow rivers. A continuous wavelet transformation (CWT is proposed and applied in two fluvial environments, and the results are compared to existing echo retrieval methods. LiDAR water depths are also compared to independent field measurements. In both clear and turbid water, the CWT algorithm outperforms the other methods if only green LiDAR observations are available. However, both the definition of the water surface, and the turbidity of the water significantly influence the performance of the LiDAR bathymetry observations. The results suggest that there is no single best full waveform processing algorithm for all bathymetric situations. Overall, the optimal processing strategies resulted in a determination of water depths with a 6 cm mean at 14 cm standard deviation for clear water, and a 16 cm mean and 27 cm standard deviation in more turbid water.

  16. Detection of fault structures with airborne LiDAR point-cloud data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Du, Lei

    2015-08-01

    The airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) technology is a new type of aerial earth observation method which can be used to produce high-precision DEM (Digital Elevation Model) quickly and reflect ground surface information directly. Fault structure is one of the key forms of crustal movement, and its quantitative description is the key to the research of crustal movement. The airborne LiDAR point-cloud data is used to detect and extract fault structures automatically based on linear extension, elevation mutation and slope abnormal characteristics. Firstly, the LiDAR point-cloud data is processed to filter out buildings, vegetation and other non-surface information with the TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) filtering method and Burman model calibration method. TIN and DEM are made from the processed data sequentially. Secondly, linear fault structures are extracted based on dual-threshold method. Finally, high-precision DOM (Digital Orthophoto Map) and other geological knowledge are used to check the accuracy of fault structure extraction. An experiment is carried out in Beiya Village of Yunnan Province, China. With LiDAR technology, results reveal that: the airborne LiDAR point-cloud data can be utilized to extract linear fault structures accurately and automatically, measure information such as height, width and slope of fault structures with high precision, and detect faults in areas with vegetation coverage effectively.

  17. Accuracy Assessment of LiDAR-Derived Digital Elevation Models Based on Approximation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoHang Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative error at a point in a LiDAR-derived DEM consists of three components: propagated LiDAR-sensor error, propagated ground error, and interpolation error. To combine these error components so as to assess the vertical accuracy of a LiDAR-derived DEM, statistical methods based on the error propagation theory are often used. Due to the existence of systematic error, statistical methods are only effective if a large number of checkpoints are available, which may not be affordable in many practical applications. This paper presents approximation theory as an alternative methodology that departs from error propagation theory in fundamental ways. Using approximation theory, an error bound of the cumulative error at any point in the study site can be obtained, thus informing users conservatively of the spatial variation of DEM accuracy and pointing out the weakly determined areas. The new method is illustrated from DEM users perspective by assessing whether a publicly available LiDAR-derived DEM meets FEMAs accuracy standard for flood risk mapping. The paper calls for a change in the existing methods of assessing and reporting the errors in a LiDAR-derived DEM, in particular those introduced during the ground filtering process.

  18. El terrorismo global es amorfo o polimorfo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Reinares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La urdimbre del terrorismo global incluye, siete aos despus de los atentados del 11 de septiembre, tanto a una alQaeda reconstituida y a las extensiones territoriales que ha conseguido establecer, como al heterogneo conjunto de grupos y organizaciones afines a la misma, al igual que a clulas locales independientes e informales constituidas de manera espontnea. Sera un error tomar esta ltima parte por el todo y afirmar que el terrorismo global es un fenmeno amorfo, cuando en realidad es polimorfo. Los riesgos y amenazas que el terrorismo global plantea para un determinado pas o regin del mundo dependen precisamente del modo en que se combinan sus distintos componentes. Para las sociedades occidentales, esos riesgos y amenazas no son ahora menores, aunque s ms complejos. Los atentados del 11 de marzo en Madrid constituyeron un ejemplo.

  19. Software for the ES-1010 intercomputer connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software for the ES-1010 intercomputer connection, realized in the framework of NODAL interpretation system, used in on-line control system for the ITEP proton synchrotron is described. A description is given of command organization principles and respective logs of intercompUter information exchange. The described software enables to combine up to 16 computers into one system. The development of intercomputer information exchange procedure is the first stage for the creation of mutiprocessing control system of the ITEP accelerator complex

  20. es poltica la justicia como equidad?

    OpenAIRE

    Villavicencio Miranda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Se analiza si la versin de la justicia como equidad, presentada en El liberalismo poltico, es genuinamente una concepcin poltica. Se examina el problema de la razonabilidad de la doctrinas comprehensivas, y se indaga luego si el argumento en dos etapas afecta la integridad estructural del liberalismo poltico. Se concluye que Rawls fracasa en su intento de justificar un liberalismo independiente de una doctrina comprehensiva de carcter liberal.

  1. European LiDAR Mapping Forum Un report dal futuro del 3D intelligente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione GEOmedia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Circa 450 delegati provenienti da 45 paesi si sono riuniti per lo European LiDAR Mapping Forum (ELMFal Congress Palace nel centro di Salisburgo in Austria, dove si sono succedute presentazioni da parte diesperti leader a livello mondiale.Abstract About 450 delegates from 45 countries gathered for the European LiDAR Mapping Forum (ELMF at the Congress Palace in the center of Salzburg in Austria, with presentations by leading experts in the world. The topics on the use of LiDAR to support transport, urban modeling, coastal zone mapping, asset management, 3D visualization and GIS applications, have contributed to the success of the third ELMF (the first took place in 2012 from 4 to 5 December 2012.

  2. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaszewski, Cline; Byrne, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass is the principal forage grass species used in temperate agriculture. In recent years, significant efforts have been made to develop molecular marker strategies to allow cost-effective characterization of a large number of loci simultaneously. One such strategy involves using DArT markers, and a DArT array has recently been developed for the Lolium-Festuca complex. In this study, we report the first use of the DArTFest array to generate a genetic linkage map based on 326 markers in a Lolium perenne F2 population, consisting of 325 genotypes. For proof of concept, the map was used to identify QTL associated with differences in crown rust susceptibility, caused by the fungal biotroph, Puccinia coronata.

  3. Octree-based segmentation for terrestrial LiDAR point cloud data in industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Ting; Bethel, James; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-03-01

    Automated and efficient algorithms to perform segmentation of terrestrial LiDAR data is critical for exploitation of 3D point clouds, where the ultimate goal is CAD modeling of the segmented data. In this work, a novel segmentation technique is proposed, starting with octree decomposition to recursively divide the scene into octants or voxels, followed by a novel split and merge framework that uses graph theory and a series of connectivity analyses to intelligently merge components into larger connected components. The connectivity analysis, based on a combination of proximity, orientation, and curvature connectivity criteria, is designed for the segmentation of pipes, vessels, and walls from terrestrial LiDAR data of piping systems at industrial sites, such as oil refineries, chemical plants, and steel mills. The proposed segmentation method is exercised on two terrestrial LiDAR datasets of a steel mill and a chemical plant, demonstrating its ability to correctly reassemble and segregate features of interest.

  4. The IsoDAR high intensity H2+ transport and injection tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J.; Axani, S.; Calabretta, L.; Campo, D.; Celona, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Day, A.; Castro, G.; Labrecque, F.; Winklehner, D.

    2015-10-01

    This technical report reviews the tests performed at the Best Cyclotron Systems, Inc. facility in regards to developing a cost effective ion source, beam line transport system, and acceleration system capable of high H2+ current output for the IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment. We begin by outlining the requirements for the IsoDAR experiment then provide overviews of the Versatile Ion Source (VIS), Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system, spiral inflector, and cyclotron. The experimental measurements are then discussed and the results are compared with a thorough set of simulation studies. Of particular importance we note that the VIS proved to be a reliable ion source capable of generating a large amount of H2+ current. The results suggest that with further upgrades, the VIS could potentially be a suitable candidate for IsoDAR. The conclusion outlines the key results from our tests and introduces the forthcoming work this technical report has motivated.

  5. The IsoDAR High Intensity H$_2^+$ Transport and Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Jose; Calabretta, Luciano; Campo, Daniela; Celona, Luigi; Conrad, Janet M; Day, Alexandra; Castro, Giuseppe; Labrecque, Francis; Winklehner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This technical report reviews the tests performed at the Best Cyclotron Systems, Inc. facility in regards to developing a cost effective ion source, beam line transport system, and acceleration system capable of high H$_2^+$ current output for the IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment. We begin by outlining the requirements for the IsoDAR experiment then provide overview of the Versatile Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport system, spiral inflector, and cyclotron. The experimental measurements are then discussed and the results are compared with a thorough set of simulation studies. Of particular importance we note that the Versatile Ion Source (VIS) proved to be a reliable ion source capable of generating a large amount of H$_2^+$ current. The results suggest that with further upgrades, the VIS could potentially be a suitable candidate for IsoDAR. The conclusion outlines the key results from our tests and introduces the forthcoming work this technical report has motivated.

  6. Optimisation of LiDAR derived terrain models for river flow modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mandlburger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging combines cost efficiency, high degree of automation, high point density of typically 110 points per m2 and height accuracy of better than 15 cm. For all these reasons LiDAR is particularly suitable for deriving precise Digital Terrain Models (DTM as geometric basis for hydrodynamic-numerical (HN simulations. The application of LiDAR for river flow modelling requires a series of preprocessing steps. Terrain points have to be filtered and merged with river bed data, e.g. from echo sounding. Then, a smooth Digital Terrain Model of the Watercourse (DTM-W needs to be derived, preferably considering the random measurement error during surface interpolation. In a subsequent step, a hydraulic computation mesh has to be constructed. Hydraulic simulation software is often restricted to a limited number of nodes and elements, thus, data reduction and data conditioning of the high resolution LiDAR DTM-W becomes necessary. We will present a DTM thinning approach based on adaptive TIN refinement which allows a very effective compression of the point data (more than 95% in flood plains and up to 90% in steep areas while preserving the most relevant topographic features (height tolerance 20 cm. Traditional hydraulic mesh generators focus primarily on physical aspects of the computation grid like aspect ratio, expansion ratio and angle criterion. They often neglect the detailed shape of the topography as provided by LiDAR data. In contrast, our approach considers both the high geometric resolution of the LiDAR data and additional mesh quality parameters. It will be shown that the modelling results (flood extents, flow velocities, etc. can vary remarkably by the availability of surface details. Thus, the inclusion of such geometric details in the hydraulic computation meshes will gain importance for river flow modelling in the future.

  7. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny L. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates a new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed “mDn”, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.

  8. Detection of large above ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jubanski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of tropical forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia through correlating airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52. Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square meter of 24 resulted in the best cost-benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC showed an overestimation of 46%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong GHG emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  9. Detection of large above ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubanski, J.; Ballhorn, U.; Kronseder, K.; Franke, J.; Siegert, F.

    2012-08-01

    Quantification of tropical forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB) over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia) through correlating airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52). Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square meter of 2-4 resulted in the best cost-benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) showed an overestimation of 46%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong GHG emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  10. Un pas pobre podr dar Bienestar a sus Animales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrilla, Guillermo.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa verdad absoluta es que los animales de produccin y especialmente los perros y gatos en los pases en desarrollo estn propensos a sufrir actos de negligencia humana. Las mascotas padecen de la pobreza del mismo modo que lo hacen sus dueos. En un Pas como Bolivia con grandes zonas empobrecidas y extensos barrios periurbanos que se debaten en la miseria, los animales estn vulnerables a la desnutricin,enfermedades y sobre todo al abandono.El bienestar animal ha sido definido por la Organizacin Mundial de Sanidad Animal(OIE como la manera en que los animales se enfrentan con el medio ambiente y que incluye su sanidad, sus percepciones, su estado anmico y otros efectos positivos o negativos que influyen sobre los mecanismos fsicos y psquicos del animal .Lamentablemente en pases del llamado Tercer Mundo esta definicin cae en saco roto.

  11. La Neurociencia Computacional hoy: I. Qu es y por qu es difcil su estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess Corts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Neurociencia Computacional es una disciplina consolidada, con ms de 20 aos de desarrollo, y que emplea tcnicas muy diversas para entender diferentes computaciones cerebrales. Aqu se introduce brevemente mediante dos artculos. En el primero, Qu es y por qu es difcil su estudio, se introducen de forma muy general cules son sus objetivos como ciencia y los problemas con los que se encuentra. En el segundo, mediante Un ejemplo muy representativo en el campo abordamos su metodologa y destacamos la trascendencia que la Neurociencia Computacional est teniendo y tendr dentro de las Neurociencias.

  12. 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek'--an eating disorder and obesity service in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Francesca Falzon; Grech, Anton; Zerafa, Darleen; Agius, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2015-09-01

    This paper will describe the incidence of eating disorders, with particular focus on obesity and binge eating, within the Island of Malta. The development of and 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek', the first centre for eating disorders in Malta will then be recounted, and the effective therapeutic interventions provided in it will be described. One important function of this unit is the treatment of excessive obesity. Some epidemiological data on the Obese Patients in DKS, relating to the incidence of Binge Eating Disorder in the DKS patient group will be given. This data was collected during a collaboritive research project between the Psychiatry Department of Cambridge University and 'Dar Kenn Ghal Sahhtek'. PMID:26417831

  13. LiDAR-derived morphological changes of gravel-bed rivers in the French Prealps

    OpenAIRE

    Tacon, S.; Libault, F.; Pigay, H.

    2011-01-01

    The recent development of innovative topographic survey technologies offers new opportunities for investigating spatial and temporal patterns of gravel-bed rivers morphological responses to flow events. In this study, multidate airborne LiDAR surveys were used to reconstruct reach-scale morphological changes in two gravel-bed rivers following important floods. LiDAR surveys were acquired simultaneously for a 7 km reach of the Bs River and a 3.1 km reach of the Bouinenc Torrent, which are two...

  14. Direct injection into the IsoDAR Cyclotron using a RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, Spencer; IsoDAR Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, the use of Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs) has been pervasive in linear accelerators in order to accelerate, bunch, and separate ion species. Current research suggests this may be an ideal way to inject a low energy H2+ beam axially into a cyclotron. The IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment aims to implement this injection system in order to achieve higher Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) efficiencies and ultimately construct a novel compact neutrino factory to test the hypothesis of sterile neutrinos. This talk will focus on the research and development needed to implement a RFQ into the IsoDAR experiment.

  15. MKENO-DAR: a direct angular representation Monte Carlo code for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the Monte Carlo code MULTI-KENO, the MKENO-DAR (Direct Angular Representation) code has been developed for criticality safety analysis in detail. A function was added to MULTI-KENO for representing anisotropic scattering strictly. With this function, the scattering angle of neutron is determined not by the average scattering angle μ-bar of the Pl Legendre polynomial but by the random work operation using probability distribution function produced with the higher order Legendre polynomials. This code is avilable for the FACOM-M380 computer. This report is a computer code manual for MKENO-DAR. (author)

  16. White paper On the use of LiDAR data at AmeriFlux sites

    OpenAIRE

    Beland, Martin; Parker, Geoffrey; Harding, David; Hopkinson, Chris; Chasmer, Laura; Antonarakis, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to inform the AmeriFlux community on existing and upcoming LiDAR technologies (atmospheric Doppler or Raman LiDAR often deployed at flux sites are not considered here), how it is currently used at flux sites, and how we believe it could, in the future, further contribute to the AmeriFlux vision. Heterogeneity in vegetation and ground properties at various spatial scales is omnipresent at flux sites, and 3D mapping of canopy, understory, and ground surface can help move ...

