WorldWideScience

Sample records for dar es salaam

  1. Green vegetable supply in Dar es Salaam

    Wegerif, M.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article constructs a picture of green vegetable growing and supply in Dar es Salaam by looking at the lives and work of a small trader and an urban farmer. It reveals the importance of a range of distribution and trade networks and the integration of a wider city region, alongside urban and per

  2. Accessibility, Congestion and Travel Delays in Dar es Salaam

    Melbye, Dea Christine; Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Andreasen, Manja Hoppe;

    2015-01-01

    present a review of research into travel speed levels and congestion in Dar es Salaam. A set of city-wide maps of accessibility and delay levels are constructed based on available speed data and road network data obtained from the OpenStreetMap project and the findings are discussed with respect to the...

  3. Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Njelekela, Marina A.; Alfa Muhihi; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Amani Anaeli; Omary Chillo; Sulende Kubhoja; Benjamin Lujani; Davis Ngarashi; Mwanamkuu Maghembe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and a...

  4. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es Sala

  5. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es Salaam region. Urban and peri-urban smallholder dairying is viewed as an agricultural activity that provides a regular and stable income to the household and is considered to be a forerunner of further ...

  6. Clinical, Virologic, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Dengue Outbreak, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014.

    Vairo, Francesco; Mboera, Leonard E G; De Nardo, Pasquale; Oriyo, Ndekya M; Meschi, Silvia; Rumisha, Susan F; Colavita, Francesca; Mhina, Athanas; Carletti, Fabrizio; Mwakapeje, Elibariki; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Nicastri, Emanuele; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    We investigated a dengue outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2014, that was caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2. DENV infection was present in 101 (20.9%) of 483 patients. Patient age and location of residence were associated with infection. Seven (4.0%) of 176 patients were co-infected with malaria and DENV. PMID:27088845

  7. Students' Experiences and Challenges of Blended Learning at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raphael, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), especially eLearning, have heightened the need for University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) to supplement on-campus face-to-face delivery as well as meeting increased students' enrolments through blended distance learning. Since 2008, the University has been offering three…

  8. Clinical, Virologic, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Dengue Outbreak, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    Mboera, Leonard E.G.; De Nardo, Pasquale; Oriyo, Ndekya M.; Meschi, Silvia; Rumisha, Susan F.; Colavita, Francesca; Mhina, Athanas; Carletti, Fabrizio; Mwakapeje, Elibariki; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Nicastri, Emanuele; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a dengue outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2014, that was caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2. DENV infection was present in 101 (20.9%) of 483 patients. Patient age and location of residence were associated with infection. Seven (4.0%) of 176 patients were co-infected with malaria and DENV. PMID:27088845

  9. Scoping Study : Urban Mobility in Three Cities--Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, and Nairobi

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive investigative study was implemented in 2002, on the status, and development of urban mobility in three Sub-Saharan African cities - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Nairobi, Kenya; and, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Its purpose was to gather information in terms of size, regional spread, and availability data, that would allow identification of issues affecting urban mobility in the relat...

  10. Potential of solar power in electricity production in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania : focus on households and paybacks

    Kibbassa, Mwilumbwa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the opportunities and challenges of using solar power by solar photovoltaic (PV) in production of electricity for households in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Dar es Salaam has plenty of sunshine throughout the year making it a perfect candidate for solar PV electrification. Data collected for this work was done mainly by conducting interviews with different levels of households, private and government institutes, literature from books, web pages and previou...

  11. Determinants of acceptance of cervical cancer screening in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne; Mwaiselage, Julius;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe how demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer influence screening acceptance among women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling was carried out in 45 randomly selected streets in Dar es Salaam. Women between...... the ages of 25--59 who lived in the sampled streets were invited to a cervical cancer screening; 804 women accepted and 313 rejected the invitation. Information on demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer were obtained through structured questionnaire interviews. RESULTS: Women aged 35...... to accept screening in comparison with women who had five or more children (ORs 3.21). Finally, knowledge of cervical cancer and awareness of the existing screening program were also associated with increased acceptance rates (ORs of 5.90 and 4.20). CONCLUSION: There are identifiable subgroups where...

  12. Saltwater intrusion in the quaternary aquifer of the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania

    Mtoni, Y.; Walraevens, K.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is a last-resort source of domestic water supply in Dar es Salaam City because of the scarcity of surface water sources. The Tanzania Government, Non Government Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and international aid organizations have promoted the drilling of boreholes. From 1997 until the present, boreholes drilling has increased tremendously and the trend is expected to increase even more in the future. Initial assessment of the current state of water q...

  13. Family perceptions of intellectual disability: Understanding and support in Dar es Salaam

    Heather M. Aldersey

    2012-01-01

    When attempting to understand the construct of intellectual disability in different contexts, speaking to family members in addition to the individual with the disability may provide new insight about understandings of and responses to intellectual disability in society and may help to identify the forms of support that are available or needed to ensure the quality of life of people with disabilities. This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzani...

  14. Urban lymphatic filariasis in the metropolis of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Pedersen, Erling M; Franklin W Mosha; Paul E Simonsen

    2013-01-01

    Background The last decades have seen a considerable increase in urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is estimated that over 50% of the population will live in urban areas by 2040. Rapid growth of cities combined with limited economic resources often result in informal settlements and slums with favorable conditions for proliferation of vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Dar es Salaam, which has grown more than 30 times in population during the past 55 years (4.4 million inhabitan...

  15. Health-care Worker Engagement in HIV-related Quality Improvement in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Garcia, Maria E; Li, Michelle S.; Siril, Hellen; Hawkins, Claudia; Kaaya, Sylvia; Ismail, Shabbir; Chalamilla, Guerino; Mdingi, Sarah Geoffrey; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess health-care worker (HCW) awareness, interest and engagement in quality improvement (QI) in HIV care sites in Tanzania. Cross-sectional survey distributed in May 2009. Sixteen urban HIV care sites in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1 year after the introduction of a quality management program. Two hundred seventy-nine HCWs (direct care, clinical support staff and management). HCW perceptions of care delivered, rates of engagement, knowledge and interest in QI. HCW-identified barriers to and...

  16. The prevalence of bacterial contamination in donated blood in Dar es salaam, Tanzania

    Malimu, Emmanuel Zephania

    2012-01-01

    Blood transfusion services are required to provide blood and components which are safe in cost effective way for transfusion into patients who require the blood products. This study aims to determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination and the antimicrobial resistance pattern in collected blood in Eastern zone blood transfusion centre. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Eastern Zone Blood Transfusion Services located at Mchikichini, Ilala District, in Dar es Salaam. Stored whole b...

  17. IMPROVING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE DAR ES SALAAM COASTAL BELT, TANZANIA

    Maziku, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the factors which influence the state of solid waste management in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Belt, Tanzania. The research used semi-structured and structured interviews, group discussions, field observations and review of various literatures as the major methods of the study. Questionnaires were used for interviews. Results showed poor community awareness (except students and beach goers) of solid waste management and its significance; and...

  18. A Review of Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City from the Physical Planning Perspective

    Robert B. Kiunsi

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the major problems facing Dar es Salaam City and is attributed by a number of factors including rapid population increase, inadequate and poor road infrastructure, city structure, rapid increase in number of cars and lack of physical plan to control city development. The city is already implementing a number of strategies in order to minimize traffic congestion. However, many of the strategies are focusing on improving the capacity of roads in terms of increasing ...

  19. IINFORMAL LABOUR MARKET IN TANZANIA : A case of Kinondoni district in Dar es Salaam

    Setebe, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Juliet Manzala Setebe. Informal Labor Market in Tanzania: A case of Kinondoni District in Dar es Salaam. Jarvenpaa Autumn 2011, 48p., 2 appendices . Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Program in Social Services (DSS). Informal Labor Market is a concept that has been researched for more than twenty years, but no one has come up with a concrete definition. Many researchers referred to it as activities which are done outside the governm...

  20. Towards sustainable ground water management in Dar Es Salaam city, Tanzania

    Groundwater pollution in urban areas is a worldwide growing environmental problem in this millennium. Many major cities in the world depend on groundwater for water supplies. However, urbanization processes threaten its quality. The problem is more pronounced in urban areas in developing countries like Tanzania, which are characterized with inadequate infrastructure for waste management. In Tanzania, the situation is more threatening in Dar Es Salaam City, which experiences acute deficiency in infrastructure provision: housing, water supply, sanitation, transportation and energy. The existing challenge is to protect groundwater resources amidst rapid growing Dar Es Salaam city, of which failure can lead to escalating costs for provision of drinking water with overall results of decreased public health conditions. A research conducted from 1997 to 2002, revealed that almost 50% of the water supply in Dar Es Salaam city comes from groundwater and that groundwater is being threatened by indiscriminate disposal practices of both domestic and industrial wastes. For example about 88% of the urban population use on-site sanitation systems, which discharge partially treated sewage to the groundwater. About 60 tonnes/day of chemical oxygen demand (COD) are transported to the groundwater through domestic sewage. Analysis of groundwater quality in the city indicated that the unconfined aquifer is starting to degrade. For instance, more than 40% of groundwater samples analysed for nitrate, chloride and faecal coliform bacteria, did not comply with the national standards for drinking water. Recognising the fact that demand for groundwater is on the increase in the city and that the aquifers have shown signs of degradation, a groundwater management plan is required to ensure sustainable utilization of the resource. This paper discusses the groundwater situation in Dar Es Salaam city and finally puts forward measures towards establishment of a management strategy. (author)

  1. Assessment of human thermal perception in the hot-humid climate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, is a typical African city along the Indian Ocean coast, and therefore an important urban area to examine human thermal perception in the hot-humid tropical climate. Earlier research on human bioclimate at Dar es Salaam indicated that heat stress prevails during the hot season from October to March, peaking between December and February, particularly the early afternoons. In order to assess the human thermal perception and adaptation, two popular places, one at an urban park and another at a beach environment, were selected and questionnaire surveys were conducted in August-September 2013 and January 2014, concurrently with local micro-meteorological measurements at survey locations. The thermal conditions were quantified in terms of the thermal index of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the micro-scale climate model RayMan. The thermal comfort range of human thermal comfort and the local thermal adaptive capacity were determined in respect to the thermal index by binning thermal sensation votes. The thermal comfort range was found to be well above that in temperate climates at about 23-31 °C of PET. The study could significantly contribute to urban planning in Dar es Salaam and other coastal cities in the tropics.

  2. Residents’ perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city.

  3. Suburbanisation, homeownership aspirations and urban housing: Exploring urban expansion in Dar es Salaam

    Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Agergaard, Jytte; Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    This paper offers an exploration of urban expansion from the point of view of he individual residents buying land, settling and living in new, rapidly growing peripheral settlements of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The findings suggest that the demand for affordable housing is the primary motivation for....... Urban residents settle in the periphery, even though incomegeneration is often tied to working somewhere else, namely in the central parts of the city. The paper proposes that the processes of urban expansion depicted in this study are usefully conceptualised as suburbanisation processes, though it is a...

  4. Understanding and Improving Malaria Diagnosis in Health Facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    D’Acremont, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    In Tanzania, as in most settings of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is the first reported cause of attendance in health facilities. The National Bureau of Statistics estimates that a total of 16 million cases and 100,000 deaths (mainly in children) are due to malaria each year. In Dar es Salaam, the main city, approximately 3 million attendances are recorded, of which about one third are due to fever, mostly considered as presumptive malaria. Recent data show that transmission intensity is much l...

  5. Elemental Contents in Hair of Children from Two Regions in Dar Es Salaam

    Mohammed, Najat K.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is part of the study which aims at determining the levels of elements in hair of children in Tanzania as a bioindicator of their nutrition and health. In this paper, the levels of trace elements in hair from children living in Dar es Salaam have been analysed. The analysis was carried out by long and short irradiation INAA at the reactor centre of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez Czech Republic. 22 samples were collected from children living at Kiwalani a...

  6. Acceptance of contraceptives among women who had an unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; Yambesi, Fortunata;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for post-abortion contraception and to determine if women who had an unsafe abortion will use a contraceptive method to avoid repeated unwanted pregnancies and STDs/HIV. METHOD: Women attending Temeke Municipal Hospital, Dar es Salaam, after an unsafe abortion or an...... induced abortion performed at the hospital (n=788) were counselled about contraception and the risk of contracting STDs/HIV. A free ward-based contraceptive service was offered and the women were asked to return for follow-up. RESULTS: Participants (90%) accepted the post-abortion contraceptive service...

  7. Green infrastructure for flood risk management in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    Mguni, Patience; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    The risk of flooding in urban areas could be better approached by complementing conventional sewer systems with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) for storm-water management. This may be the case for developing world cities like Dar es Salaam with incomplete sewer services, as well as cities...... like Copenhagen with fully developed sewer systems. This paper explores some theories relevant to understanding how the implementation of SUDS may be one option for supporting a transition towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM). Using interviews, document analysis and observation, a...

  8. The use of social media among adolescents in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara, Tanzania.

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Kleeb, Matthis; Mbelwa, Alice; Ahorlu, Collins

    2014-05-01

    Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing. It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones. Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture. PMID:24908469

  9. Body-art practices among undergraduate medical university students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    Chacha Emmanuel Chacha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98% of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52% reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.

  10. Family perceptions of intellectual disability: Understanding and support in Dar es Salaam

    Heather M. Aldersey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When attempting to understand the construct of intellectual disability in different contexts, speaking to family members in addition to the individual with the disability may provide new insight about understandings of and responses to intellectual disability in society and may help to identify the forms of support that are available or needed to ensure the quality of life of people with disabilities. This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with family members of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. These interviews explore how families came to understand that their child had an intellectual disability; the availability of family support; and family hopes and dreams for the future, and were a part of a wider exploratory study that gathered insight from individuals with disabilities, families, and other providers of support to explore understandings and perceptions of disability in Dar es Salaam. Understanding family experiences will help researchers, policy makers, non-governmental organisations, and others to identify family strengths and family support needs which can ultimately improve family quality of life and the quality of life of the member with a disability.

  11. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other

  12. Provision of Vocational Skills Education to Orphans: Lessons from Orphanage Centres in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Meli, Benjamin Mbeba

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises data from a study that investigated the efficacy of vocational skills training provided to orphans from three orphanages in Temeke District, Dar es Salaam. The three orphanage centres that were studied are Kurasini National Children Home, Saudia and Don Bosco Vocational Centre. The sample comprised of 45 orphans, an official…

  13. Occupational exposure and health problems in small-scale industry workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a situation analysis.

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Msamanga, G.I.; Heederik, D.; Dolmans, W.M.V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workers in informal small-scale industries (SSI) in developing countries involved in welding, spray painting, woodwork and metalwork are exposed to various hazards with consequent risk to health. Aim To assess occupational exposure and health problems in SSI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. M

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and the Association with HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…

  15. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  16. Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has

  17. Risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Ngoma, Twalib;

    2012-01-01

    describing risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Tanzania, this paper present the results from a comparative analysis performed among women who are reached and not reached by the screening program". METHODS: 14 107 women aged 25--59 enrolled in a cervical cancer......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tanzania is among the countries in the world where the cervical cancer incidence is estimated to be highest. Acknowledging an increase in the burden of cervical cancer, VIA was implemented as a regional cervical cancer screening strategy in Tanzania in 2002. With the aim of...... screening program in Dar es Salaam in the period 2002 -- 2008. The women underwent VIA examination and took part in a structured questionnaire interview. Socioeconomic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV status and high-risk (HR) HPV infection were determined in a subpopulation of 890 who participated and...

  18. Storage, Collection and Disposal of Kariakoo Market Wastes in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Yhdego, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid...... waste management in Kariakoo market, Dar es Salaam. The main problems identified were poor market design and lack of a well organized waste storage, collection and disposal systems. Two-thirds of the waste consists of vegetable matter. Proposals for improved design of storage and collection facilities...... are described. Experiments revealed wastes from the market are readily decomposable by composting. A change in the design of covered markets and improvements in waste handling are essential to reduce the potential health hazards in developing countries....

