WorldWideScience

Sample records for dar es salaam

  1. Saltwater intrusion and nitrate pollution in the coastal aquifer of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mtoni, Y.; Mjemah Chikira, I.; Bakundukize, C.; Camp, M.; Martens, K.; Walraevens, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dar es Salaam Quaternary coastal aquifer is a major source of water supply in Dar es Salaam City used for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. However, groundwater overdraft and contamination are the major problems affecting the aquifer system. This study aims to define the principal hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater quality in the coastal strip of Dar es Salaam and to investigate whether the threats of seawater intrusion and pollution are influencing groundwater qual...

  2. Accessibility, Congestion and Travel Delays in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, Dea Christine; Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Kiduanga, Juma R.; Busck, Anne Gravsholt

    2015-01-01

    spatially disaggregated data from the most recent inter-census period from 2002 to 2012. This period is characterized by extensive growth in terms of area, population and car use, while the road network largely maintains status quo except for ad-hoc development in new urban areas. The paper moves on to...... present a review of research into travel speed levels and congestion in Dar es Salaam. A set of city-wide maps of accessibility and delay levels are constructed based on available speed data and road network data obtained from the OpenStreetMap project and the findings are discussed with respect to the...

  3. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dongus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2 was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92. Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  4. Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Njelekela, Marina A; Alfa Muhihi; Mpembeni, Rose N.M; Amani Anaeli; Omary Chillo; Sulende Kubhoja; Benjamin Lujani; Davis Ngarashi; Mwanamkuu Maghembe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and a...

  5. Green infrastructure for flood risk management in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mguni, Patience; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    The risk of flooding in urban areas could be better approached by complementing conventional sewer systems with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) for storm-water management. This may be the case for developing world cities like Dar es Salaam with incomplete sewer services, as well as cities...... like Copenhagen with fully developed sewer systems. This paper explores some theories relevant to understanding how the implementation of SUDS may be one option for supporting a transition towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM). Using interviews, document analysis and observation, a...... comparison of the opportunities and barriers to the implementation of SUDS in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen is presented. The results indicate that a bottom-up approach in Dar es Salaam is important, with the community level taking the lead, while in Copenhagen the top-down approach currently employed is...

  6. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Mastitis in Smallholder Dairy Herds in the Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kivaria, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recently the number of milking cows has increased substantially in the Dar es Salaam region due to an increasing demand for fresh milk in this densely populated urban centre. It is estimated that there are 1,765 smallholder dairy herds with 8,233 improved dairy animals in and around the Dar es Salaam region. Urban and peri-urban smallholder dairying is viewed as an agricultural activity that provides a regular and stable income to the household and is considered to be a forerunner of further ...

  7. Urban Water Management in Dar es Salaam: A case for an Integrated Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Mushi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine water access and use characteristics of household in Dar es Salaam in order to determine how the integrated urban water management (IUWM) approach can be applied in solving the water crisis in the city as well as other challenges of urban water supply and sanitation. A limited household water access and use survey was carried out in all three districts of Dar es Salaam. It was found that some of the principles of IUWM such “fit for purpose use...

  8. Clinical, Virologic, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Dengue Outbreak, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboera, Leonard E.G.; De Nardo, Pasquale; Oriyo, Ndekya M.; Meschi, Silvia; Rumisha, Susan F.; Colavita, Francesca; Mhina, Athanas; Carletti, Fabrizio; Mwakapeje, Elibariki; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Nicastri, Emanuele; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a dengue outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2014, that was caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2. DENV infection was present in 101 (20.9%) of 483 patients. Patient age and location of residence were associated with infection. Seven (4.0%) of 176 patients were co-infected with malaria and DENV. PMID:27088845

  9. Scoping Study : Urban Mobility in Three Cities--Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, and Nairobi

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive investigative study was implemented in 2002, on the status, and development of urban mobility in three Sub-Saharan African cities - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Nairobi, Kenya; and, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Its purpose was to gather information in terms of size, regional spread, and availability data, that would allow identification of issues affecting urban mobility in the relat...

  10. Child Labour in Urban Agriculture: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlozi, Malongo R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam was found to use child labor of both children with parents of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Discusses policy implications and calls for the education of parents of lower SES not to expect an economic contribution from their children's labor, and the education of children about their rights. (LZ)

  11. Determinants of acceptance of cervical cancer screening in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne; Mwaiselage, Julius; Ngoma, Twalib; Tersbol, Britt; Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    cervical cancer screening can be increased in Dar es Salaam. Special attention should be paid to women of low education and women of high parity. In addition, knowledge and awareness raising campaigns that goes hand in hand with culturally acceptable screening services will likely lead to an increased...

  12. Clinical, Virologic, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Dengue Outbreak, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairo, Francesco; Mboera, Leonard E G; De Nardo, Pasquale; Oriyo, Ndekya M; Meschi, Silvia; Rumisha, Susan F; Colavita, Francesca; Mhina, Athanas; Carletti, Fabrizio; Mwakapeje, Elibariki; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Nicastri, Emanuele; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    We investigated a dengue outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2014, that was caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2. DENV infection was present in 101 (20.9%) of 483 patients. Patient age and location of residence were associated with infection. Seven (4.0%) of 176 patients were co-infected with malaria and DENV. PMID:27088845

  13. Students' Experiences and Challenges of Blended Learning at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raphael, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), especially eLearning, have heightened the need for University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) to supplement on-campus face-to-face delivery as well as meeting increased students' enrolments through blended distance learning. Since 2008, the University has been offering three…

  14. Potential of solar power in electricity production in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania : focus on households and paybacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kibbassa, Mwilumbwa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the opportunities and challenges of using solar power by solar photovoltaic (PV) in production of electricity for households in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Dar es Salaam has plenty of sunshine throughout the year making it a perfect candidate for solar PV electrification. Data collected for this work was done mainly by conducting interviews with different levels of households, private and government institutes, literature from books, web pages and previou...

  15. Imagined disease and racial segregation: multiple dreams of open space in Kinshasa and Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Beeckmans, Luce

    2015-01-01

    It is strange to encounter an open space in the middle of Tanzanias congested capital, Dar es Salaam. Similarly, one might wonder why there exists a golf course and a zoo besieged by traffic jams in the bustling city centre of Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The key to understanding the intriguing anomalies in the urban geographies of these capital cities lies in tracing back their histories. After the First World War colonial governments in British Dar es Sala...

  16. A Review of Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City from the Physical Planning Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Robert B. Kiunsi

    2013-01-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the major problems facing Dar es Salaam City and is attributed by a number of factors including rapid population increase, inadequate and poor road infrastructure, city structure, rapid increase in number of cars and lack of physical plan to control city development. The city is already implementing a number of strategies in order to minimize traffic congestion. However, many of the strategies are focusing on improving the capacity of roads in terms of increasing ...

  17. Body-Art Practices Among Undergraduate Medical University Students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Chacha Emmanuel Chacha; Kazaura, Method R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University st...

  18. From Public Pipes to Private Hands : Water Access and Distribution in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellén, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    In cities around the world, public water systems have increasingly come to be operated by private companies. Along with an internationally funded investment program to refurbish the dilapidated water infrastructure, private operations were tested also in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Only about a third of the households, however, are reached by the piped water system there; most households purchase water from those with pipe-connections or private boreholes. Thus, water distribution was informally...

  19. IMPROVING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE DAR ES SALAAM COASTAL BELT, TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Maziku, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the factors which influence the state of solid waste management in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Belt, Tanzania. The research used semi-structured and structured interviews, group discussions, field observations and review of various literatures as the major methods of the study. Questionnaires were used for interviews. Results showed poor community awareness (except students and beach goers) of solid waste management and its significance; and...

  20. Nutrient and Phytoplankton Dynamics along the Ocean Road Sewage Discharge Channel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam I. Hamisi; Mamboya, Florence A.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean Road shoreline is situated close to Dar es Salaam largest fish market and is subjected to sewage discharge. In this study, temporal and spatial variations of physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton were studied in five stations along the Ocean Road Coast. Phytoplankton composition, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, water clarity, pH, and dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN) including nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate were measured. Results revealed that DIN were significan...

  1. Maternal mortality at muhimbili national hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in the year 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Pembe, Andrea B.; Paulo, Chetto; D Mello, Brenda S; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving maternal health is one of the eight millennium development goals adopted at the millennium summit in the year 2000. Within this frame work, the international community is committed to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal mortality ratio, classify causes of maternal deaths and assess substandard care factors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania. Methods A retro...

  2. Towards sustainable ground water management in Dar Es Salaam city, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater pollution in urban areas is a worldwide growing environmental problem in this millennium. Many major cities in the world depend on groundwater for water supplies. However, urbanization processes threaten its quality. The problem is more pronounced in urban areas in developing countries like Tanzania, which are characterized with inadequate infrastructure for waste management. In Tanzania, the situation is more threatening in Dar Es Salaam City, which experiences acute deficiency in infrastructure provision: housing, water supply, sanitation, transportation and energy. The existing challenge is to protect groundwater resources amidst rapid growing Dar Es Salaam city, of which failure can lead to escalating costs for provision of drinking water with overall results of decreased public health conditions. A research conducted from 1997 to 2002, revealed that almost 50% of the water supply in Dar Es Salaam city comes from groundwater and that groundwater is being threatened by indiscriminate disposal practices of both domestic and industrial wastes. For example about 88% of the urban population use on-site sanitation systems, which discharge partially treated sewage to the groundwater. About 60 tonnes/day of chemical oxygen demand (COD) are transported to the groundwater through domestic sewage. Analysis of groundwater quality in the city indicated that the unconfined aquifer is starting to degrade. For instance, more than 40% of groundwater samples analysed for nitrate, chloride and faecal coliform bacteria, did not comply with the national standards for drinking water. Recognising the fact that demand for groundwater is on the increase in the city and that the aquifers have shown signs of degradation, a groundwater management plan is required to ensure sustainable utilization of the resource. This paper discusses the groundwater situation in Dar Es Salaam city and finally puts forward measures towards establishment of a management strategy. (author)

  3. Family perceptions of intellectual disability: Understanding and support in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Heather M. Aldersey

    2012-01-01

    When attempting to understand the construct of intellectual disability in different contexts, speaking to family members in addition to the individual with the disability may provide new insight about understandings of and responses to intellectual disability in society and may help to identify the forms of support that are available or needed to ensure the quality of life of people with disabilities. This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzani...

  4. Residents’ perceptions of institutional performance in water supply in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    This paper addresses the performance of institutions in water supply systems for improving social and economic benefits of people living in Dar es Salaam city. The methods employed in field data and information collection included interviews, questionnaire, focus group discussions and participatory observation. Kinondoni and Ilala Districts were used as case study. The study revealed that, the main water sources in the study areas are boreholes, shallow wells, rain water and water vendors. Other minor sources are piped water and natural water sources, such as rivers and streams. The supply of piped water by Dar es Salaam Water Sewerage and Sanitation Company (DAWASA/DAWASCO) meets only 45% of the total water demands. Individuals own and sell water from boreholes, shallow wells, piped water connected to their individual houses and natural wells located in their individual plots. The price of one 20 l bucket of water from a water vendor depends on the availability of water and the distance walked from the water source to the customer. Majority of the respondents (77.5%) indicated that individual water delivery systems provide sufficient water as compared to five years ago in the study areas. Few of the respondents (6.3%) said individual water delivery systems have no capacity to provide sufficient water while 16.3% indicate that individual water delivery systems provide moderate water supply but are important in supplementing other water providers in the study areas. The study reveals that a majority of the local population are satisfied with the capacity of individual water delivery systems in providing water for household uses. This paper recommends some improvements to be done to water supply systems in the Dar es Salaam city.

  5. The role of local government in promoting sustainable urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    conservation of existing urban agriculture and future initiatives. The findings suggest that municipal recognition and institutional support for urban agriculture is an important component in increasing the sustainability of related initiatives. Local and central government plays a role in the legitimization...... article looks at the importance of local and central governments in promoting sustainable urban agriculture. Through participatory action research, it examines the cases of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Copenhagen, Denmark to understand stakeholder interactions, as well as present and future barriers to the...

  6. Understanding and Improving Malaria Diagnosis in Health Facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    D’Acremont, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    In Tanzania, as in most settings of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is the first reported cause of attendance in health facilities. The National Bureau of Statistics estimates that a total of 16 million cases and 100,000 deaths (mainly in children) are due to malaria each year. In Dar es Salaam, the main city, approximately 3 million attendances are recorded, of which about one third are due to fever, mostly considered as presumptive malaria. Recent data show that transmission intensity is much l...

  7. Study of a Two-Storey Family House in theDar es Salaam Region, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Tina; Ekvall, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This final project is made as a Minor Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world and this is reflected in the way they live. Many people live in simple houses made out of mud, but the house that have been studied for this final project are a luxurious house from a Tanzanian perspective. The company that builds these houses are National Housing Corporation and it is this company that have provided drawings, information and educational visits. ...

  8. The use of social media among adolescents in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Kleeb, Matthis; Mbelwa, Alice; Ahorlu, Collins

    2014-05-01

    Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing. It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones. Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture. PMID:24908469

  9. Body-art practices among undergraduate medical university students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacha Emmanuel Chacha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include "a mark of beauty," 24%, "just wanted one," 18% and "a mark of femininity or masculinity," 17%. The majority (98% of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52% reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks.

  10. Family perceptions of intellectual disability: Understanding and support in Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Aldersey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When attempting to understand the construct of intellectual disability in different contexts, speaking to family members in addition to the individual with the disability may provide new insight about understandings of and responses to intellectual disability in society and may help to identify the forms of support that are available or needed to ensure the quality of life of people with disabilities. This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with family members of children and adults with intellectual disabilities. These interviews explore how families came to understand that their child had an intellectual disability; the availability of family support; and family hopes and dreams for the future, and were a part of a wider exploratory study that gathered insight from individuals with disabilities, families, and other providers of support to explore understandings and perceptions of disability in Dar es Salaam. Understanding family experiences will help researchers, policy makers, non-governmental organisations, and others to identify family strengths and family support needs which can ultimately improve family quality of life and the quality of life of the member with a disability.

  11. Basic analysis of climate and urban bioclimate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Better understanding of urban microclimate and bioclimate of any city is imperative today when the world is constrained by both urbanisation and global climate change. Urbanisation generally triggers changes in land cover and hence influencing the urban local climate. Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania is one of the fast growing cities. Assessment of its urban climate and the human biometeorological conditions was done using the easily available synoptic meteorological data covering the period 2001-2011. In particular, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) was calculated using the RayMan software and results reveal that the afternoon period from December to February (DJF season) is relatively the most thermal stressful period to human beings in Dar es Salaam where PET values of above 35 C were found. Additionally, the diurnal cycle of the individual meteorological elements that influence the PET index were analysed and found that air temperature of 30-35 C dominate the afternoon period from 12:00 to 15:00 hours local standard time at about 60 % of occurrence. The current results, though considered as preliminary to the ongoing urban climate study in the city, provide an insight on how urban climate research is of significant importance in providing useful climatic information for ensuring quality of life and wellbeing of city dwellers.

  12. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other hand, 12.4% of agricultural land and 16.1% of green areas would be lost in the low density development scenario of unplanned settlements of max. 150 persons per hectare. Relocating the population living in flood prone areas in the case of Addis Ababa and keeping those areas free from further settlements in the case of Dar es Salaam would result in even lower losses (agricultural land: -10.0%, green areas: -5.6%) as some flood prone areas overlap with agricultural/ green areas. The scenario models introduced in this research can be used by planners as tools to understand and manage the different outcomes of distinctive urban development strategies on growth patterns and how they interact with different climate change drivers such as loss of green infrastructure and effects such as frequent flooding hazards. Due to the relative simplicity of their structure and the single modeling environment, the models can be transferred to similar cities with minor modifications accommodating the different conditions of each city. Already, in Addis Ababa the results of the model will be used in the current revision of the Master plan of the city. Keywords: GIS, modeling, Urban Dynamics, Dar es Salaam, Addis Ababa, urbanization

  13. Provision of Vocational Skills Education to Orphans: Lessons from Orphanage Centres in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Benjamin Mbeba

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises data from a study that investigated the efficacy of vocational skills training provided to orphans from three orphanages in Temeke District, Dar es Salaam. The three orphanage centres that were studied are Kurasini National Children Home, Saudia and Don Bosco Vocational Centre. The sample comprised of 45 orphans, an official…

  14. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like flooding out. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ?U.S. $17 to remove ?200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  15. Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities through interdisciplinary methods and analysis. Climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, droughts and heat waves has been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability provide insights how communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards; vulnerability of informal settlements to floods has been assessed for a case study area (Suna sub ward) and a GIS based identification of urban residential hotspots to flooding is completed. Furthermore, a set of indicators has been identified and the most relevant for Dar es Salaam has been selected by local stakeholders to identify particular vulnerable high risk areas and communities. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance system and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability has inter-alia suggested severe institutional deficits including over-centralized institutions for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. A multi-risk framework considering climate-related hazards, and physical and social fragilities has been set up.

  16. Urban mosquitoes, situational publics, and the pursuit of interspecies separation in Dar es Salaam

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLY, ANN H.; LEZAUN, JAVIER

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in anthropology points to the recognition of multispecies entanglements as the grounds for a more ethical politics. In this article, we examine efforts to control mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as an example of the laborious tasks of disentanglement that characterize public health interventions. The mosquito surveillance and larval elimination practices of an urban malaria control program offer an opportunity to observe how efforts to create distance between species relate to the physical and civic textures of the city. Seen in the particular context of the contemporary African metropolis, the work of public health appears less a matter of control than a commitment to constant urban maintenance and political mobilization. PMID:25429167

  17. Acceptance of contraceptives among women who had an unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; Yambesi, Fortunata; Bergstrom, Staffan

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for post-abortion contraception and to determine if women who had an unsafe abortion will use a contraceptive method to avoid repeated unwanted pregnancies and STDs/HIV. METHOD: Women attending Temeke Municipal Hospital, Dar es Salaam, after an unsafe abortion or an...... induced abortion performed at the hospital (n=788) were counselled about contraception and the risk of contracting STDs/HIV. A free ward-based contraceptive service was offered and the women were asked to return for follow-up. RESULTS: Participants (90%) accepted the post-abortion contraceptive service....... CONCLUSION: High-quality contraceptive service counselling can induce women to use contraception after having had an unsafe abortion. The results of our study are encouraging and should be used to convince policy makers of the need to implement such services at municipal level to reduce the number of...