  17. Visualization of High-Resolution LiDAR Topography in Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Arrowsmith, R.; Blair, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    The growing availability of high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) topographic data has proven to be revolutionary for Earth science research. These data allow scientists to study the processes acting on the Earths surfaces at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. In addition to their utility for research, the data have also been recognized as powerful tools for communicating earth science concepts for education and outreach purposes. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To facilitate access to these powerful data for research and educational purposes, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to deliver LiDAR-derived visualizations. The OpenTopography Portal (http://www.opentopography.org/) is a National Science Foundation-funded facility designed to provide access to Earth science-oriented LiDAR data. OpenTopography hosts a growing collection of LiDAR data for a variety of geologic domains, including many of the active faults in the western United States. We have found that the wide spectrum of LiDAR users have variable scientific applications, computing resources, and technical experience and thus require a data distribution system that provides various levels of access to the data. For users seeking a synoptic view of the data, and for education and outreach purposes, delivering full-resolution images derived from LiDAR topography into the Google Earth virtual globe is powerful. The virtual globe environment provides a freely available and easily navigated viewer and enables quick integration of the LiDAR visualizations with imagery, geographic layers, and other relevant data available in KML format. Through region-dependant network linked KML, OpenTopography currently delivers over 20 GB of LiDAR-derived imagery to users via simple, easily downloaded KMZ files hosted at the Portal. This method provides seamlessly access to hillshaded imagery for both bare earth and first return terrain models with various angles of illumination. Seamless access to LiDAR-derived imagery in Google Earth has proven to be the most popular product available in the OpenTopography Portal. The hillshade KMZ files have been downloaded over 3000 times by users ranging from earthquake scientists to K-12 educators who wish to introduce cutting edge real world data into their earth science lessons. OpenTopography also provides dynamically generated KMZ visualizations of LiDAR data products produced when users choose to use the OpenTopography point cloud access and processing system. These Google Earth compatible products allow users to quickly visualize the custom terrain products they have generated without the burden of loading the data into a GIS environment. For users who have installed the Google Earth browser plug-in, these visualizations can be launched directly from the OpenTopography results page and viewed directly in the browser.

  18. KML-Based Access and Visualization of High Resolution LiDAR Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Blair, J. L.; Nandigam, V.; Memon, A.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been dramatic growth in the acquisition of LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) high-resolution topographic data for earth science studies. Capable of providing digital elevation models (DEMs) more than an order of magnitude higher resolution than those currently available, LiDAR data allow earth scientists to study the processes that contribute to landscape evolution at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. These datasets also have significant implications for earth science education and outreach because they provide an accurate representation of landforms and geologic hazards. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To make these data available to a larger user community, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to provide access to LiDAR data products and visualizations. LiDAR digital elevation models are typically delivered in a tiled format that lends itself well to a KML-based distribution system. For LiDAR datasets hosted in the GEON OpenTopography Portal (www.opentopography.org) we have developed KML files that show the extent of available LiDAR DEMs and provide direct access to the data products. Users interact with these KML files to explore the extent of the available data and are able to select DEMs that correspond to their area of interest. Selection of a tile loads a download that the user can then save locally for analysis in their software of choice. The GEON topography system also has tools available that allow users to generate custom DEMs from LiDAR point cloud data. This system is powerful because it enables users to access massive volumes of raw LiDAR data and to produce DEM products that are optimized to their science applications. We have developed a web service that converts the custom DEM models produced by the system to a hillshade that is delivered to the user as a KML groundoverlay. The KML product enables users to quickly and easily visualize the DEMs in Google Earth. By combining internet-based LiDAR data processing with KML visualization products, users are able to execute computationally intensive data sub-setting, processing and visualization without having local access to computing resources, GIS software, or data processing expertise. Finally, GEON has partnered with the US Geological Survey to generate region-dependant network linked KML visualizations for large volumes of LiDAR derived hillshades of the Northern San Andreas fault system. These data, acquired by the NSF-funded GeoEarthScope project, offer an unprecedented look at active faults in the northern portion of the San Andreas system. Through the region-dependant network linked KML, users can seamlessly access 1 meter hillshades (both 315 and 45 degree sun angles) for the full 1400 square kilometer dataset, without downloading huge volumes of data. This type of data access has great utility for users ranging from earthquake scientists to K-12 educators who wish to introduce cutting edge real world data into their earth science lessons.

  19. Remote Sensing of Sonoran Desert Vegetation Structure andPhenology with Ground-Based LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel B. Sankey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  20. Es Paracoccidioides brasiliensis un grupo monofiltico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mcewen

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis es un hongo dimrfico trmico
    causante de la paracoccidioidomicosis, micosis de alta prevalencia en Amrica Latina. Colombia ocupa el segundo lugar en endemicidad, despus de Brasil. Su presentacin clnica es, usualmente, de carcter crnico y en ausencia de una terapia efectiva la paracoccidioidomicosis progresa y puede ser letal en muchos casos (1. Actualmente el Paracoccidioides se ha considerado un grupo homogneo y se le ha identificado la especie brasiliensis como nica. Sin embargo, varios estudios
    han demostrado variaciones genticas que han permitido agrupar las cepas de acuerdo con su origen geogrfico, pero no se conoce si estas variaciones puedan generar o ser el producto de especies aisladas geogrficamente (2. Adicionalmente, se ha mostrado una correlacin entre patrones de RAPD de los aislamientos clnicos del hongo y su habilidad para causar enfermedad experimental de diferente severidad (3. Estos hallazgos sugieren que P. brasiliensis podra estar distribuido en diferentes grupos monofilticos.

  1. Un guijarro no es un canto rodado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coronado Castillo, Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense or meaning of a word resides in thought and only manifests itself when the word is used. Yet the sense conveyed can be equivocal if the word is taken out of its context, spatial as well as temporal. Considering the present time then, we are dealing with the determination of a space, with exploring around the contextual area. The study that resulted in this paper involves geography, but is no geographical research; at most research on human geography. Although it involves speech, its direct object is not language. Neither it is, in strictness, ethnography nor cultural anthropology. But it concerns all of these fields and, therefore, cannot stay away from any of them. Only one concept, perhaps, overrides the whole undertaking and meets the double condition of being simple and complex at the same time: the concept of elementary area. This concept rests upon the seminal idea of taking the sense and meaning of something (in this case, a name or a noun as the use given to such something (such name or noun in a particular space: a here and a now. One word or signifier, one single meaning; that is all there is. Yet it is this extreme simplification that which allows freedom of speculation, clear and refined.

    El sentido de una palabra está en el pensamiento y sólo se hace manifiesto a través de dicha palabra. Pero la información que conlleva la misma es equívoca si hacemos abstracción de un lugar y de un tiempo. Sea el tiempo actual. Se trata, pues, de la determinación de un lugar, de indagar acerca del territorio. El estudio propuesto trata, pues, de geografía, pero no es geografía; acaso geografía humana. Concierne al habla, pero su objeto directo no es la lengua. No es tampoco, en sentido estricto, etnografía ni antropología cultural. Pero siendo un poco todo ello, no puede prescindir de nada. Sólo uno de sus conceptos, quizá, presida todo el conjunto y reúna la doble condición de ser complejo y a la vez simple: área elemental. El concepto de área elemental descansa en la idea fecunda de considerar el sentido de algo (en este caso, de un nombre como el uso que se hace de dicho «algo», de dicho nombre, en algún lugar. Un aquí. Un ahora. Una palabra o significante. Un significado. Eso es todo. Y esta simplificación extrema permite a su vez una clara y depurada libertad especulativa.

  2. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ARRA Topographic LiDAR: Coastal Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD02143 Task Order Number: G10PD01027 LiDAR was collected at a 2.0 meter nominal post spacing (2.0m GSD) for...

  3. Biomass estimation of Douglas fir stands using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass is an important parameter not only for carbon cycle modeling, but also for supporting land management operations (e.g. land use policy, forest fire management). Various remote sensing data have been utilized for biomass estimation, especially in forested areas. LiDAR (Light Detection And Ran...

  4. Tropical Forests of Runion Island Classified from Airborne Full-Waveform LiDAR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Shang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From an unprecedented experiment using airborne measurements performed over the rich forests of Runion Island, this paper aims to present a methodology for the classification of diverse tropical forest biomes as retrieved from vertical profiles measured using a full-waveform LiDAR. This objective is met through the retrieval of both the canopy height and the Leaf Area Index (LAI, obtained as an integral of the foliage profile. The campaign involved sites ranging from coastal to rain forest, including tropical montane cloud forest, as found on the Blouve plateau. The mean values of estimated LAI retrieved from the apparent foliage profile are between ~5 and 8 m2/m2, and the mean canopy height values are ~15 m for both tropical montane cloud and rain forests. Good agreement is found between LiDAR- and MODIS-derived LAI for moderate LAI (~5 m2/m2, but the LAI retrieved from LiDAR is larger than MODIS on thick rain forest sites (~8 against ~6 m2/m2 from MODIS. Regarding the characterization of tropical forest biomes, we show that the rain and montane tropical forests can be well distinguished from planted forests by the use of the parameters directly retrieved from LiDAR measurements.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain DAR 81934, Which Exhibits Molluscicidal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Aisuo; Pattemore, Julie; Ash, Gavin; Williams, Angela; Hane, James

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as a biopesticide for a long time. Its molluscicidal activity, however, is rarely realized. Here, we report the genome sequence of B. thuringiensis strain DAR 81934, a strain with molluscicidal activity against the pest snail Cernuella virgata.

  6. Registration of optical imagery and LiDAR data using an inherent geometrical constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wuming; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Mei; Chen, Yiming; Yan, Kai; Li, Linyuan; Qi, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Luo, Jinghui; Chu, Qing

    2015-03-23

    A novel method for registering imagery with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data is proposed. It is based on the phenomenon that the back-projection of LiDAR point cloud of an object should be located within the object boundary in the image. Using this inherent geometrical constraint, the registration parameters computation of both data sets only requires LiDAR point clouds of several objects and their corresponding boundaries in the image. The proposed registration method comprises of four steps: point clouds extraction, boundary extraction, back-projection computation and registration parameters computation. There are not any limitations on the geometrical and spectral properties of the object. So it is suitable not only for structured scenes with man-made objects but also for natural scenes. Moreover, the proposed method based on the inherent geometrical constraint can register two data sets derived from different parts of an object. It can be used to co-register TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) LiDAR point cloud and UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle) image, which are obtaining more attention in the forest survey application. Using initial registration parameters comparable to POS (position and orientation system) accuracy, the performed experiments validated the feasibility of the proposed registration method. PMID:25837107

  7. 2009 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Androscoggin County, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce USGS Contract Number: G10PC00026 USGS Task Order: G10PD01737 LiDAR was collected at a 1.0 points per square meter (1.0m GSD) for the county of Androscoggin, Maine...

  8. Using regional-scale LiDAR surveys to validate operational snow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, A. R.; Marshall, H. P.; Winstral, A. H.; Elder, K.; Yueh, S. H.; Cline, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    As survey costs continue to plummet and storage capabilities soar, large-scale multitemporal airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) surveys for high-resolution snow depth measurements are becoming commonplace in mountain research watersheds. Though there are disadvantages to the technique (e.g. poor temporal representation and high uncertainty in steep terrain and dense vegetation), the wealth of information with regard to previously unknown spatial snow depth distributions can be an valuable tool for assessing spatially distributed operational snow models. As a portion of NASA's second Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX-2), two 750-km2 LiDAR surveys were conducted over Northern Colorado in December and February of the 2006/2007 winter season. The resulting 5-m gridded changes in snow depth overlay 980 individual pixels of the SNOw Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) spatial framework. As an important operational snow model developed by NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC), SNODAS generally lacks independent validation datasets due to the data assimilation step critical for adjusting the energy balance and downscaled Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model components. The influence of sub-grid variability on SNODAS performance is assessed using the independent high resolution CLPX-2 LiDAR changes in snow depth. This method provides a foundation for further studies to quantitatively address the affect of small-scale physiographic variables on various large-scale operational snow models by making use of forthcoming large-scale LiDAR datasets.

  9. Assessment of Ploidy and Genome Constitution of Some Musa balbisiana Cultivars using DArT Markers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sales, E. K.; Butardo, N. G.; Paniagua, H. G.; Jansen, H.; Doleel, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 36, ?. 1 (2011), s. 11-18. ISSN 0115-463X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : DArT * genome * Musa balbisiana Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.075, year: 2011 http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2011_Sales_PHILIPPINE_JOURNAL_OF_CROP_SCIENCE_11.pdf

  10. Aboveground biomass estimation with airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data in Tesinske Beskydy Mountains.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brovkina, Olga; Zemek, Frantiek; Fabinek, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 1 (2015), s. 35-46. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) LO1415; GA Mk OC09001 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest aboveground biomass * hyperspectral data * airborne LiDAR * Beskydy Mountains Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Genetic Essentialism, Neuroessentialism, and Stigma: Commentary on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) presented a masterfully broad review of the implications of genetic essentialism for understandings of human diversity. This commentary clarifies the reasons that essentialist thinking has problematic social consequences and links genetic forms of essentialism to those invoking neural essences. The mounting evidence

  12. Genetics and Human Agency: Comment on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) decried genetic essentialism without denying the importance of genetics in the genesis of human behavior, and although I agree on both counts, a deeper issue remains unaddressed: how should we adjust our cognitions about our own behavior in light of genetic influence, or is it perhaps not necessary to take genetics into…

  13. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis strain DAR 81934, which exhibits molluscicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aisuo; Pattemore, Julie; Ash, Gavin; Williams, Angela; Hane, James

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as a biopesticide for a long time. Its molluscicidal activity, however, is rarely realized. Here, we report the genome sequence of B. thuringiensis strain DAR 81934, a strain with molluscicidal activity against the pest snail Cernuella virgata. PMID:23516227

  14. Airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data integration for weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, János; Lehoczky, Éva; Fehér, János; Fórián, Tünde; Nagy, Attila; Bozsik, Éva; Gálya, Bernadett; Riczu, Péter

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture uses 70% of global available fresh water. However, ca. 50-70% of water used by cultivated plants, the rest of water transpirated by the weeds. Thus, to define the distribution of weeds is very important in precision agriculture and horticulture as well. To survey weeds on larger fields by traditional methods is often time consuming. Remote sensing instruments are useful to detect weeds in larger area. In our investigation a 3D airborne laser scanner (RIEGL LMS-Q680i) was used in agricultural field near Sopron to scouting weeds. Beside the airborne LiDAR, hyperspectral imaging system (AISA DUAL) and air photos helped to investigate weed coverage. The LiDAR survey was carried out at early April, 2012, before sprouting of cultivated plants. Thus, there could be detected emerging of weeds and direction of cultivation. However airborne LiDAR system was ideal to detect weeds, identification of weeds at species level was infeasible. Higher point density LiDAR - Terrestrial laser scanning - systems are appropriate to distinguish weed species. Based on the results, laser scanner is an effective tool to scouting of weeds. Appropriate weed detection and mapping systems could contribute to elaborate water and herbicide saving management technique. This publication was supported by the OTKA project K 105789.