  19. Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Marina A Njelekela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken using standard procedures. Results: A total of 446 children were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was 11.1 ± 2.0 years. The mean body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m 2 , 103.9 ± 10.3 mmHg and 65.6 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of obesity (defined as BMI >95 th percentile for age and sex was 5.2%. Half of the children (51.1% had heard about obesity from teachers at school (20%, radio (19.4% and books/newspaper (17.3%. Less than half (45.4% had knowledge about the risk factors for childhood obesity and correctly defined obesity (44.6%. However, a good number of the children (72.1% were aware that they can be affected by obesity. Majority of them had negative attitude towards obesity and various factors leading to or resulting from childhood obesity. Conclusions: Knowledge about childhood obesity among primary school children is moderate and have negative attitude towards obesity. Integrating educational programs early in primary schools may be an effective strategy to impact knowledge about obesity and other non-communicable diseases early in childhood.

  20. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  1. Qatar Airways Touches Down in Dar es Salaam Airline Launches First Route Of 2007 To Tanzania's Commercial Hub Award-Winning Carrier Expands Operations In Africa

    2007-01-01

    @@ Qatar Airways has celebrated the launch of its first new route of 2007 with its inaugural flight to Tanzania touching down in the country's commercial capital of Dar es Salaam to a fanfare of music and dance.

  2. Prevalence, Perceived Factors and Knowledge on Effects of Tobacco Use on Oral Health Among Secondary School Students in Dar es salaam

    Kabulwa, Msafiri Nicodemus

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the conception of this study there was scant information on self reported prevalence, knowledge on detrimental effects on oral health and factors influencing tobacco use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam region. To determine the prevalence, perceived factors that may lead and /or deter secondary school students to use tobacco and knowledge on effects of tobacco use on oral health among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam. This was a descriptive cross-secti...

  3. Urban lymphatic filariasis in the metropolis of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    2013-01-01

    Background The last decades have seen a considerable increase in urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it is estimated that over 50% of the population will live in urban areas by 2040. Rapid growth of cities combined with limited economic resources often result in informal settlements and slums with favorable conditions for proliferation of vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF). In Dar es Salaam, which has grown more than 30 times in population during the past 55 years (4.4 million inhabitants in 2012), previous surveys have indicated high prevalences of LF. This study investigated epidemiological aspects of LF in Dar es Salaam, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Six sites with varying distance from the city center (3–30 km) and covering different population densities, socioeconomic characteristics, and water, sewerage and sanitary facilities were selected for the study. Pupils from one public primary school at each site were screened for circulating filarial antigen (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 (marker of exposure to transmission). Community members were examined for CFA, microfilariae and chronic manifestations. Structured questionnaires were administered to pupils and heads of community households, and vector surveys were carried out in selected households. Results The study indicated that a tremendous decrease in the burden of LF infection had occurred, despite haphazard urbanisation. Contributing factors may be urban malaria control targeting Anopheles vectors, short survival time of the numerous Culex quinquefasciatus vectors in the urban environment, widespread use of bed nets and other mosquito proofing measures, and mass drug administration (MDA) in 2006 and 2007. Although the level of ongoing transmission was low, the burden of chronic LF disease was still high. Conclusions The development has so far been promising, but continued efforts are necessary to ensure elimination of LF as a

  4. Informal urban settlements and cholera risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Katherine Penrose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km(2 in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were

  5. Stakeholder collaboration in community-based organizations (CBOs): The case of a sanitation CBO working in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Guzman Figueroa, Nathaly

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of the stakeholder relations of PHAST Ujenzi, a community-based organization (CBO) that provides sanitation services in a slum area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. My research aims at describing how this CBO has established and maintained relations with different stakeholders, and it looks for highlighting interests, benefits, and challenges in such collaborations. Additionally, my study aims at contributing to the Stakeholder Theory literature, by providing relev...

  6. Demand for orthodontic treatment among 9-18 year-olds seeking dental care in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    Mugonzibwa, E.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A. M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kikwilu, E.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the demand for orthodontic treatment among 9-18 olds seeking dental care in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. DESIGN: Case-control, interview and clinical study. SETTINGS: Children seeking dental care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demand for orthodontic treatment. RESULTS: Most of the children (85%) in the case group attended the dental clinic because of crowding. Aesthetic impairment (AC grades 8-10) and severe malocclusions (DHC grades 4-5) were higher in cases than in controls b...

  7. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: the case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Tumpale Sakijege; John Lupala; Shaaban Sheuya

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of ...

  8. Food habits of the blue swimming crab portunus pelagicus along the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Mgaya, Y. D.; Chande, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The food habits of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus were investigated using the stomachs of 3948 crabs collected from Kunduchi sub-littoral shallow waters, Msasani Bay and Mzinga creek along the coast of Dar es Salaam. The main food items included mollusks (51.3%), crustaceans (24.1%), fish bones (18%) and unidentified food items (6.6%). The dominant food item was the bivalve Arcuatula arcuatula Hanley, 1844. Other molluscs included the gastropod genera Nassarius, Littoraria and Conu...

  9. Obesity, Overweight, and Perceptions about Body Weight among Middle-Aged Adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Muhihi, Alfa J.; Njelekela, Marina A; Rose Mpembeni; Mwiru, Ramadhani S.; Nuru Mligiliche; Jacob Mtabaji

    2012-01-01

    Background. Prevalence of obesity is increasing throughout the world at an alarming rate. Appropriate perception of one’s own body weight is important for improved weight control behavior. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and assess perception of body weight among middle aged adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods. Structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and lifestyle information including perception about body weight. An...

  10. Why are primary school children overweight and obese? A cross sectional study undertaken in Kinondoni district, Dar-es-salaam

    Mwaikambo, Sijenunu A.; Leyna, Germana H; Killewo, Japhet; Simba, Azma; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-01-01

    Background The world is experiencing an alarming increase in prevalence of childhood obesity. Despite this trend little is known about determinants of childhood obesity in Tanzania. A cross sectional study determined the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity in 1722 children aged 7–14 years (10.9 ± 1.74) attending primary schools in Dar es Salaam. Methods Six public and four private schools were systemically selected from a total of 227 primary schools. Anthropometric ...

  11. Employees Opinions Towards the Information Technology Offered to Their Daily Firm’s Operation In Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Nelson Jagero; Wahid Bakari Hamad; Masese Chuma Benard

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread acceptance that IT is a central component of business operations and extensively used in marketing. Therefore, the major objective of the research was to assessing the impact that Information Technology (IT) has in influencing Dar es Salaam Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises (SMMEs) on marketing strategies so as to improve the marketing operations. Study findings revealed that, generally information technology has impacted positively on the SMMEs on performing thei...

  12. Birth prevalence of selected external structural birth defects at four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2011–2012

    Rogath Kishimba; Rose Mpembeni; Mghamba, Janneth M; David Goodman; Diana Valencia

    2015-01-01

    Background 94% of all birth defects (BD) and 95% of deaths due to the BD occur in low and middle income countries, many of which are preventable. In Tanzania, there is currently a paucity of BD data necessary to develop data informed prevention activities. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of deliveries identified with BD in the labor ward registers at four Dar es Salaam hospitals between October, 2011 and February, 2012. The birth prevalence of structural BD, case fatality pro...

  13. A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risk for HIV Transmission among Police Officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Tarimo, Edith AM; Kohi, Thecla W.; Bakari, Muhammad; Kulane, Asli

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding people’s views about HIV transmission by investigating a specific population may help to design effective HIV prevention strategies. In addition, knowing the inherent sexual practices of such a population, as well as the risky circumstances that may facilitate HIV transmission, is crucial for the said strategies to become effective. In this article, we report how police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, perceived the problem of HIV and AIDS in their local context, ...

  14. Exploring Sustainable Urban Food Provisioning: The Case of Eggs in Dar es Salaam

    Marc C. A. Wegerif

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Global food supply is dominated by transnational corporations, which have great power and are widely critiqued for the negative environmental and social impacts of their operations. Many argue that this industrial food system is unsustainable, yet its expansion seems inevitable and alternatives are seen as incapable of feeding the world’s growing and increasingly urban population. Since much of the world’s future population growth is going to happen in the cities of the developing world, they have become the frontline for the expansion of the industrial food system, raising the serious challenge of ensuring food security for residents. This paper, based on a qualitative study of patterns of egg provisioning in Dar es Salaam, explores whether existing patterns of food supply in this rapidly growing city, of over four million people, provide workable alternatives. Eggs are an important source of nutrition and patterns of egg supply offer a lens through which to explore the sustainability of different modes of provisioning. A range of non-corporate provisioning patterns, based on small-scale enterprises, are found to have social, economic and environmental advantages, challenging assumptions that corporate food chains are necessary, or desirable, to feed cities sustainably.

  15. Storage, Collection and Disposal of Kariakoo Market Wastes in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Yhdego, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid...... are described. Experiments revealed wastes from the market are readily decomposable by composting. A change in the design of covered markets and improvements in waste handling are essential to reduce the potential health hazards in developing countries.......In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid...... waste management in Kariakoo market, Dar es Salaam. The main problems identified were poor market design and lack of a well organized waste storage, collection and disposal systems. Two-thirds of the waste consists of vegetable matter. Proposals for improved design of storage and collection facilities...

  16. Skinning the goat and pulling the load: transactional sex among youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Maganja, R K; Maman, S; Groves, A; Mbwambo, J K

    2007-09-01

    Transactional sex has been associated with risk of HIV infection in a number of studies throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Urban young women are economically vulnerable and at heightened risk of HIV infection in Tanzania; yet there are few studies that have explored relationship dynamics, including transactional sex, in this setting. This paper sheds light on the broader context of sexual relationships among youth at risk for HIV, how transactional sex plays out in these relationships, and how the transactional nature of relationships affects women's risk for HIV. We conducted 60 in depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions with young men and women, 16-24 years old, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These data guided the development of a community based HIV and violence prevention intervention for young men. Youth described the exchange of sex for money or other material goods in all types of sexual relationships. While the exchange was explicit in casual relationships, young women voiced material and monetary expectations from their committed partners as well. Young men described their pursuit of multiple partners as sexually motivated, while women sought multiple partners for economic reasons. Young men were aware of the expectations of material support from partners, and acknowledged that their ability to provide for a partner affected both the longevity and exclusivity of their relationships. Youth described a deep mistrust of the motivations and commitment of their sexual partners. Furthermore, young women's financial dependence on men impacted their ability to negotiate safe sexual behaviors in both casual and committed relationships. Programs designed to reduce HIV risk among Tanzanian youth need to take into account the transactional component of sexual relationships and how such exchanges differ according to partner type. PMID:17851993

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM WATER BODIES IN DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  18. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  19. Characterization of Salmonella species from water bodies in Dar-Es-Salaam city, Tanzania

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the  identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  20. Rational dispensing and use of artemether-lumefantrine during pregnancy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R; Mnyusiwalla, Fatema

    2011-04-01

    Artemether-Lumefantrine (ALu) is widely used for uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Because of the suspected teratogenic effects of artemether during the first trimester, quinine is used in early pregnancy unless the risks outweigh the benefits. The aim of this study was to assess dispensing practice of ALu in private pharmacies and knowledge of pregnant women regarding the use of ALu. This was a prospective-descriptive study involving visits to 200 private retail pharmacies (using a mystery shopper) and interviewing pregnant women at the municipal public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Among the drug dispensers, 60 (30%) were pharmacists, 71(35.5%) nurse assistants, 34 (17%) pharmaceutical technicians and 35 (17.5%) sales persons with no formal education on drug dispensing. Among the dispensers, 14.5% had high knowledge, 38.0% had medium knowledge and 47.5% had low knowledge on the use of ALu during pregnancy. About thirty three percent of the drug dispensers were willing to dispense ALu during the first trimester of pregnancy. Sixty two percent of the drug dispensers indicated that ALu is the drug of choice for uncomplicated malaria after the first trimester of pregnancy. However, 36% indicated that ALu could not be used during pregnancy. A total of 200 pregnant women were interviewed. Among them, 16.5% were aware that ALu should not be taken during the first trimester of pregnancy. Only 17% of pregnant women were given information on the importance of taking food when using ALu, but none of them was given information on the importance of fatty meals when using ALu. In conclusion, the results show that most drug dispensers have inadequate knowledge about good dispensing practice of ALu in pregnancy. There is therefore a need for continuing training of drug dispensers regarding antimalarial drugs use in pregnancy. PMID:25566607

  1. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Mshinda Hassan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of the night was estimated by human landing catch in 216 houses and 1,064 residents were interviewed to determine usage of protection measures and the proportion of each hour of the night spent sleeping indoors, awake indoors, and outdoors. Results Hourly variations in biting activity by members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were consistent with classical reports but the proportion of these vectors caught outdoors in Dar es Salaam was almost double that of rural Tanzania. Overall, ITNs confer less protection against exophagic vectors in Dar es Salaam than in rural southern Tanzania (59% versus 70%. More alarmingly, a biting activity maximum that precedes 10 pm and much lower levels of ITN protection against exposure (38% were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of modest importance locally, but which predominates transmission in large parts of Africa. Conclusion In a situation of changing mosquito and human behaviour, ITNs may confer lower, but still useful, levels of personal protection which can be complemented by communal transmission suppression at high coverage. Mosquito-proofing houses appeared to be the intervention of choice amongst residents and further options for preventing outdoor transmission include larviciding and environmental management.

  2. Seasonal variation of water-soluble inorganic species in the coarse and fine atmospheric aerosols at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    The ionic composition of coarse, fine and total PM10 was investigated in aerosol samples collected from a kerbside in Dar es Salaam during the 2005 dry season and 2006 wet season. A 'Gent' PM10 stacked filter unit sampler with sequential Nuclepore polycarbonate filters, providing coarse (8 μm) and fine (0.4 μm) size fractions, was deployed. The mean concentrations and associated standard deviation of fine, coarse and PM10 were, respectively, 17 ± 4, 52 ± 27, and 69 ± 29 μg/m3 during the 2005 dry season campaign and 13 ± 5, 34 ± 23 and 47 ± 25 μg/m3 for the 2006 wet season campaign. The higher PM mass concentrations during the dry season campaign are essentially due to soil dust dispersal, much biomass burning and temperature inversions. Chloride, Na+ and Mg2+ were the dominant ions in coarse fraction, indicating a significant influence of sea-salt aerosols. In the fine fraction, SO42- and NH4+ and K+ were the most important ions. The mean equivalent PM2 NO3- concentration in the 2005 dry season campaign was two times higher than in the 2006 wet season campaign, probably due to reaction of NaCl (sea-salt) with HNO3 as a result of higher levels of NOx during the dry season and/or reduced volatilization of NH4NO3 due to lower temperature in the dry season. The results from our water-soluble ions study strongly suggests that biomass burning and secondary aerosols make a significant contribution to fine particulate mass in Dar es Salaam atmosphere. Thus, burning of waste and biomass are thought to be the major causes for the atmospheric particulate pollution in Dar es Salaam during the dry season.