  18. Risk factors for VIA positivity and determinants of screening attendances in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Ngoma, Twalib; Mwaiselage, Julius; Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Iftner, Thomas; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    screening program in Dar es Salaam in the period 2002 -- 2008. The women underwent VIA examination and took part in a structured questionnaire interview. Socioeconomic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV status and high-risk (HR) HPV infection were determined in a subpopulation of 890 who participated and...... participated in the screening were more likely to be HIV positive OR= 1.59 (95% CI. 1.14-2.25) in comparison with women who had never attended screening, while no difference was found in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection among women who had attended screening and women who had not attended screening....... CONCLUSION: Women who are widowed/separated, of high parity, of low education and married at a young age are more likely to be VIA positive and thus at risk of developing cervical cancer. The study further documents that a referral linkage between the HIV care and treatment program and the cervical cancer...

  19. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from infants and children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matee Mecky I

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively few studies have been done in Tanzania to detect and classify diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains among children with diarrhea. This study aimed at investigating DEC among children in Dar es Salaam aged less than five years hospitalized due to acute/persistent diarrhea. Methods DEC were isolated from stool samples collected from two hundred and eighty children with acute/persistent diarrhea at Muhimbili National Hospital and Ilala and Mwananyamala Municipal Hospitals in Dar es Salaam. A multiplex PCR system method was used to detect a species specific gene for E.coli and ten different virulence genes for detection of five pathogroups of DEC namely enteroaggregative- (EAEC, enteropathogenic- (EPEC, enterotoxigenic- (ETEC, enteroinvasive- (EIEC and enterohemorghagic- Escherichia coli (EHEC. Results Sixty-four patients (22.9% harbored DEC. Forty-one of them (14.6% were categorized as EAEC. Most of the EAEC (82.9% were classified as typical EAEC possessing the aggR gene, and 92.6% carried the aat gene. Isolates from thirteen patients were EPEC (4.6% and most of these (92.3% were typical EPEC with both eae and bfpA genes. Ten isolates were identified as ETEC (3.6% with only the heat stable toxin; either st1a or st1b but not both. Age wise, EAEC and EPEC were significantly more prevalent among the age group 06 months (p stx1 and stx2 and EIEC (ial were not detected in this study group. Conclusion The results show a high proportion of DEC among Tanzanian children with diarrhea, with typical EAEC and typical EPEC predominating. The use of primers for both variants of ST1 (st1a and st1b increased the sensitivity for detection of ETEC strains.

  20. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  1. Overweight, obesity and perceptions about body weight among primary schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpembeni, Rose N M; Muhihi, Alfa J; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu; Ngarashi, Davis; Lujani, Benjamin; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Anaeli, Amani; Njelekela, Marina A

    2014-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a public health concern both in developing and developed countries. Previous research studies have shown that favourable perception of one's body weight is an important factor in weight control. This study determined prevalence of overweight and obesity and assessed perception about body weight among primary schoolchildren in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In this cross sectional study, nine schools were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle information including perception about body weight. Height and weight were measured following standard procedures. Chi- square tests and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine factors which influence perceptions about body weight. A total of 446 children were included into the study. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 16.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2 (16.1 ± 4.0 for males and 17.0 ± 4.0 for females). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher among girls, 13.1% and 6.3% compared to boys with 6.3% and 3.8% overweight and obese respectively (P=0.0314). Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.0% (10.1% among boys and 19.4% among girls). One-third (33.3%) of the children perceived their body weight as overweight or obese. Among overweight and obese children, 35.4% had unfavourable perception of their body weights. There was a statistically significant difference between perceived body weight and actual body weight as indicated by BMI for both boys and girls (P health effects in order to instil a behaviour of self consciousness on overweight and obesity among children in Tanzania. PMID:26891520

  2. Prevalence, Perceived Factors and Knowledge on Effects of Tobacco Use on Oral Health Among Secondary School Students in Dar es salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Kabulwa, Msafiri Nicodemus

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the conception of this study there was scant information on self reported prevalence, knowledge on detrimental effects on oral health and factors influencing tobacco use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam region. To determine the prevalence, perceived factors that may lead and /or deter secondary school students to use tobacco and knowledge on effects of tobacco use on oral health among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam. This was a descriptive cross-secti...

  3. Food habits of the blue swimming crab portunus pelagicus along the coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mgaya, Y.D.; Chande, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The food habits of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus were investigated using the stomachs of 3948 crabs collected from Kunduchi sub-littoral shallow waters, Msasani Bay and Mzinga creek along the coast of Dar es Salaam. The main food items included mollusks (51.3%), crustaceans (24.1%), fish bones (18%) and unidentified food items (6.6%). The dominant food item was the bivalve Arcuatula arcuatula Hanley, 1844. Other molluscs included the gastropod genera Nassarius, Littoraria and Conu...

  4. Jamii ya wahalifu. The growth of crime in a colonial African urban centre: Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika, 1919-19611

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article contains a description of the growth of a ‘modern’ criminal culture in Dar es Salaam under British rule. It provides an analysis of the possible causes of increasing criminality in colonial Tanganyika: including urbanisation, shifting definitions of criminality arising from state intervention, the penetration of the cash nexus and economic differentiation. The growth and changing shape of property crime in the city are outlined, as are the emerging criminal networks that helped f...

  5. Mothers’ Agency in Managing Breastfeeding and Other Work in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and New Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    Omer-Salim, Amal

    2015-01-01

    Combining breastfeeding and other forms of work is desirable from both public health and labour productivity perspectives. This is often challenging, especially in low- or middle-income fast-growing urban settings. The aim of this thesis was to gain a deeper understanding of mothers’ perspectives on combining breastfeeding and other work in the urban contexts of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and New Delhi, India. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with community mothers (n=8) and...

  6. Condom Use among HIV-Positive Sexually Active Adults and Partners HIV Status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Conserve, Donaldson; Sevilla, Luis; Younge, Sinead; Mbwambo, Jessie; King, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Consistent and proper use of condoms has been found to be effective in preventing HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted diseases. We examined the predictors of condom use and knowledge of partners HIV status among 731 HIV-positive individuals who had sex in the past six months. Data are from an incoming service form administered to clients who visited the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between ...

  7. Stakeholder collaboration in community-based organizations (CBOs): The case of a sanitation CBO working in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman Figueroa, Nathaly

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of the stakeholder relations of PHAST Ujenzi, a community-based organization (CBO) that provides sanitation services in a slum area of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. My research aims at describing how this CBO has established and maintained relations with different stakeholders, and it looks for highlighting interests, benefits, and challenges in such collaborations. Additionally, my study aims at contributing to the Stakeholder Theory literature, by providing relev...

  8. Why are primary school children overweight and obese? A cross sectional study undertaken in Kinondoni district, Dar-es-salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Mwaikambo, Sijenunu A.; Leyna, Germana H.; Killewo, Japhet; Simba, Azma; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-01-01

    Background The world is experiencing an alarming increase in prevalence of childhood obesity. Despite this trend little is known about determinants of childhood obesity in Tanzania. A cross sectional study determined the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity in 1722 children aged 7–14 years (10.9 ± 1.74) attending primary schools in Dar es Salaam. Methods Six public and four private schools were systemically selected from a total of 227 primary schools. Anthropometric ...

  9. Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, C; Masamu, E. T.; Kiama, M. G.; Keto, A. J.; Kinenekejo, M.; Ichimori, K; Lines, J

    1995-01-01

    A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor envi...

  10. Air pollution by motor traffic in Dar-es-Salaam. Measurements and state of the art description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henricson, Daniel

    1999-06-01

    Dar-es-Salaam was the capital of Tanzania until 1973, when it was moved to Dodoma. The city is still the largest and holds about 1.6 million inhabitants. The aim of the project is to measure air pollution from traffic close to people and set a foundation for future studies. Besides that finding ways to reduce air pollution and improve traffic situation in Dar-es-Salaam with an emphasis on the central city parts. Previous studies on air pollution in Dar-es-Salaam have all been rather rushed and mostly with old and not very precise equipment. For that reason you could say this project is like a pilot study. Measurements were made on NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and VOC (hydrocarbons) during two different measuring weeks. Average temperature, wind velocity and traffic flow was measured on both weeks. Traffic flow was 12 000 vehicles/day. The percentage of accelerating/retarding vehicles and average speed was also studied. Average speed was 20 km/h. The result above show levels somewhat exceeding the guidelines. The levels can not be said to be alarmingly high, but bearing the rapid increase in the number of vehicles in mind, air pollution will soon be a major problem. It would have been preferred to also measure lead, particles and carbon monoxide, especially particles since previous reports indicates very high levels. To create a better air quality in Dar-es-Salaam there has to be an improvement of public transport and at the same time increased parking fees and fuel prices. Finally, fuel quality has to improve and unleaded petrol has to be introduced as soon as possible 10 refs, 4 figs, 15 tabs

  11. Risk factors for HIV-1 seroprevalence among family planning clients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiga, S H; Lyamuya, E F; Vuylsteke, B; Spiegelman, D; Larsen, U; Hunter, D J

    2000-04-01

    Between March and September of 1995, women receiving family planning (FP) services in three large clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Consenting women were interviewed to obtain information about HIV risk factors, and blood for HIV testing was collected. The prevalence of HIV was 16.9% (95% CI: 14.4%-19.3%). The risk of HIV increased significantly with age. Compared with married women, the risk of HIV was significantly higher among cohabiting women (age-adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.5-3.5) and among women who were single, divorced or widowed (age-adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.2-4.4). The risk of HIV was also significantly higher among hotel workers (age-adjusted OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 1.4-12.9). Women with laboratory evidence of sexually transmitted diseases were at increased risk of HIV. This study shows that HIV is a major public health problem among FP clients in Tanzania. Innovative HIV interventions are needed to reduce further spread of HIV infection. PMID:11000712

  12. Storage, Collection and Disposal of Kariakoo Market Wastes in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yhdego, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid...... are described. Experiments revealed wastes from the market are readily decomposable by composting. A change in the design of covered markets and improvements in waste handling are essential to reduce the potential health hazards in developing countries.......In many developing countries, the market is still the most important source of commerce for traders and provisions for the general public. The transmission of disease in the market place involves factors relating to the host, the agent and the environment. This study examines the quality of solid...... waste management in Kariakoo market, Dar es Salaam. The main problems identified were poor market design and lack of a well organized waste storage, collection and disposal systems. Two-thirds of the waste consists of vegetable matter. Proposals for improved design of storage and collection facilities...

  13. Tropical diabetic hand syndrome--Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus have impaired immunologic responses to combat infections. Infection and ulceration of the hand is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in certain populations in Africa; however, the condition is less well recognized than foot infections and is not classified generally as a specific diabetes complication. Hand ulceration and infection in diabetic patients was first described in the United States in 1977 and in Africa in 1984. Subsequently, the majority of reported cases have been from various parts of the African continent. The term "tropical diabetic hand syndrome" (TDHS) has been used to describe diabetes among patients who have progressive, fulminant hand sepsis. More recently, TDHS has been reported among patients in India. These data suggest that TDHS occurs primarily in diabetic patients who live in tropical or coastal areas and might result in loss of hand function, amputation, or death. This report describes the characteristics of 72 patients with TDHS examined at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Early recognition by patients, prompt medical attention, and improved glycemic control might reduce the incidence of disability or death. PMID:12433020

  14. Rational dispensing and use of artemether-lumefantrine during pregnancy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R; Mnyusiwalla, Fatema

    2011-04-01

    Artemether-Lumefantrine (ALu) is widely used for uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Because of the suspected teratogenic effects of artemether during the first trimester, quinine is used in early pregnancy unless the risks outweigh the benefits. The aim of this study was to assess dispensing practice of ALu in private pharmacies and knowledge of pregnant women regarding the use of ALu. This was a prospective-descriptive study involving visits to 200 private retail pharmacies (using a mystery shopper) and interviewing pregnant women at the municipal public hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Among the drug dispensers, 60 (30%) were pharmacists, 71(35.5%) nurse assistants, 34 (17%) pharmaceutical technicians and 35 (17.5%) sales persons with no formal education on drug dispensing. Among the dispensers, 14.5% had high knowledge, 38.0% had medium knowledge and 47.5% had low knowledge on the use of ALu during pregnancy. About thirty three percent of the drug dispensers were willing to dispense ALu during the first trimester of pregnancy. Sixty two percent of the drug dispensers indicated that ALu is the drug of choice for uncomplicated malaria after the first trimester of pregnancy. However, 36% indicated that ALu could not be used during pregnancy. A total of 200 pregnant women were interviewed. Among them, 16.5% were aware that ALu should not be taken during the first trimester of pregnancy. Only 17% of pregnant women were given information on the importance of taking food when using ALu, but none of them was given information on the importance of fatty meals when using ALu. In conclusion, the results show that most drug dispensers have inadequate knowledge about good dispensing practice of ALu in pregnancy. There is therefore a need for continuing training of drug dispensers regarding antimalarial drugs use in pregnancy. PMID:25566607

  15. Food cravings, aversions and pica among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaruhucha, C N M

    2009-01-01

    Food cravings, aversions and pica are common during pregnancy and may have a significant input on pregnancy progress and outcome. A study was carried out to determine the frequency and duration of pronounced dietary cravings, aversions and pica during pregnancy among 204 pregnant and lactating women attending two health facilities in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Nausea and vomiting were reported by 82.8% of all women of which 43.2% experienced severe nausea alone, 9.5% severe vomiting alone and 35.5% experienced severe vomiting and nausea. Mild cases of each of the symptoms either occurring alone or both of them occurring together were also reported. Both behaviours were observed more in tea and stiff porridge were also avoided. Reasons given for avoiding foods were unpleasant smell/taste (10.3%), to reduce nausea (11.8%), no particular reason (58.3%) and dislike by foetus (belief) (3.9%). Pica was experienced by 63.7%% of the women and soil, ice and ash were the most commonly non-food substances eaten. The frequency of nausea and vomiting was highest in the early months of pregnancy and most women experienced the symptoms during morning hours. Craving in most women was more intense in the first trimesters. Most women craved for meat and sour and savoury foods, and avoided rice, meat and fish. Soil consumption was the pica observed in most women. Since aversions and cravings are closely linked to dietary intake of pregnant woman understanding these behaviours is important in addressing maternal nutrition. PMID:19445102

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM WATER BODIES IN DAR-ES-SALAAM CITY, TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya Kweka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water-borne diseases are the most common cause of illness and death among the poor population from developing countries. The majority of the people are inadequately aware that aquatic environment is a major source of salmonellosis. Dar es Salaam city is among the cities with most of its population live in squatter. Typhoid fever ranks second with 14.3% of all notifiable disease cases in the city. The city experience water scarcity which forces water wells and rivers to become the main sources of water for domestic use and livestock. This study therefore, characterized Salmonella strains from different water bodies of city as possible sources for enteric diseases endemicity. Methods: The Salmonella Chromogenic Agar (SC Agar and Kligler Iron Agar (KIA media were used for isolation and enumeration of the strains. The inoculated cultures were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Salmonella colonies were confirmed by magenta colorations and hydrogen sulfide production on SC Agar and KIA Agar, respectively. The Analytical Profile Index 20 Enterobacteriaceae kit (API 20E kit was used to identify Salmonella species. Results: Based on the API 20E kit, the identified Salmonella species from different water bodies were Salmonella ser. paratyphi A (96.9%, Salmonella cholelaesuis spp choleraesuis (99.5% and Salmonella typhi (99.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that shallow wells and rivers which are mainly used by the city dwellers were highly contaminated with Salmonella and were more contaminated than deep wells and marine water bodies. This warrants further investigation on the disease mapping in the urban and peri-urban areas.

  17. Integrated urban malaria control: a case study in dar es salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas de Castro, Marcia; Yamagata, Yoichi; Mtasiwa, Deo; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jurg; Keiser, Jennifer; Singer, Burton H

    2004-08-01

    The rapid growth of cities in sub-Saharan Africa, much of it driven by rural-urban migration, is associated with complex transformations of these ecosystems and an intricate set of challenges for malaria control. Urban malaria transmission is substantially less intense and much more focal than in rural and peri-urban settings. However, the danger of epidemics is higher and the presence of substantial non-immune populations places people of all ages at comparable levels of risk. The limited number of breeding sites in urban centers suggests that prevention strategies based on vector control, with emphasis on environmental management, should be a central feature of urban malaria control programs. We focus on malaria in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Following a brief review of the 100-year history of malaria control in this urban center, we describe and evaluate a control program that operated from 1988 to 1996 as a consequence of a bilateral agreement between the governments of Tanzania and Japan. We present an innovative urban malaria risk mapping methodology based on high-resolution aerial photography with ground-based validation. This strategy clarifies that remote sensing technology at a level of resolution of one meter is essential if this kind of information is to play a role in guiding the detailed specification of intervention strategies for urban malaria control. The Tanzania-Japan multiple-intervention malaria control program, adaptively implemented over time, is described and evaluated with implications for urban malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa more generally. PMID:15331826

  18. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  19. The pattern of mucocutaneous disorders in HIV – infected children attending care and treatment centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massawe Augustine W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS is associated with a wide range of mucocutaneous disorders some of which are useful in the clinical staging and prognosis of the syndrome. There is paucity of information regarding the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending paediatric Care and Treatment Centres (CTC in Dar es Salaam. Objective To determine the prevalence and pattern of mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Methods This was a cross sectional descriptive study involving public paediatric 'Care and Treatment Centres' in Dar es Salaam. Clinical information was obtained using a questionnaire. Dermatological examination was carried out in daylight. Investigations were taken as appropriate. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program version 10.0. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were utilized. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred and forty seven HIV infected children (52% males attending CTCs were recruited into the study. Mucocutaneous disorders were encountered in 85% of them. There was no gender difference in the prevalence of the infective mucocutaneous disorders but males had a higher prevalence of non-infective/inflammatory dermatoses (58% than females (42% (p = 0.02. Overall, mucocutaneous disorders (infective + non infective were more prevalent in advanced stages of HIV disease. Children with advanced HIV disease had a significantly increased frequency of fungal and viral infections (43% and 25% respectively than those with less advanced disease; 24% and 13% respectively (p = 0.01. Seventy four percent of the HIV-infected children with mucocutaneous disorders were already on ART. Conclusion Mucocutaneous disorders among HIV infected children attending Care and Treatment Centres are common and highly variable. Comprehensive management should also emphasize on the management of mucocutaneous disorders.