  15. A DATA DRIVEN METHOD FOR BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION FROM LiDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajadian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning, commonly referred to as LiDAR, is a superior technology for three-dimensional data acquisition from Earth's surface with high speed and density. Building reconstruction is one of the main applications of LiDAR system which is considered in this study. For a 3D reconstruction of the buildings, the buildings points should be first separated from the other points such as; ground and vegetation. In this paper, a multi-agent strategy has been proposed for simultaneous extraction and segmentation of buildings from LiDAR point clouds. Height values, number of returned pulse, length of triangles, direction of normal vectors, and area are five criteria which have been utilized in this step. Next, the building edge points are detected using a new method named "Grid Erosion". A RANSAC based technique has been employed for edge line extraction. Regularization constraints are performed to achieve the final lines. Finally, by modelling of the roofs and walls, 3D building model is reconstructed. The results indicate that the proposed method could successfully extract the building from LiDAR data and generate the building models automatically. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the proposed method is then provided.

  16. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Mobile Bay, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD00578 LiDAR was collected at a nominal pulse spacing of 2.0 meters for a 700 square mile area to the east of...

  17. Engineering monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical hazards along linear transportation corridors are challenging to identify and often require constant monitoring. Inspecting corridors using traditional, manual methods requires the engineer to be unnecessarily exposed to the hazard. It also requires closure of the corridor to ensure safety of the worker from passing vehicles. This paper identifies the use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data as a compliment to traditional field methods. Mobile terrestrial LiDAR is an emerging remote data collection technique capable of generating accurate fully three-dimensional virtual models while driving at speeds up to 100 km/h. Data is collected from a truck that causes no delays to active traffic nor does it impede corridor use. These resultant georeferenced data can be used for geomechanical structural feature identification and kinematic analysis, rockfall path identification and differential monitoring of rock movement or failure over time. Comparisons between mobile terrestrial and static LiDAR data collection and analysis are presented. As well, detailed discussions on workflow procedures for possible implementation are discussed. Future use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data for corridor analysis will focus on repeated surveys and developing dynamic four-dimensional models, higher resolution data collection. As well, computationally advanced, spatially accurate, geomechanically controlled three-dimensional rockfall simulations should be investigated.

  18. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S....

  19. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S....

  20. 2002 Maryland Department of Natural Resources LiDAR: Worcester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a method of locating objects on the ground using aerial-borne equipment. It is similar to RADAR or SONAR in that the two-way...

  1. Habitat Classification of Temperate Marine Macroalgal Communities Using Bathymetric LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Zavalas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the potential of using bathymetric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to characterise shallow water (<30 m benthic habitats of high energy subtidal coastal environments. Habitat classification, quantifying benthic substrata and macroalgal communities, was achieved in this study with the application of LiDAR and underwater video groundtruth data using automated classification techniques. Bathymetry and reflectance datasets were used to produce secondary terrain derivative surfaces (e.g., rugosity, aspect that were assumed to influence benthic patterns observed. An automated decision tree classification approach using the Quick Unbiased Efficient Statistical Tree (QUEST was applied to produce substrata, biological and canopy structure habitat maps of the study area. Error assessment indicated that habitat maps produced were primarily accurate (>70%, with varying results for the classification of individual habitat classes; for instance, producer accuracy for mixed brown algae and sediment substrata, was 74% and 93%, respectively. LiDAR was also successful for differentiating canopy structure of macroalgae communities (i.e., canopy structure classification, such as canopy forming kelp versus erect fine branching algae. In conclusion, habitat characterisation using bathymetric LiDAR provides a unique potential to collect baseline information about biological assemblages and, hence, potential reef connectivity over large areas beyond the range of direct observation. This research contributes a new perspective for assessing the structure of subtidal coastal ecosystems, providing a novel tool for the research and management of such highly dynamic marine environments.

  2. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Suwannee River Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce USGS Task Order No. G10PD00236 USGS Contract No. G10PC00093 The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River Expansion in...

  3. Effects of atmospheric stability on the evolution of wind turbine wakes: Volumetric LiDAR scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Port-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Aerodynamic optimization of wind farm layout is a fundamental task to reduce wake effects on downstream wind turbines, thus to maximize wind power harvesting. However, downstream evolution and recovery of wind turbine wakes are strongly affected by the characteristics of the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow, like the vertical profiles of the mean wind velocity and the turbulence intensity, which are in turn affected by the ABL stability regime. Therefore, the characterization of the variability of wind turbine wakes under different ABL stability regimes becomes fundamental to better predict wind power harvesting and improve wind farm efficiency. To this aim, wind velocity measurements of the wake produced by a 2 MW Enercon E-70 wind turbine were performed with three scanning Doppler wind Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instruments. One LiDAR was typically devoted to the characterization of the incoming wind, in particular wind velocity, shear and turbulence intensity at the height of the rotor disc. The other two LiDARs performed scans in order to characterize the wake velocity field produced by the tested wind turbine. The main challenge in performing field measurements of wind turbine wakes is represented by the varying wind conditions, and by the consequent adjustments of the turbine yaw angle needed to maximize power production. Consequently, taking into account possible variations of the relative position between LiDAR measurement volume and wake location, different LiDAR measurement procedures were carried out in order to perform 2-D and 3-D characterizations of the mean wake velocity field. However, larger measurement volumes and higher spatial resolution require longer sampling periods; thus, to investigate wake turbulence tests were also performed by staring the LiDAR laser beam over fixed directions and with the maximum sampling frequency. Furthermore, volumetric scans of the wind turbine wake were performed under different wind conditions via two simultaneous LiDARs. Through the evaluation of the minimum wake velocity deficit as a function of the downstream distance, it is shown that the stability regime of the ABL has a significant effect on the wake evolution; specifically the wake recovers faster under convective conditions. This result suggests that atmospheric inflow conditions, and particularly thermal stability, should be considered for improved wake models and predictions of wind power harvesting.

  4. Using satellite and airborne LiDAR to model woodpecker habitat occupancy at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Lee A; Vierling, Kerri T; Adam, Patrick; Hudak, Andrew T

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) relative to airborne-based LiDAR to model the north Idaho breeding distribution of a forest-dependent ecosystem engineer, the Red-naped sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis). GLAS data occurred within ca. 64 m diameter ellipses spaced a minimum of 172 m apart, and all occupancy analyses were confined to this grain scale. Using a hierarchical approach, we modeled Red-naped sapsucker occupancy as a function of LiDAR metrics derived from both platforms. Occupancy models based on satellite data were weak, possibly because the data within the GLAS ellipse did not fully represent habitat characteristics important for this species. The most important structural variables influencing Red-naped Sapsucker breeding site selection based on airborne LiDAR data included foliage height diversity, the distance between major strata in the canopy vertical profile, and the vegetation density near the ground. These characteristics are consistent with the diversity of foraging activities exhibited by this species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first to examine the utility of satellite-based LiDAR to model animal distributions. The large area of each GLAS ellipse and the non-contiguous nature of GLAS data may pose significant challenges for wildlife distribution modeling; nevertheless these data can provide useful information on ecosystem vertical structure, particularly in areas of gentle terrain. Additional work is thus warranted to utilize LiDAR datasets collected from both airborne and past and future satellite platforms (e.g. GLAS, and the planned IceSAT2 mission) with the goal of improving wildlife modeling for more locations across the globe. PMID:24324655

  5. Sensitivity analysis of simulated bathymetric LiDAR waveforms according to sensor and river parameters variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, J.; Abdallah, H.; Baghdadi, N.; Saint-Geours, N.

    2010-12-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) can be used as a ranging system using electromagnetic waves in the optical domain. LiDAR airborne or satellite sensors are promising techniques for river bathymetry and water surface altimetry considering its potential accuracy, its high spatial density and resolution. When considering physics of LiDAR, many factors coming from sensor characteristics and optical phenomena interacting during the signal transfer at media interfaces are conditioning LiDAR signals, i.e. waveforms. Waveforms are the registered signals in LiDAR from which, hydrological variables, as surface water altimetry, bathymetry, are retrieved. To move forward in the LIDAR airborne and satellite sensors capabilities for river monitoring, a modelling tool extending different existing radiative transfer models has been developed. This model allows the simulation of LiDAR data from a set of instrumental parameters and a representative collection of fluvial target for laser beam (water turbidity, river bottom reflectivity, etc). Due to the large numbers of parameters in the modelling and their natural range of variation, one of the questions is which of those parameters have the most impact, and those who have a negligible effect on returned waveform? And consequently, which of them most impact the accuracy of the retrieved hydrological variables from waveforms? In order to assess the robustness of the proposed model, to look for parsimony and to identify the key sensor parameters, a study of the model sensitivity to different media characteristics (surface reflection, absorption, scattering, bottom Albedo, etc) and sensor parameters (wavelength, pulse width, transmitted power, etc) is performed. Due to the complexity of the LiDAR waveform modelling, we used a sensitivity analysis method based on variance decomposition (Sobol) and Latin hypercube random sampling design in factor variation domains. As output model are waveforms, i.e. temporal signal, we used the specific Sobol framework proposed by Lamboni (2010). Results are the synthetic Sobol indices showing which factors are highly conditioning waveforms and others that can be neglected in the modelling. By pursuing the sensitivity analysis up to the waveform inversion (Gaussian fitting) to retrieve bathymetry, sensor and river parameters which are the more impacting bathymetry accuracy can also been hierarchically identified in this framework.

  6. Application of LiDAR to hydrologic flux estimation in Australian eucalypt forests (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, P. N.; Mitchell, P. J.; Jaskierniak, D.; Hawthorne, S. N.; Griebel, A.

    2013-12-01

    The potential of LiDAR in ecohydrology is significant as characterising catchment vegetation is crucial to accurate estimation of evapotranspiration (ET). While this may be done at large scales for model parameterisation, stand-scale applications are equally appropriate where traditional methods of measurement of LAI or sapwood areas are time consuming and reliant on assumptions of representative sampling. This is particularly challenging in mountain forests where aspect, soil properties and energy budgets can vary significantly, reflected in the vegetation or where there are changes in the spatial distribution of structural attributes following disturbance. Recent research has investigated the spatial distribution of ET in a eucalypt forest in SE Australia using plot-scale sapflow, interception and forest floor ET measurements. LiDAR was used scale up these measurements. LiDAR (0.16 m scanner footprint) canopy indices were correlated via stepwise regression with 4 water use scalars: basal area (BA), sapwood area (SA), leaf area index (LAI) and canopy coverage (C), with Hmed, Hmean, H80, H95 the best predictors. Combining these indices with empirical relationships between SA and BA, and SA and transpiration (T), and inventory plot 'ground truthing' transpiration was estimated across the 1.3 km2 catchment. Interception was scaled via the Gash model with LiDAR derived inputs. The up-scaling showed a significant variability in the spatial distribution of ET, related to the distribution of SA. The use of LiDAR meant scaling could be achieved at an appropriate spatial scale (20 x 20 m) to the measurements. The second example is the use of airborne LiDAR in developing growth forest models for hydrologic modeling. LiDAR indices were used to stratify multilayered forests using mixed-effect models with a wide range of theoretical distribution functions. When combined with historical plot-scale inventory data we show demonstrated improved growth modeling over traditional inventory methods.These models can be used to parameterize hydrologic models to explore disturbance and age-related ET changes, and develop spatial-temporal maps of ET based on accurate representation of sapwood areas in complex terrain. The third example involves analyses of stand growth and long term streamflow response to thinning treatments in eucalyptus regnans forests. These forests have a strong age-streamflow relationship that can lead to streamflow declines as disturbed stands regrow. A set of thinning treatments in small experimental catchments (uniform, strip and understorey removal) were implemented in 1978-1982. The streamflow analysis supported early findings that flows increase and then relaxed, but also detected a flow decline below expected undisturbed levels for most catchments. Airborne LiDAR was used to analyse the structural recovery of treated stands, estimate LAI and canopy coverage via gap-fraction analysis, and scale ET measurements. The LiDAR data revealed the association of treatment type and regrowth and demonstrated that despite a net reduction in overstorey stem density, stand LAI had recovered and may explain the flow response. Finally, new terrestrial LiDAR instruments are being used in conjunction with eddy-covariance flux tower and sapflow measurement to measure fine temporal scale carbon-water dynamics. These instruments can be combined with airborne derived data to produce 3 dimensional canopy profile for linkage with ET processes.

  7. Transit timing analysis of the exoplanets TrES-1 and TrES-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, M; Alonso, R; Belmonte, J A; Almenara, J M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is a detailed analysis of transit light curves from TrES-1 and TrES-2, obtained over a period of three to four years, in order to search for variabilities in observed mid-transit times and to set limits for the presence of additional third bodies. Using the IAC 80cm telescope, we observed transits of TrES-1 and TrES-2 over several years. Based on these new data and previously published work, we studied the observed light curves and searched for variations in the difference between observed and calculated (based on a fixed ephemeris) transit times. To model possible transit timing variations, we used polynomials of different orders, simulated O-C diagrams corresponding to a perturbing third mass and sinusoidal fits. For each model we calculated the chi-squared residuals and the False Alarm Probability (FAP). For TrES-1 we can exclude planetary companions (>1 M_earth) in the 3:2 and 2:1 MMRs having high FAPs based on our transit observations from ground. Additionally, the presence of a ligh...

  8. Estimating Above Ground Biomass using LiDAR in the Northcoast Redwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.; Stewart, E.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, LiDAR (Light Intensity Detection Amplification and Ranging) is increasingly being used in estimating biophysical parameters related to forested environments. The main goal of the project is to estimate long-term biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration potential of the redwoods ecosystem. The project objectives are aimed at providing an assessment of carbon pools within the redwood ecosystem. Specifically, we intend to develop a relational model based on LiDAR-based canopy estimates and extensive ground-based measurements available for the old-growth redwood forest located within the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, CA. Our preliminary analysis involved developing a geospatial database, including LiDAR data collected in 2007 for the study site, and analyzing the data using USFS Fusion software. The study area comprised of a 12-acres section of coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) in the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, located in Orick, CA. A series of analytical steps were executed using the USFS FUSION software to produce some intermediate data such as bare earth model, canopy height model, canopy coverage model, and canopy maxima treelist. Canopy maxima tree tops were compared to ground layer to determine height of tree tops. A total of over 1000 trees were estimated, and then with thinning (to eliminate errors due to low vegetation > 3 meters tall), a total of 950 trees were delineated. Ground measurements were imported as a point based shapefile and then compared to the treetop heights created from LiDAR data to the actual ground referenced data. The results were promising as most estimated treetops were within 1-3 meters of the ground measurements and generally within 3-5m of the actual tree height. Finally, we are in the process of applying some allometric equations to estimate above ground biomass using some of the LiDAR-derived canopy metrics.

  9. Applying a weighted random forests method to extract karst sinkholes from LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Pierskalla, William P.

    2016-02-01

    Detailed mapping of sinkholes provides critical information for mitigating sinkhole hazards and understanding groundwater and surface water interactions in karst terrains. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measures the earth's surface in high-resolution and high-density and has shown great potentials to drastically improve locating and delineating sinkholes. However, processing LiDAR data to extract sinkholes requires separating sinkholes from other depressions, which can be laborious because of the sheer number of the depressions commonly generated from LiDAR data. In this study, we applied the random forests, a machine learning method, to automatically separate sinkholes from other depressions in a karst region in central Kentucky. The sinkhole-extraction random forest was grown on a training dataset built from an area where LiDAR-derived depressions were manually classified through a visual inspection and field verification process. Based on the geometry of depressions, as well as natural and human factors related to sinkholes, 11 parameters were selected as predictive variables to form the dataset. Because the training dataset was imbalanced with the majority of depressions being non-sinkholes, a weighted random forests method was used to improve the accuracy of predicting sinkholes. The weighted random forest achieved an average accuracy of 89.95% for the training dataset, demonstrating that the random forest can be an effective sinkhole classifier. Testing of the random forest in another area, however, resulted in moderate success with an average accuracy rate of 73.96%. This study suggests that an automatic sinkhole extraction procedure like the random forest classifier can significantly reduce time and labor costs and makes its more tractable to map sinkholes using LiDAR data for large areas. However, the random forests method cannot totally replace manual procedures, such as visual inspection and field verification.