  3. The pattern of mucocutaneous disorders in HIV – infected children attending care and treatment centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Massawe Augustine W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is associated with a wide range of mucocutaneous disorders some of which are useful in the clinical staging and prognosis of the syndrome. There is paucity of information regarding the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending paediatric Care and Treatment Centres (CTC in Dar es Salaam. Objective To determine the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Methods This was a cross sectional descriptive study involving public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Clinical information was obtained using a questionnaire. Dermatological examination was carried out in daylight. Investigations were taken as appropriate. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program version 10.0. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were utilized. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred and forty seven HIV infected children (52% males attending CTCs were recruited into the study. Mucocutaneous disorders were encountered in 85% of them. There was no gender difference in the prevalence of the infective mucocutaneous disorders but males had a higher prevalence of non-infective/inflammatory dermatoses (58% than females (42% (p = 0.02. Overall, mucocutaneous disorders (infective + non infective were more prevalent in advanced stages of HIV disease. Children with advanced HIV disease had a significantly increased frequency of fungal and viral infections (43% and 25% respectively than those with less advanced disease; 24% and 13% respectively (p = 0.01. Seventy four percent of the HIV-infected children with mucocutaneous disorders were already on ART. Conclusion Mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending Care and Treatment Centres are common and highly variable

  4. The Risk of Dengue Virus Transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an Epidemic Period of 2014.

    Leonard E G Mboera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, there is no comprehensive data on the risk of transmission of dengue in the country. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during the 2014 epidemic.This cross-sectional study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during the dengue outbreak of 2014. The study involved Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke districts. Adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. In each household compound, water-holding containers were examined for mosquito larvae and pupae. Dengue virus infection of mosquitoes was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Partial amplification and sequencing of dengue virus genome in infected mosquitoes was performed. A total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes were collected. Over half (59.9% of the adult mosquitoes were collected in Kinondoni. Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2% of the mosquitoes of which 90.6% were from Kinondoni. Of a total of 796 houses inspected, 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. Kinondoni had the largest proportion of water-holding containers (57.7%, followed by Temeke (31.4% and Ilala (23.4%. The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house index of 18.1% in Ilala, 25.5% in Temeke and 35.3% in Kinondoni. The respective container indices were 77.4%, 65.2% and 80.2%. Of the reared larvae and pupae, 5,250 adult mosquitoes emerged, of which 61.9% were Ae. aegypti. Overall, 27 (8.18 of the 330 pools of Ae. aegypti were positive for dengue virus. On average, the overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE indicates pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes (95%CI = 5.72-12.16. There was no significant

  5. Impact of improvement of the entrance channel on the rate of sediment deposition into the Dar es Salaam Harbour

    Dubi, A.M.; Sanga, I.P.L.

    2004-01-01

    The study reported here sought to investigate the effect that the dredging of the harbour basins and the entrance channel has had on sediment deposition rate into the Dar es Salaam harbour. Echo-sounding was carried out along berths No 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 as a means of detecting changes to their bathymetry in the four years since 1998, when the dredging commenced. Concentrations of transported sediments into and out of the harbour were determined using sediment traps. Short-term measurement o...

  6. The spectrum of dermatological disorders among primary school children in Dar es Salaam

    Mgonda Yassin M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years. The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05. Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor being the commonest (20%. Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420; the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41 and higher (21.8% in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045. Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%. All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4% with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420 followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1% whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7% followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%. Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%. Thirty six children (8.6% had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2% in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004. The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4% and pediculosis capitis (3.6%. Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%, non

  7. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Primary School Children Aged 8–13 Years in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Pangani, Ismail N.; Kiplamai, Festus K.; Kamau, Jane W.; Onywera, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The understanding of obesity as a growing health problem in Africa and Tanzania in particular is hampered by lack of data as well as sociocultural beliefs in which overweight and obesity are revered. This study sought to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 8–13 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Method. A cross-sectional analytical research design was used to study overweight and obesity in primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The target population was 150,000 children aged 8–13 years. Stratified random sampling was used to select 1781 children. Weight and height were taken and WHO standards for children were used to determine weight status. Results. Findings showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.9% and 6.7%, respectively (N = 1781). However, 6.2% of the children were underweight. There were significant differences in mean BMI between children in private and public schools (p = 0.021), between male and female (p obesity among primary school children is significant and requires management and prevention strategies.

  8. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  9. Coping with urban growth and development through environmental planning and management (EPM): the sustainable Dar es Salaam project.

    Majani, B B

    1996-03-01

    This article discusses the Urban Management Program (UMP) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The UMP is a joint effort of UNCHS (Habitat), UNDP, and the World Bank. The UMP established the Sustainable Cities Program (SCP) in August 1990. The aim was to provide city officials and their partners in private, public, and popular sectors with improved environmental planning and management capacity. Dar es Salaam has 4 major land formations that constrain management options. About 70% of urban population live in unplanned areas with marginal access to piped water, sanitation, drainage, or basic social services. Improper waste disposal has contributed to water pollution. Under 3% of the city's solid waste is collected. Low lying areas along the coast become flooded, and poor drainage causes continually flooded road systems. SCP began a 4-stage process to identify issues, develop and implement strategy and action plans, and institutionalize the process. An environmental profile was established in 1992. Plans were developed for solid waste management, upgrading unplanned settlements, servicing planned land and city center renewal, and managing open spaces, wastes, and petty trading. These efforts were institutionalized. The efforts are noteworthy for their active participation in plan preparation by key urban managers, multisectoral coordination on environmental issues, involvement of the private sector, establishment of priorities, and detailed action plans. Political support at the highest levels combined with community participation were key to program success. The lessons learned are identified. PMID:12178488

  10. A call for parental monitoring to improve condom use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Mlunde Linda B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been decreasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but prevalence of the infection remains unacceptably high among young people. Despite the alarming pervasiveness of the virus, young people in this region continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In developed countries, parents can play important roles in protecting young people from such behaviors, but evidence regarding the impact of parental involvement is still limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional study among 2,217 male and female students aged 15 to 24 years from 12 secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. From October to November 2011, we collected data using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 665 (30.3% secondary school students reported being sexually active within the year prior to data collection. Among them, 41.7% had multiple sexual partners, 10.5% had concurrent sexual partners, and 41.1% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. A higher level of parental monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of condom use at last sexual intercourse among male students (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32; p = 0.03 but not among female students (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.71-3.37; p = 0.28. The association between parental communication and condom use at last sexual intercourse among both male and female students was not statistically

  11. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent...... girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also...... willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time...

  12. Birth prevalence of selected external structural birth defects at four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2011–2012

    Rogath Kishimba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 94% of all birth defects (BD and 95% of deaths due to the BD occur in low and middle income countries, many of which are preventable. In Tanzania, there is currently a paucity of BD data necessary to develop data informed prevention activities. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of deliveries identified with BD in the labor ward registers at four Dar es Salaam hospitals between October, 2011 and February, 2012. The birth prevalence of structural BD, case fatality proportion, and the distribution of structural defects associated deaths within total deaths were calculated. A total of 28 217 resident births were encountered during the study period. Overall birth prevalence of selected defects was 28.3/10 000 live births. Neural tube defects and indeterminate sex were the most and least common defects at birth (9.9 and 1.1/10 000 live births respectively. Among stillbirths (66.7% and deaths that occurred within less than 5 days of an affected live birth (18.5%, neural tube defects were the most frequently associated structural defect. Structural BD is common and contributes to perinatal mortality in Dar es Salaam. More than half of perinatal deaths encountered among the studied selected external structural BD are associated with neural tube defects, a birth defect with well–established evidence based prevention interventions. By establishing a population–based BD surveillance program, Tanzania would have the information about neural tube defects and other major structural BD needed to develop and monitor prevention activities.

  13. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es Salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Mchumvu, Y;

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked...... for socio-economic details, contraceptive knowledge/use, age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners. In the qualitative part, 51 teenage girls were interviewed in-depth about their relationships with their partners, sexual behaviour, contraceptive use and reasons for non-use, and why they became...... pregnant. The girls were sexually active at an early age and having sex mainly with men older than themselves. Although most of the girls were in love with and enjoyed sex with their partners, they also entered these relationships to obtain money or gifts in exchange for sex. Most were not using...

  14. Prevalence of enteropathogenic viruses and molecular characterization of group A rotavirus among children with diarrhea in Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Maselle Samwel Y

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different groups of viruses have been shown to be responsible for acute diarrhea among children during their first few years of life. Epidemiological knowledge of viral agents is critical for the development of effective preventive measures, including vaccines. Methods In this study we determined the prevalence of the four major enteropathogenic viruses – rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus – was determined in 270 stool samples collected from children aged 0 – 60 months who were admitted with diarrhea in four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, using commercially available ELISA kits. In addition, the molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus was investigated using reverse transcriptase multiplex polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results At least one viral agent was detected in 87/270 (32.2% of the children. The prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus was 18.1%, 13.7%, 2.6% and 0.4%, respectively. In most cases (62.1% of viruses were detected in children aged 7–12 months. The G and P types (VP7 and VP4 genotypes respectively were further investigated in 49 rotavirus ELISA positive samples. G9 was the predominant G type (81.6%, followed by G1 (10.2% and G3 (0.2%. P[8] was the predominant P type (83.7%, followed by P[6] (0.4% and P[4] (0.2%. The following G and P types were not detected in this study population; G2, G4, G8 G10, P[9], P[10] and P[11]. The dominating G/P combination was G9P[8], accounting for 39 (90.7% of the 43 fully characterized strains. Three (6.1% of the 49 rotavirus strains could not be typed. Conclusion Nearly one third of children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in Dar es Salaam had one of the four viral agents. The predominance of rotavirus serotype G9 may have implication for rotavirus vaccination in Tanzania.

  15. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  16. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  17. The importance of drains for the larval development of lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sigsbert; Killeen, Gerry F.; Fillinger, Ulrike; Konradsen, Flemming; Castro, Marcia C

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology: Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Progra...

  18. Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    Fillinger Ulrike; Dongus Stefan; Chaki Prosper P; Kelly Ann; Killeen Gerry F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs), recruited from ...

  19. Utilization of cervical cancer screening services and its associated factors among primary school teachers in Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Kileo, Neema Minja; Michael, Denna; Neke, Nyasule Majura; Moshiro, Candida

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide cervical cancer is one of the more common forms of carcinoma among women, causing high morbidity and high mortality. Despite being a major health problem in Tanzania, screening services for cervical cancer are very limited, and uptake of those services is low. We therefore conducted a study to investigate utilization of cancer screening services, and its associated factors among female primary school teachers in Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam. Method We conducted a cro...

  20. Informality in the context of the urban spatial development of Dar es Salaam - A structural analysis of the development of the urban space

    Stender, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with examining the relation between the growing informal economy, expanding informal settlements in Dar es Salaam and examines the overall spatial development of the city. Fieldwork has been conducted as the point of departure of understanding the processes and structures influencing the urban development and the aspects of the informal economy and informal settlements. The fieldwork included semi-structured interviews with trade union officials, sporadic and structure...

  1. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Shoo Bryson; Govella Nicodem J; Chaki Prosper P; Hemed Abdullah; Tanner Marcel; Fillinger Ulrike; Killeen Gerry F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito...

  2. A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Mlunde, Linda Beatrice; Sunguya, Bruno Fokas; Mbwambo, Jessie Kazeni; Ubuguyu, Omary Said; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducte...

  3. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults aged 18 - 65 years in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from April 2007 to April 2008. Methods Random sampling of households was performed. Interviews and anthropometric measurement were carried out to eligible and consenting members of the selected households. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Out of 1249 subjects recruited, 814 (65.2% were females. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19.2% (240/1249. However, obesity was significantly more prevalent in women (24.7% than men (9%, p Conclusion This study revealed a higher prevalence of obesity among Kinondoni residents than previously reported in other parts of the country. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, marriage and cohabitation, high SES, female sex and less vigorous physical activities.

  4. Application of Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process to Prioritize the Challenges Facing Public Transportation in Dar Es Salaam City-Tanzania

    Erick P. Massami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is a key to the economy and social welfare; it makes mobility more accessible and enhances the social and economic interactions. On the other hand, the increase of urban population, pollution and other negative impacts has directly affected the existing transportation system in Dar es Salaam City - Tanzania. As the transportation challenges cannot be overcome simultaneously due to the scarcity of financial resources, a decision support tool is needed to prioritize these challenges. In this study, a composite model of Vague Set Theory (VST and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is applied to appraise the challenges. The Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process (VAHP uses opinions of experts collected from a survey questionnaire. The computational results reveal the ranking in descending order of the urban transportation challenges as poor traffic management, inadequacy of proper public transit service and inadequacy of road transport infrastructure. The results also depict that the VAHP model is a useful decision support tool for transport planners, transport policy makers and other industry stakeholders.

  5. Predictors of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam

    Kamuhabwa AR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary R Kamuhabwa, Emmanuel CharlesUnit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Tanzania has recently experienced a significant rise in the burden of diabetes, and it is estimated that more than 400,000 people are living with diabetes. A major concern in the management of diabetes is the occurrence of diabetic complications that occur as a result of poor glycemic control. Identification of the factors associated with poor glycemic control is important in order to institute appropriate interventions for the purpose of improving glycemic control and prevention of chronic complications.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the level of glycemic control and explore the factors associated with poor glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the diabetic clinics for T2DM patients at the national and municipal hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A total of 469 patients were enrolled over a period of 8 weeks from March 2013 to May 2013. Patients' information such as sociodemographic characteristics, self-care management behaviors, and medication adherence were obtained through interviews. Blood pressure, weight, and height were measured during the day of the interview. All available last readings for fasting blood glucose (FBG measurements, lipid profile, and other clinical characteristics were obtained from patients' records.Results: The mean age of patients was 54.93 years. The majority (63.5% of patients were females and only eight patients had records of lipid profile measurements. Out of 469 patients, 69.7% had FBG of ≥7.2 mmol/L, indicating poor glycemic control. Females aged between 40 years and 59 years had significantly higher poor glycemic control (76.1% as compared with their male counterparts. Thirty-eight percent of patients had poor medication adherence

  6. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. PMID:25649406

  7. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  8. Identifying programmatic gaps: inequities in harm reduction service utilization among male and female drug users in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Barrot H Lambdin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Current estimates suggest an HIV prevalence of 42% among people who inject drugs (PWIDs in Dar es Salaam, while HIV prevalence is estimated to be 8.8% among the general population in the city. To address the HIV epidemic in this population, the government of Tanzania began establishing HIV prevention, treatment and care services including outreach and medication assisted treatment (MAT for PWIDs in 2010. We assessed gender inequities in utilization of outreach and MAT services and evaluated differences in HIV risk behaviors between female and male PWIDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Routine outreach data between December 2010 to mid-August 2012 and baseline data on clients enrolling in methadone from February 2011 to August 2012 were utilized. Binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk estimates comparing females to males. RESULTS: From December 2010 to August 2012, 8,578 contacts were made to drug users; among them 1,898 were injectors. A total of 453 injectors were eligible and referred to MAT, of which, 443 enrolled in treatment. However, regarding total outreach contacts, outreach to PWID, referral to MAT and enrollment in MAT, 8% or less of drug users accessing services were women. In contrast, weighted estimations from surveys suggest that 34% of PWIDs are female, and this approximation is similar to recent population size estimations. Overall, 43% of traditional outreach workers conducting outreach with drug users were female. Though reporting higher levels of condom usage, female PWID were more likely to report multiple sex partners, anal sex, commercial sex work and struggle under a higher burden of addiction, mental disorders and abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Services have not been mobilized adequately to address the clear needs of females who inject drugs. A clear and urgent need exists for women-centered strategies that effectively engage female PWID into HIV prevention services.

  9. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Kannady Khadija

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. Methods A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR, logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Results Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05–0.3, p Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Conclusion Although environmental management was historically coordinated by authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial resources for initial cleaning and structural repairs, and inter

  10. The importance of drains for the larval development of lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Marcia C Castro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. METHODOLOGY: Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%, and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149 of all culicine and 33% (320/976 of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001 times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001. The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. CONCLUSION: Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between

  11. Evaluation of the hygienic quality and associated public health hazards of raw milk marketed by smallholder dairy producers in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania.