  20. Seasonal variation of water-soluble inorganic species in the coarse and fine atmospheric aerosols at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionic composition of coarse, fine and total PM10 was investigated in aerosol samples collected from a kerbside in Dar es Salaam during the 2005 dry season and 2006 wet season. A 'Gent' PM10 stacked filter unit sampler with sequential Nuclepore polycarbonate filters, providing coarse (8 μm) and fine (0.4 μm) size fractions, was deployed. The mean concentrations and associated standard deviation of fine, coarse and PM10 were, respectively, 17 ± 4, 52 ± 27, and 69 ± 29 μg/m3 during the 2005 dry season campaign and 13 ± 5, 34 ± 23 and 47 ± 25 μg/m3 for the 2006 wet season campaign. The higher PM mass concentrations during the dry season campaign are essentially due to soil dust dispersal, much biomass burning and temperature inversions. Chloride, Na+ and Mg2+ were the dominant ions in coarse fraction, indicating a significant influence of sea-salt aerosols. In the fine fraction, SO42- and NH4+ and K+ were the most important ions. The mean equivalent PM2 NO3- concentration in the 2005 dry season campaign was two times higher than in the 2006 wet season campaign, probably due to reaction of NaCl (sea-salt) with HNO3 as a result of higher levels of NOx during the dry season and/or reduced volatilization of NH4NO3 due to lower temperature in the dry season. The results from our water-soluble ions study strongly suggests that biomass burning and secondary aerosols make a significant contribution to fine particulate mass in Dar es Salaam atmosphere. Thus, burning of waste and biomass are thought to be the major causes for the atmospheric particulate pollution in Dar es Salaam during the dry season.

  1. The spectrum of dermatological disorders among primary school children in Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgonda Yassin M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years. The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05. Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor being the commonest (20%. Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420; the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41 and higher (21.8% in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045. Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%. All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4% with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420 followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1% whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7% followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%. Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%. Thirty six children (8.6% had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2% in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004. The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4% and pediculosis capitis (3.6%. Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%, non-specific dermatoses (10.7%, non-specific ulcers (5% and atopic eczema (2.6%. Rare conditions (prevalence Conclusions Skin disorders are common in primary school children; infectious dermatoses are still rampant and many children do not seek medical assistance.

  2. Primary antimicrobial resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients in Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Ronald

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Republic of Tanzania is one of the 22 high M. tuberculosis burden countries. Data collected between 2002 and 2007 indicate that the global prevalence of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis including MDR vary greatly. The varied drug-resistance patterns make continuous surveillance of drug resistance an essential component of tuberculosis control program. Findings M. tuberculosis isolates were obtained from consenting adult tuberculosis patients involved in a placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of multivitamin supplements on response to anti-Tb treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on four antimicrobial agents namely streptomycin, isoniazid, ethambutol and rifampicin. HIV testing and CD4+ T lymphocytes enumeration were also done. A total of 280 M. tuberculosis isolates from 191 (68% males and 89 (32% female patients with no previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment exceeding 4 weeks in the previous 12 months were tested. Among these, 133 (47% patients were HIV seropositive. Fourteen (5.0% isolates were resistant to any of the anti-tuberculosis drugs. The prevalence of primary resistance was 5.0%, 0.7%, 0.4% and 0% for isoniazid, streptomycin, rifampicin and ethambutol respectively. One isolate (0.4% was MDR, with resistance to isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin. Conclusion M. Tb primary resistance rate in a selected population in Dar es Salaam Tanzania is low and efforts should be undertaken to support the Tuberculosis program.

  3. A first insight into the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, assessed by spoligotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfinanga Sayoki GM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a high tuberculosis incidence, and genotyping studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the country are necessary in order to improve our understanding of the epidemic. Spoligotyping is a potentially powerful genotyping method due to fast generation of genotyping results, high reproducibility and low operation costs. The recently constructed SpolDB4 database and the model-based program 'Spotclust' can be used to assign isolates to families, subfamilies and variants. The results of a study can thus be analyzed in a global context. Results One hundred forty-seven pulmonary isolates from consecutive tuberculosis patients in Dar es Salaam were spoligotyped. SpolDB4 and 'Spotclust' were used to assign isolates to families, subfamilies and variants. The CAS (37%, LAM (22% and EAI (17% families were the most abundant. Despite the dominance of these three families, diversity was high due to variation within M. tuberculosis families. Of the obtained spoligopatterns, 64% were previously unrecorded. Conclusion Spoligotyping is useful to gain an overall understanding of the local TB epidemic. This study demonstrates that the extensive TB epidemic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is caused by a few successful M. tuberculosis families, dominated by the CAS family. Import of strains was a minor problem.

  4. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context. PMID:26494417

  5. A call for parental monitoring to improve condom use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlunde Linda B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been decreasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but prevalence of the infection remains unacceptably high among young people. Despite the alarming pervasiveness of the virus, young people in this region continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In developed countries, parents can play important roles in protecting young people from such behaviors, but evidence regarding the impact of parental involvement is still limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional study among 2,217 male and female students aged 15 to 24 years from 12 secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. From October to November 2011, we collected data using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 665 (30.3% secondary school students reported being sexually active within the year prior to data collection. Among them, 41.7% had multiple sexual partners, 10.5% had concurrent sexual partners, and 41.1% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. A higher level of parental monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of condom use at last sexual intercourse among male students (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32; p = 0.03 but not among female students (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.71-3.37; p = 0.28. The association between parental communication and condom use at last sexual intercourse among both male and female students was not statistically significant. Conclusions A high level of parental monitoring is associated with more consistent condom use among male students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania -- many of whom have engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors such as multiple sexual partnerships, concurrent sexual partnerships, and unprotected sexual intercourse in the past one year. Interventions should thus be strengthened to reduce multiple sexual partnerships, concurrent sexual partnerships, and to improve parental monitoring among such students toward increasing condom use.

  6. Urbanization and Its Impacts to Food Systems and Environmental Sustainability in Urban Space: Evidence from Urban Agriculture Livelihoods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wakuru Magigi

    2013-01-01

    Urbanisation is the key factor underpinning and catalysing changes in food systems, environmental quality, climate change and agriculture livelihoods in the overall urban ecosystem setting and its sustainability. The paper explores Dar es Salaam, a rapidly expanding city in Sub-Saharan Africa, and shows that urban agriculture provides urban ecosystem services and contributes to environmental sustainability. The interconnections of environmental justice, urban ecosystem ...

  7. Factors Contributing to the Accumulation of Primary Teacher's Debts to the Government of Tanzania: A Case Study for Dar Es Salaam Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombo, Ibun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the study which was conducted to determine factors contributing to the accumulation of primary school teacher's debts to the Government of Tanzania, a case study of Dar es Salaam Region in its three municipalities namely, Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke. Data was obtained through sampling method which also helped to…

  8. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, M; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    girls are not aware about their right to such services. The paper concludes that the vulnerability of adolescent girls increases without the recognition that sexuality education and contraceptive services do not constitute a licence to practice illicit sex - but rather a means to create more mature and......Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent...... girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also...

  9. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent...... girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also...... willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time...

  10. Community-based surveillance of malaria vector larval habitats: a baseline study in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillinger Ulrike

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes it may be possible to protect large populations from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Here we present a baseline evaluation of the ability of community members to detect mosquito larval habitats with minimal training and supervision in the first weeks of an operational urban malaria control program. Methods The Urban Malaria Control Programme of Dar es Salaam recruited and provided preliminary training to teams of Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs who performed weekly surveys of mosquito breeding sites. Two trained mosquito biologists accompanied each of these teams for one week and evaluated the sensitivity of this system for detecting potential Anopheles habitats. Results Overall, 42.4% of 986 habitats surveyed by an inspection team had previously been identified by CORPs. Agricultural habitats were detected less often than other habitats (30.8% detected, Odds Ratio [95%CI] = 0.46 [0.29–0.73], P = 0.001. Non-agricultural artificial habitats were less suitable than other habitats (29.3% occupancy, OR = 0.69 [0.46–1.03], P = 0.066 but still constituted 45% (169/289 of occupied habitats because of their abundance (51 % of all habitats. Conclusion The levels of coverage achieved by modestly trained and supported CORPs at the start of the Dar es Salaam UMCP were insufficient to enable effective suppression of malaria transmission through larval control. Further operational research is required to develop surveillance systems that are practical, affordable, effective and acceptable so that community-based integrated vector management can be implemented in cities across Africa.

  11. Air pollution in southern Africa: The case of motor vehicle exhaust contribution in Dar Es Salaam city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to review air pollution problems in the Southern Africa region and establish the quality of ambient air in Dar Es Salaam city in Tanzania with respect to three vehicular pollutants which are sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matters (SPM). These pollutants were measured in eight different locations in Dar-Es Salaam city which are Fire, Morocco, Tazara, Kariakoo, Ubungo, Posta, UCLAS, and Akiba. With the exception of South Africa and Botswana, other countries in the Southern Africa Region which include Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi. Zambia, Zimbabwe. Angola and Namibia do not have air pollution standards, and regular air pollution monitoring is not carried out in these countries. Diesel fueled vehicles in South Africa are responsible for one third of all smog-forming nitrogen dioxides and almost two-thirds of all particulate pollution emitted by all vehicles. The measurement methods used in Dar Es Salaam study were pararosaniline method for SO2, Saltzman for measuring nitrogen dioxide, and filtration method for suspended particulate matters. The following was observed from the analysis: Hourly sulphur dioxide concentration ranged from 558 -1385 ?g/m3. These measured values were above the recommended WHO guidelines with an hourly objective value of 350 ?g/m3. Hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration was found to range from 18 to 53 ?g/m3. The maximum hourly nitrogen dioxide concentration at 53 ?g/m3 was below the recommended WHO guidelines with a value of 200 ?g/m3. The hourly suspended particulate matter (SPM) was found to range from 744 to 1161 ?g/m3. The measured suspended particulate matter concentrations were above the recommended hourly maximum value by WHO guidelines which is 230?g/m3. The correlation coefficient of pollutants and the number of vehicles counted for different sampling points was determined and found to be fair reasonable with a value of 0.906 for suspended particulate matter (SPM), 0.64 for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 0.74 for sulphur dioxide (SO2). Gaussian , model NO2 predictions were comparable to the measured NO2 concentration. The average ratio of model calculated and measured concentrations is 0.60. The correlation coefficient between the measured concentrations and those predicted by the model was found to be 0.6. Remedial measures recommended include development of exhaust pipe emission standards and enforcing them in all countries in the Southern Africa Region. Annual check up of emission levels of SO2 and SPM for motor vehicles is recommended. It is further recommended that imported used vehicles should be tested for emission level prior to their registration, and regular ambient air pollutants levels monitoring activities be introduced in cities and municipalities within the Southern Africa Region for selected gaseous pollutants which should include SO2, NO2, and SPM. (author)

  12. Low quality of routine microscopy for malaria at different levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtasiwa Deo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory capacity to confirm malaria cases in Tanzania is low and presumptive treatment of malaria is being practiced widely. In malaria endemic areas WHO now recommends systematic laboratory testing when suspecting malaria. Currently, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs is recommended for the diagnosis of malaria in lower level peripheral facilities, but not in health centres and hospitals. In this study, the following parameters were evaluated: (1 the quality of routine microscopy, and (2 the effects of RDT implementation on the positivity rate of malaria test results at three levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods During a baseline cross-sectional survey, routine blood slides were randomly picked from 12 urban public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Sensitivity and specificity of routine slides were assessed against expert microscopy. In March 2007, following training of health workers, RDTs were introduced in nine public health facilities (three hospitals, three health centres and three dispensaries in a near-to-programmatic way, while three control health facilities continued using microscopy. The monthly malaria positivity rates (PR recorded in health statistics registers were collected before (routine microscopy and after (routine RDTs the intervention in all facilities. Results At baseline, 53% of blood slides were reported as positive by the routine laboratories, whereas only 2% were positive by expert microscopy. Sensitivity of routine microscopy was 71.4% and specificity was 47.3%. Positive and negative predictive values were 2.8% and 98.7%, respectively. Median parasitaemia was only three parasites per 200 white blood cells (WBC by routine microscopy compared to 1226 parasites per 200 WBC by expert microscopy. Before RDT implementation, the mean test positivity rates using routine microscopy were 43% in hospitals, 62% in health centres and 58% in dispensaries. After RDT implementation, mean positivity rates using routine RDTs were 6%, 7% and 8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RDTs using expert microscopy as reference were 97.0% and 96.8%. The positivity rate of routine microscopy remained the same in the three control facilities: 71% before versus 72% after. Two cross-sectional health facility surveys confirmed that the parasite rate in febrile patients was low in Dar es Salaam during both the rainy season (13.6% and the dry season (3.3%. Conclusions The quality of routine microscopy was poor in all health facilities, regardless of their level. Over-diagnosis was massive, with many false positive results reported as very low parasitaemia (1 to 5 parasites per 200 WBC. RDTs should replace microscopy as first-line diagnostic tool for malaria in all settings, especially in hospitals where the potential for saving lives is greatest.

  13. Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al., 2012). Mean temperatures in the climate zone are estimated to increase by at least 1°C between 1971-2000 and 2021-2050(CSIR, 2012). Dar es Salaam is represented using around 1700 UMT units mapped across 43 UMT categories for the year 2008. Modelled surface temperature profiles for the city are presented, including an assessment of the potential impact of changing green structure cover within selected UMT categories. Provisional recommendations are made concerning the potential contribution of green structures as a climate adaptation response to the increasing temperatures in Dar es Salaam, which could be relevant for other African cities in similar climate zones. References Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Ouédraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D2.7 Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Accessed 18/12/12. CSIR (2012) CLUVA deliverable D1.5 Regional climate change simulations available for the selected areas http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.5.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13. Giugni, M., Adamo, P., Capuano, P., De Paola, F., Di Ruocco, A., Giordano, S., Iavazzo, P., Sellerino, M., Terracciano, S., Topa, M. E. (2012) CLUVA deliverable D.1.2 Hazard scenarios for test cities using available data. http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D1.2.pdf. Accessed 8/1/13

  14. Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study has the potential to provide empirical evidence to promote large scale monitoring and education campaigns in Africa to improve health and reduce the burden of waterborne disease.

  15. Prevalence of enteropathogenic viruses and molecular characterization of group A rotavirus among children with diarrhea in Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maselle Samwel Y

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different groups of viruses have been shown to be responsible for acute diarrhea among children during their first few years of life. Epidemiological knowledge of viral agents is critical for the development of effective preventive measures, including vaccines. Methods In this study we determined the prevalence of the four major enteropathogenic viruses – rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus – was determined in 270 stool samples collected from children aged 0 – 60 months who were admitted with diarrhea in four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, using commercially available ELISA kits. In addition, the molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus was investigated using reverse transcriptase multiplex polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results At least one viral agent was detected in 87/270 (32.2% of the children. The prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus was 18.1%, 13.7%, 2.6% and 0.4%, respectively. In most cases (62.1% of viruses were detected in children aged 7–12 months. The G and P types (VP7 and VP4 genotypes respectively were further investigated in 49 rotavirus ELISA positive samples. G9 was the predominant G type (81.6%, followed by G1 (10.2% and G3 (0.2%. P[8] was the predominant P type (83.7%, followed by P[6] (0.4% and P[4] (0.2%. The following G and P types were not detected in this study population; G2, G4, G8 G10, P[9], P[10] and P[11]. The dominating G/P combination was G9P[8], accounting for 39 (90.7% of the 43 fully characterized strains. Three (6.1% of the 49 rotavirus strains could not be typed. Conclusion Nearly one third of children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in Dar es Salaam had one of the four viral agents. The predominance of rotavirus serotype G9 may have implication for rotavirus vaccination in Tanzania.

  16. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of adaptation can be reduced with prolonged exposure to high temperature and humidity. The expected persistence of long-lived heat waves lasting approximately 1.5-2 weeks is clearly longer with respect to the climatological period (1961-1990). During 100 years, short lived but more intense waves are more than doubled in duration. It is evident the needs for the national health services to develop strategies for the mitigation of the heat wave effects, to enhance the resilience of the population, particularly the elder people.

  17. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the most common type of diarrhoea in children under five years in Dar es Salaam and is predominantly due to DEC, C. parvum, rotaviruses and noroviruses. Constant antibiotic surveillance is warranted as bacteria were highly resistant to various antimicrobial agents including co-trimoxazole and erythromycin which are currently recommended for empiric treatment of diarrhoea.

  18. A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mlunde, Linda Beatrice; Sunguya, Bruno Fokas; Mbwambo, Jessie Kazeni; Ubuguyu, Omary Said; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducte...

  19. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Govella Nico J; Chaki Prosper P; Geissbhler Yvonne; Nyika Dickson; Dongus Stefan; Vanek Michael J; William George; Kannady Khadija; Fillinger Ulrike; Mathenge Evan M; Singer Burton H; Mshinda Hassan; Lindsay Steven W; Tanner Marcel; Mtasiwa Deo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs). New vector surveillance, larv...