  10. A universal airborne LiDAR approach for tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Mascaro, Joseph; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Vaudry, Romuald; Rasamoelina, Maminiaina; Hall, Jefferson S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2012-04-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is fast turning the corner from demonstration technology to a key tool for assessing carbon stocks in tropical forests. With its ability to penetrate tropical forest canopies and detect three-dimensional forest structure, LiDAR may prove to be a major component of international strategies to measure and account for carbon emissions from and uptake by tropical forests. To date, however, basic ecological information such as height-diameter allometry and stand-level wood density have not been mechanistically incorporated into methods for mapping forest carbon at regional and global scales. A better incorporation of these structural patterns in forests may reduce the considerable time needed to calibrate airborne data with ground-based forest inventory plots, which presently necessitate exhaustive measurements of tree diameters and heights, as well as tree identifications for wood density estimation. Here, we develop a new approach that can facilitate rapid LiDAR calibration with minimal field data. Throughout four tropical regions (Panama, Peru, Madagascar, and Hawaii), we were able to predict aboveground carbon density estimated in field inventory plots using a single universal LiDAR model (r ( 2 )=0.80, RMSE=27.6MgCha(-1)). This model is comparable in predictive power to locally calibrated models, but relies on limited inputs of basal area and wood density information for a given region, rather than on traditional plot inventories. With this approach, we propose to radically decrease the time required to calibrate airborne LiDAR data and thus increase the output of high-resolution carbon maps, supporting tropical forest conservation and climate mitigation policy. PMID:22033763

  11. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex predominate, especially in temperate regions. To facilitate high-throughput genome profiling and genetic mapping within the complex, we have developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT array for five grass species: F. pratensis, F. arundinacea, F. glaucescens, L. perenne and L. multiflorum. Results The DArTFest array contains 7680 probes derived from methyl-filtered genomic representations. In a first marker discovery experiment performed on 40 genotypes from each species (with the exception of F. glaucescens for which only 7 genotypes were used, we identified 3884 polymorphic markers. The number of DArT markers identified in every single genotype varied from 821 to 1852. To test the usefulness of DArTFest array for physical mapping, DArT markers were assigned to each of the seven chromosomes of F. pratensis using single chromosome substitution lines while recombinants of F. pratensis chromosome 3 were used to allocate the markers to seven chromosome bins. Conclusion The resources developed in this project will facilitate the development of genetic maps in Festuca and Lolium, the analysis on genetic diversity, and the monitoring of the genomic constitution of the Festuca Lolium hybrids. They will also enable marker-assisted selection for multiple traits or for specific genome regions.

  12. Combined use of LiDAR data and multispectral earth observation imagery for wetland habitat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapinel, Sbastien; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Clment, Bernard

    2015-05-01

    Although wetlands play a key role in controlling flooding and nonpoint source pollution, sequestering carbon and providing an abundance of ecological services, the inventory and characterization of wetland habitats are most often limited to small areas. This explains why the understanding of their ecological functioning is still insufficient for a reliable functional assessment on areas larger than a few hectares. While LiDAR data and multispectral Earth Observation (EO) images are often used separately to map wetland habitats, their combined use is currently being assessed for different habitat types. The aim of this study is to evaluate the combination of multispectral and multiseasonal imagery and LiDAR data to precisely map the distribution of wetland habitats. The image classification was performed combining an object-based approach and decision-tree modeling. Four multispectral images with high (SPOT-5) and very high spatial resolution (Quickbird, KOMPSAT-2, aerial photographs) were classified separately. Another classification was then applied integrating summer and winter multispectral image data and three layers derived from LiDAR data: vegetation height, microtopography and intensity return. The comparison of classification results shows that some habitats are better identified on the winter image and others on the summer image (overall accuracies = 58.5 and 57.6%). They also point out that classification accuracy is highly improved (overall accuracy = 86.5%) when combining LiDAR data and multispectral images. Moreover, this study highlights the advantage of integrating vegetation height, microtopography and intensity parameters in the classification process. This article demonstrates that information provided by the synergetic use of multispectral images and LiDAR data can help in wetland functional assessment

  13. Building Damage Assessment after Earthquake Using Post-Event LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastiveis, H.; Eslamizade, F.; Hosseini-Zirdoo, E.

    2015-12-01

    After an earthquake, damage assessment plays an important role in leading rescue team to help people and decrease the number of mortality. Damage map is a map that demonstrates collapsed buildings with their degree of damage. With this map, finding destructive buildings can be quickly possible. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for automatic damage map generation after an earthquake using post-event LiDAR Data and pre-event vector map. The framework of the proposed approach has four main steps. To find the location of all buildings on LiDAR data, in the first step, LiDAR data and vector map are registered by using a few number of ground control points. Then, building layer, selected from vector map, are mapped on the LiDAR data and all pixels which belong to the buildings are extracted. After that, through a powerful classifier all the extracted pixels are classified into three classes of "debris", "intact building" and "unclassified". Since textural information make better difference between "debris" and "intact building" classes, different textural features are applied during the classification. After that, damage degree for each candidate building is estimated based on the relation between the numbers of pixels labelled as "debris" class to the whole building area. Calculating the damage degree for each candidate building, finally, building damage map is generated. To evaluate the ability proposed method in generating damage map, a data set from Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital after the 2010 Haiti earthquake was used. In this case, after calculating of all buildings in the test area using the proposed method, the results were compared to the damage degree which estimated through visual interpretation of post-event satellite image. Obtained results were proved the reliability of the proposed method in damage map generation using LiDAR data.

  14. Es redundante la prueba de selectividad?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ra Vieytes, Antonio.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Como consecuencia de la futura reforma en las pruebas de acceso a la universidad espaola, en donde la principal novedad ser la eliminacin de la prueba de conjunto o selectividad, cabe reflexionar sobre tan controvertida prueba y preguntarnos si realmente dicha prueba ha servido para algo y su aplicacin ha sido efectiva en el rendimiento del alumno una vez dentro de la universidad o, por el contrario, si se trata de una prueba redundante. A partir del expediente acadmico y de las notas de selectividad de una muestra de 2.500 alumnos durante siete aos, se llevar a cabo un anlisis economtrico del grado de explicacin que estas notas tienen sobre la prueba de conjunto y se constatar si dicha prueba es efectiva o redundante.

  15. Geometrical parameters of E+S pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local environmental conditions (i.e., density and angular momentum properties of protogalactic clouds) are thought to be factors affecting the ultimate morphology of a galaxy. The existence of significant numbers of mixed morphology (E/SO+S) pairs of galaxies would represent a direct challenge to this idea. The authors have observed 22 pairs of mixed morphology galaxies selected from a catalog of Sulentic (1988: unpublished) based upon the ESO sky survey. The observed sample and relevant morphological and interaction characteristics are summarized in tabular form. The authors list the maximum values measured for the ellipticity and the a(4)/a shape parameter together with the total measured twisting along the profile beyond the seeing disk (they set an inner limit of 3 arcsed). An asterisk indicates objects in which a(4)/a is neither predominantly boxy nor disky. They found a large number of true mixed pairs with 13/22 E+S pairs in the present sample. The remaining objects include 5 disk pairs (composed of SO and S members) and 3 early-type pairs comprising E and SO members. They estimate that between 25 and 50 percent of the pairs in any complete sample will be of the E+S type. This suggests that 100 to 200 such pairs exist on the sky brighter than m sub pg = 16.0. They found no global evidence for a difference between E members of this sample and those in more general samples (e.g., Bender et al. 1989). In particular, they found that about 30 percent of the early-type galaxies cannot be classified either predominantly boxy or disky

  16. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's ?=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS. PMID:26250147

  17. Hydrodynamic Aspects at Vitria Bay Mouth, ES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FLVIA A.A., GARONCE; VALRIA S., QUARESMA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entender o comportamento hidrodinmico e o transporte de MPS de grande importncia em regies porturias como o Porto de Vitria, localizado na Baa de Vitria, Vitria-ES, Brasil. A Baa de Vitria, um esturio que nunca foi alvo de pesquisas sistemticas de anlise temporal com objetivo de ide [...] ntificar suas caractersticas hidrodinmicas e de troca de MPS. Assim, esse estudo visa investigar os fluxos de sal e MPS na desembocadura do esturio da baa de Vitria, atravs da compreenso da variao temporal da salinidade, temperatura e correntes ao longo da coluna d'gua e na seo transversal do canal. Os resultados mostraram que a desembocadura estuarina tendeu a apresentar uma estratificao parcial nos perodos de quadratura e pouca estratificao no perodo de sizgia. O padro de circulao neste trecho do esturio influenciado principalmente pela mar, com pequena influncia da descarga fluvial. Em relao ao MPS, a desembocadura do esturio mostrou uma tendncia de baixa concentrao, com os maiores valores ocorrendo durante a estao seca. Uma forte relao momentnea foi observada entre os fluxos de MPS e sal. Apesar de todos os dados terem sido coletados na desembocadura do esturio, o sistema mostrou uma importao de sal em todos os ciclos e importao de MPS em trs dos quatro ciclos de mar estudados. Assim a Baa de Vitria no est exportando MPS para a plataforma adjacente. Abstract in english Understading the hydrodynamic behavior and suspended particulated matter (SPM) transport are of great importance in port regions such as Vitria Harbor, which is located at Vitria Bay, Vitria ES, Brazil. Vitria Bay is an estuary that has not been systematically assessed through a temporal analy [...] sis in order to identify its hydrodynamics characteristics and SPM exchange. This study aims to investigate salt and suspended particulate matter flux at the estuarine mouth of Vitria Bay by understanding the temporal variation of salinity, temperature and tidal currents within the water column and at the channel crosssection. Results showed that the estuarine mouth tended to present partial stratification periods during neap tides and little stratification in spring tides. The circulation pattern was mainly influenced by the tide, with little influence from river discharge. With regard to the SPM, the mouth of the estuary tended to show low concentrations, with the highest values occurring during the dry season. A close relationship between momentary discharge, SPM and salt fluxes was observed. Despite all the data was collected at the mouth of the estuary, the system showed an importation trend of salt in all cycles and SPM importation for three of the four studied tidal cycles. Thus, Vitoria Bay is not exporting SPM to the adjacent inner shelf.

  18. Qu es la CIE y por qu es importante en la psicologa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Reed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Clasificacin Internacional de las Enfermedades (CIE de la Organizacin Mundial de Salud (OMS es muy poco conocida en el mbito de la psicologa en Espaa, y existe la falsa percepcin de que su importancia es escasa en el campo de la salud mental. El propsito de este artculo es familiarizar a los psiclogos y otros profesionales en salud mental con el sistema de clasificacin CIE, algo especialmente relevante al encontrarse actualmente en proceso de revisin. La OMS est haciendo un gran esfuerzo para crear una clasificacin de trastornos mentales global, multicultural y multidisciplinar, centrndose en mejorar su utilidad clnica. Adems, en la actual revisin de la CIE, la OMS ha adoptado el espaol como segunda lengua de trabajo, lo que da una gran oportunidad a los profesionales de la salud mental de Espaa y otros pases hispanohablantes de implicarse activamente en el desarrollo de la prxima versin de la clasificacin. Es importante que los psiclogos de pases hispanohablantes conozcan la CIE y entiendan los grandes beneficios que pueden aportarles su conocimiento y utilizacin para integrarse plenamente como profesin sanitaria oficial, as como para equipararse en la prctica de la psicologa al resto de Europa y de todo el mundo en trminos de diagnstico y clasificacin de los trastornos mentales.

  19. Hacia un teatro de cyborgs: Artes escnicas, tecnologa/s y subjetividad/es Crdoba-Argentina (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Cotaimich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artculo presenta una serie de reflexiones respecto a la incidencia performativa del desarrollo tecnolgico en la configuracn de las subjetividad/es contemporneas, en el contexto del capitalismo postindustrial, a travs de un anlisis cualitativo en torno al proceso de transformacin poltica y potica del teatro independiente en Crdoba-Argentina en la ltima dcada. Terica y metodlogicamente se retoman aportes de la Teatrologa, los Estudios de la Peformance, el Psicoanlisis y otros abordajes que indagan la relacin entre tecnologa/s y arte/s. Se describen ciertos efectos del uso de tecnologas numricas en diversas reas: dramaturgia, produccin escnica y gestin cultural, proponiendo reemplazar las categoras teatro virtual y teatro tecnolgico por teatro de cyborgs a los fines de dar cuenta de la diversidad y el carcter glocal de estos acontecimientos.

  20. Petrology, chemistry, and isotopic compositions of the Lunar highland regolith breccia Dar AL Gani 262

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, A.; Weber, D.; Clayton, R. N.; Faestermann, T.; Franchi, I. A.; Herpers, U.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Kubik, P. W.; Mayeda, T. K.; Merchel, S.; Michel, R.; Neumann, S.; Palme, H.; Pillinger, C. T.; Schultz, L.; Sexton, A. S.; Spettel, B.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Weber, H. W.; Weckwerth, G.; Wolf, D.

    1998-11-01

    Lunar meteorite Dar al Gani 262 (DG 262) found in the Libyan part of the Sahara is a mature, anorthositic regolith breccia with highland affinities. The origin from the Moon is undoubtedly indicated by its bulk chemical composition, radionuclide concentrations, noble gas, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopic compositions and petrographic features. Dar al Gani 262 is a typical anorthositic highland breccia similar in mineralogy and chemical composition to QUE93069. About 52 vol% of the studied thin sections of Dar al Gani 262 consist of fine-grained (smaller than ?100 microns) constituents, and 48 vol% is mineral and lithic clasts and impact melt veins. The most abundant clast types are feldspathic fine-grained to microporphyritic crystalline melt breccias (50.2 vol%; includes recrystallized melt breccias), whereas mafic crystalline melt breccias are extremely rare (1.4 vol%). Granulitic lithologies are 12.8 vol%, intragranularly recrystallized anorthosites and cataclastic anorthosites are 8.8 and 8.2 vol%, respectively, and (devitrified) glasses are 2.7 vol%. Impact melt veins (5.5 vol% of the whole thin sections) cutting across the entire thin section were probably formed subsequent to the lithification process of the bulk rock at pressures below 20 GPa, because the bulk rock never experienced a higher peak shock pressure. Mafic crystalline melt breccias are very rare in Dar al Gani 262 and similar in abundance to those in QUE93069. The extremely low abundance of mafic components and the bulk composition may constrain possible areas of the Moon from which the breccia was derived. The source area of Dar al Gani 262 must be a highland terrain lacking significant mafic impact melts or mare components. Based on radionuclide activities an irradiation position of DG 262 on the Moon at a depth of 55-85 g/cm3 and a maximum transit time to Earth less than 0.15 Ma is suggested. Dar al Gani 262 contains high concentrations of solar wind implanted noble gases. The isotopic abundance ratio 40Ar/36Ar concentrations of Ca, Ba, Cs, Br, and As. There is also a large amount of terrestrial carbon and some nitrogen in the sample, released at low temperatures during stepped heating. High concentrations of Ni, Co, and Ir indicate a significant meteoritic component in the lunar surface regolith from which DG 262 was derived.