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine three parameters of the quality of the raw milk marketed by milk selling points (MSPs) in Dar es Salaam region. Total bacterial count (TBC) was used as an indicator of the microbial quality of the milk; antimicrobial residues were determined; and the California mastitis test (CMT) was used to screen for milk somatic cells as an indication of the mastitis level in the cows that provided the milk. Moreover, a water sample at each MSP was taken for bacteriological culturing. Finally, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the milk sellers at the MSPs to identify risk factors for poor milk hygiene. A total of 128 milk samples and corresponding water samples were collected from randomly selected milk selling points in Dar es Salaam region. The mean TBC was (8.2 +/- 1.9) x 10(6) cfu/ml, and major bacterial isolates from the milk samples were Escherichia coli (6.3%), Bacillus cereus (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (6.3%), Enterobacter aerogenes (5.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (4.7%). In most cases, the organisms identified in milk corresponded to those isolated from the corresponding water samples. Of milk samples, 79.0% were positive to the CMT and 7.0% were positive for antimicrobial residues. TBC was normalized by log-transformation, and the possible predictors of TBC were identified by fitting two linear regression models. In a random effect model, water microbial quality, frequency of cleaning the milk containers, frequency of milk supply, milk storage time and the type of containers, and mixing of fresh and previous milk were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the mean log TBC. In a fixed effect model, in addition to these indicators, water shortage, water source and the refrigerator condition were significantly (p < or = 0.01) associated with log TBC. It was concluded that the milk sold in Dar es Salaam region is of poor quality and is of public health significance. PMID

  12. HIV risk behaviors, perceived severity of drug use problems, and prior treatment experience in a sample of young heroin injectors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sheryl; Williams, Mark; Mbwambo, Jessie; Kilonzo, Gad

    2011-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 203 male and 95 female heroin injectors aged 17 to 25 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nearly one-quarter of participants reported injecting with needles used by someone else. Few reported cleaning needles with bleach. Multiple sexual partnerships, unprotected sex, and trading sex for money were especially present among women, the majority (55%) of whom was HIV seropositive. Self reports suggest the presence of heroin dependence among users. While most participants expressed a desire to quit their use, only 14 (5%) had been in treatment. There appears to be a large unmet need for heroin use treatment. These findings need to be considered in light of a potential forthcoming wave of heroin injection in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23024611

  13. Trace metal pollution and its influence on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania

    The influence of trace metal pollution on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs was investigated in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast. Significant enrichment of As, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Zn in sediments was recorded. Redundancy analysis indicated that trace metal pollution contributed 68% of the variation in community structure. Monte Carlo permutation test showed that As and Sb contributed significantly to variation in species composition. T-value biplots and van Dobben circles showed that the gastropods Acteon fortis, Assiminea ovata, and Littoraria aberrans, were negatively affected by As and Sb, while the bivalve Semele radiata and the gastropod Conus litteratus were only negatively affected by As. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Mo and Zn occurred in the bivalve Mactra ovalina and the gastropod Polinices mammilla. This calls for regular monitoring and management measures.

  14. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Dongus Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1 community-based development of sketch maps and (2 verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa.

  15. Improved quality of management of eclampsia patients through criteria based audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bridging the quality gap

    Kidanto Hussein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits (CBA have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the use of a CBA to improve quality of care among eclampsia patients admitted at a University teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Objective The prevalence of eclampsia in MNH is high (≈6% with the majority of cases arriving after start of convulsions. In 2004–2005 the case-fatality rate in eclampsia was 5.1% of all pregnant women admitted for delivery (MNH obstetric data base. A criteria-based audit (CBA was used to evaluate the quality of care for eclamptic mothers admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania after implementation of recommendations of a previous audit. Methods A CBA of eclampsia cases was conducted at MNH. Management practices were evaluated using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. The Ministry of Health (MOH guidelines, local management guidelines, the WHO manual supplemented by the WHO Reproductive Health Library, standard textbooks, the Cochrane database and reviews in peer reviewed journals were adopted. At the initial audit in 2006, 389 case notes were assessed and compared with the standards, gaps were identified, recommendations made followed by implementation. A re-audit of 88 cases was conducted in 2009 and compared with the initial audit. Results There was significant improvement in quality of patient management and outcome between the initial and re-audit: Review of management plan by senior staff (76% vs. 99%; P=0.001, urine for albumin test (61% vs. 99%; P=0.001, proper use of partogram to monitor labour (75% vs. 95%; P=0.003, treatment with steroids for lung maturity (2.0% vs. 24%; P=0.001, Caesarean section within 2 hours of decision (33% vs. 61%; P=0.005, full blood count (28% vs. 93%; P=0.001, serum urea and creatinine (44% vs. 86%; P=0.001, liver enzymes (4.0% vs

  16. Pulmonary tuberculosis among women with cough attending clinics for family planning and maternal and child health in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Wandwalo Eliud R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB case detection in women has remained low in developing world. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of smear positive TB among women with cough regardless of the duration attending family Planning (FP and Maternal and child health (MCH clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in all three municipal hospitals of Dar es Salaam, between October 2007 and June 2008. All women with cough attending FP and MCH clinics were screened for TB by smear microscopy. Pearson chi-square was used to compare group difference for categorical variables. Risk factors for smear positive were estimated by logistics regression with 95% confidence intervals (CI given for odds ratios indicating statistically significant relationship if the CI did not include one. Results We enrolled a total of 749 TB suspects. Five hundred and twenty nine patients (70.6% were from MCH clinics. Mean (SD age was 27.6 (5.2 years. A total of 616 (82.2% patients were coughing for less than two weeks as compared to 133 (17.8%, who coughed for two or more weeks. Among 616 TB suspects, 14 (2.3% were smear positive TB patients, and of the 133 who had coughed for two or more weeks, 13 (9.8% were smear positive TB patients. Risk factors associated with smear positive results were having attended more than one visit to any facility prior to diagnosis (OR = 6.8; 95%CI 2.57–18.0 and having HIV/AIDS (OR = 4.4; 95%CI 1.65–11.96. Long duration of cough was not a risk factor for being smear positive (OR = 1.6; 95%CI 0.59–4.49. Conclusion The proportion of smear positive TB patients among women with cough attending MCH and FP was 3.8%. Visits to any health facility prior to Diagnosis and HIV infection were risk for having a smear positive TB.

  17. A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Linda Beatrice Mlunde

    Full Text Available People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.We conducted a baseline cross-sectional study as part of a prospective cohort study of people who inject drugs. We included 578 participants comprising of new enrollees of the integrated methadone-assisted treatment program and those who were selected from the communities but not enrolled in the program. We interviewed new enrollees preceding their enrollment and receipt of services from the program. We measured participants' high-risk behaviors and their utilization of screening services. We analyzed the data descriptively and used multiple logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with ever being screened for infectious diseases.Of 578 participants, 14.2% shared injection needles. Of 547 sexually active participants, 37.5% had multiple sexual partners and only 17.4% used a condom. Of all participants, however, only 36.0% had ever been screened for HIV infection, 18.5% for tuberculosis, 11.8% for any other sexually transmitted infection, and 11.6% for hepatitis B/C. They were more likely to have ever been screened for HIV infection if they had education levels above primary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.54-4.20, had a history of transactional sex (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.01-6.84, and were new enrollees of the program (AOR: 7.41, 95% CI: 4.41-12.86.People who inject drugs practice high-risk behaviors but their utilization of screening services for infectious diseases is poor in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is crucial to increase the coverage of screening

  18. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: A case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Massila Mariam

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics. In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live.

  19. The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas: the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Benedict F. Malele

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of “coping” responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.

  20. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices. PMID:26891516

  1. Putting the genie back in the bottle? Availability and presentation of oral artemisinin compounds at retail pharmacies in urban Dar-es-Salaam

    Black Carolyn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently global health advocates have called for the introduction of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies to help curb the impact of drug-resistant malaria in Africa. Retail trade in artemisinin monotherapies could undermine efforts to restrict this class of medicines to more theoretically sound combination treatments. Methods This paper describes a systematic search for artemisinin-containing products at a random sample of licensed pharmacies in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in July 2005. Results Nineteen different artemisinin-containing oral pharmaceutical products, including one co-formulated product, one co-packaged product, and 17 monotherapies were identified. All but one of the products were legally registered and samples of each product were obtained without a prescription. Packaging and labeling of the products seldom included local language or illustrated instructions for low-literate clients. Packaging and inserts compared reasonably well with standards recommended by the national regulatory authority with some important exceptions. Dosing instructions were inconsistent, and most recommended inadequate doses based on international standards. None of the monotherapy products mentioned potential benefits of combining the treatment with another antimalarial drug. Conclusion The findings confirm the widespread availability of artemisinin monotherapies that led the World Health Organization to call for the voluntary withdrawal of these drugs in malaria-endemic countries. As the global public health community gathers resources to deploy artemisinin-containing combination therapies in Africa, planners should be mindful that these drugs will coexist with artemisinin monotherapies in an already well-established market place. In particular, regulatory authorities should be incorporated urgently into the process of planning for rational deployment of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies.

  2. Balancing collective responsibility, individual opportunities and risks: a qualitative study on how police officers reason around volunteering in an HIV vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Bakari Muhammad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from HIV vaccine trials on potential volunteers will contribute to global efforts to develop an HIV vaccine. The purpose of this study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was to explore the underlying reasons that induce people to enrol in an HIV vaccine trial. Methods We conducted discussions with eight focus groups, containing a total of 66 police officers. The information collected was analyzed using interpretive description. Results The results showed that participants were motivated to participate in the trial by altruism, and that the participants experienced some concerns about their participation. They stated that altruism in the fight against HIV infection was the main reason for enrolling in the trial. However, young participants were seriously concerned about a possible loss of close relationships if they enrolled in the HIV vaccine trial. Both men and women feared the effect of the trial on their reproductive biology, and they feared interference with pregnancy norms. They were unsure about risks such as the risks of acquiring HIV infection and of suffering physical harm, and they were unsure of the intentions of the researchers conducting the trial. Further, enrolling in the trial required medical examination, and this led some participants to fear that unknown diseases would be revealed. Other participants, however, saw an opportunity to obtain free health services. Conclusions We have shown that specific fears are important concerns when recruiting volunteers to an HIV vaccine trial. More knowledge is needed to determine participants' views and to ensure that they understand the conduct of the trial and the reasons it is being carried out.

  3. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Govella Nico J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs. New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.6–37.6%; p = 0.04. Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience.

  4. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines

  5. Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    Fillinger Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs, recruited from within local communities via the elected local government. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional survey assessed the ability of CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae, and investigated demographic characteristics of the CORPs, their reasons for participating in the UMCP, and their work performance. Detection coverage was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the investigator which had been reported by CORP. Detection sensitivity was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the CORPS which the investigator found to contain Anopheles larvae that were also reported to be occupied by the CORP. Results The CORPs themselves perceived their role as professional rather than voluntary, with participation being a de facto form of employment. Habitat detection coverage was lower among CORPs that were recruited through the program administrative staff, compared to CORPs recruited by local government officials or health committees (Odds Ratio = 0.660, 95% confidence interval = [0.438, 0.995], P = 0.047. Staff living within their areas of responsibility had > 70% higher detection sensitivity for both Anopheline (P = 0.016 and Culicine (P = 0.012: positive habitats compared to those living outside those same areas. Discussion and conclusions Improved employment conditions as well as involving the local health committees in recruiting individual program staff, communication and community engagement skills are required to optimize

  6. Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

    Swai Ndeniria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1 anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2 anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80 in intervention and 32% (9-54 in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72 in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35 in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26. The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22% and control HF (60% (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70. Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic

  7. Low utilization of health care services following screening for hypertension in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania: a prospective population-based study

    Lengeler Christian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy in high-risk individuals has been advocated as an important strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease in low income countries. We determined, in a low-income urban population, the proportion of persons who utilized health services after having been diagnosed as hypertensive and advised to seek health care for further hypertension management. Methods A population-based survey of 9254 persons aged 25–64 years was conducted in Dar es Salaam. Among the 540 persons with high blood pressure (defined here as BP ≥ 160/95 mmHg at the initial contact, 253 (47% had high BP on a 4th visit 45 days later. Among them, 208 were untreated and advised to attend health care in a health center of their choice for further management of their hypertension. One year later, 161 were seen again and asked about their use of health services during the interval. Results Among the 161 hypertensive persons advised to seek health care, 34% reported to have attended a formal health care provider during the 12-month interval (63% public facility; 30% private; 7% both. Antihypertensive treatment was taken by 34% at some point of time (suggesting poor uptake of health services and 3% at the end of the 12-month follow-up (suggesting poor long-term compliance. Health services utilization tended to be associated with older age, previous history of high BP, being overweight and non-smoking, but not with education or wealth. Lack of symptoms and cost of treatment were the reasons reported most often for not attending health care. Conclusion Low utilization of health services after hypertension screening suggests a small impact of a patient-centered screen-and-treat strategy in this low-income population. These findings emphasize the need to identify and address barriers to health care utilization for non-communicable diseases in this setting and, indirectly, the importance of public health measures for primary prevention of these diseases.

  8. Effects of seasonal change and seawater intrusion on water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes, in coastal aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia; Sweya, Lukuba Ngalya; Luciani, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater is the major source to meet domestic, industrial and agricultural needs in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, population growth, increasing urbanization, industrialization and tourism, and climatic changes have caused an intensive exploitation of groundwater resources leading the aquifers become more vulnerable to seawater intrusion. The aim of this study is to examine the variations of groundwater chemistry (as resulting from natural and anthropogenic inputs) depending on seasonal changes, in order to evaluate water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. Physical and chemical data come from the analysis of groundwater samples, collected from 72 wells, used for the evaluation of water quality parameters, during a year of monitoring. Pattern diagrams, geochemical modeling techniques and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been used to identify the main factors influencing groundwater composition. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: (a) Na-Cl, (b) Ca-Cl, (c) mixed Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl (d) mixed Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. The geochemical modeling results show that groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by evaporation process, as it is suggested by the increase of Na and Cl ions concentrations. According to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA, most water samples from dry and rainy seasons, distributed in category C2-S1, C3-S1, C3-S2, C4-S2 highlighting medium to very high salinity hazard and low to medium sodium content class. PCA evidenced the role of seawater intrusion, evaporation process and anthropogenic pollution (i.e. high NO3 levels due to agricultural activities), as the major factors that influenced the water chemistry, and hence the water quality. Based on Pearson correlation matrix, the presence of high correlations (>0.8) among Na, Cl, Mg and SO4, in association with EC, were interpreted as the seawater intrusion effects. In this area groundwater quality is generally low, and

  9. Informal support to first-parents after childbirth: a qualitative study in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Mbekenga Columba K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care

  10. Risky behaviours among young people living with HIV attending care and treatment clinics in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania: implications for prevention with a positive approach

    Aisa Mhalu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to reduce new instances of HIV infection. Risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS are the cornerstone for this approach. Understanding the extent to which infected individuals practice risky behaviours is fundamental in designing appropriate population-specific interventions. With the HIV infection transmission rates remaining high among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, continued prevention among them remains a priority. This study therefore seeks to describe the magnitude and determinants of risky sexual behaviours among young people living with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and July 2010 in selected Care and Treatment Clinics (CTCs in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 282 HIV-positive patients aged 15–24 were interviewed about their sexual behaviours using a questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of unprotected sex was 40.0% among young males and 37.5% among young females (p<0.001. Multiple sexual partnerships were reported by 10.6% of males and 15.9% of females (p<0.005. More than 50% of the participants did not know about the HIV status of their sexual partners. A large proportion of participants had minimal knowledge of transmission (46.7% males vs. 60.4% females and prevention (65.3% males vs. 73.4% females of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent predictors of condom use included non-use of alcohol [adjusted odds ratio (AOR, 0.40 95% confidence interval (CI; 0.17–0.84] and younger age (15–19 years (AOR, 2.76, 95% CI: 1.05–7.27. Being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR, 0.38, 95% CI: 0.17–0.85 and not knowing partners’ HIV sero-status (AOR, 2.62, 95% CI: 1.14–5.10 predicted the practice of multiple sexual partnership. Conclusions: Unprotected sex and multiple sexual partnerships were prevalent among young people living with HIV. Less knowledge on STI and lack of HIV

  11. Towards spatial justice in urban health services planning : A spatial-analytic GIS-based approach using Dar es Salaam, Tanzania as a case study

    Amer, S

    2007-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study is to develop a GIS-based planning approach that contributes to equitable and efficient provision of urban health services in cities in sub-Saharan Africa. Its prime concern is with (i) the identification of theoretical and methodological constructs that can be used to analyse and improve the spatial performance of public health service delivery systems, and (ii) the development of a corresponding spatial-analytic and GIS-based planning approach using Dar es ...