  20. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Shoo Bryson; Govella Nicodem J; Chaki Prosper P; Hemed Abdullah; Tanner Marcel; Fillinger Ulrike; Killeen Gerry F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP) in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs) to detect mosquito...

  1. INVESTIGATION OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION AND HEALTH RISKS DUE TO FARMING ACTIVITIES ON A FORMER DUMPSITE IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Caroline; Heiskala, Linnea

    2014-01-01

    The heavy metal pollution from a former solid waste disposal site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, that is currently used for urban farming was investigated. The pollution was assessed by measuring the content of copper, lead, zinc and chromium in soil, plants and leachate from the site as well as in the adjacent river. The safe daily intake of onsite cultivated vegetables, in regard to the heavy metal content, was calculated. The analysis showed that there is a health risk connected to consuming ...

  2. Informality in the context of the urban spatial development of Dar es Salaam - A structural analysis of the development of the urban space

    OpenAIRE

    Stender, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with examining the relation between the growing informal economy, expanding informal settlements in Dar es Salaam and examines the overall spatial development of the city. Fieldwork has been conducted as the point of departure of understanding the processes and structures influencing the urban development and the aspects of the informal economy and informal settlements. The fieldwork included semi-structured interviews with trade union officials, sporadic and structure...

  3. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and its oral manifestations among people living with HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahabuka, Febronia; Fabian, Flora; Petersen, Poul Erick; Nguvumali, Hubert

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS and general issues about HIV and AIDS among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 187 participants chosen by convenience sampling from NGOs supporting PLHIV. A total of 13.4% of the participants were completely unaware of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS whereas all participants were fully aware of general symptoms of AIDS. There were no significant associations between awareness of oral manifestations and general awareness of HIV/AIDS, or level of education. Participants were relatively well aware of the different types of oral manifestations (e.g. oral ulcers 87%, oral candidiasis 84%) while their knowledge of the management of specific oral manifestations and the problems associated with oral manifestations was more limited. It is recommended that health authorities in Tanzania establish population-oriented health education for improving knowledge about oral disease in HIV/AIDS and that oral health professionals provide sound information to PLHIV in community-outreach oral healthcare programmes. PMID:25875349

  4. Determinants of Anemia Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Adults at Care and Treatment Clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraro, Paul; Duggan, Christopher; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Makubi, Abel; Chalamilla, Guerino; Siril, Helen; Sando, David; Aboud, Said; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-02-01

    Anemia is often a comorbidity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Many cross-sectional studies have been conducted on anemia and HIV, but few, if any, have addressed incidence of anemia prospectively. A longitudinal analysis was conducted in 48,068 nonpregnant HIV-infected adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, seen at Management and Development for Health-U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief HIV care and treatment programs between 2004 and 2011. Almost 56% (N = 27,184) of study participants had anemia (hemoglobin anemia. Low BMI and low CD4 T-cell count were independently significantly associated with an increased risk for iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Higher BMI status and ART use were associated with recovery from anemia. Anemia, including IDA, is a comorbidity that is associated with other adverse consequences (e.g., low BMI and CD4 T-cell count) among individuals with HIV infection, including those on ART. Interventions to prevent anemia and its complications need to be examined in the context of future studies. PMID:26666698

  5. Application of Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process to Prioritize the Challenges Facing Public Transportation in Dar Es Salaam City-Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick P. Massami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is a key to the economy and social welfare; it makes mobility more accessible and enhances the social and economic interactions. On the other hand, the increase of urban population, pollution and other negative impacts has directly affected the existing transportation system in Dar es Salaam City - Tanzania. As the transportation challenges cannot be overcome simultaneously due to the scarcity of financial resources, a decision support tool is needed to prioritize these challenges. In this study, a composite model of Vague Set Theory (VST and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is applied to appraise the challenges. The Vague Analytical Hierarchy Process (VAHP uses opinions of experts collected from a survey questionnaire. The computational results reveal the ranking in descending order of the urban transportation challenges as poor traffic management, inadequacy of proper public transit service and inadequacy of road transport infrastructure. The results also depict that the VAHP model is a useful decision support tool for transport planners, transport policy makers and other industry stakeholders.

  6. Modeling approaches and strategies for data-scarce aquifers: example of the Dar es Salaam aquifer in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Marc; Mjemah, Ibrahimu Chikira; Al Farrah, Nawal; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-03-01

    Management of groundwater resources can be improved by using groundwater models to perform risk analyses and to improve development strategies, but a lack of extensive basic data often limits the implementation of sophisticated models. Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is an example of a city where increasing groundwater use in a Pleistocene aquifer is causing groundwater-related problems such as saline intrusion along the coastline, lowering of water-table levels, and contamination of pumping wells. The lack of a water-level monitoring network introduces a problem for basic data collection and model calibration and validation. As a replacement, local water-supply wells were used for measuring groundwater depth, and well-top heights were estimated from a regional digital elevation model to recalculate water depths to hydraulic heads. These were used to draw a regional piezometric map. Hydraulic parameters were estimated from short-time pumping tests in the local wells, but variation in hydraulic conductivity was attributed to uncertainty in well characteristics (information often unavailable) and not to aquifer heterogeneity. A MODFLOW model was calibrated with a homogeneous hydraulic conductivity field and a sensitivity analysis between the conductivity and aquifer recharge showed that average annual recharge will likely be in the range 80-100 mm/year.

  7. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults aged 18 - 65 years in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from April 2007 to April 2008. Methods Random sampling of households was performed. Interviews and anthropometric measurement were carried out to eligible and consenting members of the selected households. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Out of 1249 subjects recruited, 814 (65.2% were females. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19.2% (240/1249. However, obesity was significantly more prevalent in women (24.7% than men (9%, p Conclusion This study revealed a higher prevalence of obesity among Kinondoni residents than previously reported in other parts of the country. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, marriage and cohabitation, high SES, female sex and less vigorous physical activities.

  8. [Early days of the Ocean Road Hospital in Dar es Salaam: from mission hospital to government hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneppen, H

    2000-01-01

    On 1 October 1997 Ocean Road Hospital in Daressalam commemorated one hundred years of its existence. As early as 1888 a provisional hospital had been set up in Zanzibar by the German Lutheran Church to serve the needs of the Germans living and working on the East African coast. But when the British established their protectorate over Zanzibar in 1890, the hospital was moved to Dar es Salaam. As cooperation between Mission hospital and Government authorities proved difficult, the German colonial administration was determined to build an hospital of its own. Lack of funds delayed the construction of the building which had to be built on a more modest scale than originally planned. But when the hospital was inaugurated in October 1897, people were impressed both by its functional usefulness and aesthetic attraction. The history of the German Government Hospital reflects the political context of the time as well as the progress of medicine in combatting endemic diseases. While patients were often segregated by race--the Government Hospital in Daressalam almost exclusively reserved for Europeans--all were benefitting from the results of medical science. For Robert Koch the hospital (and its laboratory) served as basis for his research in the field of malaria, black water fever, sleeping sickness, and relapsing fever. It was from Africa that the embarked on his journey to Stockholm to receive the Nobel Prize in December 1905. During the First World War Ocean Road Hospital, as it was called from now on, was taken over by the British. Since independence, the Tanzanians are in charge. It is presently the only tumor hospital of the country, closely cooperating with the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. Restoration of Ocean Road Hospital, completed at the beginning of this year, was made possible by a grant of the Federal Republic of Germany. PMID:11068515

  9. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannady Khadija

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. Methods A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR, logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Results Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05–0.3, p Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Conclusion Although environmental management was historically coordinated by authoritarian/colonial regimes or by industries/corporations, its successful implementation as part of an integrated vector management framework for malaria control under democratic governments can be possible if four conditions are observed: political will and commitment, community sensitization and participation, provision of financial resources for initial cleaning and structural repairs, and inter-sectoral collaboration. Such effort not only is expected to reduce malaria transmission, but has the potential to empower communities, improve health and environmental conditions, and ultimately contribute to poverty alleviation and sustainable development.

  10. Flooding, flood risks and coping strategies in urban informal residential areas: The case of Keko Machungwa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam under the auspices of the Disaster Management Training Centre of Ardhi University, Tanzania. The settlement has experienced frequent flooding in the past five years, and this study explores the causes, risks, extent of flooding and coping strategies of residents as well as municipality and city officials. Key methods employed in capturing empirical evidence included mapping of zones by severity of flooding, interviews with households, sub-ward leaders, and municipal and city officials. Non-participant observation, primarily taking photographs, complemented these methods. Laboratory tests of water samples taken from shallow wells in the settlement were performed to establish the level of pollution. In addition, records of prevalence of water-borne diseases were gathered from a dispensary within the settlement to corroborate flooding events, water pollution and occurrence of such diseases. Findings show that flooding is contributed to by the lack of a coordinated stormwater drainage system; haphazard housing development within the valley; and blocking of the water stream by haphazard dumping of solid waste and construction. Risks associated with flooding include water and air pollution, diseases, waterlogging and blocked accessibility. The most common coping strategies at household level are use of sandbags and tree logs; raised pit latrines and doorsteps; provision of water outlet pipes above plinth level; construction of embankments, protection walls and elevation of house foundations; seasonal displacement; and boiling and chemical treatment of water. Recommendations for future action at household, community and city level are made.

  11. Criteria-based audit on management of eclampsia patients at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindmark Gunilla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the introduction of a criteria-based audit in a tertiary hospital in an African setting, assesses the quality of care among eclampsia patients and discusses possible interventions in order to improve the quality of care. Methods We conducted a criteria based audit of 389 eclampsia patients admitted to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam Tanzania between April 14, 2006 and December 31, 2006. Cases were assessed using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. Results Antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum eclampsia constituted 47%, 41% and 12% of the eclampsia cases respectively. Antepartum eclampsia was mostly (73% preterm whereas the majority (71% of postpartum eclampsia cases ware at term. The case fatality rate for eclampsia was 7.7%. Medical histories were incomplete, the majority (75% of management plans were not reviewed by specialists in obstetrics, specialist doctors live far from the hospital and do not spend nights in hospital even when they are on duty, monitoring of patients on magnesium sulphate was inadequate, and important biochemical tests were not routinely done. Two thirds of the patient scheduled for caesarean section did not undergo surgery within agreed time. Conclusion Potential areas for further improvement in quality of emergency care for eclampsia relate to standardizing management guidelines, greater involvement of specialists in the management of eclampsia and continued medical education on current management of eclampsia for junior staff.

  12. Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C.; Masamu, E. T.; Kiama, M. G.; Keto, A. J.; Kinenekejo, M.; Ichimori, K.; Lines, J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7704932

  13. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation. PMID:25649406

  14. Elemental and ionic components of atmospheric aerosols and associated gaseous pollutants in and near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Albert G.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja S.; Bencs, László; McCrindle, Robert I.; Van Grieken, René

    2013-10-01

    Elemental and water-soluble ionic compounds (WSICs) of atmospheric aerosols (total suspended particulate - TSP) and some gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2 and O3) from a coastal, semi-urban and rural site in and near Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were investigated during dry and wet seasons of January 2005-November 2007. Na+, Ca2+, SO42-, NO3- and Cl- made up the dominant fraction of WSICs during the dry season with average concentrations ranging from non-detectable (n.d.)-5.4, 0.26-2.6, 0.74-14.7, 0.4-1.5 and 1.1-3.4 μg m-3, respectively, while in the wet season, from n.d. up to 1.7, 1.2, 4.4, 2.1 and 3.0 μg m-3, respectively. The total air concentrations of the detected elements (Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Zn) showed seasonal and site-specific variation in the range of 7.5-26.6 with an average of 14.5 μg m-3. Most of the air concentrations of pollutants were observed to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal site, which is under urban and industrial pollutant emissions. Sulphur and nitrogen oxidation ratios during the dry season ranged from 0.08 to 0.91 and 0.013 to 0.049, respectively, while they were between 0.09-0.65 and 0.002-0.095, respectively, in the wet season. These values indicate the photochemical oxidation of SO2 and a high extent of NO3-formation in the atmosphere. Neutralization ratios revealed the presence of acidic SO42- and NO3- aerosols. Principal component analysis identified sea spray, local combustion, vehicular traffic, biomass burning and re-suspended road dust as dominant sources of aerosols at the studied coastal and semi-urban sites. However, at the rural site, besides sea spray, crustal sources, soil dust re-suspension and long-range transport are the possible origins of suspended particulates.

  15. Trace metal pollution and its influence on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of trace metal pollution on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs was investigated in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast. Significant enrichment of As, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Zn in sediments was recorded. Redundancy analysis indicated that trace metal pollution contributed 68% of the variation in community structure. Monte Carlo permutation test showed that As and Sb contributed significantly to variation in species composition. T-value biplots and van Dobben circles showed that the gastropods Acteon fortis, Assiminea ovata, and Littoraria aberrans, were negatively affected by As and Sb, while the bivalve Semele radiata and the gastropod Conus litteratus were only negatively affected by As. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Mo and Zn occurred in the bivalve Mactra ovalina and the gastropod Polinices mammilla. This calls for regular monitoring and management measures.

  16. The problem of illegally induced abortion: results from a hospital-based study conducted at district level in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E; Bergström, S

    2000-01-01

    Illegal abortion is known to be a major contributor to maternal mortality. The objective of the study was firstly to identify women with illegally induced abortion, (IA) and to compare them with women admitted with a spontaneous abortion (SA) or receiving antenatal care (AC), and secondly to...... describe the circumstances which characterized the abortion. The population of this cross-sectional questionnaire study comprised patients from Temeke District Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. After an in-depth confidential interview, 603 women with incomplete abortion were divided into two groups: 362...... women with IA and 241 with SA. They were compared with 307 AC women. IA women were significantly younger, more often better educated, unmarried, nulliparous and students than AC women. Regarding civil-status, educational level, proportion of nullipara and proportion of students, SA patients were similar...

  17. Participatory mapping of target areas to enable operational larval source management to suppress malaria vector mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongus Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of the population of Africa will soon live in towns and cities where it can be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes. Rigorous but affordable and scaleable methods for mapping and managing mosquito habitats are required to enable effective larval control in urban Africa. Methods A simple community-based mapping procedure that requires no electronic devices in the field was developed to facilitate routine larval surveillance in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The mapping procedure included (1 community-based development of sketch maps and (2 verification of sketch maps through technical teams using laminated aerial photographs in the field which were later digitized and analysed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS. Results Three urban wards of Dar es Salaam were comprehensively mapped, covering an area of 16.8 km2. Over thirty percent of this area were not included in preliminary community-based sketch mapping, mostly because they were areas that do not appear on local government residential lists. The use of aerial photographs and basic GIS allowed rapid identification and inclusion of these key areas, as well as more equal distribution of the workload of malaria control field staff. Conclusion The procedure developed enables complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control through comprehensive spatial coverage with community-derived sketch maps. The procedure is practical, affordable, and requires minimal technical skills. This approach can be readily integrated into malaria vector control programmes, scaled up to towns and cities all over Tanzania and adapted to urban settings elsewhere in Africa.

  18. Improved quality of management of eclampsia patients through criteria based audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bridging the quality gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidanto Hussein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Criteria-based audits (CBA have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the use of a CBA to improve quality of care among eclampsia patients admitted at a University teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Objective The prevalence of eclampsia in MNH is high (≈6% with the majority of cases arriving after start of convulsions. In 2004–2005 the case-fatality rate in eclampsia was 5.1% of all pregnant women admitted for delivery (MNH obstetric data base. A criteria-based audit (CBA was used to evaluate the quality of care for eclamptic mothers admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania after implementation of recommendations of a previous audit. Methods A CBA of eclampsia cases was conducted at MNH. Management practices were evaluated using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. The Ministry of Health (MOH guidelines, local management guidelines, the WHO manual supplemented by the WHO Reproductive Health Library, standard textbooks, the Cochrane database and reviews in peer reviewed journals were adopted. At the initial audit in 2006, 389 case notes were assessed and compared with the standards, gaps were identified, recommendations made followed by implementation. A re-audit of 88 cases was conducted in 2009 and compared with the initial audit. Results There was significant improvement in quality of patient management and outcome between the initial and re-audit: Review of management plan by senior staff (76% vs. 99%; P=0.001, urine for albumin test (61% vs. 99%; P=0.001, proper use of partogram to monitor labour (75% vs. 95%; P=0.003, treatment with steroids for lung maturity (2.0% vs. 24%; P=0.001, Caesarean section within 2 hours of decision (33% vs. 61%; P=0.005, full blood count (28% vs. 93%; P=0.001, serum urea and creatinine (44% vs. 86%; P=0.001, liver enzymes (4.0% vs. 86%; P=0.001, and specialist review within 2 hours of admission (25% vs. 39%; P=0.018. However, there was no significant change in terms of delivery within 24 hours of admission (69% vs. 63%; P=0.33. There was significant reduction of maternal deaths (7.7% vs. 0%; P=0.001. Conclusion CBA is applicable in low resource setting and can help to improve quality of care in obstetrics including management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.