  1. ES FUNDAMENTAL LA HERMENUTICA / Is Hermeneutics Fundamental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EMMANUEL, FALQUE.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se interroga el fundamento de la hermenutica del texto y lo que significa retomarla a la letra en filosofa y en teologa. Una hermenutica es fundamental si se afinca en un modo de existencia adecuado a su propsito, de modo que se diferencie mejor y sea identificada claramente. La hermen [...] utica protestante del sentido del texto y la hermenutica juda del cuerpo de la letra sern sustituidas aqu por una hermenutica catlica del texto del cuerpo, en una tentativa al menos programtica. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The article inquires into the basis of textual hermeneutics and what it means to apply it literally in philosophy and theology. Hermeneutics is fundamental if it is grounded in a mode of existence that is adequate to its purpose, so that it is better differentiated and clearly identified. T [...] he Protestant hermeneutics of the meaning of the text and the Jewish hermeneutics of the body of the letter are here replaced by a Catholic hermeneutics of the text of the body, in an attempt that is at least programmatic.

  2. Qu tan verde es tu mercado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar R. Olaya-Gonzlez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El mercado de lo verde y lo ecolgico es una tendencia indiscutible en nuestro mundo globalizado, que busca de alguna manera resarcir el dao infringido sobre el medio ambiente. Ms all de simple altruismo, la ecologa se ha convertido en una moda, de la cual unos y otros toman ventaja a su mejor acomodo, haciendo del mercado de productos y servicios su tribuna; eco-diseo, planes de responsabilidad social y ambiental, campaas por el reciclaje y consumo de productos "ms amigables" con el medio ambiente hacen parte del panorama que se intenta describir en esta resea. Por medio de un estudio de caso, se har nfasis en cmo la comunicacin asume un papel crucial en la verdadera apropiacin del concepto de "consumidor verde" y "consumidor responsable", de manera que la propuesta transversal de las tic se convierta en una herramienta no solo tecnolgica, sino tambin de empoderamiento del papel que la sociedad puede representar en el cuidado de los recursos naturales.

  3. Qu es la terapia de contexto?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Selvini Palazzoli

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los ms grandes, o tal vez el ms gran estudioso contemporneo del comportamiento humano, Gregory BATESON, en la introduccin a su libro Steps to an Ecology of Mind (Pasos hacia una ecologa de la mente, nos cuenta de sus esfuerzos para introducir a sus alumnos, jvenes psiquiatras, a enfrentar los problemas del comportamiento humano de un modo diferente al tradicional. Para este fin haba escogido un mtodo didctico particular, muy similar al mtodo socrtico. Les daba preguntas, aparentemente bizarras y observaba de qu manera los estudiantes buscaban la solucin. Una de tales preguntas, que result la ms estimulante, era la siguiente: Una madre tiene el hbito de premiar a su hijo con un helado si l es capaz de comerse toda la espinaca. Qu informacin ulterior necesitarn ustedes para poder predecir: si el nio terminar gustndole u odiando las espinacas, si el nio terminar gustndole u odiando el helado o si el nio terminar amando u odiando a su madre].

  4. El entrenamiento domiciliario en EPOC: es posible?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martn, Sivori.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El entrenamiento fsico es el principal componente de un programa de rehabilitacin respiratoria de pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crnicas que mejora la tolerancia al ejercicio, reduce los sntomas y mejora la calidad de vida. La mayor evidencia est basada en pacientes con EPOC y cumplid [...] o en hospitales o centros de salud de forma ambulatoria. La poca disponibilidad de programas o personal capacitado, la dificultad de acceso y sus costos, han generado en las ltimas dcadas estudios que intentan documentar los beneficios del entrenamiento fsico con base en el domicilio del paciente. Estudios con casi 400 pacientes con EPOC han demostrado su beneficio en comparacin al tratamiento estndar. Otros estudios con casi 500 pacientes con EPOC han comparado el entrenamiento domiciliario vs. el ambulatorio en centro de salud/hospital, demostrando similar impacto en calidad de vida, sntomas y tolerancia al ejercicio. A pesar de ello, todava quedan importantes preguntas por responder. El entrenamiento fsico domiciliario podra ser una herramienta complementaria en un programa de rehabilitacin respiratoria en aquellos pacientes con dificultad de acceso al mismo, o en aquellas regiones con poca disponibilidad de programas.

  5. DArT markers: diversity analyses, genomes comparison, mapping and integration with SSR markers in Triticum monococcum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huttner Eric

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triticum monococcum (2n = 2x = 14 is an ancient diploid wheat with many useful traits and is used as a model for wheat gene discovery. DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology employs a hybridisation-based approach to type thousands of genomic loci in parallel. DArT markers were developed for T. monococcum to assess genetic diversity, compare relationships with hexaploid genomes, and construct a genetic linkage map integrating DArT and microsatellite markers. Results A DArT array, consisting of 2304 hexaploid wheat, 1536 tetraploid wheat, 1536 T. monococcum as well as 1536 T. boeoticum representative genomic clones, was used to fingerprint 16 T. monococcum accessions of diverse geographical origins. In total, 846 polymorphic DArT markers were identified, of which 317 were of T. monococcum origin, 246 of hexaploid, 157 of tetraploid, and 126 of T. boeoticum genomes. The fingerprinting data indicated that the geographic origin of T. monococcum accessions was partially correlated with their genetic variation. DArT markers could also well distinguish the genetic differences amongst a panel of 23 hexaploid wheat and nine T. monococcum genomes. For the first time, 274 DArT markers were integrated with 82 simple sequence repeat (SSR and two morphological trait loci in a genetic map spanning 1062.72 cM in T. monococcum. Six chromosomes were represented by single linkage groups, and chromosome 4Am was formed by three linkage groups. The DArT and SSR genetic loci tended to form independent clusters along the chromosomes. Segregation distortion was observed for one third of the DArT loci. The Ba (black awn locus was refined to a 23.2 cM region between the DArT marker locus wPt-2584 and the microsatellite locus Xgwmd33 on 1Am; and the Hl (hairy leaf locus to a 4.0 cM region between DArT loci 376589 and 469591 on 5Am. Conclusion DArT is a rapid and efficient approach to develop many new molecular markers for genetic studies in T. monococcum. The constructed genetic linkage map will facilitate localisation and map-based cloning of genes of interest, comparative mapping as well as genome organisation and evolution studies between this ancient diploid species and other crops.

  6. Capabilities of the bathymetric Hawk Eye LiDAR for coastal habitat mapping: A case study within a Basque estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chust, Guillem; Grande, Maitane; Galparsoro, Ibon; Uriarte, Adolfo; Borja, ngel

    2010-10-01

    The bathymetric LiDAR system is an airborne laser that detects sea bottom at high vertical and horizontal resolutions in shallow coastal waters. This study assesses the capabilities of the airborne bathymetric LiDAR sensor (Hawk Eye system) for coastal habitat mapping in the Oka estuary (within the Biosphere Reserve of Urdaibai, SE Bay of Biscay, northern Spain), where water conditions are moderately turbid. Three specific objectives were addressed: 1) to assess the data quality of the Hawk Eye LiDAR, both for terrestrial and subtidal zones, in terms of height measurement density, coverage, and vertical accuracy; 2) to compare bathymetric LiDAR with a ship-borne multibeam echosounder (MBES) for different bottom types and depth ranges; and 3) to test the discrimination potential of LiDAR height and reflectance information, together with multi-spectral imagery (three visible and near infrared bands), for the classification of 22 salt marsh and rocky shore habitats, covering supralittoral, intertidal and subtidal zones. The bathymetric LiDAR Hawk Eye data enabled the generation of a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Oka estuary, at 2 m of horizontal spatial resolution in the terrestrial zone (with a vertical accuracy of 0.15 m) and at 4 m within the subtidal, extending a water depth of 21 m. Data gaps occurred in 14.4% of the area surveyed with the LiDAR (13.69 km 2). Comparison of the LiDAR system and the MBES showed no significant mean difference in depth. However, the Root Mean Square error of the former was high (0.84 m), especially concentrated upon rocky (0.55-1.77 m) rather than in sediment bottoms (0.38-0.62 m). The potential of LiDAR topographic variables and reflectance alone for discriminating 15 intertidal and submerged habitats was low (with overall classification accuracy between 52.4 and 65.4%). In particular, reflectance retrieved for this case study has been found to be not particularly useful for classification purposes. The combination of the LiDAR-based DEM and derived topographical features with the near infrared and visible bands has permitted the mapping of 22 supralittoral, intertidal and subtidal habitats of the Oka estuary, with high overall classification accuracies of between 84.5% and 92.1%, using the maximum likelihood algorithm. The airborne bathymetric Hawk Eye LiDAR, although somewhat limited by water turbidity and wave breaking, provides unique height information obscured from topographic LiDAR and acoustic systems, together with an improvement of the habitat mapping reliability in the complex and dynamic coastal fringe.

  7. Analysis of the Influence of Plot Size and LiDAR Density on Forest Structure Attribute Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Luis A.; Txomin Hermosilla; Francisco Mauro; Miguel Godino

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the combined effect of field plot size and LiDAR density on the estimation of four forest structure attributes: volume, total biomass, basal area and canopy cover. A total of 21 different plot sizes were considered, obtained by decreasing the field measured plot radius value from 25 to 5 m with regular intervals of 1 m. LiDAR data densities were simulated by randomly removing LiDAR pulses until reaching nine different density values. In order to avoid influence of the digi...

  8. An example for the application of music therapy in the medical history: Divrigi Darüssifa

    OpenAIRE

    Benek, Selim Bedri; BAYRAM, Recep; Şakar, Hakan; Gümüştekin, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    The Seljuks built up so many medical buildings and darüssifas in lots of cities, and gave importance to medicina as well as the other branches of science. They provided great contributions to the development of modern medicine with darüssifas and medical centers by the treatment they applied as well as health care. Music therapy was applied with certain methods in these health centers where mental and spiritual diseases were tried to be treated. Sivas Divrigi Darüssifa, amongst the first ones...

  9. Analysis of the Influence of Plot Size and LiDAR Density on Forest Structure Attribute Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Luis A.; Txomin Hermosilla; Francisco Mauro; Miguel Godino

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the combined effect of field plot size and LiDAR density on the estimation of four forest structure attributes: volume, total biomass, basal area and canopy cover. A total of 21 different plot sizes were considered, obtained by decreasing the field measured plot radius value from 25 to 5 m with regular intervals of 1 m. LiDAR data densities were simulated by randomly removing LiDAR pulses until reaching nine different density values. In order to avoid influe...

  10. Contour Cluster Shape Analysis for Building Damage Detection from Post-earthquake Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Meizhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of the damaged building is the obligatory step prior to evaluate earthquake casualty and economic losses. It's very difficult to detect damaged buildings accurately based on the assumption that intact roofs appear in laser data as large planar segments whereas collapsed roofs are characterized by many small segments. This paper presents a contour cluster shape similarity analysis algorithm for reliable building damage detection from the post-earthquake airborne LiDAR point cloud. First we evaluate the entropies of shape similarities between all the combinations of two contour lines within a building cluster, which quantitatively describe the shape diversity. Then the maximum entropy model is employed to divide all the clusters into intact and damaged classes. The tests on the LiDAR data at El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake rupture prove the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method.

  11. Characterization of Forest Ecosystems by combined Radiative Transfer Modeling for Imaging Spectrometer and LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetz, B.; Sun, G.; Morsdorf, F.; Rubio, J.; Kimes, D.; Ranson, J.

    2009-04-01

    This research was motivated by the increased information dimensionality provided by current Earth Observation systems measuring the complex and dynamic medium of the vegetated surface of the Earth. Advanced and reliable algorithms that fully exploit this enhanced Earth Observation information are needed to deliver consistent data sets of the Earth vegetation condition describing its spatial distribution and change over time. Spectral observation provided by imaging spectrometers and the waveform from large-footprint LiDAR are now available from space for forest ecosystem studies. The imaging spectrometer data contains information about the biochemical composition of the canopy foliage, and is widely used to estimate biophysical canopy parameters such as LAI and fractional cover. LiDAR responds to the vertical distribution of scatters and permits inferences about the plant structures required to supply water and mechanical support to those surfaces. Various canopy height indices derived from LiDAR waveform have been successfully used to infer forest above-ground biomass and the characterization of canopy structure. The structure parameters derived from LiDAR data can improve the accuracy and robustness of canopy parameter retrieval from imaging spectrometer by reducing uncertainties related to the canopy structure. The specific information content, inherent to the observations of imaging spectrometry and LIDAR, assesses thus different but complementary characteristics of the complex vegetation canopy. The combination of these two information dimensions offers a unique and reliable canopy characterization including information relevant to different aspects of the biochemical and biophysical properties and thus understanding of processes within forest ecosystems. A comprehensive canopy characterization of a forest ecosystem is derived from the combined remote sensing signal of imaging spectrometry and large footprint LIDAR. The inversion of two linked physically based Radiative Transfer Models (RTM) provided the platform for synergistically exploiting the specific and independent information dimensions obtained by the two earth observation systems. The proposed research relies on a radiative transfer model adapted to imaging spectrometer data (GeoSAIL) and a LiDAR waveform model based on the same 3D canopy structure. Both the GeoSAIL and LiDAR waveform models have already been employed and validated to retrieve forest properties from Imaging Spectrometer and LiDAR data separately. As these models are based on the same basic physical concept and share common input parameters an interface between these models can be established, which allows for the generation of a Look Up Table (LUT) consisting of the simulated signatures of the Imaging Spectrometer and LiDAR as a function of a common forest stand parameterization. In the presented approach, the specific information content inherent to the observations of the respective sensor was not only able to complement the canopy characterization, but also helped to solve the ill-posed problem of the RTM inversion. A comprehensive data set including EO and field data has been available for the validation of the proposed earth observation concept over a mixed hardwood and softwood forest part of the Northern Experimental Forest (NEF), Howland, Maine (4515'N, 6845'W). The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) acquired full waveform data over the site in the summer of 2003 as part of a NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program aircraft campaign. Further the Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) on the ESA platform Proba data acquired imaging spectrometer data in 2006-08. As reference data every tree in a 200m by 150m area was measured for its location, dbh, and species in 1990, and was re-measured in 2003-2004 and 2006. The field data has been complemented by hemispherical photographs characterizing the canopy structure as well as with field spectrometer measurements of the optical properties for relevant scatters and background. The presented approach provides robust estimates

  12. Exclusive DD¯${m{Dar D}}$ meson pair production in peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luszczak Marta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross sections for exclusive D+D- and DD¯${D^0ar D^0}$ meson pair production in peripheral nucleus - nucleus collisions are calculated and several differential distributions are presented. The calculation of the elementary γγ → DD¯${m{Dar D}}$ cross section is done within the heavy-quark approximation and in the Brodsky- Lapage formalism with distribution amplitudes describing recent CLEO data on leptonic D+ decay. Absorption effects are discussed and quantified. The cross sections of a few nb are predicted for RHIC and of a few hundreds of nb for LHC with details depending on the approximation made in calculating elementary γγ → DD¯${m{Dar D}}$ cross sections.