  12. Infant and young child feeding practices among children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to infant and young child feeding messages and promotions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Vitta, Bineti S; Benjamin, Margaret; Pries, Alissa M; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    There are limited data describing infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) in urban Tanzania. This study assessed the types of foods consumed by children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to promotions of these foods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 305 mothers of children less than 24 months of age who attended child health services in October and November, 2014. Among infants less than 6 months of age, rates of exclusive breastfeeding were low (40.8%) and a high proportion (38.2%) received semi-solid foods. Continued breastfeeding among 20-23-month-olds was only 33.3%. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was not prevalent, and only 3.9% of infants less than 6 months of age and 4.8% of 6-23 month-olds were fed formula. Among 6-23-month-olds, only 38.4% consumed a minimum acceptable diet (using a modified definition). The homemade complementary foods consumed by the majority of 6-23-month-olds (85.2%) were cereal-dominated and infrequently contained micronutrient-rich ingredients. Only 3.1% of 6-23-month-olds consumed commercially produced infant cereal on the day preceding the interview. In contrast, commercially produced snack foods were consumed by 23.1% of 6-23-month-olds. Maternal exposure to commercial promotions of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods was low (10.5% and 1.0%, respectively), while exposure to promotions of commercially produced snack foods was high (45.9%). Strategies are needed to improve IYCF practices, particularly with regard to exclusive and continued breastfeeding, increased dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, and avoidance of feeding commercially produced snack foods. PMID:27061958

  13. Women's preferences regarding infant or maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breastfeeding and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Matilda Ngarina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The WHO 2010 guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV recommended prophylactic antiretroviral treatment (ART either for infants (Option A or mothers (Option B during breastfeeding for pregnant women with a CD4 count of >350 cell/µL in low-income countries. In 2012, WHO proposed that all HIV-infected pregnant women should receive triple ART for life (B+ irrespective of CD4 count. Tanzania has recently switched from Option A to B+, with a few centers practicing B. However, more information on the real-life feasibility of these options is needed. This qualitative study explored women's preferences for Option A vs B and their views on Option B+ in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted four focus group discussions with a total of 27 pregnant women with unknown HIV status, attending reproductive and child health clinics, and 31 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected pregnant and post-delivery women, 17 of whom were also asked about B+. RESULTS: Most participants were in favor of Option B compared to A. The main reasons for choosing Option B were: HIV-associated stigma, fear of drug side-effects on infants and difficult logistics for postnatal drug adherence. Some of the women asked about B+ favored it as they agreed that they would eventually need ART for their own survival. Some were against B+ anticipating loss of motivation after protecting the child, fearing drug side-effects and not feeling ready to embark on lifelong medication. Some were undecided. CONCLUSION: Option B was preferred. Since Tanzania has recently adopted Option B+, women with CD4 counts of >350 cell/µL should be counseled about the possibility to "opt-out" from ART after cessation of breastfeeding. Drug safety and benefits, economic concerns and available resources for laboratory monitoring and evaluation should be addressed during B+ implementation to enhance long-term feasibility and effectiveness.

  14. The perceptions on male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV infection and considerations in scaling up of the services: a qualitative study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Tarimo Edith AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent randomized controlled trials, male circumcision has been proven to complement the available biomedical interventions in decreasing HIV transmission from infected women to uninfected men. Consequently, Tanzania is striving to scale-up safe medical male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. However, there is a need to investigate the perceptions of male circumcision in Tanzania using specific populations. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceptions of male circumcision in a cohort of police officers that also served as a source of volunteers for a phase I/II HIV vaccine (HIVIS-03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews with 24 men and 10 women were conducted. Content analysis informed by the socio-ecological model was used to analyze the data. Results Informants perceived male circumcision as a health-promoting practice that may prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. They reported male circumcision promotes sexual pleasure, confidence and hygiene or sexual cleanliness. They added that it is a religious ritual and a cultural practice that enhances the recognition of manhood in the community. However, informants were concerned about the cost involved in male circumcision and cleanliness of instruments used in medical and traditional male circumcision. They also expressed confusion about the shame of undergoing circumcision at an advanced age and pain that could emanate after circumcision. The participants advocated for health policies that promote medical male circumcision at childhood, specifically along with the vaccination program. Conclusions The perceived benefit of male circumcision as a preventive strategy to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is important. However, there is a need to ensure that male circumcision is conducted under hygienic conditions. Integrating male circumcision service in the routine childhood vaccination

  15. Putting the genie back in the bottle? Availability and presentation of oral artemisinin compounds at retail pharmacies in urban Dar-es-Salaam

    Black Carolyn; Kachur S Patrick; Abdulla Salim; Goodman Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently global health advocates have called for the introduction of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies to help curb the impact of drug-resistant malaria in Africa. Retail trade in artemisinin monotherapies could undermine efforts to restrict this class of medicines to more theoretically sound combination treatments. Methods This paper describes a systematic search for artemisinin-containing products at a random sample of licensed pharmacies in Dar-e...

  16. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates’ students of Muhimbili and Dar es Salaam Universities, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study

    Somba, Magreat J; Mbonile, Milline; Obure, Joseph; Mahande, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Background The rate of premarital sexual activity, unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions remain higher among university students. This calls for understanding the knowledge on contraceptive use and sexual behaviours among this high risk group if the incidence of unintended pregnancy, illegal abortions and high sexual risky behaviour are to be minimized. This study aimed to assess ssexual behaviour, contraceptive knowledge and use among female undergraduates’ students of Muhimbili and Dar...

  17. Homeowner's Architectural Responses to Crime in Dar Es Salaan : Its impacts and implications to urban architecture, urban design and urban management

    Bulamile, Ludigija Boniface

    2009-01-01

    HTML clipboardThis study is about Homeowner’s architectural responses to crime in Dar es Salaam Tanzania: its impacts and implications to urban architecture, urban design and urban management. The study explores and examines the processes through which homeowners respond to crimes of burglary, home robbery and fear of it using architectural or physical elements. The processes are explored and examined using case study methodology in three cases in Dar es Salaam. The cases are residentia...

  18. Developing Fashion/Textile Design Education in Dar es Salaam

    Sinha, Pammi

    2008-01-01

    Interviews conducted during May 2007 and at a subsequent workshop on 16th January 2008 confirm that employment opportunities in textile design tend to be limited to the small scale entrepreneurs taking on trainees or staff or to become self employed. Self-employment appears to be the most immediate form of business operation in the fashion/textile design business. The local entrepreneurs interviewed in the study were involved in design through manufacture to retail. To help the entre...

  19. Narrativ analyse af cykelkulturen i Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Høyer, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Major African cities are faced with massive challenges in regard to infrastructure and mobility caused by intense urbanization. The ever growing population needs to move around in the city space, which is often characterized by poor and badly maintained infrastructure, chaotic traffic and inadequate public transport. This situation results in high insecurity, low accessibility, pollution and not least social exclusion of the poor majority of citizens living in unplanned areas without equal ac...

  20. Determinants of Anemia in postpartum HIV-negative Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Petraro, P; Duggan, C.; Urassa, W.; Msamanga, G; Makubi, A; Spiegelman, D.; Fawzi, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    The determinants of anemia during both pregnancy and postpartum recovery remain incompletely understood in sub-Saharan African women. In a prospective cohort study among pregnant women, we assessed dietary, biochemical, anthropometric, infectious and sociodemographic factors at baseline. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we examined predictors of incident anemia (hemoglobin

  1. Determinants of Anemia in Postpartum HIV-Negative Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Petraro, Paul; Duggan, Christopher Paul; Urassa, Willy; Msamanga, Gernard; Makubi, Abel; Spiegelman, Donna Lynn; Wafaie W Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The determinants of anemia during both pregnancy and postpartum recovery remain incompletely understood in sub-Saharan African women. Subjects/methods: In a prospective cohort study among pregnant women, we assessed dietary, biochemical, anthropometric, infectious and sociodemographic factors at baseline. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we examined predictors of incident anemia (hemoglobin

  2. Vitamin A Supplementation and Other Predictors of Anemia Among Children from Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Villamor, E; Mbise, R; Spiegelman, D.; Ndossi, G; Fawzi, W. W.

    2000-01-01

    The associations of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and packed cell volume with socioeconomic factors, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and nutritional status were examined among 687 children admitted to hospital with pneumonia participating in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation. Children were randomized to receive 2 doses of vitamin A (200,000 IU) or placebo at baseline, and additional doses at 4 and 8 months after discharge from hospital. Hem...

  3. The role of local government in promoting sustainable urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    As a multifunctional activity and land use, urban agriculture supports a range of objectives, from urban greening to food security. However, it is often left out of urban policy. As a result of the highly contextual and cross-cutting nature of urban agriculture, there are relatively few...... and institutionalization of urban agriculture through the facilitation of multi-stakeholder processes, policy development and the conservation and allocation of land. © 2013 Taylor & Francis....... comprehensive and formalized regulatory tools to draw from. Different cities around the world are now deciding how to fit urban agriculture into the urban agenda; however, in many places urban agriculture continues to operate in the absence of legitimization due to its relatively mobile and dynamic nature. This...

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Medicated Soaps Commonly Used By Dar es Salaam Residents in Tanzania.

    Mwambete, K D; Lyombe, F

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853) and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) were tested at three different soaps' concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml). A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps' ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; Psoaps' concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts(®) soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm) on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency(®) and Dalan(®) exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex(®), Roberts(®), Family(®) and Protector(®) were equally effective (Psoaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda(®) liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps' antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora. PMID:22131630

  5. Antimicrobial activity of medicated soaps commonly used by Dar es Salaam residents in Tanzania

    K D Mwambete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923, Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853 and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922 were tested at three different soaps′ concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml. A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps′ ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01 between zones of inhibition and soaps′ concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts® soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency® and Dalan® exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex® , Roberts® , Family® and Protector® were equally effective (P<0.01 against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda® liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps′ antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora.

  6. Exploring Sustainable Urban Food Provisioning: The Case of Eggs in Dar es Salaam

    Marc C. A. Wegerif

    2014-01-01

    Global food supply is dominated by transnational corporations, which have great power and are widely critiqued for the negative environmental and social impacts of their operations. Many argue that this industrial food system is unsustainable, yet its expansion seems inevitable and alternatives are seen as incapable of feeding the world’s growing and increasingly urban population. Since much of the world’s future population growth is going to happen in the cities of the developing world, ...

  7. Image of Nursing Profession as Viewed by Secondary School Students in Ilala District, Dar Es Salaam

    KIWANUKA, ACHILLE

    2010-01-01

    To assess knowledge and attitudes of secondary school students in Ilala district towards the nursing profession To determine the awareness of nursing as a profession by secondary school students in Ilala district, explore factors that promote aspiration to enroll in nursing schools and to explore factors that deter aspiration to enroll in nursing schools. The study was exploratory cross sectional using both qualitative and quantitative methods and was conducted in Azania and Jangwani secondar...

  8. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Thomas Angela N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

  9. Acceptance of contraceptives among women who had an unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; Yambesi, Fortunata;

    2004-01-01

    . Of these, 86% stated they were still using contraception 1-6 months after discharge. Initially, 55% of the women accepted to use condoms either alone or as part of double protection. After 1-6 months this proportion had dropped to 18%. Single women were significantly more likely to use condoms...

  10. Urban Agriculture and Operational Mosquito Larvae Control: Mitigating Malaria Risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Dongus, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Global commitment, political will and financial support to reduce the burden of malaria, a disease which kills about one million people each year, have reached an unprecedented level. Although global malaria eradication appears to be a distant goal, there are promising efforts towards regional control and local elimination of the disease. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world’s highest malaria burden, as well as the world’s fastest growing cities. Rapid urbanisation brings eno...

  11. Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control. mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Dongus, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Global commitment, political will and financial support to reduce the burden of malaria, a disease which kills about one million people each year, have reached an unprecedented level. Although global malaria eradication appears to be a distant goal, there are promising efforts towards regional control and local elimination of the disease. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world’s highest malaria burden, as well as the world’s fastest growing cities. Rapid urbanisation brings eno...

  12. Risk Factors of Surgical Site Infection at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Akoko, L.O.; Mwanga, A.H.; Fredrick, F.; Mbembati, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common source of morbidity among operated patients. At Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), studies indicate that the rate of SSI has been increasing over the past thirty years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with SSI among patients undergoing surgery at MNH. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. One hundred and eighteen patients who underwent surgical procedures in the surgical wards were recruited. Dem...

  13. Managing Informal Settlements : A Study Using Geo-Information in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Šliužas, Ričardas Vytautas

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often associated with the urbanization of poverty, and with the extensive development of informal settlements. This thesis examines how Geographic Information Technology (GIT) could be used to improve the ability of local governments in SSA manage such set

  14. Preliminary investigation into the elemental profile of ambient particulate matter in Dar Es Salam, Tanzania as determined by high-energy polarized edxrf

    The elemental concentration profile of particulate matter in the troposphere from the coast of Dar Es Salaam towards the inland in Tanzania was investigated. Particulates were collected from two sites by using a 0.4 μm Nuclepore membrane filter in a single stage impactor, aligned at intervals of 0 km and 20 km from the coast line, for bulk analysis. The particulates were collected during the dry and rainy season between September 2004 and January 2005. The concentration of 20 elements (Si. K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Se, Sr, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ph, Sb, Al, S and Ci) from two sites were determined using high-energy polarised Energy Dispersive Χray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Concentrations ranged between 2 ngm-3 and 3640 ngm-3. Possible sources for 20 elements were identified with specific focus on marine originated elements, by comparison of the results obtained with that available in open literature. Away from the coast, a gradual decrease in marine element concentration was observed 3640 ngm-3 to 2237 ngm-3. Weather conditions (micro-climate) information during sampling days were obtained from the Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA) and considered as a representatives of required site meteorological parameters. From the results, it was also noted that wind speed and direction influence the elemental particulate concentrations on the various sites.(Author)

  15. Rational use of Medicines in Relation to Pharmaceutical Supply System in Municipal Hospitals of Dar-es-salaam Region

    Protas, Bwile PB

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical management involves set of practices aiming at ensuring timely availability and appropriate use of safe, effective and quality pharmaceuticals and services in any health care setting. Rational use of medicines is often associated efficiency of pharmaceutical supply system that operates in the health care system. Pharmaceutical supply system involves planning and programming for pharmaceutical requirements, procurement, storage and distribution which are the necessary steps towa...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV-infected women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Liu, Enju; McCree, Renicha; Mtisi, Expeditho; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Aris, Eric; Lema, Irene A; Hertzmark, Ellen; Chalamilla, Guerino; Li, Nan; Vermund, Sten H; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and predictors of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) among HIV-infected women in Tanzania, a cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-infected women at HIV care and treatment clinics. A Papanicolaou (Pap) smear was used as a screening tool for detection of cervical SIL. From December 2006 to August 2009, 1365 HIV-infected women received cervical screening. The median age was 35 (interquartile range [IQR]: 30-42) years, and the median CD4 + cell count was 164 (IQR: 80-257) cells/mm(3). The prevalence of cervical SIL was 8.7% (119/1365). In multivariate analysis, older age (≥50 versus 30-<40 years: prevalence ratio [PR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.84, p for trend = 0.001), lower CD4 + cell counts (<100 versus ≥200 cells/mm(3): PR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.36, p for trend = 0.03) and cervical inflammation (PR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.16-2.60, p = 0.008) were associated with an increased risk of cervical SIL. Women with advanced WHO HIV disease stage (IV versus I/II: PR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.35-8.85, p for trend = 0.01) had an increased risk for high-grade SIL. In resource-limited settings where it is not feasible to provide cervical cancer prevention services to all HIV-infected women, greater efforts should focus on scaling-up services among those who are older than 50 years, with lower CD4 cell counts and advanced HIV disease stage. PMID:25957324

  17. The Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Mental Health Problems Among Institutionalized Orphans in Dar es salaam, Tanzania

    Myovela, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Orphanhood is becoming a more common experience for children in Tanzania, in part as a consequence of the AIDS pandemic, trauma and poverty. The number of orphans and risk of psychopathology has been steadily increasing even in regions where the AIDS epidemic has stabilized. Institutional care for orphaned children is uncommon in sub-Sahara Africa and seen as a last resort primarily as orphanages are often seen as a source of unhealthy psychological development and orphans’ ability to survive...