  19. A Mismatch between High-Risk Behaviors and Screening of Infectious Diseases among People Who Inject Drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlunde, Linda Beatrice; Sunguya, Bruno Fokas; Mbwambo, Jessie Kazeni; Ubuguyu, Omary Said; Shibanuma, Akira; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a baseline cross-sectional study as part of a prospective cohort study of people who inject drugs. We included 578 participants comprising of new enrollees of the integrated methadone-assisted treatment program and those who were selected from the communities but not enrolled in the program. We interviewed new enrollees preceding their enrollment and receipt of services from the program. We measured participants high-risk behaviors and their utilization of screening services. We analyzed the data descriptively and used multiple logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with ever being screened for infectious diseases. Results Of 578 participants, 14.2% shared injection needles. Of 547 sexually active participants, 37.5% had multiple sexual partners and only 17.4% used a condom. Of all participants, however, only 36.0% had ever been screened for HIV infection, 18.5% for tuberculosis, 11.8% for any other sexually transmitted infection, and 11.6% for hepatitis B/C. They were more likely to have ever been screened for HIV infection if they had education levels above primary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.544.20), had a history of transactional sex (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.016.84), and were new enrollees of the program (AOR: 7.41, 95% CI: 4.4112.86). Conclusions People who inject drugs practice high-risk behaviors but their utilization of screening services for infectious diseases is poor in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is crucial to increase the coverage of screening services for them and strengthen the counseling of safer sexual practices. PMID:26849802

  20. Pulmonary tuberculosis among women with cough attending clinics for family planning and maternal and child health in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandwalo Eliud R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB case detection in women has remained low in developing world. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of smear positive TB among women with cough regardless of the duration attending family Planning (FP and Maternal and child health (MCH clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in all three municipal hospitals of Dar es Salaam, between October 2007 and June 2008. All women with cough attending FP and MCH clinics were screened for TB by smear microscopy. Pearson chi-square was used to compare group difference for categorical variables. Risk factors for smear positive were estimated by logistics regression with 95% confidence intervals (CI given for odds ratios indicating statistically significant relationship if the CI did not include one. Results We enrolled a total of 749 TB suspects. Five hundred and twenty nine patients (70.6% were from MCH clinics. Mean (SD age was 27.6 (5.2 years. A total of 616 (82.2% patients were coughing for less than two weeks as compared to 133 (17.8%, who coughed for two or more weeks. Among 616 TB suspects, 14 (2.3% were smear positive TB patients, and of the 133 who had coughed for two or more weeks, 13 (9.8% were smear positive TB patients. Risk factors associated with smear positive results were having attended more than one visit to any facility prior to diagnosis (OR = 6.8; 95%CI 2.57–18.0 and having HIV/AIDS (OR = 4.4; 95%CI 1.65–11.96. Long duration of cough was not a risk factor for being smear positive (OR = 1.6; 95%CI 0.59–4.49. Conclusion The proportion of smear positive TB patients among women with cough attending MCH and FP was 3.8%. Visits to any health facility prior to Diagnosis and HIV infection were risk for having a smear positive TB.

  1. Sanitary inspection of wells using risk-of-contamination scoring indicates a high predictive ability for bacterial faecal pollution in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mushi, Douglas; Byamukama, Denis; Kirschner, Alexander K.T.; Mach, Robert L.; Brunner, K.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    The sanitary inspection of wells was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures using risk-of-contamination (ROC) scoring to determine the capacity of ROC scoring to predict bacterial faecal pollution of well water in the peri-urban tropical lowlands of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The analysis was based on a selection of wells representing environments with low to high presumptive faecal pollution risk and a multi-parametric data set of bacterial indicators, generating a c...

  2. The second African Federation of Neurological Surgeons course in the East, Central, and Southern Africa region held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahamba, Joseph F; Assey, Anthony B; Dempsey, Robert J; Qureshi, Mahmood M; Hrtl, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The second International African Federation of Neurological Surgeons course was organized on January 24 to 28, 2011, at the Seacliff Hotel and Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete graced the official opening with high ranking government officials in attendance. The targeted participants were young neurosurgeons in the East, Central, and South African region. More than 80 surgeons, residents, and neurosurgical nurses came from Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The objectives of the course were to teach and train young local surgeons in the essential-relevant for the region-and current techniques and management principles of brain and spinal diseases, acquire new skills through hands-on practical sessions, and share experiences. The course consisted of didactic sessions, practical aspects on spine internal fixation, cadaver dissections, and live microscopic and endoscopic surgery. Experienced faculty from different states of the United States, Spain, Turkey, India, Egypt, and Ethiopia facilitated the course. The objectives of the course were met with a favorable evaluation report. The collaboration and experience gained will be reinvested in organizing similar courses in the region. PMID:22120325

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans

  4. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: A case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massila Mariam

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics. In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live.

  5. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices. PMID:26891516

  6. Maternal and neonatal colonisation of group B streptococcus at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group B streptococcus (GBS, which asymptomatically colonises the vaginal and rectal areas of women, is the leading cause of septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in neonates. In Tanzania no studies have been done on GBS colonisation of pregnant women and neonates. This study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to determine the prevalence of GBS colonisation among pregnant women, the neonatal colonisation rate and the antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for treatment and prevention regarding perinatal GBS diseases. Methods This cross sectional study involved 300 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic and their newborns delivered at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH between October 2008 and March 2009. High vaginal, rectal, nasal, ear and umbilical swabs were cultured on Todd Hewitt Broth and in 5% sheep blood agar followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer method. Results GBS colonisation was confirmed in 23% of pregnant women and 8.9% of neonates. A higher proportion of GBS were isolated from the vagina (12.3% as compared to the rectum (5%. Prolonged duration of labour (>12 hrs was significantly shown to influence GBS colonisation in neonates P Conclusion Our findings seem to suggest that a quarter of pregnant women attending ANC clinic at MNH and approximately 10% of their newborns are colonised with GBS. All isolates were found to be sensitive to vancomycin and ampicillin which seem to be the most effective antibiotics for the time being. However there is a need for continuous antibiotics surveillance of GBS to monitor trend of resistance. The high isolation frequency of GBS among pregnant women suggests routine antenatal screening at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation in order to provide antibiotic prophylaxis to GBS carrier.

  7. Balancing collective responsibility, individual opportunities and risks: a qualitative study on how police officers reason around volunteering in an HIV vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakari Muhammad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from HIV vaccine trials on potential volunteers will contribute to global efforts to develop an HIV vaccine. The purpose of this study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was to explore the underlying reasons that induce people to enrol in an HIV vaccine trial. Methods We conducted discussions with eight focus groups, containing a total of 66 police officers. The information collected was analyzed using interpretive description. Results The results showed that participants were motivated to participate in the trial by altruism, and that the participants experienced some concerns about their participation. They stated that altruism in the fight against HIV infection was the main reason for enrolling in the trial. However, young participants were seriously concerned about a possible loss of close relationships if they enrolled in the HIV vaccine trial. Both men and women feared the effect of the trial on their reproductive biology, and they feared interference with pregnancy norms. They were unsure about risks such as the risks of acquiring HIV infection and of suffering physical harm, and they were unsure of the intentions of the researchers conducting the trial. Further, enrolling in the trial required medical examination, and this led some participants to fear that unknown diseases would be revealed. Other participants, however, saw an opportunity to obtain free health services. Conclusions We have shown that specific fears are important concerns when recruiting volunteers to an HIV vaccine trial. More knowledge is needed to determine participants' views and to ensure that they understand the conduct of the trial and the reasons it is being carried out.

  8. A tool box for operational mosquito larval control: preliminary results and early lessons from the Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govella Nico J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population of Africa rapidly urbanizes, large populations could be protected from malaria by controlling aquatic stages of mosquitoes if cost-effective and scalable implementation systems can be designed. Methods A recently initiated Urban Malaria Control Programme in Dar es Salaam delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to modestly-paid community members, known as Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs. New vector surveillance, larviciding and management systems were designed and evaluated in 15 city wards to allow timely collection, interpretation and reaction to entomologic monitoring data using practical procedures that rely on minimal technology. After one year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis commenced in March 2006 in three selected wards. Results The procedures and staff management systems described greatly improved standards of larval surveillance relative to that reported at the outset of this programme. In the first year of the programme, over 65,000 potential Anopheles habitats were surveyed by 90 CORPs on a weekly basis. Reaction times to vector surveillance at observations were one day, week and month at ward, municipal and city levels, respectively. One year of community-based larviciding reduced transmission by the primary malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., by 31% (95% C.I. = 21.637.6%; p = 0.04. Conclusion This novel management, monitoring and evaluation system for implementing routine larviciding of malaria vectors in African cities has shown considerable potential for sustained, rapidly responsive, data-driven and affordable application. Nevertheless, the true programmatic value of larviciding in urban Africa can only be established through longer-term programmes which are stably financed and allow the operational teams and management infrastructures to mature by learning from experience.

  9. “Can’t you initiate me here?”: Challenges to timely initiation on antiretroviral therapy among methadone clients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Haneefa T.; Mushi, Dorothy; Hassan, Saria; Bruce, R. Douglas; Cooke, Alexis; Mbwambo, Jessie; Lambdin, Barrot H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite dramatic improvement in antiretroviral therapy (ART) access globally, people living with HIV who inject drugs continue to face barriers that limit their access to treatment. This paper explores barriers and facilitators to ART initiation among clients attending a methadone clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We interviewed 12 providers and 20 clients living with HIV at the Muhimbili National Hospital methadone clinic between January and February 2015. We purposively sampled clients based on sex and ART status and providers based on job function. To analyze interview transcripts, we adopted a content analysis approach. Results Participants identified several factors that hindered timely ART initiation for clients at the methadone clinic. These included delays in CD4 testing and receiving CD4 test results; off-site HIV clinics; stigma operating at the individual, social and institutional levels; insufficient knowledge of the benefits of early ART initiation among clients; treatment breakdown at the clinic level possibly due to limited staff; and initiating ART only once one feels physically ill. Participants perceived social support as a buffer against stigma and facilitator of HIV treatment. Some clients also reported that persistent monitoring and follow-up on their HIV care and treatment by methadone clinic providers led them to initiate ART. Conclusion Health system factors, stigma and limited social support pose challenges for methadone clients living with HIV to initiate ART. Our findings suggest that on-site point-of-care CD4 testing, a peer support system, and trained HIV treatment specialists who are able to counsel HIV-positive clients and initiate them on ART at the methadone clinic could help reduce barriers to timely ART initiation for methadone clients. PMID:26831364

  10. Putting the genie back in the bottle? Availability and presentation of oral artemisinin compounds at retail pharmacies in urban Dar-es-Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Carolyn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently global health advocates have called for the introduction of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies to help curb the impact of drug-resistant malaria in Africa. Retail trade in artemisinin monotherapies could undermine efforts to restrict this class of medicines to more theoretically sound combination treatments. Methods This paper describes a systematic search for artemisinin-containing products at a random sample of licensed pharmacies in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in July 2005. Results Nineteen different artemisinin-containing oral pharmaceutical products, including one co-formulated product, one co-packaged product, and 17 monotherapies were identified. All but one of the products were legally registered and samples of each product were obtained without a prescription. Packaging and labeling of the products seldom included local language or illustrated instructions for low-literate clients. Packaging and inserts compared reasonably well with standards recommended by the national regulatory authority with some important exceptions. Dosing instructions were inconsistent, and most recommended inadequate doses based on international standards. None of the monotherapy products mentioned potential benefits of combining the treatment with another antimalarial drug. Conclusion The findings confirm the widespread availability of artemisinin monotherapies that led the World Health Organization to call for the voluntary withdrawal of these drugs in malaria-endemic countries. As the global public health community gathers resources to deploy artemisinin-containing combination therapies in Africa, planners should be mindful that these drugs will coexist with artemisinin monotherapies in an already well-established market place. In particular, regulatory authorities should be incorporated urgently into the process of planning for rational deployment of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies.

  11. Achieving high coverage of larval-stage mosquito surveillance: challenges for a community-based mosquito control programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoo Bryson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing malaria by controlling mosquitoes in their larval stages requires regular sensitive monitoring of vector populations and intervention coverage. The study assessed the effectiveness of operational, community-based larval habitat surveillance systems within the Urban Malaria Control Programme (UMCP in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out to assess the ability of community-owned resource persons (CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae in areas with and without larviciding. Potential environmental and programmatic determinants of habitat detection coverage and detection sensitivity of mosquito larvae were recorded during guided walks with 64 different CORPs to assess the accuracy of data each had collected the previous day. Results CORPs reported the presence of 66.2% of all aquatic habitats (1,963/2,965, but only detected Anopheles larvae in 12.6% (29/230 of habitats that contained them. Detection sensitivity was particularly low for late-stage Anopheles (2.7%, 3/111, the most direct programmatic indicator of malaria vector productivity. Whether a CORP found a wet habitat or not was associated with his/her unfamiliarity with the area (Odds Ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 0.16 [0.130, 0.203], P Conclusions Accessibility of habitats in urban settings presents a major challenge because the majority of compounds are fenced for security reasons. Furthermore, CORPs under-reported larvae especially where larvicides were applied. This UMCP system for larval surveillance in cities must be urgently revised to improve access to enclosed compounds and the sensitivity with which habitats are searched for larvae.

  12. Risky behaviours among young people living with HIV attending care and treatment clinics in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania: implications for prevention with a positive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisa Mhalu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention with a positive approach has been advocated as one of the main strategies to reduce new instances of HIV infection. Risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS are the cornerstone for this approach. Understanding the extent to which infected individuals practice risky behaviours is fundamental in designing appropriate population-specific interventions. With the HIV infection transmission rates remaining high among young people in sub-Saharan Africa, continued prevention among them remains a priority. This study therefore seeks to describe the magnitude and determinants of risky sexual behaviours among young people living with HIV. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and July 2010 in selected Care and Treatment Clinics (CTCs in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 282 HIV-positive patients aged 15–24 were interviewed about their sexual behaviours using a questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of unprotected sex was 40.0% among young males and 37.5% among young females (p<0.001. Multiple sexual partnerships were reported by 10.6% of males and 15.9% of females (p<0.005. More than 50% of the participants did not know about the HIV status of their sexual partners. A large proportion of participants had minimal knowledge of transmission (46.7% males vs. 60.4% females and prevention (65.3% males vs. 73.4% females of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent predictors of condom use included non-use of alcohol [adjusted odds ratio (AOR, 0.40 95% confidence interval (CI; 0.17–0.84] and younger age (15–19 years (AOR, 2.76, 95% CI: 1.05–7.27. Being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR, 0.38, 95% CI: 0.17–0.85 and not knowing partners’ HIV sero-status (AOR, 2.62, 95% CI: 1.14–5.10 predicted the practice of multiple sexual partnership. Conclusions: Unprotected sex and multiple sexual partnerships were prevalent among young people living with HIV. Less knowledge on STI and lack of HIV disclosure increased the vulnerability and risk for HIV transmission among young people. Specific intervention measures addressing alcohol consumption, risky sexual behaviours, and STI transmission and prevention knowledge should be integrated in the routine HIV/AIDS care and treatment offered to this age group.

  13. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines for blood transfusions.

  14. Informal support to first-parents after childbirth: a qualitative study in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbekenga Columba K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, and many sub-Saharan African countries, postpartum health programs have received less attention compared to other maternity care programs and therefore new parents rely on informal support. Knowledge on how informal support is understood by its stakeholders to be able to improve the health in families after childbirth is required. This study aimed to explore discourses on health related informal support to first-time parents after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Thirteen focus group discussions with first-time parents and female and male informal supporters were analysed by discourse analysis. Results The dominant discourse was that after childbirth a first time mother needed and should be provided with support for care of the infant, herself and the household work by the maternal or paternal mother or other close and extended family members. In their absence, neighbours and friends were described as reconstructing informal support. Informal support was provided conditionally, where poor socio-economic status and non-adherence to social norms risked poor support. Support to new fathers was constructed as less prominent, provided mainly by older men and focused on economy and sexual matters. The discourse conveyed stereotypic gender roles with women described as family caretakers and men as final decision-makers and financial providers. The informal supporters regulated the first-time parents' contacts with other sources of support. Conclusions Strong and authoritative informal support networks appear to persist. However, poverty and non-adherence to social norms was understood as resulting in less support. Family health in this context would be improved by capitalising on existing informal support networks while discouraging norms promoting harmful practices and attending to the poorest. Upholding stereotypic notions of femininity and masculinity implies great burden of care for the women and delimited male involvement. Men's involvement in reproductive and child health programmes has the potential for improving family health after childbirth. The discourses conveyed contradicting messages that may be a source of worry and confusion for the new parents. Recognition, respect and raising awareness for different social actors' competencies and limitations can potentially create a health-promoting environment among families after childbirth.

  15. Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillinger Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs, recruited from within local communities via the elected local government. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional survey assessed the ability of CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae, and investigated demographic characteristics of the CORPs, their reasons for participating in the UMCP, and their work performance. Detection coverage was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the investigator which had been reported by CORP. Detection sensitivity was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the CORPS which the investigator found to contain Anopheles larvae that were also reported to be occupied by the CORP. Results The CORPs themselves perceived their role as professional rather than voluntary, with participation being a de facto form of employment. Habitat detection coverage was lower among CORPs that were recruited through the program administrative staff, compared to CORPs recruited by local government officials or health committees (Odds Ratio = 0.660, 95% confidence interval = [0.438, 0.995], P = 0.047. Staff living within their areas of responsibility had > 70% higher detection sensitivity for both Anopheline (P = 0.016 and Culicine (P = 0.012: positive habitats compared to those living outside those same areas. Discussion and conclusions Improved employment conditions as well as involving the local health committees in recruiting individual program staff, communication and community engagement skills are required to optimize achieving effective community participation, particularly to improve access to fenced compounds. A simpler, more direct, less extensive community-based surveillance system in the hands of a few, less burdened, better paid and maintained program personnel may improve performance and data quality.

  16. Low utilization of health care services following screening for hypertension in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengeler Christian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy in high-risk individuals has been advocated as an important strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease in low income countries. We determined, in a low-income urban population, the proportion of persons who utilized health services after having been diagnosed as hypertensive and advised to seek health care for further hypertension management. Methods A population-based survey of 9254 persons aged 25–64 years was conducted in Dar es Salaam. Among the 540 persons with high blood pressure (defined here as BP ≥ 160/95 mmHg at the initial contact, 253 (47% had high BP on a 4th visit 45 days later. Among them, 208 were untreated and advised to attend health care in a health center of their choice for further management of their hypertension. One year later, 161 were seen again and asked about their use of health services during the interval. Results Among the 161 hypertensive persons advised to seek health care, 34% reported to have attended a formal health care provider during the 12-month interval (63% public facility; 30% private; 7% both. Antihypertensive treatment was taken by 34% at some point of time (suggesting poor uptake of health services and 3% at the end of the 12-month follow-up (suggesting poor long-term compliance. Health services utilization tended to be associated with older age, previous history of high BP, being overweight and non-smoking, but not with education or wealth. Lack of symptoms and cost of treatment were the reasons reported most often for not attending health care. Conclusion Low utilization of health services after hypertension screening suggests a small impact of a patient-centered screen-and-treat strategy in this low-income population. These findings emphasize the need to identify and address barriers to health care utilization for non-communicable diseases in this setting and, indirectly, the importance of public health measures for primary prevention of these diseases.