  13. IsoDAR@KamLAND: A Conceptual Design Report for the Technical Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Abs, M; Alonso, J R; Axani, S; Barletta, W A; Barlow, R; Bartoszek, L; Bungau, A; Calabretta, L; Calanna, A; Campo, D; Castro, G; Celona, L; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Gammino, S; Johnson, R; Karagiorgi, G; Kayser, S; Kleeven, W; Kolano, A; Labrecque, F; Loinaz, W A; Minervini, J; Moulai, M H; Okuno, H; Owen, H; Papavassiliou, V; Shaevitz, M H; Shimizu, I; Shokair, T M; Sorensen, K F; Spitz, J; Toups, M; Vagins, M; Van Bibber, K; Wascko, M O; Winklehner, D; Winslow, L A; Yang, J J

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual design report describes the technical facility for the IsoDAR electron-antineutrino source at KamLAND. The IsoDAR source will allow an impressive program of neutrino oscillation and electroweak physics to be performed at KamLAND. This report provides information on the physics case, the conceptual design for the subsystems, alternative designs considered, specifics of installation at KamLAND, and identified needs for future development. We discuss the risks we have identified and our approach to mitigating those risks with this design. A substantial portion of the conceptual design is based on three years of experimental efforts and on industry experience. This report also includes information on the conventional facilities.

  14. La diversidad (in)visible: Identidad(es) entre policas bonaerenses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jos, Garriga Zucal; Mariano, Melotto.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artculo analizamos cmo se construye el nosotros policial, entendiendo que el mismo no responde a una construccin estable y perenne propia de una esencia ontolgica invariable del ser policial; sino que, por el contrario, es el resultado voluble y mutante de las mltiples relaciones so [...] ciales. Para dar cuenta de esta construccin estudiaremos algunos clivajes internos de la institucin policial, exhibiendo la diversidad de vnculos sociales existentes en el interior de una grupalidad que se presenta como homognea. La imagen del verdadero polica, idealizacin del hacer policial y su representacin, nos permitir rastrear la construccin de una distincin para con la sociedad, al mismo tiempo, que pondr luz sobre la heterogeneidad opacada. Abstract in english In this article we analyze how the "we" police is built, understanding that it does not respond to a stable and permanent construction, typical of an invariable ontological essence of "being police", but on the contrary, it is the result of fickle and mutant multiple social relations. To account for [...] this construction we will study some police internal cleavages, showing the diversity of existing social ties within a groupality presented as homogeneous. The image of the "real police", idealized representation of police doing, will allow us to track the construction of a distinction to society, at the same time it will light up the obscured heterogeneity.

  15. LiDAR Sampling Density for Forest Resource Inventories in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Etheridge; Dave Nesbitt; Doug Pitt; Paul Treitz; Kevin Lim; Murray Woods

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been an abundance of research demonstrating the utility of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) for predicting forest biophysical/inventory variables at the plot and stand levels. However, to date there has been little effort to develop a set of protocols for data acquisition and processing that would move governments or the forest industry towards cost-effective implementation of this technology for strategic and tactical (i.e., operational) forest...

  16. Structural effects of liana presence in secondary tropical dry forests using ground LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    A. Snchez-Azofeifa; Portillo-Quintero, C.; S. M. Durn

    2015-01-01

    Lianas, woody vines, are a key component of tropical forest because they may reduce carbon storage potential. Lianas are increasing in density and biomass in tropical forests, but it is unknown what the potential consequences of these increases are for forest dynamics. Lianas may proliferate in disturbed areas, such as regenerating forests, but little is known about the role of lianas in secondary succession. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the ground LiDAR to d...

  17. 3D turbulence measurements in inhomogeneous boundary layers with three wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Port-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in atmospheric anemometry is obtaining reliable turbulence measurements of inhomogeneous boundary layers at heights or in locations where is not possible or convenient to install tower-based measurement systems, e.g. mountainous terrain, cities, wind farms, etc. Wind LiDARs are being extensively used for the measurement of averaged vertical wind profiles, but they can only successfully accomplish this task under the limiting conditions of flat terrain and horizontally homogeneous flow. Moreover, it has been shown that common scanning strategies introduce large systematic errors in turbulence measurements, regardless of the characteristics of the flow addressed. From the point of view of research, there exist a variety of techniques and scanning strategies to estimate different turbulence quantities but most of them rely in the combination of raw measurements with atmospheric models. Most of those models are only valid under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. The limitations stated above can be overcome by a new triple LiDAR technique which uses simultaneous measurements from three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. It allows for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector in time as well as local velocity gradients without the need of any turbulence model and with minimal assumptions [EGU2013-9670]. The triple LiDAR technique has been applied to the study of the flow over the campus of EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland). The results show the potential of the technique for the measurement of turbulence in highly complex boundary layer flows. The technique is particularly useful for micrometeorology and wind engineering studies.

  18. A LiDAR method of canopy structure retrieval for wind modeling of heterogeneous forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Etienne; Bechmann, Andreas; Taryainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Shendryk, Iurii; Dellwik, Ebba

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty of obtaining accurate information about the canopy structure is a current limitation towards higher accuracy in numerical predictions of the wind field in forested terrain. The canopy structure in computational fluid dynamics is specified through the frontal area density and this information is required for each grid point in the three-dimensional computational domain. By using raw data from aerial LiDAR scans together with the Beer-Lambert law, we propose and test a method to cal...

  19. Risky Sexual Behaviour among Big Construction Enterprise Workers; Bahir Dar City, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekibib Kassa; Eleni Tesfaye; Zelalem Alamrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Risky sexual behaviors are the major factors in rising sexually transmitted infections among adolescents and young adults. In Ethiopia construction industry is on increasing and deriving young people from rural area to the cities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour and factors associated with among construction workers. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in March 2012 among construction workers in Bahir Dar city. ...

  20. NASA Goddards LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) Airborne Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Ross F.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Morton, Douglas C.; McCorkel, Joel T.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Ly, Vuong; Montesano, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of LiDAR and optical remotely sensed data provides unique information about ecosystem structure and function. Here, we describe the development, validation and application of a new airborne system that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR hyperspectral and thermal components in a compact, lightweight and portable system. Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) airborne imager is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation structure, foliar spectra and surface temperatures at very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 m) on a wide range of airborne platforms. The complementary nature of LiDAR, optical and thermal data provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms to map plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass and carbon stocks, and plant growth. In addition, G-LiHT data enhance our ability to validate data from existing satellite missions and support NASA Earth Science research. G-LiHT's data processing and distribution system is designed to give scientists open access to both low- and high-level data products (http://gliht.gsfc.nasa.gov), which will stimulate the community development of synergistic data fusion algorithms. G-LiHT has been used to collect more than 6,500 km2 of data for NASA-sponsored studies across a broad range of ecoregions in the USA and Mexico. In this paper, we document G-LiHT design considerations, physical specifications, instrument performance and calibration and acquisition parameters. In addition, we describe the data processing system and higher-level data products that are freely distributed under NASA's Data and Information policy.

  1. Identification of four Drosophila allatostatins as the cognate ligands for the Drosophila orphan receptor DAR-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, C; Williamson, M; Hansen, G N; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2001-01-01

    -Pro-Gln-Pro-Phe-Asn-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH(2)) is the most effective in causing a second messenger cascade (measured as bioluminescence; threshold, 10(-9) M; EC(50), 10(-8) M), whereas the others are less effective and about equally potent (EC(50), 8 x 10(-8) M). Northern blots showed that the DAR-2 gene is expressed in embryos, larvae...

  2. Single Pass LiDAR-derived Estimate of Site Productivity in Western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, E.; Hilker, T.; Waring, R. H.; Sousa, C. H. R. D.; Moura, Y. M.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimates of forest growth at different ages are essential to evaluate the effect of a changing climate and to adjust management practices accordingly. Most current approaches are spatially discrete and therefore unable to predict forest growth accurately across landscapes. While airborne LiDAR has been widely used in forestry, it can only estimate growth rates with repeated passes. In contrast, Landsat imagery records disturbances (at 30 m resolution) but is unable to measure changes in growth rates. Historical archives of Landsat imagery provided us a way of knowing when and where even-aged stands of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) were cut and replanted. Since early growth rates are nearly linear with age, the height of dominant trees recorded in one pass by LiDAR yields a direct measure of growth and likely changes as stands age under recent climatic conditions. Process-based growth models are available to assess possible shifts in the growth rates of stands under a changing climate; the accuracy of such model predictions can be evaluated with additional LiDAR coverage. In this study we use the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth Model (3-PG) to estimate site index at the landscape level to predict site productivity based on the year of stand establishment obtained from Landsat, and one-pass airborne LiDAR measurement of forest height. We are monitoring forest plantations of known ages and with data on their current age we will calculate site index for 60 separate sites across western Oregon. The results of this study will allow us to create updated site index maps for the state of Oregon under varying climate scenarios.

  3. Drainage Structure Datasets and Effects on LiDAR-Derived Surface Flow Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ruopu Li; Zhenghong Tang; Xu Li; Jessie Winter

    2013-01-01

    With extraordinary resolution and accuracy, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) have been increasingly used for watershed analyses and modeling by hydrologists, planners and engineers. Such high-accuracy DEMs have demonstrated their effectiveness in delineating watershed and drainage patterns at fine scales in low-relief terrains. However, these high-resolution datasets are usually only available as topographic DEMs rather than hydrologic DEMs, present...

  4. Quantifying Dynamics in Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Biomass with Multi-Temporal LiDAR Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Siegert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat swamp forests in Indonesia store huge amounts of carbon and are responsible for enormous carbon emissions every year due to forest degradation and deforestation. These forest areas are in the focus of REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks projects, which require an accurate monitoring of their carbon stocks or aboveground biomass (AGB. Our study objective was to evaluate multi-temporal LiDAR measurements of a tropical forested peatland area in Central Kalimantan on Borneo. Canopy height and AGB dynamics were quantified with a special focus on unaffected, selective logged and burned forests. More than 11,000ha were surveyed with airborne LiDAR in 2007 and 2011. In a first step, the comparability of these datasets was examined and canopy height models were created. Novel AGB regression models were developed on the basis of field inventory measurements and LiDAR derived height histograms for 2007 (r2 = 0.77, n = 79 and 2011 (r2 = 0.81, n = 53, taking the different point densities into account. Changes in peat swamp forests were identified by analyzing multispectral imagery. Unaffected forests accumulated on average 20 t/ha AGB with a canopy height increase of 2.3 m over the four year time period. Selective logged forests experienced an average AGB loss of 55 t/ha within 30 m and 42 t/ha within 50 m of detected logging trails, although the mean canopy height increased by 0.5 m and 1.0 m, respectively. Burned forests lost 92% of the initial biomass. These results demonstrate the great potential of repetitive airborne LiDAR surveys to precisely quantify even small scale AGB and canopy height dynamics in remote tropical forests, thereby featuring the needs ofREDD+.

  5. Strategies for minimizing sample size for use in airborne LiDAR-based forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Virpi; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.; Kauranne, Tuomo

    2013-01-01

    Recently airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) has emerged as a highly accurate remote sensing modality to be used in operational scale forest inventories. Inventories conducted with the help of LiDAR are most often model-based, i.e. they use variables derived from LiDAR point clouds as the predictive variables that are to be calibrated using field plots. The measurement of the necessary field plots is a time-consuming and statistically sensitive process. Because of this, current practice often presumes hundreds of plots to be collected. But since these plots are only used to calibrate regression models, it should be possible to minimize the number of plots needed by carefully selecting the plots to be measured. In the current study, we compare several systematic and random methods for calibration plot selection, with the specific aim that they be used in LiDAR based regression models for forest parameters, especially above-ground biomass. The primary criteria compared are based on both spatial representativity as well as on their coverage of the variability of the forest features measured. In the former case, it is important also to take into account spatial auto-correlation between the plots. The results indicate that choosing the plots in a way that ensures ample coverage of both spatial and feature space variability improves the performance of the corresponding models, and that adequate coverage of the variability in the feature space is the most important condition that should be met by the set of plots collected.

  6. Reduction of training costs using active classification in fused hyperspectral and LiDAR data

    OpenAIRE

    Wuttke, Sebastian; Schilling, Hendrik; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for the reduction of training costs in classification with co-registered hyperspectral (HS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data using an active classification framework. Fully automatic classification can be achieved by unsupervised learning, which is not suited for adjustment to specific classes. On the other hand, supervised classification with predefined classes needs a lot of training examples, which need to be labeled with the ground truth, u...

  7. Laser remote sensing applications (LiDAR) in forest hydrology and the management of river ecosystems.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Romero, Roberto; Merino De Miguel, Silvia; Magdaleno Mas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    La utilizacin de sensores lser desde plataformas areas (LiDAR) ofrece nuevas posibilidades en el cartografiado de sistemas fluviales, tanto en reas densamente cubiertas por vegetacin, como en aquellas que presentan una escasa cubierta. La informacin topogrfica de alta resolucin que se obtiene a partir de las medidas lser puede ser utilizada en el anlisis y estimacin de diversas variables hidrolgicas, y en el estudio de diferentes componentes del medio fluvial. Entre stas, cabe ci...

  8. Estimating Volume, Biomass, and Carbon in Hedmark County, Norway Using a Profiling LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross; Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, T.; Gregoire, T.; Stahl, G.

    2009-01-01

    A profiling airborne LiDAR is used to estimate the forest resources of Hedmark County, Norway, a 27390 square kilometer area in southeastern Norway on the Swedish border. One hundred five profiling flight lines totaling 9166 km were flown over the entire county; east-west. The lines, spaced 3 km apart north-south, duplicate the systematic pattern of the Norwegian Forest Inventory (NFI) ground plot arrangement, enabling the profiler to transit 1290 circular, 250 square meter fixed-area NFI ground plots while collecting the systematic LiDAR sample. Seven hundred sixty-three plots of the 1290 plots were overflown within 17.8 m of plot center. Laser measurements of canopy height and crown density are extracted along fixed-length, 17.8 m segments closest to the center of the ground plot and related to basal area, timber volume and above- and belowground dry biomass. Linear, nonstratified equations that estimate ground-measured total aboveground dry biomass report an R(sup 2) = 0.63, with an regression RMSE = 35.2 t/ha. Nonstratified model results for the other biomass components, volume, and basal area are similar, with R(sup 2) values for all models ranging from 0.58 (belowground biomass, RMSE = 8.6 t/ha) to 0.63. Consistently, the most useful single profiling LiDAR variable is quadratic mean canopy height, h (sup bar)(sub qa). Two-variable models typically include h (sup bar)(sub qa) or mean canopy height, h(sup bar)(sub a), with a canopy density or a canopy height standard deviation measure. Stratification by productivity class did not improve the nonstratified models, nor did stratification by pine/spruce/hardwood. County-wide profiling LiDAR estimates are reported, by land cover type, and compared to NFI estimates.

  9. Step by step error assessment in braided river sediment budget using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallias-Tacon, S.; Libault, F.; Pigay, H.

    2014-06-01

    Sequential airborne LiDAR surveys were used to reconstruct the sediment budget of a 7-km-long braided river channel in southeastern France following a 14-year return period flood and to improve its accuracy step by step. Data processing involved (i) surface matching of the sequential point clouds, (ii) spatially distributed propagation of uncertainty based on surface conditions of the channel, and (iii) water depth subtraction from the digital elevation models based on water depths measured in the field. The respective influence of each processing step on sediment budget computation was systematically documented. This showed that surface matching and water depth subtraction both have a considerable effect on the net sediment budget. Although DEM of difference thresholding based on uncertainty analysis on absolute elevation values had a smaller effect on the sediment budget, this step is crucial for the production of a comprehensive map of channel deformations. A large independent data set of RTK-GPS checkpoints was used to control the quality of the LiDAR altimetry. The results showed that high density (7-9 points/m2) airborne LiDAR surveys can provide a very high level of detection of elevation changes on the exposed surfaces of the channel, with a 95% confidence interval level of detection between 19 and 30 cm. Change detection from LiDAR data revealed that 54% of the pre-flood active channel was reworked by the flood. The braided channel pattern was highly disturbed by the flood owing to the occurrence of several channel avulsions.