  18. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective

    Maisara Mhode; Tumaini Nyamhanga

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the live...

  19. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel

    2008-01-01

    included counselling on HIV and condom use. Questionnaire interviews about contraceptive use were conducted at the time of inclusion and 12 months after the abortion. Additionally, in-depth interviews were performed 6-12 months after the abortion. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the women accepted...... HIV and condom use should be considered an essential aspect of postabortion care....

  20. Patient Satisfaction with Health Care Services Provided at HIV Clinics at Amana and Muhimbili Hospitals in Dar es Salaam.

    Kagashe, G A B; Rwebangila, F

    2011-01-01

    Since the establishment of free HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in Tanzania a lot of research has been done to assess how health care providers discharge their duties in these clinics. Little research however has been done regarding satisfaction of HIV patients with free health care services provided. To determine satisfaction of HIV patients with health care services provided at the HIV clinics and specifically, to determine patients' satisfaction with the general physical environment o...

  1. The extension of Ubungo power plant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to a combined cycle - A prestudy

    Grinneland, L.; Oehrstroem, K.

    1996-05-01

    The report deals with the consequences concerning a future extension of Ubungo Power Plant. Today the power plant consists of four gas turbines, two of model General Electric LM6000 and two of model ABB Stal GT10 of which the latter were the ones focused on. In the report four different applications are presented; Simple two pressure system, Two pressure system with reheat, Two pressure system with heat exchange between feedwater and condensate, and single pressure system with an additional evaporating loop. The calculations are divided into three sections; thermodynamic calculations, calculations of the heat exchanger surface areas, and economic calculations. From the thermodynamic calculations the applications with the highest thermal efficiency was selected. The power output increased with about 55% and the thermal efficiency of the complete combined cycle is 48.2%. This is, of course, a theoretical value calculated without consideration to a number of losses that will decrease both the power output and the thermal efficiency. At part load (50% load assumed, i.e. one gas turbine is operating) the thermal efficiency is 46.7%. The economic calculations indicated that the extension is highly worthwhile in an economic point of view; both cases studied have a payback time of less than six years for full load operation, provided that the charging system which is to be imposed by the World Bank has come into force. 18 refs, 33 figs

  2. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective

    Maisara Mhode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV. Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination. The sample size was determined according to the saturation principle. Results. Respondents experienced different forms of HIV-related stigma such as verbal, social, and perceived stigma. Various forms of discrimination were experienced, including relational discrimination, mistreatment by health care workers, blame and rejection by spouses, and workplace discrimination. HIV-related stigma and discrimination compromised ART adherence by reinforcing concealment of HIV status and undermining social suppport. Conclusion. After nearly a decade of increasing the provision of ART in Tanzania, PLHIV still experience stigma and discrimination; these experiences still appear to have a negative impact on treatment adherence. Efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination remain relevant in the ART period and should be given more impetus in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes.

  3. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective.

    Mhode, Maisara; Nyamhanga, Tumaini

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination. The sample size was determined according to the saturation principle. Results. Respondents experienced different forms of HIV-related stigma such as verbal, social, and perceived stigma. Various forms of discrimination were experienced, including relational discrimination, mistreatment by health care workers, blame and rejection by spouses, and workplace discrimination. HIV-related stigma and discrimination compromised ART adherence by reinforcing concealment of HIV status and undermining social suppport. Conclusion. After nearly a decade of increasing the provision of ART in Tanzania, PLHIV still experience stigma and discrimination; these experiences still appear to have a negative impact on treatment adherence. Efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination remain relevant in the ART period and should be given more impetus in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes. PMID:27110395

  4. Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Mbwana Judica

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Methods Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical, SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc., First Response HIV Card 1–2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd, HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc and Uni-Gold™ HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics. Results Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold™ was 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2–99.9 and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7–98.9, respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold™ assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6–100 while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9, 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8–99.7, 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9 and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3–99.9 for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was concordantly false positive in Uni-Gold™, Determine and SD Bioline assays. Conclusion An alternative confirmatory HIV testing strategy based on initial testing on either SD Bioline or Determine assays followed by testing of reactive samples on the Determine or SD Bioline gave 100% sensitivity (95% CI; 99.1–100 and 100% specificity (95% CI; 96–99.1 with Uni-Gold™ as tiebreaker for discordant results.

  5. Community response to artemisinin-based combination therapy for childhood malaria: a case study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Nyato Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug. Implementation of ACT-based treatment guidelines must be complemented with educational campaigns to insure that mothers seek prompt help for their children within 24 hours of the onset of fever. Improved communication between health care providers and mothers of sick children can facilitate better adherence to ALu's recommended dosage. Community level interpretations of anti-malarials are multifaceted; integrating knowledge of local beliefs and practices surrounding consumption of anti-malarials into programmatic goals can help to significantly improve malaria control interventions.

  6. “Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting” Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Community Pharmacy Dispensers in Dar es salaam, Tanzania

    Shimwela, Grace Mng’ong’o

    2011-01-01

    Under reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by healthcare personnel is a common problem of many Pharmacovigilence programs. Lack of involvement of healthcare professionals such as pharmacists and other pharmaceutical dispensers has been cited as one of the reasons for under reporting. Pharmaceutical dispensers in the community pharmacies are in unique position by virtue of their training and profession to observe ADRs in patients, as many patients often try to avoid doctor consultation f...

  7. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    Silberschmidt, M; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent......Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent...... willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time...

  8. Diabetic foot: prevalence, knowledge, and foot self-care practices among diabetic patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania – a cross-sectional study

    Chiwanga, Faraja S.; Njelekela, Marina A

    2015-01-01

    Background At the time of diagnosis, more than 10 % of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus have one or two risk factors for a foot ulceration and a lifetime risk of 15 %. Diabetic foot ulcers can be prevented through well-coordinated foot care services. The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of foot care and reported practice of foot self-care among diabetic patients with the aim of identifying and addressing barriers to preventing amputations among diabetic patients. Methods...

  9. A pilot study to evaluate incorporating eye care for children into reproductive and child health services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: a historical comparison study.

    Mafwiri, MM; Kisenge, R; Gilbert, CE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many blinding eye conditions of childhood are preventable or treatable, particularly in developing countries. However, primary eye care (PEC) for children is poorly developed, leading to unnecessary visual loss. Activities for control by health workers entail interventions for systemic conditions (measles, vitamin A deficiency), identification and referral of children with sight threatening conditions and health education for caregivers. This pilot study evaluated integrating a pac...

  10. Knowledge and Practice of Intensive Care Nurses on Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Said, Ally Tatu

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted among Intensive care (ICU) nurses at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), to identify knowledge and practice of ICU nurses on prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP). Knowledge of 118 nurses working in ICU such as Main , Cardiac , Acute pediatric ICUs , emergency medicine department and highly dependent unit at MNH were tested by using a close ended questionnaire, 30 nurses among 118 were tested for knowledge and practice by us...

  11. Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding: A comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas(low-lying lands and on river banks. This situation is caused by poverty and the inabilityof authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urbanpopulations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just oneof them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resortedto the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of peopleand properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as towhy this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategiesto flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommendingmeasures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections ofsigns of damage and deterioration, measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies,mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally,in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures throughstructural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptationstrategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations.However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houseswere compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah thanin Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in theuse of reinforced concrete (4.3% for constructing a building’s foundation, as well as in the useof ceramics (72.9% to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptationstrategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction ofstructures for adaptation, enhancing individual coping capacity, deployment of a workforcetrained in disaster risk and management and enforcement of relevant urban planning andenvironmental management laws in managing risky areas.

  12. Towards spatial justice in urban health services planning : A spatial-analytic GIS-based approach using Dar es Salaam, Tanzania as a case study

    Amer, S.

    2007-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study is to develop a GIS-based planning approach that contributes to equitable and efficient provision of urban health services in cities in sub-Saharan Africa. Its prime concern is with (i) the identification of theoretical and methodological constructs that can be used

  13. THE EVOLUTION OF THE LAND USE STRUCTURE OF DAR ES SALAAM 1890-1 990: A STUDY IN THE EFFECTS OF LAND POLICY, Volume 1

    Kironde, Lusugga

    1994-01-01

    Theoretically, land policy is presented as a necessary intervention by governments in order to iron out the inefficiencies inherent in land markets. The result would be a smooth working urban land market, yielding an equitable and efficient land use structure. In practice though, land policy is part and parcel, and, indeed, a paradigm of the wiser issues of governance. Historically, land policy has been used to serve colonial interests; to achieve segregation between social groups in society;...

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF THE LAND USE STRUCTURE OF DAR ES SALAAM 1890-1 990: A STUDY IN THE EFFECTS OF LAND POLICY

    Kironde, Lusugga

    1994-01-01

    Theoretically, land policy is presented as a necessary intervention by governments in order to iron out the inefficiencies inherent in land markets. The result would be a smooth working urban land market, yielding an equitable and efficient land use structure. In practice though, land policy is part and parcel, and, indeed, a paradigm of the wiser issues of governance. Historically, land policy has been used to serve colonial interests; to achieve segregation between social groups in society;...

  15. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Mikx Frans HM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. Methods Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children and 481 adults, 165 males and 367 females. Children were aged 2–17 years and adults 18 and 67 years. Participants were recruited consecutively at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH HIV clinic from October 2004 to September 2005. Investigations included; interviews, physical examinations, HIV testing and enumeration of CD4+ T cells. Results A total of 237 HIV-associated oral lesions were observed in 210 (39.5% patients. Oral candidiasis was the commonest (23.5%, followed by mucosal hyperpigmentation (4.7%. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (χ2 = 4.31; df = 1; p = 0.03 and parotid enlargement (χ2 = 36.5; df = 1; p = 0.04 between children and adults. Adult patients who were on HAART had a significantly lower risk of; oral lesions (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22 – 0.47; p = 0.005, oral candidiasis (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.18 – 0.44; p = 0.003 and oral hairy leukoplakia (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.04 – 0.85; p = 0.03. There was no significant reduction in occurrence of oral lesions in children on HAART (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.11–1.14; p = 0.15. There was also a significant association between the presence of oral lesions and CD4+ cell count 3 (χ2 = 52.4; df = 2; p = 0.006 and with WHO clinical stage (χ2 = 121; df = 3; p = 0.008. Oral lesions were also associated with tobacco smoking (χ2 = 8.17; df = 2; p = 0.04. Conclusion Adult patients receiving HAART had a significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. There was no significant change in occurrence of oral lesions in children receiving HAART. The occurrence of oral lesions, in both HAART and non-HAART patients, correlated with WHO clinical staging and CD4+ less than 200 cells/mm3.

  16. Social Cognitive Determinants of HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing Uptake among Married Individuals in Dar es Salaam Tanzania: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB).

    Mtenga, Sally M.; Exavery, Amon; Kakoko, Deodatus; Geubbels, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Background Cumulative evidence indicates increasing HIV infection among married individuals. Voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV (HCT) is known to be an effective intervention to induce safer sex behaviour and access to early treatment, care and support among married individuals, which are important for HIV prevention. In this context, knowledge of factors associated with HCT uptake among married individuals is critical in promoting the use of the services. This study therefore intended...

  17. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

    Ambikile Joel; Outwater Anne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD), depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of ...

  18. Awareness of Rheumatic Heart Disease Prevention among Primary Health Care Providers and People Aged Nine Years and Above in Kinondoni Municipality Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

    Maria , Manase R

    2011-01-01

    Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF) is an autoimmune consequence of infection with Group A -haemolytic Streptococci (GAS). It causes an acute generalised inflammatory response and an illness that selectively affects the heart, joints, brain and skin. ARF leaves no lasting damage to the brain, joints or skin. However, damage to the heart valves, particularly the mitral and aortic valves, may persist after an acute episode has resolved. This involvement of the cardiac valves is known as Rheumatic Heart...

  19. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es Salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, M; Mchumvu, Y;

    2000-01-01

    contraception or condoms though they were also at risk of STDs and HIV. These girls were getting pregnant expecting their boyfriends to marry them, or because they did not think they could become pregnant or failed to use contraception correctly. Most adolescent girls are not aware of the 1994 Tanzanian policy...... that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among...

  20. Assessment of Implementation of International Health Regulations (2005) on Preventing Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of Julius Nyerere International Airport, Dar es Salaam.

    Bakari, Edith

    2012-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) is a legal instrument binds all World Health Organization (WHO) Member States in order to prevent and control the Public Health Emergencies of International Concern (PHEIC). In this connection, the points of entry (POE) have been identified to be potential areas for effective interventions. In the 58th World Health Assembly (WHA) held in Geneva, Switzerland in 2005 WHO Member States agreed to strengthen the identified core capacities including...

  1. The problem of illegally induced abortion: results from a hospital-based study conducted at district level in Dar es Salaam

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E; Bergström, S

    2000-01-01

    Illegal abortion is known to be a major contributor to maternal mortality. The objective of the study was firstly to identify women with illegally induced abortion, (IA) and to compare them with women admitted with a spontaneous abortion (SA) or receiving antenatal care (AC), and secondly to desc...

  2. Urban schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiases in young school children in Dar es Salaam and Tanga, Tanzania, after a decade of anthelminthic intervention

    Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E.; Malecela, Mwele N.; Mosha, Franklin W.;

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in resource poor countries often results in expansion of unplanned settlements with overcrowding and inadequate sanitation. These conditions potentially support transmission of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH), but knowledge on the occurrence, transmission...... to have been accomplished by implementation of drug based intervention programs, in combination with environmental change (fewer snail habitats) and generally improved levels of hygiene. Continued efforts, including anthelminthic treatment and health education, are important to maintain these positive...

  3. Hepatitis A, B and C viral co-infections among HIV-infected adults presenting for care and treatment at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Matee Mecky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is currently scaling-up access to anti-retro viral therapy (ART to reach as many eligible persons as possible. Hepatitis viral co-infections are known to influence progression, management as well as outcome of HIV infection. However, information is scarce regarding the prevalence and predictors of viral hepatitis co-infection among HIV-infected individuals presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinics in the country. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted between April and September 2006 enrolled 260 HIV-1 infected, HAART naïve patients aged ≥18 years presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC of the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The evaluation included clinical assessment and determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, serum transaminases and serology for Hepatitis A, B and C markers by ELISA. Results The prevalence of anti HAV IgM, HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HCV IgG antibodies were 3.1%, 17.3%, 2.3% and 18.1%, respectively. Dual co-infection with HBV and HCV occurred in 10 individuals (3.9%, while that of HAV and HBV was detected in two subjects (0.8%. None of the patients had all the three hepatitis viruses. Most patients (81.1% with hepatitis co-infection neither had specific clinical features nor raised serum transaminases. History of blood transfusion and jaundice were independent predictors for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM positivity, respectively. Conclusion There is high prevalence of markers for hepatitis B and C infections among HIV infected patients seeking care and treatment at MNH. Clinical features and a raise in serum alanine aminotransferase were of limited predictive values for the viral co-infections. Efforts to scale up HAART should also address co-infections with Hepatitis B and C viruses.

  4. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

    Ambikile Joel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD, depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. Methodology A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. Results The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The economic challenges were poverty, child care interfering with various income generating activities in the family, and extra expenses associated with the child’s illness. Conclusion Caregivers of mentally ill children experience various psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges. Professional assistance, public awareness of mental illnesses in children, social support by the government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are important in addressing these challenges.