  17. Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swai Ndeniria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1 anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2 anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80 in intervention and 32% (9-54 in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72 in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35 in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26. The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22% and control HF (60% (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70. Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic prescription increased from 49% before to 72% after intervention (Risk ratio 1.47, 95%CI 1.37-1.59. Conclusions Programmatic implementation of mRDTs in a moderately endemic area reduced drastically over-treatment with anti-malarials. Properly trained clinicians with adequate support complied with the recommendation of not treating patients with negative results. Implementation of mRDT should be integrated hand-in-hand with training on the management of other causes of fever to prevent irrational use of antibiotics.

  18. Effects of seasonal change and seawater intrusion on water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes, in coastal aquifers of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia; Sweya, Lukuba Ngalya; Luciani, Giulia

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater is the major source to meet domestic, industrial and agricultural needs in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, population growth, increasing urbanization, industrialization and tourism, and climatic changes have caused an intensive exploitation of groundwater resources leading the aquifers become more vulnerable to seawater intrusion. The aim of this study is to examine the variations of groundwater chemistry (as resulting from natural and anthropogenic inputs) depending on seasonal changes, in order to evaluate water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. Physical and chemical data come from the analysis of groundwater samples, collected from 72 wells, used for the evaluation of water quality parameters, during a year of monitoring. Pattern diagrams, geochemical modeling techniques and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been used to identify the main factors influencing groundwater composition. Based on the hydrochemistry, the groundwater was classified into three types: (a) Na-Cl, (b) Ca-Cl, (c) mixed Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl (d) mixed Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. The geochemical modeling results show that groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by evaporation process, as it is suggested by the increase of Na and Cl ions concentrations. According to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA, most water samples from dry and rainy seasons, distributed in category C2-S1, C3-S1, C3-S2, C4-S2 highlighting medium to very high salinity hazard and low to medium sodium content class. PCA evidenced the role of seawater intrusion, evaporation process and anthropogenic pollution (i.e. high NO3 levels due to agricultural activities), as the major factors that influenced the water chemistry, and hence the water quality. Based on Pearson correlation matrix, the presence of high correlations (>0.8) among Na, Cl, Mg and SO4, in association with EC, were interpreted as the seawater intrusion effects. In this area groundwater quality is generally low, and often exceeds permissible limits of standard guideline values of WHO and FAO, referred to EC and chloride values. The high salinity and the groundwater level depletion create serious problems for current use of water supplies as well as future exploitation.

  19. Towards spatial justice in urban health services planning : A spatial-analytic GIS-based approach using Dar es Salaam, Tanzania as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Amer, S

    2007-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study is to develop a GIS-based planning approach that contributes to equitable and efficient provision of urban health services in cities in sub-Saharan Africa. Its prime concern is with (i) the identification of theoretical and methodological constructs that can be used to analyse and improve the spatial performance of public health service delivery systems, and (ii) the development of a corresponding spatial-analytic and GIS-based planning approach using Dar es ...

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus attending the paediatric HIV care and treatment center at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munubhi Emmanuel K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased availability of antibiotics and antifungal agents hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are becoming a cause for significant concern in HIV infected children. We determined the seroprevalence and risk factors for HBV and HCV among HIV infected children aged 18 months to 17 years, attending the Paediatric HIV Care and Treatment Center (CTC at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Investigations included; interviews, physical examination and serology for HBsAg, IgG antibodies to HCV and alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels. HIV serostatus and CD4 counts were obtained from patient records. Results 167 HIV infected children, 88(52.7% males and 79(47.3% females were enrolled. The overall prevalence of hepatitis co-infection was 15%, with the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV being 1.2% and 13.8%, respectively. Hepatitis virus co-infection was not associated with any of the investigated risk factors and there was no association between HBV and HCV. Elevated ALT was associated with hepatitis viral co-infection but not with ART usage or immune status. Conclusion The high seroprevalence (15% of hepatitis co-infection in HIV infected children attending the Paediatrics HIV CTC at the MNH calls for routine screening of hepatitis viral co-infection and modification in the management of HIV infected children.

  1. Putting the genie back in the bottle? Availability and presentation of oral artemisinin compounds at retail pharmacies in urban Dar-es-Salaam.

    OpenAIRE

    Black Carolyn; Kachur S Patrick; Abdulla Salim; Goodman Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently global health advocates have called for the introduction of artemisinin-containing antimalarial combination therapies to help curb the impact of drug-resistant malaria in Africa. Retail trade in artemisinin monotherapies could undermine efforts to restrict this class of medicines to more theoretically sound combination treatments. Methods This paper describes a systematic search for artemisinin-containing products at a random sample of licensed pharmacies in Dar-e...

  2. The perceptions on male circumcision as a preventive measure against HIV infection and considerations in scaling up of the services: a qualitative study among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarimo Edith AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent randomized controlled trials, male circumcision has been proven to complement the available biomedical interventions in decreasing HIV transmission from infected women to uninfected men. Consequently, Tanzania is striving to scale-up safe medical male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. However, there is a need to investigate the perceptions of male circumcision in Tanzania using specific populations. The purpose of the present study was to assess the perceptions of male circumcision in a cohort of police officers that also served as a source of volunteers for a phase I/II HIV vaccine (HIVIS-03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews with 24 men and 10 women were conducted. Content analysis informed by the socio-ecological model was used to analyze the data. Results Informants perceived male circumcision as a health-promoting practice that may prevent HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. They reported male circumcision promotes sexual pleasure, confidence and hygiene or sexual cleanliness. They added that it is a religious ritual and a cultural practice that enhances the recognition of manhood in the community. However, informants were concerned about the cost involved in male circumcision and cleanliness of instruments used in medical and traditional male circumcision. They also expressed confusion about the shame of undergoing circumcision at an advanced age and pain that could emanate after circumcision. The participants advocated for health policies that promote medical male circumcision at childhood, specifically along with the vaccination program. Conclusions The perceived benefit of male circumcision as a preventive strategy to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is important. However, there is a need to ensure that male circumcision is conducted under hygienic conditions. Integrating male circumcision service in the routine childhood vaccination program may increase its coverage at early childhood. The findings from this investigation provide contextual understanding that may assist in scaling-up male circumcision in Tanzania.

  3. A study of HIV-positive women in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.:An assessment on how Tanzanian women respond to getting their HIV-diagnosis, how they cope with being infected, and how they are treated by people in their local society. Additionally a collection of reader?s feed back

    OpenAIRE

    Lund,Kristine Marie Aarberg; Corell,Siv

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Objective: To investigate how Tanzanian women respond to getting their HIV-diagnosis, to understand how they cope with being infected, and to assess how they are treated by people in their local society. Additionally to collect reader?s feed back on FEMINA?S two booklets, ?Living positively with HIV/AIDS? and ?AIDS in our community.? Design: Qualitative design. Setting: In the office of the organization FEMINA located in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, in the period 5.-25. of December 200...

  4. Narrativ analyse af cykelkulturen i Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Høyer, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Major African cities are faced with massive challenges in regard to infrastructure and mobility caused by intense urbanization. The ever growing population needs to move around in the city space, which is often characterized by poor and badly maintained infrastructure, chaotic traffic and inadequate public transport. This situation results in high insecurity, low accessibility, pollution and not least social exclusion of the poor majority of citizens living in unplanned areas without equal ac...

  5. Determinants of Anemia in Postpartum HIV-Negative Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Petraro, Paul; Duggan, Christopher Paul; Urassa, Willy; Msamanga, Gernard; Makubi, Abel; Spiegelman, Donna Lynn; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The determinants of anemia during both pregnancy and postpartum recovery remain incompletely understood in sub-Saharan African women. Subjects/methods: In a prospective cohort study among pregnant women, we assessed dietary, biochemical, anthropometric, infectious and sociodemographic factors at baseline. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we examined predictors of incident anemia (hemoglobin

  6. Antimicrobial activity of medicated soaps commonly used by Dar es Salaam residents in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K D Mwambete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro evaluation of the anti-microbial activity of medicated soaps was conducted using ditch-plate and hand washing techniques. Strains of reference microbes namely Candida albicans (ATCC90028, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923, Pseudomonas aureginosa (ATCC27853 and Escherichia coli (ATCC25922 were tested at three different soaps′ concentrations (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/ml. A total of 16 medicated soaps were assayed for their antimicrobial efficacy. Of these, 13 were medicated and 3 non-medicated soaps, which served as control. Ciprofloxacin and ketaconazole were employed as positive controls. Label disclosure for the soaps′ ingredients and other relevant information were absorbed. The most common antimicrobial active ingredients were triclosan, trichloroxylenol and trichlorocarbanilide. ANOVA for means of zones of inhibition revealed variability of antimicrobial activity among the medicated soaps. Positive correlation (r=0.318; P<0.01 between zones of inhibition and soaps′ concentrations was evidenced. Hand washing frequencies positively correlated with microbial counts. Roberts® soap exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (34 mm on S. aureus. Candida albicans was the least susceptible microbe. Regency® and Dalan® exhibited the least zone of inhibition on the tested bacteria. Protex® , Roberts® , Family® and Protector® were equally effective (P<0.01 against S. aureus. In conclusion, majority of the assayed medicated soaps have satisfactory antibacterial activity; though lack antifungal effect with exception of Linda® liquid soap. The hand washing technique has proved to be inappropriate for evaluation of soaps′ antimicrobial efficacy due to presence of the skin microflora.

  7. Acceptance of contraceptives among women who had an unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Massawe, Siriel; Yambesi, Fortunata; Bergstrom, Staffan

    2004-01-01

    induced abortion performed at the hospital (n=788) were counselled about contraception and the risk of contracting STDs/HIV. A free ward-based contraceptive service was offered and the women were asked to return for follow-up. RESULTS: Participants (90%) accepted the post-abortion contraceptive service....... CONCLUSION: High-quality contraceptive service counselling can induce women to use contraception after having had an unsafe abortion. The results of our study are encouraging and should be used to convince policy makers of the need to implement such services at municipal level to reduce the number of...

  8. New tools for public participation in urban planning - a case from Dar es Salaam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma R Kiduanga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Public Participation GIS har i efterhnden en del r vret foreslet som et relevant redskab for bedre byplanlgning ogs i de hastigt voksende storbyer i udviklingslandene. Der synes dog ikke at vre s mange eksempler p, at PPGIS er velintegreret i planprocessen. Denne artikel handler om nye tekniske muligheder for flles kortlgning, registrering og deling af geografiske informationer gennem web-baserede services som f.eks. ArcGIS-Online. Vil sdanne kunne tages i anvendelse af berrte borgere og medvirke til en bedre byplanprocess og en forbedret retslig stilling for storbyens marginaliserede grupper, sdan som det har vret foreslet?

  9. Child trafficking in Tanzania: Experiences of Trafficked Girls in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Kavishe, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the experiences of trafficked children in Tanzania. Trafficking of children deprives them of human rights and freedoms; it may also pose a public health risk. Migration of children who are fostered by extended family is a long-standing customary practice in Tanzania, but while the circumstances of fostering have changed, given increasing rural poverty and the impact of the HIV/AIDS, this has not been recognized in Tanzanian society. The government enacted the Anti-Traffi...

  10. Housing Themselves : Transformations, Modernisation and Spatial qualities in Informal Settlements in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Nguluma, Huba

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to address issues of housingtransformation in informal settlements. Transformation ofhouses is seen to be associated with modernisation forceswhereby people adapt their houses to suit their needs anddesires. On one hand the desire to own a“modernhouse”may lead to deterioration of spatial qualities, onthe other hand fulfilment of the desire may contribute to themodernisation of urban settlements. The informal settlement ofHanna Nassif was chosen as a case study to ill...

  11. Vitamin A Supplementation and Other Predictors of Anemia Among Children from Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Villamor, E.; Mbise, R; Spiegelman, D.; Ndossi, G; Fawzi, W W

    2000-01-01

    The associations of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and packed cell volume with socioeconomic factors, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and nutritional status were examined among 687 children admitted to hospital with pneumonia participating in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation. Children were randomized to receive 2 doses of vitamin A (200,000 IU) or placebo at baseline, and additional doses at 4 and 8 months after discharge from hospital. Hem...

  12. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Angela N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

  13. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Angela N; van Roosmalen Jos; Mogren Ingrid; Kidanto Hussein L; Massawe Siriel N; Nystrom Lennarth; Lindmark Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR). Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of...

  14. Formal and Informal Practices for Affordable Urban housing : Case study: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mushumbusi, Medard Zephyrin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis attempts to ascertain the magnitude of the urban housingproblem in Tanzania and endeavours to evaluate the strategies that thegovernment has been employing to address this problem. Informal andformal practices in urban housing are compared. The role of networksand power relations are explored and discussed in relation to how theymay facilitate the provision of urban housing. By looking at urbanhousing from a governance perspective, the thesis explores thepotentials for delivery of...

  15. Sexual history and contraception among women with induced and spontaneous abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Mary, V; Urassa, E; Bergstrom, S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create sexual history profiles of women with illegally induced abortion (IA) and women with spontaneous abortion (SA) and describe the women's knowledge of, attitude to, and practice of contraception. The study was carried out in two settings, Temeke District...... rate of ever users of contraception was low in both groups, although significantly lower among IA women than among SA women. Outcome of first pregnancy had been an induced abortion in significantly higher proportion of IA than of SA women. In conclusion, sexual intercourse before marriage is common in...

  16. Factors for change in maternal and perinatal audit systems in Dar es Salaam hospitals, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kisanga Felix; Pembe Andrea B; Urassa David P; Nyamtema Angelo S; van Roosmalen Jos

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective maternal and perinatal audits are associated with improved quality of care and reduction of severe adverse outcome. Although audits at the level of care were formally introduced in Tanzania around 25 years ago, little information is available about their existence, performance, and practical barriers to their implementation. This study assessed the structure, process and impacts of maternal and perinatal death audit systems in clinical practice and presents a det...

  17. Managing Informal Settlements : A Study Using Geo-Information in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    liuas, Ri?ardas Vytautas

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is often associated with the urbanization of poverty, and with the extensive development of informal settlements. This thesis examines how Geographic Information Technology (GIT) could be used to improve the ability of local governments in SSA manage such settlements. Three themes are at the core of this research: the evolution of thinking in the field of urban planning and management and the role of GIT as a planning support tool are discussed togethe...

  18. Preliminary investigation into the elemental profile of ambient particulate matter in Dar Es Salam, Tanzania as determined by high-energy polarized edxrf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental concentration profile of particulate matter in the troposphere from the coast of Dar Es Salaam towards the inland in Tanzania was investigated. Particulates were collected from two sites by using a 0.4 μm Nuclepore membrane filter in a single stage impactor, aligned at intervals of 0 km and 20 km from the coast line, for bulk analysis. The particulates were collected during the dry and rainy season between September 2004 and January 2005. The concentration of 20 elements (Si. K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Se, Sr, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ph, Sb, Al, S and Ci) from two sites were determined using high-energy polarised Energy Dispersive Χray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Concentrations ranged between 2 ngm-3 and 3640 ngm-3. Possible sources for 20 elements were identified with specific focus on marine originated elements, by comparison of the results obtained with that available in open literature. Away from the coast, a gradual decrease in marine element concentration was observed 3640 ngm-3 to 2237 ngm-3. Weather conditions (micro-climate) information during sampling days were obtained from the Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA) and considered as a representatives of required site meteorological parameters. From the results, it was also noted that wind speed and direction influence the elemental particulate concentrations on the various sites.(Author)

  19. Low quality of routine microscopy for malaria at different levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Mtasiwa Deo; D'Acremont Valerie; Kahama-Maro Judith; Genton Blaise; Lengeler Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Laboratory capacity to confirm malaria cases in Tanzania is low and presumptive treatment of malaria is being practiced widely. In malaria endemic areas WHO now recommends systematic laboratory testing when suspecting malaria. Currently, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) is recommended for the diagnosis of malaria in lower level peripheral facilities, but not in health centres and hospitals. In this study, the following parameters were evaluated: (1) the quality of ...

  20. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel

    2008-01-01

    included counselling on HIV and condom use. Questionnaire interviews about contraceptive use were conducted at the time of inclusion and 12 months after the abortion. Additionally, in-depth interviews were performed 6-12 months after the abortion. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the women accepted...... during the 12 months follow up. CONCLUSION: Postabortion contraceptive services appear to be well accepted by women who are admitted with complications after an unsafe abortion and should thus be recognized as an important means in addressing the problem of unsafe abortion. In addition, counselling about...

  1. Habitat characterization and spatial distribution of Anopheles sp. mosquito larvae in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) during an extended dry period

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner Marcel; Premji Zul; Kiama Michael; Mtasiwa Deo; Sattler Michael A; Killeen Gerry F; Lengeler Christian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Introduction By 2030, more than 50% of the African population will live in urban areas. Controlling malaria reduces the disease burden and further improves economic development. As a complement to treated nets and prompt access to treatment, measures targeted against the larval stage of Anopheles sp. mosquitoes are a promising strategy for urban areas. However, a precise knowledge of the geographic location and potentially of ecological characteristics of breeding sites is of major i...

  2. Breast Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, and Screening Practices among Women Seeking Care at District Hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Perry Morse; Bertha Maegga; Gertrud Joseph; Susan Miesfeldt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited disease awareness among women may impact breast cancer stage-at-diagnosis in Tanzania, reducing survival. This study assessed breast cancer knowledge, screening practices, and educational preferences among outpatients at Tanzanian government-supported hospitals. METHODS A convenience sample of women was surveyed regarding (1) knowledge/beliefs of breast cancer etiology, risk factors, symptoms, treatment, (2) early detection knowledge/practice, and (3) educational preference...