  10. Algorithm for Extracting Digital Terrain Models under Forest Canopy from Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasi S. Maguya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracting digital elevationmodels (DTMs from LiDAR data under forest canopy is a challenging task. This is because the forest canopy tends to block a portion of the LiDAR pulses from reaching the ground, hence introducing gaps in the data. This paper presents an algorithm for DTM extraction from LiDAR data under forest canopy. The algorithm copes with the challenge of low data density by generating a series of coarse DTMs by using the few ground points available and using trend surfaces to interpolate missing elevation values in the vicinity of the available points. This process generates a cloud of ground points from which the final DTM is generated. The algorithm has been compared to two other algorithms proposed in the literature in three different test sites with varying degrees of difficulty. Results show that the algorithm presented in this paper is more tolerant to low data density compared to the other two algorithms. The results further show that with decreasing point density, the differences between the three algorithms dramatically increased from about 0.5m to over 10m.

  11. Data-Driven Approach to Benthic Cover Type Classification Using Bathymetric LiDAR Waveform Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Kumpumki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A data-driven method for describing the benthic cover type based on full-waveform bathymetric LiDAR data analysis is presented. The waveform of the bathymetric LiDAR return pulse is first modeled as a sum of three functions: a Gaussian pulse representing the surface return, a function modeling the backscatter and another Gaussian pulse modeling the return from the bottom surface. Two sets of variables are formed: one containing features describing the bottom return and the other describing various conditions, such as water quality and the depth of the seabed. Regression analysis is used to eliminate the effect of the condition variables on the features, after which the features are mapped onto a cell lattice using a self-organizing map (SOM. The cells of the SOM are grouped into seven clusters using the neighborhood distance matrix method. The clustering result is evaluated using the seabed substrate map based on sonar measurements, as well as delineation of photic zones in the study area. High correspondence between the clusters and the substrate type/photic zone has been obtained indicating that the proposed clustering method adequately describes the benthic cover in the study area. The bottom return pulse waveforms corresponding to the clusters and a cluster map of the study area are also presented. The method can be used for clustering full waveform bathymetric LiDAR data acquired from large areas to discover the structure of benthic cover types and to focus the field studies accordingly.

  12. A Comparison of Two Open Source LiDAR Surface Classification Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny G Marks

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the progression of LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging towards a mainstream resource management tool, it has become necessary to understand how best to process and analyze the data. While most ground surface identification algorithms remain proprietary and have high purchase costs; a few are openly available, free to use, and are supported by published results. Two of the latter are the multiscale curvature classification and the Boise Center Aerospace Laboratory LiDAR (BCAL algorithms. This study investigated the accuracy of these two algorithms (and a combination of the two to create a digital terrain model from a raw LiDAR point cloud in a semi-arid landscape. Accuracy of each algorithm was assessed via comparison with >7,000 high precision survey points stratified across six different cover types. The overall performance of both algorithms differed by only 2%; however, within specific cover types significant differences were observed in accuracy. The results highlight the accuracy of both algorithms across a variety of vegetation types, and ultimately suggest specific scenarios where one approach may outperform the other. Each algorithm produced similar results except in the ceanothus and conifer cover types where BCAL produced lower errors.

  13. High-Density LiDAR Mapping of the Ancient City of Mayapn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Hare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2013 survey of a 40 square kilometer area surrounding Mayapn, Yucatan, Mexico used high-density LiDAR data to map prehispanic architecture and related natural features. Most of the area is covered by low canopy dense forest vegetation over karstic hilly terrain that impedes full coverage archaeological survey. We used LiDAR at 40 laser points per square meter to generate a bare earth digital elevation model (DEM. Results were evaluated with comparisons to previously mapped areas and with traditional archaeological survey methods for 38 settlement clusters outside of the city wall. Ground checking employed full coverage survey of selected 500 m grid squares, as well as documentation of the chronology and detail of new public and domestic settlement features and cenotes. Results identify the full extent of continued, contemporary Postclassic settlement (A.D. 11501450 outside of the city wall to at least 500 meters to the east, north, and west. New data also reveal an extensive modified landscape of terraformed residential hills, rejolladas, and dense settlement dating from Preclassic through Classic Periods. The LiDAR data also allow for the identification of rooms, benches, and stone property walls and lanes within the city.

  14. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingquan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  15. Downstream hydraulic geometry relationships: Gathering reference reach-scale width values from LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, G.; Tarolli, P.; Cazorzi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the ability of LiDAR topography to provide reach-scale width values for the analysis of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships along some streams in the Dolomites (northern Italy). Multiple reach-scale dimensions can provide representative geometries and statistics characterising the longitudinal variability in the channel, improving the understanding of geomorphic processes across networks. Starting from the minimum curvature derived from a LiDAR DTM, the proposed algorithm uses a statistical approach for the identification of the scale of analysis, and for the automatic characterisation of reach-scale bankfull widths. The downstream adjustment in channel morphology is then related to flow parameters (drainage area and stream power). With the correct planning of a LiDAR survey, uncertainties in the procedure are principally due to the resolution of the DTM. The outputs are in general comparable in quality to field survey measurements, and the procedure allows the quick comparison among different watersheds. The proposed automatic approach could improve knowledge about river systems with highly variable widths, and about systems in areas covered by vegetation or inaccessible to field surveys. With proven effectiveness, this research could offer an interesting starting point for the analysis of differences between watersheds, and to improve knowledge about downstream channel adjustment in relation, for example, to scale and landscape forcing (e.g. sediment transport, tectonics, lithology, climate, geomorphology, and anthropic pressure).

  16. Automatic extraction of highway light poles and towers from mobile LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Morsy, Salem; Shaker, Ahmed; Tulloch, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Mobile LiDAR has been recently demonstrated as a viable technique for pole-like object detection and classification. Despite that a desirable accuracy (around 80%) has been reported in the existing studies, majority of them were presented in the street level with relatively flat ground and very few of them addressed how to extract the entire pole structure from the ground or curb surface. Therefore, this paper attempts to fill the research gap by presenting a workflow for automatic extraction of light poles and towers from mobile LiDAR data point cloud, with a particular focus on municipal highway. The data processing workflow includes (1) an automatic ground filtering mechanism to separate aboveground and ground features, (2) an unsupervised clustering algorithm to cluster the aboveground data point cloud, (3) a set of decision rules to identify and classify potential light poles and towers, and (4) a least-squares circle fitting algorithm to fit the circular pole structure so as to remove the ground points. The workflow was tested with a set of mobile LiDAR data collected for a section of highway 401 located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The results showed that the proposed method can achieve an over 91% of detection rate for five types of light poles and towers along the study area.

  17. Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth's surface revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past decade has seen an explosive increase in the number of peer reviewed papers reporting new scientific findings in geomorphology (including fans, channels, floodplains and landscape evolution), geologic mapping, tectonics and faulting, coastal processes, lava flows, hydrology (especially snow and runoff routing), glaciers and geo-archaeology. A common genesis of such findings is often newly available decimeter resolution bare Earth geodetic images, derived from airborne laser swath mapping, a.k.a. airborne LiDAR, observations. In this paper we trace nearly a half century of advances in geodetic science made possible by space age technology, such as the invention of short-pulse-length high-pulse-rate lasers, solid state inertial measurement units, chip-based high speed electronics and the GPS satellite navigation system, that today make it possible to map hundreds of square kilometers of terrain in hours, even in areas covered with dense vegetation or shallow water. To illustrate the impact of the LiDAR observations we present examples of geodetic images that are not only stunning to the eye, but help researchers to develop quantitative models explaining how terrain evolved to its present form, and how it will likely change with time. Airborne LiDAR technology continues to develop quickly, promising ever more scientific discoveries in the years ahead. (review article)

  18. Phylogenetic Relationships between Four Salix L. Species Based on DArT Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Przyborowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of DArT markers in genotypic identification of willow species and describe genetic relationships between four willow species: Salix viminalis, S. purpurea, S. alba and S. triandra. The experimental plant material comprised 53 willow genotypes of these four species, which are popularly grown in Poland. DArT markers seem to identify Salix species with a high degree of accuracy. As a result, the examined species were divided into four distinct groups which corresponded to the four analyzed species. In our study, we observed that S. triandra was very different genetically from the other species, including S. alba which is generally classified into the same subgenus of Salix. The above corroborates the findings of other authors who relied on molecular methods to reveal that the classification of S. triandra to the subgenus Salix was erroneous. The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA and the neighbor-joining dendrogram also confirmed the clear division of the studied willow genotypes into four clusters corresponding to individual species. This confirmed the usefulness of DArT markers in taxonomic analyses and identification of willow species.

  19. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively. PMID:25207868

  20. Fusion of waveform LiDAR data and hyperspectral imagery for land cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhou; Glennie, Craig

    2015-10-01

    Current research into the fusion of hyperspectral imagery (HI) and full waveform LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) has relied on first processing the full waveform LiDAR (FWL) data to a set of discrete returns before merging because the data structure and sampling interval of HI and FWL are distinctly different. However, additional information about target properties can potentially be recovered if the waveform shape is preserved in the fusion process. This paper proposes a "voxelization" method to register FWL data to HI by dividing the waveform data into voxels, and then synthesizing all waveforms which intersect a voxel column into one three-dimensional superposition waveform: the synthesized waveform (SWF). A vertical energy distribution coefficients (VEDC) feature is proposed for extracting features from SWF, and then the SWF and HI are fused to form a complete feature space for classification. A pairwise classifier was adapted and completed using both Maximum Likelihood and Support Vector Machine classifiers for the combined SWF/HI features. Results show that this method of generating SWF from FWL data can effectively preserve information from the original waveforms, and the fusion of SWF and HI enhanced land cover classification compared to both using either data set alone or the merging of HI with a discrete LiDAR return point cloud.

  1. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by ...

  2. 2006 US Army Corps of Engineers(USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program, Great Lakes Topo/Bathy LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collects and maintains LiDAR data including orthophotos in coastal areas of the United States and its territories. The Corps...

  3. LIDAR Products, LiDAR, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Dodge County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) This LIDAR Products dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of 2006. It is described as 'LiDAR'. Data...

  4. 2005 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Post-Hurricane Katrina LiDAR: Mississippi and Western Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce LiDAR data was acquired for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District in September-October 2005 along the coastline of Hancock, Harrison, Jackson...

  5. 2007 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) LiDAR: Northwest Oregon and Portland Metro Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) and the Oregon...

  6. 2013-2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (MA, NH, RI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TASK NAME: New England CMGP Sandy Lidar LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD00796 Woolpert Order...

  7. LA EUTANASIA NO ES UN ACTO MDICO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Merchn-Price.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo expem-se os argumentos pelos quais o mdico est juridicamente impedido de matar os seus pacientes. Dentre outras razes, os mdicos no matam seus pacientes porque "matar" no um ato mdico teraputico. No restabelece a sade nem preserva a vida. Se o Estado deseja a eutansia e o [...] suicdio assistido, no existe nenhuma razo que impea os familiares dos pacientes os levem ao cabo. Eles, no o mdico, devem responder pelo ato ante a sociedade e as suas prprias conscincias. Alm disso, o artigo revisa de modo claro e conciso a sentencia C-239/97 da Corte Constitucional e explica porqu alguns artigos do projeto da lei 05/07 do Senado no se ajustam a ela e, portanto, so inconstitucionais. Abstract in spanish En este artculo se exponen los argumentos por los cuales el mdico est jurdica y ticamente impedido para matar a sus pacientes. Entre otras razones, los mdicos no matan a sus pacientes porque "matar" no es un acto mdico teraputico. No restablece la salud y tampoco preserva la vida. Si el Esta [...] do quiere la eutanasia y el suicidio asistido, no hay ninguna razn constitucional que impida realizar el acto eutansico a los familiares de los pacientes enfermos. Son ellos, y no el mdico, quienes deben responder ante la sociedad y ante sus propias conciencias por ello. El artculo, adems, revisa de manera clara y precisa la sentencia C-239/97 de la Corte Constitucional, y explica por qu algunos artculos del proyecto de Ley 05/07 del Senado no se ajustan a ella y son, por tanto, inconstitucionales. Abstract in english This paper deals with the legal and moral reasons that prevent the physician from taking a patient's life. Among other reasons, medical doctors do not "kill" their patients because "killing" is not a therapeutic medical act. It does not reestablish the patient's previous state of health, nor does it [...] preserve life. If the state wants to allow euthanasia or assisted suicide, there is no constitutional reason why the relatives of a patient who is ill cannot euthanize or assist the patient in committing suicide. It is they, not the physician, who must answer to society and their own consciences for doing so. The article also offers a clear and precise look at Sentence C-239/97 issued by the Constitutional Court of Colombia and analyses the reasons why some of the articles in Senate Bill 05/07 are inconsistent with that sentence and, therefore, are unconstitutional.

  8. Measuring and mapping forest wildlife habitat characteristics using LiDAR remote sensing and multi-sensor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Peter

    Managing forests for multiple, often competing uses is challenging; managing Sierra National Forest's fire regime and California spotted owl habitat is difficult and compounded by lack of information about habitat quality. Consistent and accurate measurements of forest structure will reduce uncertainties regarding the amount of habitat reduction or alteration that spotted owls can tolerate. Current methods of measuring spotted owl habitat are mostly field-based and emphasize the important of canopy cover. However, this is more because of convenience than because canopy cover is a definitive predictor of owl presence or fecundity. Canopy cover is consistently and accurately measured in the field using a moosehorn densitometer; comparable measurements can be made using airphoto interpretation or from examining satellite imagery, but the results are not consistent. LiDAR remote sensing can produce consistent and accurate measurements of canopy cover, as well as other aspects of forest structure (such as canopy height and biomass) that are known or thought to be at least as predictive as canopy cover. Moreover, LiDAR can be used to produce maps of forest structure rather than the point samples available from field measurements. However, LiDAR data sets are expensive and not available everywhere. Combining LiDAR with other, remote sensing data sets with less expensive, wall-to-wall coverage will result in broader scale maps of forest structure than have heretofore been possible; these maps can then be used to analyze spotted owl habitat. My work consists of three parts: comparison of LiDAR estimates of forest structure with field measurements, statistical fusion of LiDAR and other remote sensing data sets to produce broad scale maps of forest structure, and analysis of California spotted owl presence and fecundity as a function of LiDAR-derived canopy structure. I found that LiDAR was able to replicate field measurements accurately. Additionally, I was able to statistically combine LiDAR with passive optical and RaDAR (SAR backscatter and InSAR range) data to produce broad scale maps of forest structure that are consistent and accurate relative to field data and LiDAR data alone. Finally, I was able to demonstrate that these forest structural attributes predict spotted owl presence and absence as well as productivity.

  9. Estimation of biomass and volume of shrub vegetation using LiDAR and spectral data in a Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Estornell Cremades, Javier; Ruiz Fernndez, Luis ngel; Velzquez Mart, Borja; Hermosilla, T.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the biomass and volume of trees using Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. However, little research has been conducted into shrub vegetation, which covers a high percentage of Mediterranean forest. We used LiDAR data and an airborne image to estimate biomass and volume of shrub vegetation. Field data were collected in 29 square plots of 100 m2. In each plot, the percentage of the surface covered was measured in the field. Shrub veget...