  5. THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN TANZANIA: A SURVEY OF MANUFACTURING COMPANIES QUOTED ON THE DAR ES SALAAM STOCK EXCHANGE

    Daniel Linus Naila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been environmental pollution across the globe. Environmental activists are condemning manufacturing companies of environmental pollution. This has led to the establishment of environmental regulations and standards by government authorities across the globe. In complying with environmental regulations companies have found themselves incurring additional cost when compared to those companies which do not comply. However, the effect of compliance to environmental regulations on the financial performance is not clear. This study explores the effects of environmental compliance on the financial performance for listed manufacturing companies in Tanzania. Five listed manufacturing companies were surveyed to obtain data used for the purpose of this study. Specifically, the study intended to establish: the relationship between environmental compliance and financial performance and the effect of environmental compliance on the financial performance. Regression analysis was done to establish the relationship between environmental compliance and financial performance. Findings suggest that there is no significant relationship between environmental compliance and financial performance among listed manufacturing firms in Tanzania. This study concludes that environmental compliance has no significant effect on the financial performance for listed manufacturing firms in Tanzania.

  6. Factors associated with major structural birth defects among newborns delivered at Muhimbili National Hospital and Municipal Hospitals in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania 2011 – 2012

    Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Mpembeni, Rose; Mghamba, Janneth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-four percent of all birth defects and 95% of deaths due to the birth defects occur in low and middle income countries, Tanzania among them. In Tanzania there are currently limited birth defects prevention strategies in place due to limited information on factors associated with the occurrence of birth defects. Methods We conducted a case control study that included newborns born from October, 2011 through February, 2012 at 4 participating hospitals. A case was defined as a...

  7. A Clinical Audit of Discharge Summaries: Conformity to Set Guidelines in the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health at Mmuhimbili National Hospital Dar es Salaam Tanzania.

    Mfangavo, Heriel H.

    2012-01-01

    Patients‟ records are the most basic clinical tools that are required in every consultation. Discharge summary as a document collect patient‟s information about inpatients care. The primary function is to support continuity of care as the patient returns to next health provider. Improvement in the care of mentally ill patients may be enhanced by improving discharge summaries writing in terms of its contents and timing. There is paucity of data that shows deficits in writing discharge summarie...

  8. Awareness of Food Labelling and Use of the Information in Purchasing Pre Packaged Food Products Among Consumers in Ilala Municipality Dar es Salaam

    Samson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Liberalization of trade, globalization and development in food science and technology has resulted in an increase in trade and consumption of pre-packaged foods. Reading food labelling information is important to assist in making informed choices of food. This study determined level of awareness on pre-packaged food labelling information among consumers in Ilala Municipality, their perception on the importance of such information and difficulties encountered in reading and using pre- packaged...

  9. Absence of kdr resistance alleles in the Union of the Comoros, East Africa [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5fw

    Yoosook Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knockdown resistance (kdr and CYP9K1 genotypes were detected by a MOLDI-TOF based SNP genotyping assay (Sequenom iPLEX in samples of Anopheles gambiae collected at 13 sites throughout the Union of the Comoros and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during February and March 2011. All A. gambiae specimens collected in the Comoros were homozygous for the susceptible kdr alleles (+/+ while 96% of A. gambiae from Dar es Salaam were homozygous for the East African kdr resistant genotype (E/E. In contrast, all specimens from Dar es Salaam and the Comoros were homozygous for the cyp3 allele (c3/c3 at the CYP9K1 locus; the locus has been implicated in metabolic resistance against pyrethroid insecticides in West Africa. All specimens had typical A. gambiae genotypes for SNPs within the divergence Islands on all three chromosomes. Although further spatial and temporal studies are needed, the distribution of kdr genotypes between the Comoros and Tanzania further supports isolation of the Comoros populations from A. gambiae populations on mainland Africa.

  10. OSL dating of the Aterian levels at Dar es-Soltan I (Rabat, Morocco) and implications for the dispersal of modern Homo sapiens

    Barton, R. N. E.; Bouzouggar, A.; Collcutt, S. N.; Schwenninger, J.-L.; Clark-Balzan, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Aterian is a distinctive Middle Palaeolithic industry which is very widely spread across North Africa. Its dating and significance have been debated for nearly a century. Renewed interest in the Aterian has arisen because of a recent proposal that its development and spread may be linked to the dispersal of anatomically modern humans. The industry contains technological innovations such as thin bifacially flaked lithic points and pedunculates as well as evidence for personal ornaments and use of red ochre. Such markers as shell beads are believed to be indicative of symbolic behaviour. Dar es-Soltan I on the Atlantic coast of Morocco contains a thick sequence of Aterian deposits that were thought to represent the later stages of development of this industry. New Optically Stimulated Luminescence dates and geomorphological study indicate a much older sequence and so far the earliest yet recorded ages for the Aterian. They suggest an appearance in the Maghreb region during MIS (Marine Isotope Stage) 5.

  11. Urbanisation and its discontents: urban refugees in Tanzania

    Marc Sommers

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the different labels under which refugees in Dar es Salaam may be categorised. It identifies and profiles differentgroups of urban refugee in Dar es Salaam and considers some common assumptions about urban refugees.

  12. Victims and/or active social agents? A study of adolescent girls with induced abortion in urban Tanzania

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2001-01-01

    High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania......High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania...

  13. Interpretation of California mastitis test scores using Staphylococcus aureus culture results for screening of subclinical mastitis in low yielding smallholder dairy cows in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Nielen, M

    2007-03-17

    Screening of subclinical mastitis under field conditions is done using the California mastitis test (CMT). CMT score of > or = 1 corresponding to > or = 500,000 somatic cells ml(-1) is commonly used as threshold of subclinical mastitis in temperate countries. However, given the innately high physiological level of somatic cells in low yielding dairy cows, this threshold may not apply to low yielding dairy cows. The current study was undertaken to investigate the clinical utility of CMT for screening of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis in low yielding smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania. A total of 1151 of quarter-milk samples were CMT tested, of these 914-originated from cows with a lactation period of 14-305 days. All samples were screened for subclinical mastitis by the CMT as well as microbiological culture of single, duplicate (two consecutive) and triplicate (three consecutive) samples as a gold standard. For the duplicate and triplicate quarter-samples, cows were considered positive for S. aureus subclinical mastitis if results of microbiologic culture for S. aureus were positive for two of two, and for at least two of the first three consecutive quarter-milk samples collected from that cow, respectively. Using a CMT score of > or = 1 would classify 78.6% of the 940 quarter-samples as positive. Eighty-two percent of the samples in which S. aureus was isolated had CMT scores > or = 2; this would classify 51.6% of the 940 quarter-samples as positive. For the single sample, this cut-off had sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio for S. aureus of 0.87, 0.83 and 4.24, respectively. For the duplicate quarter-milk samples this cut-off had sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio of 0.94, 0.86, and 5.19. While, for the triplicate quarter-milk samples this cut-off had sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio of 0.97, 0.92 and 7.47, respectively. Based on these results and practical considerations, it is concluded that CMT score of > or = 2 corresponding to > or = 800,000 somatic cells Ml(-1) is the best cut-off to correctly identify S. aureus intramammary infections in low yielding dairy cows in Tanzania. PMID:17137660

  14. Self-initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the developing world: the involvement of private pharmacies in an HIV program

    Minzi, Mashiku

    2012-01-01

    Omary Mashiku Minzi1, Deus Buma2, Godeliver A Kagashe3 1Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Department of Pharmacy, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar Es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Self-initiation to antiretroviral treatment (ART) exposes the patient to the risk of drug...

  15. La "capacidad vial" del plan regulador chileno, ¿es lo suficientemente buena para dar forma a un entorno edificado sostenible?/ The "road capacity" of the chilean master plan is it good enough for shaping a sustainable built environment?

    Cárdenas Jirón, Luz Alicia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The "road capacity" of the Chilean Master Plan is a tool developed to measure the capacity of streets in terms of supporting the size of vehicle flow. This tool considers topics such as land use, population density and street width. The purpose of this technique is to incorporate it to the Master Plan, as a town planning instrument, so as to cope with traffic forecasting and congestion. However, the technique does not embrace any sustainability concept, this is due to a disregard of any district ´s social or environmental needs. Therefore a sustainable urban development would doubtfully be reached. It is argued that some other approaches are required for shaping a sustainable built environment in which it is understood that the streets are a public space for people rather than a platform for moving vehicles only. This means, to promote accessibility as well as mobility. In this paper the author reviews borrowed concepts such as "carrying capacity" and "environmental capacity" from bioregionalist and ecological disciplines using a case study in outskirts of Santiago´s metro area./La "capacidad vial" del Plan Regulador chileno es una herramienta desarrollada para medir la capacidad de las calles en términos de apoyar el tamaño del flujo de vehículos. Esta herramienta considera temas como el uso de la tierra, la densidad de población y ancho de la calle. El propósito de esta técnica es su incorporación al Plan Maestro, como un instrumento de planificación de la ciudad, con el fin de hacer frente a la previsión del tráfico y la congestión. Sin embargo, la técnica no incluye ningún concepto de sostenibilidad. Por lo tanto un desarrollo urbano sostenible dudosamente sería alcanzado. Se argumenta que algunos otros enfoques son necesarios para dar forma a un medio ambiente sostenible integrado, en el que se entiende que las calles son un espacio público para las personas en lugar de una plataforma para mover los vehículos solamente

  16. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    -PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  17. Comparaison de MNTs générés à partir de données LiDAR terrestre et de photographies aériennes prises à basse altitude

    Ouedraogo, Mohamar

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation we compare DEMs generated using terrestrial LIDAR and UAV data. The study site is a small agricultural watershed located near the region of Gembloux in Belgium. Terresttrial LiDAR data was collected using Trimble GX trought 14 scans. After correcting errors by using statistical approach, scans are meshed to generate a DEM of 1 m x 1 m resolution. UAV data was collected using the X100 UAV commercialized by gatewing. Data was processed in the open source MICMAC software to...

  18. Beach Sand Supply and Transport at Kunduchi in Tanzania and Bamburi in Kenya.

    Shaghude, Y.W.; Mburu, J.W.; Uku, J.; Ochiewo, J.; Nyandwi, N.; Onganda, H. (collab.); Magori, C.; Sanga, I.; Arthurton, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Beach-head erosion of sandy beach plains in eastern Africa threatens tourism-related infrastructure and the livelihoods of beach users. The nature and drivers of physical shoreline change at Kunduchi, Dar es Salaam, and Bamburi, Mombasa, are described with analyses of beach sand transport through the annual monsoon cycle and the provenance and sustainability of the beach sand supply. Time-series records of wind-vectors at Dar es Salaam and Mombasa show similar averaged patte...

  19. Application of basic pharmacology and dispensing practice of antibiotics in accredited drug-dispensing outlets in Tanzania

    Minzi, Omary

    2013-01-01

    OM Minzi,1 VS Manyilizu21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2Logistics System Strengthening Unit, John Snow Inc, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: Provision of pharmaceutical services in accredited drug-dispensing outlets (ADDOs) in Tanzania has not been reported. This study compared the antibiotics dispensing practice between ADDOs and part II shops, or duka la dawa baridi (DLDBs), in Tanzan...

  20. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students:a repeat cross-sectional survey

    Åstrøm Anne; Masalu Joyce

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Purpose This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. Methods The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999...

  1. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  2. LiDAR remote sensing applied to forest resources assessment

    Fernández-Landa, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Disponer de información precisa y actualizada de inventario forestal es una pieza clave para mejorar la gestión forestal sostenible y para proponer y evaluar políticas de conservación de bosques que permitan la reducción de emisiones de carbono debidas a la deforestación y degradación forestal (REDD). En este sentido, la tecnología LiDAR ha demostrado ser una herramienta perfecta para caracterizar y estimar de forma continua y en áreas extensas la estructura del bosque y las principales vari...

  3. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, WA

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of Western Lewis County for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data set covers...

  4. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  5. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  6. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  7. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  8. LiDAR as a Web Service

    Balija, Damir

    2011-01-01

    LiDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a device, which works in a similar way as radar, but instead of radio waves, it uses light. We can use it as a mean to detect particles in the air (mainly air polution particles) or for measuring weather conditions. LiDAR with other supporting elements forms LiDAR system. In our example LiDAR system will be used remotely, in particular by remote user. Goals: a) To plan and project protocol for exchanging messages between client (user, costumer) and ...

  9. GRUČENJE PODATKOV LiDAR

    Založnik, Boštjan

    2014-01-01

    Cilje diplomske naloge je raziskati možnosti uporabe algoritmov gručenja za obdelavo podatkov LiDAR. Prvi del diplomske naloge predstavlja podatke LiDAR in algoritme gručenja. S senzorji LiDAR, pritrjenimi na letala ali helikopterje, je omogočeno hitro in natančno modeliranje površja. Metode gručenje predstavljajo enega izmed pristopov za detekcijo objektov na površju. Gručenje je vrsta nenadzorovane klasifikacije podatkov. Za učinkovito implementacijo algoritmov gručenja so po...

  10. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  11. Hawaii DAR Dealer Reporting System Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2000 January, the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) implemented a computerized data processing system for fish dealer data collected state-wide. Hawaii...

  12. Direct Georeferencing of Stationary LiDAR

    Ahmed Mohamed; Benjamin Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    Unlike mobile survey systems, stationary survey systems are given very little direct georeferencing attention. Direct Georeferencing is currently being used in several mobile applications, especially in terrestrial and airborne LiDAR systems. Georeferencing of stationary terrestrial LiDAR scanning data, however, is currently performed indirectly through using control points in the scanning site. The indirect georeferencing procedure is often troublesome; the availability of control stations w...

  13. Trapped in decline: a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru mountains Tanzania.

    Donge, van, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made a return visit to the area in November 1991 to look again at questions which arose during writing up. The research also reflects seven years' employment at the University of Dar es Salaam (1982-89). The Tan...

  14. Nanomedicinos teisinis reglamentavimas: ES ir JAV požiūris

    Varvaštian, Samvel

    2013-01-01

    Magistro baigiamajame darbe yra nagrinėjamas dabartinis nanomedicinos teisinis reglamentavimas ES ir JAV. Ši tema Lietuvoje iki šiol dar nebuvo tyrinėjimų objektu. Pirmoji darbo dalis supažindina skaitytoją su nanomedicina bei su ja susijusių sąvokų problematiką. Antroji dalis atskleidžia nanomedicinos teisinio reglamentavimo prielaidas ES, o trečioji dalis – JAV. Be to, atsižvelgiant į gautus rezultatus, yra įvertinamos galimos nanomedicinos teisinio reglamentavimo perspektyvos ateityje. Dar...

  15. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  16. Applications of LiDAR measurement for road management

    AKIYAMA, Shinpei; TAKAGI, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    Since LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) is a suitable equipment for archiving three-dimensional surface data of any objects. Moreover, aerial LiDAR is used for the topographical survey, urban planning or forest measurement. On the other hand, ground based LiDAR has a potential for other purposes, such as landslide monitoring or landcover change monitoring. This paper reports method of landslide and landcover monitoring using LiDAR for road management. Firstly, landslide monitoring technique...

  17. Terrain classification using multi-wavelength LiDAR data

    Thomas, Judson J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the arrival of Optech’s Titan multispectral LiDAR sensor, it is now possible to simultaneously collect three different wavelengths of LiDAR data. Much of the work performed on multispectral LiDAR data involves gridding the point cloud to create Digital Elevation Models and multispectral image cubes. Gridding and raster analysis can have negative implications with respect to LiDAR data integrity and resolution. Presented here is a ...

  18. Rigorous LiDAR Strip Adjustment with Triangulated Aerial Imagery

    Zhang, Y. J.; Xiong, X. D.; X. Y. Hu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a POS aided LiDAR strip adjustment method. Firstly, aero-triangulation of the simultaneously obtained aerial images is conducted with a few photogrammetry-specific ground control points. Secondly, LiDAR intensity images are generated from the reflectance signals of laser foot points, and conjugate points are automatically matched between the LiDAR intensity image and the aero-triangulated aerial image. Control points used in LiDAR strip adjustment are derived from...

  19. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and...