  3. Nurse's recommendations to HIV positive mothers about breastfeeding : A qualitative study performed in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Johanna; Wakäng, Emmy

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to a) find out which recommendations are given by nurses regarding breastfeeding to HIV infected mothers, at Muhimbili hospital and the adherence of these, and (b) to find out the nurses’ opinions regarding the WHO recommendations and the parents’ adherence to these. The study will also look into if the nurses are aware of any changes in knowledge among the parents in an HIV context.METHOD: There were eight semi-structured interviews with open ended questions th...

  4. Community response to artemisinin-based combination therapy for childhood malaria: a case study from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyato Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania have led to the large-scale deployment of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®, popularly known as ALu or dawa mseto. Very little is known about how people in malaria endemic areas interpret policy makers' decision to replace existing anti-malarials, such as sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP with "new" treatment regimens, such as ALu or other formulations of ACT. This study was conducted to examine community level understandings and interpretations of ALu's efficacy and side-effects. The paper specifically examines the perceived efficacy of ALu as articulated by the mothers of young children diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Methods Participant observation, six focus group discussions in two large villages, followed by interviews with a random sample of 110 mothers of children less than five years of age, who were diagnosed with malaria and prescribed ALu. Additionally, observations were conducted in two village dispensaries involving interactions between mothers/caretakers and health care providers. Results While more than two-thirds of the mothers had an overall negative disposition toward SP, 97.5% of them spoke favourably about ALu, emphasizing it's ability to help their children to rapidly recover from malaria, without undesirable side-effects. 62.5% of the mothers reported that they were spending less money dealing with malaria than previously when their child was treated with SP. 88% of the mothers had waited for 48 hours or more after the onset of fever before taking their child to the dispensary. Mothers' knowledge and reporting of ALu's dosage was, in many cases, inconsistent with the recommended dosage schedule for children. Conclusion Deployment of ALu has significantly changed community level perceptions of anti-malarial treatment. However, mothers continue to delay seeking care before accessing ALu, limiting the impact of highly subsidized rollout of the drug. Implementation of ACT-based treatment guidelines must be complemented with educational campaigns to insure that mothers seek prompt help for their children within 24 hours of the onset of fever. Improved communication between health care providers and mothers of sick children can facilitate better adherence to ALu's recommended dosage. Community level interpretations of anti-malarials are multifaceted; integrating knowledge of local beliefs and practices surrounding consumption of anti-malarials into programmatic goals can help to significantly improve malaria control interventions.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV-infected women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enju; McCree, Renicha; Mtisi, Expeditho; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Aris, Eric; Lema, Irene A; Hertzmark, Ellen; Chalamilla, Guerino; Li, Nan; Vermund, Sten H; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and predictors of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) among HIV-infected women in Tanzania, a cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-infected women at HIV care and treatment clinics. A Papanicolaou (Pap) smear was used as a screening tool for detection of cervical SIL. From December 2006 to August 2009, 1365 HIV-infected women received cervical screening. The median age was 35 (interquartile range [IQR]: 30-42) years, and the median CD4 + cell count was 164 (IQR: 80-257) cells/mm(3). The prevalence of cervical SIL was 8.7% (119/1365). In multivariate analysis, older age (≥50 versus 30-<40 years: prevalence ratio [PR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.84, p for trend = 0.001), lower CD4 + cell counts (<100 versus ≥200 cells/mm(3): PR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.36, p for trend = 0.03) and cervical inflammation (PR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.16-2.60, p = 0.008) were associated with an increased risk of cervical SIL. Women with advanced WHO HIV disease stage (IV versus I/II: PR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.35-8.85, p for trend = 0.01) had an increased risk for high-grade SIL. In resource-limited settings where it is not feasible to provide cervical cancer prevention services to all HIV-infected women, greater efforts should focus on scaling-up services among those who are older than 50 years, with lower CD4 cell counts and advanced HIV disease stage. PMID:25957324

  6. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mhode, Maisara; Nyamhanga, Tumaini

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the live...

  7. Medium and long-term adherence to postabortion contraception among women having experienced unsafe abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch Vibeke; Yambesi Fortunata; Massawe Siriel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Postabortion contraceptive service is considered an effective means in addressing the problem of unsafe abortion; in spite this fact this component remains one of the weakest parts of postabortion care. In this context, the paper aims to describe the impact of a postabortion contraceptive service intervention among women admitted with complications from unsafe abortions and to explore the women's long-term contraceptive adherence. Methods 392 women having experienced unsaf...

  8. Critical Analysis of the Challenges of Solid Waste Management Initiatives in Keko Machungwa Informal Settlement, Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Samson Elisha Kasala

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste is inevitable because by nature every human activity generates a certain amount of solid waste. The rate of solid waste generated tends to increase with the increase in population. Despite existence of various efforts on solid waste collection, still the quantity of solid waste collected is small compared to the solid waste generated. The situation is even worse in unplanned settlements of developing countries, where, ineffective solid waste collection is contributed to by haphaza...

  9. Neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; aetiology, antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhada Tumaini V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal sepsis contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality among young infants. The aetiological agents as well as their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents are dynamic. This study determined aetiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical outcome of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital. Methods Three hundred and thirty neonates admitted at the Muhimbili National Hospital neonatal ward between October, 2009 and January, 2010 were recruited. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain demographic and clinical information. Blood and pus samples were cultured on MacConkey, blood and chocolate agars and bacteria were identified based on characteristic morphology, gram stain appearance and standard commercially prepared biochemical tests. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was performed for ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone on Mueller Hinton agar using the Kirby Bauer diffusion method. Results Culture proven sepsis was noted in 24% (74/330 of the study participants. Isolated bacterial pathogens were predominantly Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli. Klebsiella spp 32.7% (17/52 was the predominant blood culture isolate in neonates aged below seven days while Staphylococcus aureus 54.5% (12/22 was commonest among those aged above seven days. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pus swabs isolate for both neonates aged 0–6 days 42.2% (98/232 and 7–28 days 52.3% (34/65. Resistance of blood culture isolates was high to ampicillin 81.1% (60/74 and cloxacillin 78.4% (58/74, moderate to ceftriaxone 14.9% (11/74 and cefuroxime 18.9% (14/74, and low to amikacin 1.3% (1/74. Isolates from swabs had high resistance to ampicillin 89.9% (267/297 and cloxacillin 85.2 (253/297, moderate resistance to ceftriaxone 38.0% (113/297 and cefuroxime 36.0% (107/297, and low resistance to amikacin 4.7% (14/297. Sepsis was higher in neonates with fever and hypothermia (p=0.02, skin pustules (p Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus was predominant isolate followed by Klebsiella and Escherichia coli. There was high resistance to ampicillin and cloxacillin. Mortality rate due to neonatal sepsis was high in our setting. Routine antimicrobial surveillance should guide the choice of antibiotics for empirical treatment of neonatal sepsis.

  10. The extension of Ubungo power plant in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to a combined cycle - A prestudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinneland, L.; Oehrstroem, K.

    1996-05-01

    The report deals with the consequences concerning a future extension of Ubungo Power Plant. Today the power plant consists of four gas turbines, two of model General Electric LM6000 and two of model ABB Stal GT10 of which the latter were the ones focused on. In the report four different applications are presented; Simple two pressure system, Two pressure system with reheat, Two pressure system with heat exchange between feedwater and condensate, and single pressure system with an additional evaporating loop. The calculations are divided into three sections; thermodynamic calculations, calculations of the heat exchanger surface areas, and economic calculations. From the thermodynamic calculations the applications with the highest thermal efficiency was selected. The power output increased with about 55% and the thermal efficiency of the complete combined cycle is 48.2%. This is, of course, a theoretical value calculated without consideration to a number of losses that will decrease both the power output and the thermal efficiency. At part load (50% load assumed, i.e. one gas turbine is operating) the thermal efficiency is 46.7%. The economic calculations indicated that the extension is highly worthwhile in an economic point of view; both cases studied have a payback time of less than six years for full load operation, provided that the charging system which is to be imposed by the World Bank has come into force. 18 refs, 33 figs

  11. A pilot study to evaluate incorporating eye care for children into reproductive and child health services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: a historical comparison study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mafwiri, MM; Kisenge, R; Gilbert, CE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many blinding eye conditions of childhood are preventable or treatable, particularly in developing countries. However, primary eye care (PEC) for children is poorly developed, leading to unnecessary visual loss. Activities for control by health workers entail interventions for systemic conditions (measles, vitamin A deficiency), identification and referral of children with sight threatening conditions and health education for caregivers. This pilot study evaluated integrating a pac...

  12. Knowledge and Practice of Intensive Care Nurses on Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Ally Tatu

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted among Intensive care (ICU) nurses at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), to identify knowledge and practice of ICU nurses on prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP). Knowledge of 118 nurses working in ICU such as Main , Cardiac , Acute pediatric ICUs , emergency medicine department and highly dependent unit at MNH were tested by using a close ended questionnaire, 30 nurses among 118 were tested for knowledge and practice by us...

  13. Awareness of Food Labelling and Use of the Information in Purchasing Pre Packaged Food Products Among Consumers in Ilala Municipality Dar es Salaam

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, G

    2012-01-01

    Liberalization of trade, globalization and development in food science and technology has resulted in an increase in trade and consumption of pre-packaged foods. Reading food labelling information is important to assist in making informed choices of food. This study determined level of awareness on pre-packaged food labelling information among consumers in Ilala Municipality, their perception on the importance of such information and difficulties encountered in reading and using pre- packaged...

  14. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mikx Frans HM; Mugusi Ferdinand; Moshi Mainen J; Kikwilu Emil; Simon Elison NM; Matee Mecky IN; Hamza Omar JM; Verweij Paul E; van der Ven André JAM

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. Methods Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children and 481 adults, 165 males and 367 females. Children were aged 2–17 years and adults 18 and 67 years. Participants were re...

  15. Diabetic foot: prevalence, knowledge, and foot self-care practices among diabetic patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chiwanga, Faraja S.; Njelekela, Marina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background At the time of diagnosis, more than 10 % of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus have one or two risk factors for a foot ulceration and a lifetime risk of 15 %. Diabetic foot ulcers can be prevented through well-coordinated foot care services. The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of foot care and reported practice of foot self-care among diabetic patients with the aim of identifying and addressing barriers to preventing amputations among diabetic patients. Methods...

  16. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and health care workers at Muhimbili national hospital, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Geofrey, Alfred; Abade, Ahmed; Aboud, Said

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. S aureus may induce clinically manifested diseases, or the host may remain completely asymptomatic. Methods A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013 in two ICUs at MNH. Admitted patients and health care workers were enrolled in the study. Interviewer administered questionnaires; patient history forms, observation charts an...

  17. Cervical cytological changes in HIV-infected patients attending care and treatment clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwakigonja Amos R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is among Sub-Saharan countries mostly affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic, females being more vulnerable than males. HIV infected women appear to have a higher rate of persistent infection by high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV strongly associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cervical carcinoma. Furthermore, although HIV infection and cervical cancer are major public health problems, the frequency and HIV/HPV association of cervical cancer and HSIL is not well documented in Tanzania, thus limiting the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Methods A prospective unmatched, case-control study of HIV-seropositive, ≥ 18 years of age and consenting non-pregnant patients attending the care and treatment center (CTC at Muhimbili National Hoospital (MNH as cases was done between 2005 and 2006. HIV seronegative, non-pregnant and consenting women recruited from the Cervical Cancer Screening unit (CCSU at ORCI were used as controls while those who did not consent to study participation and/or individuals under Results A total of 170 participants from the two centers were recruited including 50 HIV-seronegative controls were from the CCSU. Ages ranged from 20-66 years (mean 40.5 years for cases and 20-69 years (mean 41.6 years for controls. The age group 36-45 years was the most affected by HIV (39.2%, n = 47. Cervicitis, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL and carcinoma constituted 28.3% (n = 34, 38.3% (n = 46 and 5.8% (n = 7 respectively among cases, and 28% (n = 14, 34% (n = 17 and 2% (n = 1 for controls, although this was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.61. IHC showed that p53 was not detectable in HPV + Pap smears and cell blocks indicating possible degradation. Conclusions The frequency of SIL and carcinoma appeared to be higher among HIV-infected women on HAART compared to seronegative controls and as expected increased with age. HIV seropositive patients appeared to present earlier with SIL compared to those HIV seronegative suggesting a role of HIV in altering the natural history of HPV infection and cervical lesions. The absence of p53 immunoreactivity in HPV + lesions is indicative of the ability of HPV E6 proteins to interact with the tumor suppressor gene and pave way for viral-induced oncogenesis in the studied Tanzanian women.

  18. THE EVOLUTION OF THE LAND USE STRUCTURE OF DAR ES SALAAM 1890-1 990: A STUDY IN THE EFFECTS OF LAND POLICY, Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    Kironde, Lusugga

    1994-01-01

    Theoretically, land policy is presented as a necessary intervention by governments in order to iron out the inefficiencies inherent in land markets. The result would be a smooth working urban land market, yielding an equitable and efficient land use structure. In practice though, land policy is part and parcel, and, indeed, a paradigm of the wiser issues of governance. Historically, land policy has been used to serve colonial interests; to achieve segregation between social groups in society;...

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF THE LAND USE STRUCTURE OF DAR ES SALAAM 1890-1 990: A STUDY IN THE EFFECTS OF LAND POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Kironde, Lusugga

    1994-01-01

    Theoretically, land policy is presented as a necessary intervention by governments in order to iron out the inefficiencies inherent in land markets. The result would be a smooth working urban land market, yielding an equitable and efficient land use structure. In practice though, land policy is part and parcel, and, indeed, a paradigm of the wiser issues of governance. Historically, land policy has been used to serve colonial interests; to achieve segregation between social groups in society;...

  20. THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN TANZANIA: A SURVEY OF MANUFACTURING COMPANIES QUOTED ON THE DAR ES SALAAM STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Linus Naila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been environmental pollution across the globe. Environmental activists are condemning manufacturing companies of environmental pollution. This has led to the establishment of environmental regulations and standards by government authorities across the globe. In complying with environmental regulations companies have found themselves incurring additional cost when compared to those companies which do not comply. However, the effect of compliance to environmental regulations on the financial performance is not clear. This study explores the effects of environmental compliance on the financial performance for listed manufacturing companies in Tanzania. Five listed manufacturing companies were surveyed to obtain data used for the purpose of this study. Specifically, the study intended to establish: the relationship between environmental compliance and financial performance and the effect of environmental compliance on the financial performance. Regression analysis was done to establish the relationship between environmental compliance and financial performance. Findings suggest that there is no significant relationship between environmental compliance and financial performance among listed manufacturing firms in Tanzania. This study concludes that environmental compliance has no significant effect on the financial performance for listed manufacturing firms in Tanzania.

  1. Perceptions and beliefs on tuberculosis and the influence on health seeking behaviour. A qualitative study in Kinondoni district, Dar es Salaam.

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Anne Kari

    2010-01-01

    Background and goal Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in the world. Early passive case detection and high treatment compliance is important for obtaining a successful TB control. One of the factors early case detection relies on is the human factor. The suspected TB case needs to recognize symptoms of TB and value them serious enough to report at a professional health facility. Cough for more than two weeks is considered to be TB suspect. The main goal of early case de...

  2. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikx Frans HM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. Methods Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children and 481 adults, 165 males and 367 females. Children were aged 2–17 years and adults 18 and 67 years. Participants were recruited consecutively at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH HIV clinic from October 2004 to September 2005. Investigations included; interviews, physical examinations, HIV testing and enumeration of CD4+ T cells. Results A total of 237 HIV-associated oral lesions were observed in 210 (39.5% patients. Oral candidiasis was the commonest (23.5%, followed by mucosal hyperpigmentation (4.7%. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (χ2 = 4.31; df = 1; p = 0.03 and parotid enlargement (χ2 = 36.5; df = 1; p = 0.04 between children and adults. Adult patients who were on HAART had a significantly lower risk of; oral lesions (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22 – 0.47; p = 0.005, oral candidiasis (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.18 – 0.44; p = 0.003 and oral hairy leukoplakia (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.04 – 0.85; p = 0.03. There was no significant reduction in occurrence of oral lesions in children on HAART (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.11–1.14; p = 0.15. There was also a significant association between the presence of oral lesions and CD4+ cell count 3 (χ2 = 52.4; df = 2; p = 0.006 and with WHO clinical stage (χ2 = 121; df = 3; p = 0.008. Oral lesions were also associated with tobacco smoking (χ2 = 8.17; df = 2; p = 0.04. Conclusion Adult patients receiving HAART had a significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. There was no significant change in occurrence of oral lesions in children receiving HAART. The occurrence of oral lesions, in both HAART and non-HAART patients, correlated with WHO clinical staging and CD4+ less than 200 cells/mm3.

  3. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es Salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, M; Mchumvu, Y; Mmary, V

    2000-01-01

    that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among...... socio-economic details, contraceptive knowledge/use, age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners. In the qualitative part, 51 teenage girls were interviewed in-depth about their relationships with their partners, sexual behaviour, contraceptive use and reasons for non-use, and why they became...

  4. Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambikile Joel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that world-wide up to 20 % of children suffer from debilitating mental illness. Mental disorders that pose a significant concern include learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD, depression, psychosis, pervasive development disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, substance abuse and eating disorders. Living with such children can be very stressful for caregivers in the family. Therefore, determination of challenges of living with these children is important in the process of finding ways to help or support caregivers to provide proper care for their children. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges that parents or guardians experience when caring for mentally ill children and what they do to address or deal with them. Methodology A qualitative study design using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was applied. The study was conducted at the psychiatric unit of Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Two focus groups discussions (FGDs and 8 in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers who attended the psychiatric clinic with their children. Data analysis was done using content analysis. Results The study revealed psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges caregivers endure while living with mentally ill children. Psychological and emotional challenges included being stressed by caring tasks and having worries about the present and future life of their children. They had feelings of sadness, and inner pain or bitterness due to the disturbing behaviour of the children. They also experienced some communication problems with their children due to their inability to talk. Social challenges were inadequate social services for their children, stigma, burden of caring task, lack of public awareness of mental illness, lack of social support, and problems with social life. The economic challenges were poverty, child care interfering with various income generating activities in the family, and extra expenses associated with the child’s illness. Conclusion Caregivers of mentally ill children experience various psychological and emotional, social, and economic challenges. Professional assistance, public awareness of mental illnesses in children, social support by the government, private sector, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are important in addressing these challenges.