  10. Above-Ground Biomass and Biomass Components Estimation Using LiDAR Data in a Coniferous Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Qisheng He; Erxue Chen; Ru An; Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to estimate forest above-ground biomass and biomass components in a stand of Picea crassifolia (a coniferous tree) located on Qilian Mountain, western China via low density small-footprint airborne LiDAR data. LiDAR points were first classified into ground points and vegetation points. After, vegetation statistics, including height quantiles, mean height, and fractional cover were calculated. Stepwise multiple regression models were used to develop equations that relate the ve...

  11. Analysis of urban land use and land cover changes: a case of study in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sahalu, Atalel Getu

    2014-01-01

    The high rate of urbanization coupled with population growth has caused changes in land use and land cover in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Therefore, understanding and quantifying the spatio- temporal dynamics of urban land use and land cover changes and its driving factors is essential to put forward the right policies and monitoring mechanisms on urban growth for decision making. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze land use and land cover changes in Bahir Dar area, Ethiopia by applying...

  12. Classification and Characterization of Neotropical Rainforest Vegetation from Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M. M.; Prasad, S.; Jung, J.; Yang, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping species and forest vertical structure at regional, continental, and global scale is of increasing importance for climate science and decision support systems. Remote sensing technologies have been widely utilized to achieve this goal since they help overcome limitations of the direct and indirect measurement approaches. While the use of multi-sensor data for characterizing forest structure has gained significant attention in recent years, research on the integration of full waveform LiDAR and hyperspectral data for a) classification and b) characterization of vegetation structure has been limited. Given sufficient labeled ground reference samples, supervised learning methods have evolved to effectively classify data in a high dimensional feature space. However, it is expensive and time-consuming to obtain labeled data, although the very high dimensionality of feature spaces from hyperspectral and LiDAR inputs make it difficult to design reliable classifiers with a limited quantity of labeled data. Therefore, it is important to concentrate on developing training data sets which are the most 'informative' and 'useful' for the classification task. Active learning (AL) was developed in the machine learning community, and has been demonstrated to be useful for classification of remote sensing data. In the active learning framework, classifiers are initially trained on a very limited pool of training samples, but additional informative and representative samples are identified from the abundant unlabeled data, labeled, and then inducted into this pool, thereby growing the training dataset in a systematic way. The goal is to choose data points such that a more accurate classification boundary is learned. We propose a novel Multi-kernel Active Learning (MKL-AL) approach that incorporates features from multiple sensors with an automatically optimized kernel composite function, and kernel parameters are selected intelligently during the AL learning process. The high dimensionality of full waveform LiDAR and hyperspectral data is also problematic for predicting structural variables such as leaf area index (LAI) from full waveform LiDAR and hyperspectral data. A new approach based on nonlinear multi-sensor feature extraction is applied to HyMap and LVIS remotely sensed data acquired over old-growth neotropical rainforests in the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Prediction models are developed based on a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis using the low dimensional features derived from the integrated data and field measured LAIs. Experimental results indicate that the best classification and prediction models are achieved when multi-sensor features are incorporated into the model. Experimental results also indicate that synergism between full waveform LiDAR and hyperspectral data is greater when vegetation structure is complex.

  13. LiDAR Sampling Density for Forest Resource Inventories in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Etheridge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been an abundance of research demonstrating the utility of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR for predicting forest biophysical/inventory variables at the plot and stand levels. However, to date there has been little effort to develop a set of protocols for data acquisition and processing that would move governments or the forest industry towards cost-effective implementation of this technology for strategic and tactical (i.e., operational forest resource inventories. The goal of this paper is to initiate this process by examining the significance of LiDAR data acquisition (i.e., point density for modeling forest inventory variables for the range of species and stand conditions representing much of Ontario, Canada. Field data for approximately 200 plots, sampling a broad range of forest types and conditions across Ontario, were collected for three study sites. Airborne LiDAR data, characterized by a mean density of 3.2 pulses m?2 were systematically decimated to produce additional datasets with densities of approximately 1.6 and 0.5 pulses m?2. Stepwise regression models, incorporating LiDAR height and density metrics, were developed for each of the three LiDAR datasets across a range of forest types to estimate the following forest inventory variables: (1 average height (R2(adj = 0.750.95; (2 top height (R2(adj = 0.740.98; (3 quadratic mean diameter (R2(adj = 0.550.85; (4basal area (R2(adj = 0.220.93; (5 gross total volume (R2(adj = 0.420.94; (6 gross merchantable volume (R2(adj = 0.350.93; (7 total aboveground biomass (R2(adj = 0.230.93; and (8 stem density (R2(adj = 0.170.86. Aside from a few cases (i.e., average height and density for some stand types, no decimation effect was observed with respect to the precision of the prediction of the majority of forest variables, which suggests that a mean density of 0.5 pulses m?2 is sufficient for plot and stand level modeling under these diverse forest conditions across Ontario.

  14. Potential of Airborne LiDAR in Geomorphology - A Technological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, B.; Mandlburger, G.; Pfeifer, N.; Rutzinger, M.; Bell, R.

    2009-04-01

    Airborne LiDAR, also referred to as Airborne Laser Scanning, is widely used for high-resolution topographic data acquisition, offering a planimetric (technology exceeds other methods such as stereo-photogrammetry or interferometric SAR particularly in vegetated areas. This contribution gives a review of recent developments of LiDAR systems but also advances in data processing, resulting in a higher data density and quality for geomorphological applications. Besides the elevation information most systems additionally record the strength of the received backscatter or even the full temporal distribution of the received energy (i.e. full-waveform). This radiometric information is a valuable parameter for further classification of the scanned areas, in particular for objects being not distinguishable by their geometry. In geomorphology airborne LiDAR data can either be used directly in the form of digital elevation data (e.g. digital terrain and surface model, original point cloud) and therein detected surface discontinuities (e.g. breaklines, lineaments) and forms (e.g. fans, rock glaciers), or indirectly by classification of surface features (e.g. vegetation and water) relevant for geomorphological processes. Furthermore, these datasets can be used for visual interpretation and mapping by experts or for automatic derivation of land-surface parameters by means of geomorphometry. With the availability of multitemporal datasets the investigation and quantification of dynamic processes becomes possible. Recent studies show the advantages by using full-waveform LiDAR system, which enable an improved echo detection and radiometric calibration of the received backscatter. The availability of additional echo attributes (e.g. backscatter cross section, echo width) makes sophisticated surface classification possible improving the quality of digital terrain models. On the processing side algorithms working directly on the three-dimensional point cloud including full-waveform information open up a new scale of investigation, even below the laser shot footprint diameter (e.g. future system developments for geomorphological applications are discussed, such as multispectral LiDAR systems, and their limitations from a practical point of view are highlighted.

  15. Seagrass Identification Using High-Resolution 532nm Bathymetric LiDAR and Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Prasad, S.; Starek, M. J.; Fernandez Diaz, J. C.; Glennie, C. L.; Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Singhania, A.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass provides vital habitat for marine fisheries and is a key indicator species of coastal ecosystem vitality. Monitoring seagrass is therefore an important environmental initiative, but measuring details of seagrass distribution over large areas via remote sensing has proved challenging. Developments in airborne bathymetric light detection and ranging (LiDAR) provide great potential in this regard. Traditional bathymetric LiDAR systems have been limited in their ability to map within the shallow water zone (hyperspectral imaging for seagrass mapping. Redfish Bay, located along the middle Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico, is a state scientific area designated for the purpose of protecting and studying native seagrasses. Redfish Bay is part of the broader Coastal Bend Bays estuary system recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a national estuary of significance. For this survey, UH acquired high-resolution discrete-return and full-waveform bathymetric data using their Optech Aquarius 532 nm green LiDAR. In a separate flight, UH collected 2 sets of hyperspectral imaging data (1.2-m pixel resolution and 72 bands, and 0.6m pixel resolution and 36 bands) with their CASI 1500 hyperspectral sensor. The ground survey was conducted by CMGL. The team used an airboat to collect in-situ radiometer measurements of sky irradiance and surface water reflectance at different locations in the bay. The team also collected water samples, GPS position, and depth. A follow-up survey was conducted to acquire ground-truth data of benthic type at over 80 locations within the bay. Two complementary approaches were developed to detect and map the seagrass cover over the study area - automated classification algorithms were validated with high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery, and a continuous wavelet based signal processing and pulse broadening analysis of the digitized returns was performed with the full waveform of the bathymetric LiDAR. The two approaches were compared to the collected ground truth data of seagrass type, height, and location. Results of the evaluation will be presented, along with a preliminary discussion of the fusion of the LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery for improved overall classification accuracy.

  16. 3D turbulence measurements using three intersecting Doppler LiDAR beams: validation against sonic anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Port-Agel, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays communities of researchers and industry in the wind engineering and meteorology sectors demand extensive and accurate measurements of atmospheric boundary layer turbulence for a better understanding of its role in a wide range of onshore and offshore applications: wind resource evaluation, wind turbine wakes, meteorology forecast, pollution and urban climate studies, etc. Atmospheric turbulence has been traditionally investigated through sonic anemometers installed on meteorological masts. However, the setup and maintenance of instrumented masts is generally very costly and the available location for the measurements is limited by the fixed position and height of the facility. In order to overcome the above-mentioned shortcomings, a measurement technique is proposed, based on the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector from simultaneous measurements of three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. This measuring technique presents the main advantage of being able to measure the wind velocity at any point in space inside a very large volume, which can be set and optimized for each test. Furthermore, it is very flexible regarding its transportation, installation and operation in any type of terrain. On the other hand, LiDAR measurements are strongly affected by the aerosol concentration in the air, precipitation, and the spatial and temporal resolution is poorer than that of a sonic anemometer. All this makes the comparison between these two kinds of measurements a complex task. The accuracy of the technique has been assessed by this study against sonic anemometer measurements carried out at different heights on the KNMI's meteorological mast at Cabauw's experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. An early uncertainty analysis shows that one of the most important parameters to be taken into account is the relative angles between the intersecting laser beams, i.e., the position of each LiDAR on the terrain and their elevation and azimuth angles. Following this analysis, different LiDAR layouts have been tested, e.g., one vertical beam and the other two almost horizontal, all three equidistant with the same elevation angle, etc. Preliminary results show different degrees of agreement between the proposed technique and the sonic anemometers depending on the LiDARs layout, which is in agreement with the uncertainty analysis carried out. The best configurations show a good agreement for the three components of the velocity and turbulence spectra, thus proving the ability of the technique to measure accurately atmospheric turbulence, consolidating it as a very interesting alternative to meteorological masts for many different applications.

  17. Flood Risk Mapping Using LiDAR for Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim L. Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of the Canadian Maritime coastline has been surveyed with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR. The purpose of these surveys has been to map the risk of flooding from storm surges and projected long-term sea?level rise from climate change and to include projects in all three Maritime Provinces: Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. LiDAR provides the required details in order to map the flood inundation from 1to2m storm surge events, which cause coastal flooding in many locations in this region when they occur at high tide levels. The community of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, adjacent to the Bay of Fundy, has been surveyed with LiDAR and a 1 m DEM (Digital Elevation Model was constructed for the flood inundation mapping. Validation of the LiDAR using survey grade GPS indicates a vertical accuracy better than 30cm. A benchmark storm, known as the Groundhog Day storm (February 13, 1976, was used to assess the flood maps and to illustrate the effects of different sea-level rise projections based on climate change scenarios if it were to re-occur in 100 years time. Near shore bathymetry has been merged with the LiDAR and local wind observations used to model the impact of significant waves during this benchmark storm. Long-term (ca. greater than 30 years time series of water level observations from across the Bay of Fundy in Saint John, New Brunswick, have been used to estimate return periods of water levels under present and future sea-level rise conditions. Results indicate that under current sea-level rise conditions this storm has a 66 year return period. With a modest relative sea-level (RSL rise of 80 cm/century this decreases to 44 years and, with a possible upper limit rise of 220 cm/century, this decreases further to 22 years. Due to the uncertainty of climate change scenarios and sea-level rise, flood inundation maps have been constructed at 10 cm increments up to the 9 m contour which represents an upper flood limit estimate in 100 years, based on the highest predicted tide, plus a 2 m storm surge and a RSL of 220cm/century.

  18. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji, E-mail: christian.lohri@eawag.ch; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph, E-mail: ephraimcamenzind@hotmail.com; Zurbrgg, Christian, E-mail: christian.zurbruegg@eawag.ch

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. Good publicprivate alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dars SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented.

  19. Fusion of Airborne Discrete-Return LiDAR and Hyperspectral Data for Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shezhou Luo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate land cover classification information is a critical variable for many applications. This study presents a method to classify land cover using the fusion data of airborne discrete return LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager hyperspectral data. Four LiDAR-derived images (DTM, DSM, nDSM, and intensity and CASI data (48 bands with 1 m spatial resolution were spatially resampled to 2, 4, 8, 10, 20 and 30 m resolutions using the nearest neighbor resampling method. These data were thereafter fused using the layer stacking and principal components analysis (PCA methods. Land cover was classified by commonly used supervised classifications in remote sensing images, i.e., the support vector machine (SVM and maximum likelihood (MLC classifiers. Each classifier was applied to four types of datasets (at seven different spatial resolutions: (1 the layer stacking fusion data; (2 the PCA fusion data; (3 the LiDAR data alone; and (4 the CASI data alone. In this study, the land cover category was classified into seven classes, i.e., buildings, road, water bodies, forests, grassland, cropland and barren land. A total of 56 classification results were produced, and the classification accuracies were assessed and compared. The results show that the classification accuracies produced from two fused datasets were higher than that of the single LiDAR and CASI data at all seven spatial resolutions. Moreover, we find that the layer stacking method produced higher overall classification accuracies than the PCA fusion method using both the SVM and MLC classifiers. The highest classification accuracy obtained (OA = 97.8%, kappa = 0.964 using the SVM classifier on the layer stacking fusion data at 1 m spatial resolution. Compared with the best classification results of the CASI and LiDAR data alone, the overall classification accuracies improved by 9.1% and 19.6%, respectively. Our findings also demonstrated that the SVM classifier generally performed better than the MLC when classifying multisource data; however, none of the classifiers consistently produced higher accuracies at all spatial resolutions.

  20. [Estimating individual tree aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest using airborne LiDAR technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Lei, Pi-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Wugang forest farm in Xuefeng Mountain as the research object, using the airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data under leaf-on condition and field data of concomitant plots, this paper assessed the ability of using LiDAR technology to estimate aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest. A semi-automated individual tree LiDAR cloud point segmentation was obtained by using condition random fields and optimization methods. Spatial structure, waveform characteristics and topography were calculated as LiDAR metrics from the segmented objects. Then statistical models between aboveground biomass from field data and these LiDAR metrics were built. The individual tree recognition rates were 93%, 86% and 60% for coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, respectively. The adjusted coefficients of determination (R(2)adj) and the root mean squared errors (RMSE) for the three types of forest were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.74, and 28.22, 29.79 and 32.31 t hm(-2), respectively. The estimation capability of model based on canopy geometric volume, tree percentile height, slope and waveform characteristics was much better than that of traditional regression model based on tree height. Therefore, LiDAR metrics from individual tree could facilitate better performance in biomass estimation. PMID:25898621