  20. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  1. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  2. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 2)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  3. Orienteerumiskaart vs. LiDAR / Marek Karm

    Karm, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaureusetööst, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda orienteerumiskaardi reljeefi LiDAR-i andmete põhjal saadava reljeefimudeliga ning leida vastus küsimusele, kas o-kaart võib olla kasulik kooste- või kontrollmaterjal mistahes reljeefimudelile

  4. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 100 square miles and covers part...

  5. 2000 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 1,146 square miles and covers part...

  6. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  7. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Entiat

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the...

  8. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish River Estuary

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) co-acquired Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Truecolor Orthophotographs of the Snohomish River Estuary, WA on July 20...

  9. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to complete the 2005 project for Yakima County. This project has partial coverage of Yakima County,...

  10. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  11. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County, Washington

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 77 square miles and covers a...

  12. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  13. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County project of 2005. The project site covered approximately 223 square miles, divided...

  14. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Bare-Earth Topographic LiDAR: Lynnwood

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Lynnwood, Snohomish County, Washington. This...

  15. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Upper Naches River, Washington

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Upper Naches River Valley and Nile Slide area of interest on September...

  16. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Rattlesnake

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on six days between September 15th and November 5th, and from November 6th ? 13th,...

  17. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish County, Washington

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 167 square miles and covers a...

  18. Direct Georeferencing of Stationary LiDAR

    Ahmed Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike mobile survey systems, stationary survey systems are given very little direct georeferencing attention. Direct Georeferencing is currently being used in several mobile applications, especially in terrestrial and airborne LiDAR systems. Georeferencing of stationary terrestrial LiDAR scanning data, however, is currently performed indirectly through using control points in the scanning site. The indirect georeferencing procedure is often troublesome; the availability of control stations within the scanning range is not always possible. Also, field procedure can be laborious and involve extra equipment and target setups. In addition, the conventional method allows for possible human error due to target information bookkeeping. Additionally, the accuracy of this procedure varies according to the quality of the control used. By adding a dual GPS antenna apparatus to the scanner setup, thereby supplanting the use of multiple ground control points scattered throughout the scanning site, we mitigate not only the problems associated with indirect georeferencing but also induce a more efficient set up procedure while maintaining sufficient precision. In this paper, we describe a new method for determining the 3D absolute orientation of LiDAR point cloud using GPS measurements from two antennae firmly mounted on the optical head of a stationary LiDAR system. In this paper, the general case is derived where the orientation angles are not small; this case completes the theory of stationary LiDAR direct georeferencing. Simulation and real world field experimentation of the prototype implementation suggest a precision of about 0.05 degrees (~1 milli-radian for the three orientation angles.

  19. User's manual of the MKENO-DAR code system

    The computer code manual of MKENO-DAR which is a direct angular representation Monte Carlo code for criticality safety analysis is already issued as JAERI-M report, however, complex pre-stage data handlings and calculations by auxiliary programs are required before the execution of MKENO-DAR. The MKENO-DAR CODE SYSTEM widely spans a whole code system including MKENO-DAR and other pre-stage auxiliary programs. This report discusses the systematic treatment of the MKENO-DAR CODE SYSTEM and shows the simplified calculation technique from the user side of view. (author)

  20. Modelización del monte bajo de castaño de Brañalonga (Tineo) mediante tecnología LiDAR

    Arias Fernández, Marina

    2015-01-01

    El propósito del presente estudio de investigación es el desarrollo de modelos de predicción de variables dasométricas a partir de datos LiDAR del PNOA para el monte bajo de Castanea sativa, comparando los datos generados mediante tecnología LiDAR con los del inventario forestal tradicional. Se realizó el tratamiento previo de los datos LiDAR para la obtención de los estadísticos de las variables LiDAR. Se llevó a cabo un inventario forestal, en el cual se midió, entre otros parámetros, el di...

  1. LiDAR Utility for Natural Resource Managers

    Alistair Matthew Stuart Smith; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Jeffrey Scott Evans

    2009-01-01

    Applications of LiDAR remote sensing are exploding, while moving from the research to the operational realm. Increasingly, natural resource managers are recognizing the tremendous utility of LiDAR-derived information to make improved decisions. This review provides a cross-section of studies, many recent, that demonstrate the relevance of LiDAR across a suite of terrestrial natural resource disciplines including forestry, fire and fuels, ecology, wildlife, geology, geomorphology, and surface ...

  2. Storage, manipulation, and visualization of LiDAR data

    Schön, Bianca; Bertolotto, Michela; Laefer, Debra F.; Morrish, Sean

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) data has become increasingly available, in part as a result of significant technological progresses in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). LiDAR provides longitude and latitude information delivered in conjunction with a GPS device, and elevation information generated by a pulse or phase laser scanner, which together provide an effective way of acquiring accurate 3D information of a terrestrial or manmade feature. The main advantages of LiDAR over conv...

  3. UN ESTUDIANTE CONFLICTIVO PARA MUCHOS, ES EN REALIDAD UN PERSONAJE CON MUCHO QUE DAR

    LEIDY NATALY MATEUS AGUILERA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this written presents a history that is repeat year to year for some educators that have as a goal to formation in aspects of type scientific and also as corresponding to social values; there is also a reflection that leads to evidence of bias, prejudice and the exclusion that is made, in some cases in the classroom, to students that present some difficulties, aspect that affects the formation of the student, the learning and evaluation. In the same way is presented as a suggestion the inclusion of values in the classroom regardless the area of knowledge, based on of a pedagogical model and psychological currents that allow establish academic links and reflections in the formation of human being.

  4. Physician Li Bo

    2011-01-01

    Li Bo,32,an attending physician at Xiyuan Hospital of the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences,spent a year and a half between 2008 and 2010 participating in a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) project at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam,Tanzania.Now back in Beijing,he spoke to ChinAfrica

  5. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy;

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  6. Investment Climate Assessment : Improving Enterprise Performance and Growth in Tanzania

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Investment Climate Assessment is based on an analysis of data collected in the Investment Climate Survey of manufacturing firms in Tanzania. The survey was conducted between April and July 2003 by the World Bank and the Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF) in Dar es Salaam, in collaboration with the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The assessment compares measures of fir...

  7. Brave New Mobile World

    Maya Reid

    2011-01-01

    APPS are taking East Africa by storm.As mobile phone penetration rates increase,technologisis and software developers in the provide bigger and better services for an evergrowing consumer base.At the center of this flurry of activity is Nairobi,Kenya.But Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania and Uganda's Kampala may not be far behind.

  8. Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia correlate with HIV infection in Tanzania

    Schiødt, M; Bakilana, P B; Hiza, J F;

    1990-01-01

    We report a detailed study on oral lesions and their association with the WHO revised provisional case definition of AIDS as well as serologic signs of HIV infection among 186 patients in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. The patient material consisted of 39 hospitalized suspected AIDS patients, 44 medica...

  9. Trapped in decline: a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru mountains Tanzania.

    Donge, van J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made a return

  10. Marketing of Information in the Water Sector in Tanzania: A Strategy for MAJIDOC.

    Michael, Benedict P.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines a strategy for marketing the information products and services of the Water and Sanitation Information and Documentation Centre (MAJIDOC) of the Water Resources Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Objectives of the marketing strategy are explained, ideas for internal and external promotion are described, and a budget plan is included.…

  11. Performance of visual inspection with acetic acid and human papillomavirus testing for detection of high-grade cervical lesions in HIV positive and HIV negative Tanzanian women

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Iftner, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    , and HPV-testing to detect cytologically diagnosed high grade lesions or cancer (HSIL+). Women from different areas in Tanzania were invited by public announcement to cervical cancer screening organized by Ocean Road Cancer Institute (Dar-es-Salaam). A total of 3,767 women were enrolled. Women...

  12. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es Salaam. Results offer…

  13. Geographical imagination and technological connectivity in East Africa

    Graham, Mark; Andersen, Casper; Mann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically-mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa in ...

  14. Who Sinned? Parents' Knowledge of the Causes of Disability in Tanzania

    Tungaraza, Frida D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at finding out from parents what they knew to be the causes of their children's disabilities. One hundred and twenty six parents from four regions, namely Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Kilimanjaro and Morogoro were involved in this study. Data was collected through interview, narratives and observation. It was obvious from the findings…

  15. Food, Aid, and Education in East Africa: Repackaging the Conversation

    Stambach, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' food perspectives in three rapidly diversifying contemporary contexts: a university setting in Kigali, Rwanda where students help to prepare Chinese dumplings; a school garden and canteen in Nairobi, Kenya where students jostle for bowls of beans and rice; and a fast-food restaurant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where…

  16. Access, Use and Perceptions of Teachers and Students towards Mobile Phones as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Tanzania

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the access, use and perceptions of teachers and students towards mobile phones as a tool for facilitating teaching and learning beyond the classroom walls. A total of 29 pre-service teachers and four college instructors from Dar es salaam University College of Education (DUCE) as well as 12 in-service teachers and 40 students…

  17. Planning the unplanned

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant contributions to human health, livelihoods and food security, urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam has received relatively little political support from central and local government due to its informal state. As a result, many urban farmers' experience insecurity of land access...

  18. ISKANJE NEPOKRITIH DELOV TERENA V PODATKIH LiDAR

    Osojnik, Monika

    2013-01-01

    LiDAR je sodobna tehnologija daljinskega zaznavanja, ki s pomočjo laserske svetlobe omogoča hitro in natančno zajemanje podatkov o zemeljskem površju in objektih na njem. Zaradi slabe odbojnosti svetlobe na vodnih področjih in zaradi ovir, ki zakrivajo okolico, sistemi LiDAR pogosto ne zajamejo celovite slike površja. Zaradi kasnejših prostorskih analiz, temelječih na podatkih LiDAR, je smiselno takšne dele v podatkih LiDAR pravočasno odkriti in odpraviti. V tem diplomskem delu predstavlja...

  19. A Comparison of LiDAR and Radiosonde Wind Measurements

    Kumer, Valerie-Marie; Reuder, Joachim; Furevik, Birgitte Rugaard

    2014-01-01

    Doppler LiDAR measurements are already well established in the wind energy research and their accuracy has been tested against met mast data up to 100 m above ground. However, the new generation of scanning LiDAR have a much higher range and thus it is not possible to verify measurements at higher altitudes. Therefore, the LiDAR Measurement Campaign Sola (LIMECS) was conducted at the airport of Stavanger from March to August 2013 to compare LiDAR and radiosonde winds. It was a collab...

  20. Darüşşifas Where Music Threapy was Practiced During Anatolian Seljuks and Ottomans

    Gülşen Erdal

    2013-03-01

    ncesinde Türklerde nasıl kullanıldığını vurgulamak amacıyla ele alınmıştır. Buradan hareketle Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II.Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi ve Şifahanesi (1556 Enderun Hastanesi bu çalışmada müzikle tedavinin yapıldığı kurumlar arasında öne çıkanlar olarak incelenmiştir. Böylece Türk müziği makamları ve hastalıklar arasında kurulan ilişkiler Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Sanatı içinde müzikle tedavinin gerekleri düşünülerek inşa edilen bu yapıların yaşam amaçları ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün vurgulanması amaçlanmıştır.La musicothérapie pratiquée pendant le règne des Seldjoukides d’Anatolie et des OttomansRésuméLa musicothérapie, l’une des plus anciennes méthodes de traitement connues, remonte à des milliers d’années. La musicothérapie turque pratiquée dans les hôpitaux ottomans et seldjoukides utilisait l’acoustique appropriée au traitement des troubles mentaux avec la lecture des livres des savants comme Avicenne, Râzî, Fârabî, Hasan Shuurî et Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi. Ainsi la musicothérapie et l’amélioration de la musicothérapie de manière exemplaire à l’époque des Ottomans et Seldjoukides est la première pratique sérieuse de la musicothérapie. Darüşşifa est l’un des noms donnés aux établissements médicaux et éducatifs qui confèrent au peuple des services de santé en fonction de la pratique et de l’observation et qui traitent les patients dans le monde turc et islamique. Les Turcs ont commencé à reconstruire différents bâtiments selon leurs possibilités en Anatolie. Dans une courte période, ils ont construit plusieurs types de constructions tels que caravansérails, médersas, mosquées, darüşşifas. En seldjoukide et ottoman darüşşifas, les sujets médicaux ont été acquis d

  1. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  2. 2006 OSIP OGRIP Coastal Counties LiDAR Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  3. Diseño e implementación de componentes software para dar soporte a la plataforma MEWiN en el sistema operativo Contiki

    Navarro Hellín, Honorio

    2011-01-01

    El presente proyecto final de carrera que tiene como título: "Diseño e Implementación de componentes software para dar soporte a la plataforma MEWiN en el sistema operativo Contiki" pretende dar soporte software al dispositivo MEWiN desarrollado. En la actualidad el sistema operativo Contiki es uno de los más utilizados en el ámbito de las redes inalámbricas de sensores, dada su característica de código libre y su alta escalabilidad. La mayoría de fabricantes de dispositivos electrónicos u...

  4. "Unsicher ist es anderswo!" : Räumliche Sicherheitswahrnehmung in Konstanz

    Brandt, Hannes; Hillmann, Hans Christian; Meinecke, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Das Projekt "Unsicher ist es Anderswo" widmet sich der Stadt Konstanz zunächst als Ganzes. Ziel war, die subjektiven Räume von Unsicherheit/Gefahr aus der Sicht der BürgerInnen mit der "objektiven" Kriminalstatistik und den Erfahrungen der Polizei zu vergleichen.Dazu wurden Experteninterviews mit der Polizei Konstanz und den Nachtwanderern (Bürgerinitiative), geführt und 38 AnwohnerInnen in Leitfadeninterviews zu deren subjektiven Wahrnehmung der räumlichen Sicherheit in Konstanz befragt. Dar...

  5. COSIMA-ES-PORT

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the results of the research project – WP3 East-west, Interreg IIIB – concerning the de¬velop¬ment of a new composite decision model, COSIMA-ES-PORT, for the assessment of three pre-feasibility studies situated at the Port of Esbjerg: a road project, a railway project and a...... multimodal terminal. The three studies indicates that a new road connection to the Port of Esbjerg is a very profitable project due to large travel time savings, whereas a new railway connection is not economically viable. However, a new multimodal terminal is also a very profitable project. The COSIMA-ES-PORT...... COSIMA-ES-PORT showed some promising perspectives with regard to the implementation of other means of transportation for composite decision model assessment....

  6. UAS TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING WITH VELODYNE LiDAR SENSOR

    Jozkow, G.; C. Toth; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology is nowadays willingly used in small area topographic mapping due to low costs and good quality of derived products. Since cameras typically used with UAS have some limitations, e.g. cannot penetrate the vegetation, LiDAR sensors are increasingly getting attention in UAS mapping. Sensor developments reached the point when their costs and size suit the UAS platform, though, LiDAR UAS is still an emerging technology. One issue related to using LiDAR sensor...

  7. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    Meritxell Queraltó; Jordi Llop; Emilio Gil; Jordi Llorens

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiD...

  8. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model LiDAR...... measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  9. TENSOR MODELING BASED FOR AIRBORNE LiDAR DATA CLASSIFICATION

    Li, N.; Liu, C; Pfeifer, N; Yin, J. F.; Liao, Z.Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection and description is a key factor in classification of Earth observation data. In this paper a classification method based on tensor decomposition is proposed. First, multiple features are extracted from raw LiDAR point cloud, and raster LiDAR images are derived by accumulating features or the “raw” data attributes. Then, the feature rasters of LiDAR data are stored as a tensor, and tensor decomposition is used to select component features. This tensor representation could kee...

  10. DAR Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Aromatic Compounds

    姜思光; 陈晓东; 张莉; 刘鸣华

    2003-01-01

    A facile DAR (diphenylamine-4-diazonium-formaldehyde resin)assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of uitrathin organic film of aromatic compounds has been investigated. The muitilayer of pyrene or anthracene was fabricated through simple dipping of the glass slide into the mixed solution of DAR with the target compounds. In this method, DAR acted as an assistant compound to help the assembling of the aromatic compounds. Such a convenient deposition method not only reserves the advantages of the traditional LbL technique but also simplifies the technique and extends the effectiveness of LbL technique to small molecules without any charge.