  5. Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding: A comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas(low-lying lands and on river banks. This situation is caused by poverty and the inabilityof authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urbanpopulations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just oneof them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resortedto the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of peopleand properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as towhy this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategiesto flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommendingmeasures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections ofsigns of damage and deterioration, measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies,mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally,in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures throughstructural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptationstrategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations.However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houseswere compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah thanin Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in theuse of reinforced concrete (4.3% for constructing a building’s foundation, as well as in the useof ceramics (72.9% to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptationstrategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction ofstructures for adaptation, enhancing individual coping capacity, deployment of a workforcetrained in disaster risk and management and enforcement of relevant urban planning andenvironmental management laws in managing risky areas.

  6. Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding: A comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas(low-lying lands and on river banks. This situation is caused by poverty and the inabilityof authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urbanpopulations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just oneof them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resortedto the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of peopleand properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as towhy this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategiesto flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommendingmeasures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections ofsigns of damage and deterioration, measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies,mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally,in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures throughstructural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptationstrategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations.However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houseswere compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah thanin Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in theuse of reinforced concrete (4.3% for constructing a buildings foundation, as well as in the useof ceramics (72.9% to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptationstrategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction ofstructures for adaptation, enhancing individual coping capacity, deployment of a workforcetrained in disaster risk and management and enforcement of relevant urban planning andenvironmental management laws in managing risky areas.

  7. Hepatitis A, B and C viral co-infections among HIV-infected adults presenting for care and treatment at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matee Mecky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is currently scaling-up access to anti-retro viral therapy (ART to reach as many eligible persons as possible. Hepatitis viral co-infections are known to influence progression, management as well as outcome of HIV infection. However, information is scarce regarding the prevalence and predictors of viral hepatitis co-infection among HIV-infected individuals presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinics in the country. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted between April and September 2006 enrolled 260 HIV-1 infected, HAART naïve patients aged ≥18 years presenting at the HIV care and treatment clinic (CTC of the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The evaluation included clinical assessment and determination of CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, serum transaminases and serology for Hepatitis A, B and C markers by ELISA. Results The prevalence of anti HAV IgM, HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HCV IgG antibodies were 3.1%, 17.3%, 2.3% and 18.1%, respectively. Dual co-infection with HBV and HCV occurred in 10 individuals (3.9%, while that of HAV and HBV was detected in two subjects (0.8%. None of the patients had all the three hepatitis viruses. Most patients (81.1% with hepatitis co-infection neither had specific clinical features nor raised serum transaminases. History of blood transfusion and jaundice were independent predictors for HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM positivity, respectively. Conclusion There is high prevalence of markers for hepatitis B and C infections among HIV infected patients seeking care and treatment at MNH. Clinical features and a raise in serum alanine aminotransferase were of limited predictive values for the viral co-infections. Efforts to scale up HAART should also address co-infections with Hepatitis B and C viruses.

  8. Social cognitive determinants of HIV voluntary counselling and testing uptake among married individuals in Dar es Salaam Tanzania: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)

    OpenAIRE

    Sally M. Mtenga; Exavery, Amon; Kakoko, Deodatus; Geubbels, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Background Cumulative evidence indicates increasing HIV infection among married individuals. Voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV (HCT) is known to be an effective intervention to induce safer sex behaviour and access to early treatment, care and support among married individuals, which are important for HIV prevention. In this context, knowledge of factors associated with HCT uptake among married individuals is critical in promoting the use of the services. This study therefore intended...

  9. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es Salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Mchumvu, Y; Mmary, V

    2000-01-01

    that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among...

  10. Absence of kdr resistance alleles in the Union of the Comoros, East Africa [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5fw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoosook Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knockdown resistance (kdr and CYP9K1 genotypes were detected by a MOLDI-TOF based SNP genotyping assay (Sequenom iPLEX in samples of Anopheles gambiae collected at 13 sites throughout the Union of the Comoros and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during February and March 2011. All A. gambiae specimens collected in the Comoros were homozygous for the susceptible kdr alleles (+/+ while 96% of A. gambiae from Dar es Salaam were homozygous for the East African kdr resistant genotype (E/E. In contrast, all specimens from Dar es Salaam and the Comoros were homozygous for the cyp3 allele (c3/c3 at the CYP9K1 locus; the locus has been implicated in metabolic resistance against pyrethroid insecticides in West Africa. All specimens had typical A. gambiae genotypes for SNPs within the divergence Islands on all three chromosomes. Although further spatial and temporal studies are needed, the distribution of kdr genotypes between the Comoros and Tanzania further supports isolation of the Comoros populations from A. gambiae populations on mainland Africa.

  11. Victims and/or active social agents? A study of adolescent girls with induced abortion in urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania......High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania...

  12. Urbanisation and its discontents: urban refugees in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Sommers

    1999-01-01

    This article explores the different labels under which refugees in Dar es Salaam may be categorised. It identifies and profiles differentgroups of urban refugee in Dar es Salaam and considers some common assumptions about urban refugees.

  13. Urbanisation and its discontents: urban refugees in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Sommers

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the different labels under which refugees in Dar es Salaam may be categorised. It identifies and profiles differentgroups of urban refugee in Dar es Salaam and considers some common assumptions about urban refugees.

  14. Assessment of the experiences and coping strategies of people working in the informal sector in their quest to access health care services: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munga, Michael A; Gideon, Gilbert M

    2009-02-01

    Addressing inequities in health care provision and financing has been at the center stage of Health Sector Reform (HSR) discussions since the early 1980s. The poor, women, and informal health sector workers in most developing countries are rarely covered by formal health insurance mechanisms that are meant to ensure access to essential health services. They are also sidelined in formal banking and credit systems due to their being predominantly low income earners, with little resources to meet eligibility criteria for borrowing and also to be considered creditworthy. In light of this fact, the present paper analyzes both quantitative and qualitative data in an attempt to explore and discuss the experiences and coping strategies of women and men employed in the informal sector economy in their daily attempts to access health care services. The paper employs Malaria as a tracer disease and gender as a unit of analysis. Analysis indicated the significance, as perceived by interviewees, of both informal credit networks and formal insurance and banking systems as important shock-absorbers for vulnerable populations in their struggle to access basic health services in times of need. The paper further highlights and discusses diverse coping strategies that households employ in dealing with illness-related costs and a greater willingness to be integrated into both formal and informal financial mechanisms. The paper finally concludes that the government must take the following steps: 1) enhance existing formal and communitybased initiatives to make them sustainable, 2) devise ways to reduce the lack of flexibility in membership requirements for insurance schemes/financial institutions, and 3) reduce perverse incentives inherent in the health system that may prevent people from seeking membership in available insurance mechanisms. In addition, deliberate steps must be taken by the government to employ 'targeted measures' to ensure that health care access is improved and sustained particularly for vulnerable populations. PMID:20103939

  15. HIV counselling and testing practices for children seen in an urban emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sawe, Hendry R; Mfinanga, Juma A; Ringo, Faith H; Mwafongo, Victor; Reynolds, Teri A; Runyon, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the HIV counselling and testing practices for children presenting to an emergency department (ED) in a low-income country. Setting The ED of a large east African national referral hospital. Participants This retrospective review of all paediatric (

  16. La "capacidad vial" del plan regulador chileno, ¿es lo suficientemente buena para dar forma a un entorno edificado sostenible?/ The "road capacity" of the chilean master plan is it good enough for shaping a sustainable built environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Jirón, Luz Alicia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The "road capacity" of the Chilean Master Plan is a tool developed to measure the capacity of streets in terms of supporting the size of vehicle flow. This tool considers topics such as land use, population density and street width. The purpose of this technique is to incorporate it to the Master Plan, as a town planning instrument, so as to cope with traffic forecasting and congestion. However, the technique does not embrace any sustainability concept, this is due to a disregard of any district ´s social or environmental needs. Therefore a sustainable urban development would doubtfully be reached. It is argued that some other approaches are required for shaping a sustainable built environment in which it is understood that the streets are a public space for people rather than a platform for moving vehicles only. This means, to promote accessibility as well as mobility. In this paper the author reviews borrowed concepts such as "carrying capacity" and "environmental capacity" from bioregionalist and ecological disciplines using a case study in outskirts of Santiago´s metro area./La "capacidad vial" del Plan Regulador chileno es una herramienta desarrollada para medir la capacidad de las calles en términos de apoyar el tamaño del flujo de vehículos. Esta herramienta considera temas como el uso de la tierra, la densidad de población y ancho de la calle. El propósito de esta técnica es su incorporación al Plan Maestro, como un instrumento de planificación de la ciudad, con el fin de hacer frente a la previsión del tráfico y la congestión. Sin embargo, la técnica no incluye ningún concepto de sostenibilidad. Por lo tanto un desarrollo urbano sostenible dudosamente sería alcanzado. Se argumenta que algunos otros enfoques son necesarios para dar forma a un medio ambiente sostenible integrado, en el que se entiende que las calles son un espacio público para las personas en lugar de una plataforma para mover los vehículos solamente. Esto significa, para promover la accesibilidad y la movilidad. En este trabajo la autora revisa conceptos prestados, tales como "la capacidad de carga" y "capacidad ambiental", desde el bioregionalist y disciplinas ecológicas mediante un estudio de caso en las afueras del área metropolitana de Santiago de Chile.

  17. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soils Using Local Plants in the Msimbazi River Catchment, Tanzania. : A Minor Field Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Österling, Eskil

    2011-01-01

    This master thesis is a study of the feasibility of in situ soil remediation techniques in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It first looks at the existing on site remediation techniques and assesses how feasible they appear in the conditions of Dar es Salaam. Two methods were interpreted as more feasible than others, namely reactive zone remediation and phytoremediation. The feasibility of phytoremediation was assessed by sampling locally occurring plants and comparing their content of Cu, Pb and Zn ...

  18. Beach Sand Supply and Transport at Kunduchi in Tanzania and Bamburi in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaghude, Y.W.; Mburu, J.W.; Uku, J.; Ochiewo, J.; Nyandwi, N.; Onganda, H. (collab.); Magori, C.; Sanga, I.; Arthurton, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Beach-head erosion of sandy beach plains in eastern Africa threatens tourism-related infrastructure and the livelihoods of beach users. The nature and drivers of physical shoreline change at Kunduchi, Dar es Salaam, and Bamburi, Mombasa, are described with analyses of beach sand transport through the annual monsoon cycle and the provenance and sustainability of the beach sand supply. Time-series records of wind-vectors at Dar es Salaam and Mombasa show similar averaged patte...

  19. 2002 Willapa Bay LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne LiDAR of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The LiDAR data was processed to...

  20. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, James B

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct marketing research, identify opportunities for use of this technology, and to the extent possible, secure an agreement leading to a pre-commercialization demonstration or prototype plant. This was accomplished with the agreement to conduct the Noor al Salaam program as a tri-lateral project between Egypt, Israel, and the U.S. The tri-lateral project was led by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH); this included the Egyptian New and Renewable Energy Authority and the Israeli USISTC participants. This project, known was Noor al Salaam, was funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the Department of Energy (DOE). The Egyptian activity was under the auspices of the Egyptian Ministry of Energy and Electricity, New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) as part of Egypt's plans for renewable energy development. The objective of the Noor al Salaam project was to develop the conditions necessary to obtain funding and construct and operate an approximately 10 to 20 Megawatt hybrid solar/natural gas demonstration power plant in Zaafarana, Egypt that could serve both as a test bed for advanced solar technology evaluations, and as a forerunner to commercial plant designs. This plant, termed Noor Al Salaam, or “Light of Peace”, reached the initial phase of system definition before being curtailed, in part by changes in USAID objectives, coupled with various delays that were beyond the scope of the program to resolve. The background of the USISTF technology development and pre-commercialization effort is provided in this report, together with documentation of the technology developments conducted under the Noor al Salaam program. It should be noted that only a relatively small part of the Noor al Salaam funding was expended over the approximately five years for which UAH was prime contractor before the program was ordered closed (Reference 1) so that the remaining funds could be returned to USAID.

  1. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  2. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  3. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  4. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  5. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  6. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  7. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  8. LiDAR remote sensing applied to forest resources assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-landa, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Disponer de información precisa y actualizada de inventario forestal es una pieza clave para mejorar la gestión forestal sostenible y para proponer y evaluar políticas de conservación de bosques que permitan la reducción de emisiones de carbono debidas a la deforestación y degradación forestal (REDD). En este sentido, la tecnología LiDAR ha demostrado ser una herramienta perfecta para caracterizar y estimar de forma continua y en áreas extensas la estructura del bosque y las principales vari...

  9. Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TASK NAME:(NRCS) Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01254 Woolpert Order...

  10. GRUČENJE PODATKOV LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Založnik, Boštjan

    2014-01-01

    Cilje diplomske naloge je raziskati možnosti uporabe algoritmov gručenja za obdelavo podatkov LiDAR. Prvi del diplomske naloge predstavlja podatke LiDAR in algoritme gručenja. S senzorji LiDAR, pritrjenimi na letala ali helikopterje, je omogočeno hitro in natančno modeliranje površja. Metode gručenje predstavljajo enega izmed pristopov za detekcijo objektov na površju. Gručenje je vrsta nenadzorovane klasifikacije podatkov. Za učinkovito implementacijo algoritmov gručenja so po...

  11. Orienteerumiskaart vs. LiDAR / Marek Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karm, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaureusetst, mille eesmrk oli vrrelda orienteerumiskaardi reljeefi LiDAR-i andmete phjal saadava reljeefimudeliga ning leida vastus ksimusele, kas o-kaart vib olla kasulik kooste- vi kontrollmaterjal mistahes reljeefimudelile

  12. USGS Atchafalaya 2 LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin project area. The entire survey area for Atchafalaya encompasses approximately...

  13. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  14. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  15. Hawaii DAR Dealer Reporting System Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2000 January, the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) implemented a computerized data processing system for fish dealer data collected state-wide. Hawaii...

  16. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  17. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  18. Development of digital subtraction system DAR-1200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has been of widespread use clinically, and it has attracted considerable attention in angiographic examination today. The merits of Shimadzu high resolution digital subtraction system DAR-1200 are reported in this paper. Furthermore, the principle and clinical usefullness of a new method of DSA called the Peak-Hold DSA are explained especially in details. (author)

  19. Orienteerumiskaart vs. LiDAR / Marek Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karm, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaureusetööst, mille eesmärk oli võrrelda orienteerumiskaardi reljeefi LiDAR-i andmete põhjal saadava reljeefimudeliga ning leida vastus küsimusele, kas o-kaart võib olla kasulik kooste- või kontrollmaterjal mistahes reljeefimudelile

  20. La alternancia dar/hacer en construcciones con verbo de apoyo y nombre de comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Sanromán Vilas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo defendemos que la selección de un verbo de apoyo por parte del nombre que lo acompaña, dentro del contexto de una construcción con verbo de apoyo, se basa en criterios semánticos. En concreto, el objetivo del estudio será el de descubrir qué componente(s del significado del nombre determina(n la selección de dar y cuál(es, la de hacer, dos de los verbos de apoyo más frecuentes en español. Para llevar a cabo esta tarea, analizamos nombres pertenecientes al campo semántico de la comunicación verbal que pueden coocurrir con ambos verbos, dar y hacer (dar/hacer una sugerencia, y los contrastamos con otros dos grupos de nombres de comunicación: 1 los que se combinan con dar, pero rechazan *hacer (dar/*hacer una respuesta y 2 los coocurren con hacer, pero no con *dar (*dar/hacer una pregunta. En la comparación de los grupos trataremos de probar dos hipótesis: una que opera a nivel paradigmático, describiendo los vínculos semánticos entre los verbos de apoyo y los correspondientes verbos plenos y otra, a nivel sintagmático, analizando qué otros verbos, aparte de dar y/o hacer, constituyen la coocurrencia léxica restringida de los nombres de comunicación objeto de estudio.

  1. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Douglas Co.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Douglas County PUD area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 2nd -...

  2. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  3. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish River Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) co-acquired Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and Truecolor Orthophotographs of the Snohomish River Estuary, WA on July 20...

  4. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  5. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Bare-Earth Topographic LiDAR: Lynnwood

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Lynnwood, Snohomish County, Washington. This...

  6. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Rattlesnake

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on six days between September 15th and November 5th, and from November 6th ? 13th,...

  7. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to complete the 2005 project for Yakima County. This project has partial coverage of Yakima County,...

  8. 2000 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 1,146 square miles and covers part...

  9. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 167 square miles and covers a...

  10. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Entiat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the...

  11. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Olympic Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Olympic Peninsula project of 2005, totaling approximately 114.59 sq mi: 24.5 for Clallam...

  12. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  13. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 167 square miles and covers a...

  14. Direct Georeferencing of Stationary LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike mobile survey systems, stationary survey systems are given very little direct georeferencing attention. Direct Georeferencing is currently being used in several mobile applications, especially in terrestrial and airborne LiDAR systems. Georeferencing of stationary terrestrial LiDAR scanning data, however, is currently performed indirectly through using control points in the scanning site. The indirect georeferencing procedure is often troublesome; the availability of control stations within the scanning range is not always possible. Also, field procedure can be laborious and involve extra equipment and target setups. In addition, the conventional method allows for possible human error due to target information bookkeeping. Additionally, the accuracy of this procedure varies according to the quality of the control used. By adding a dual GPS antenna apparatus to the scanner setup, thereby supplanting the use of multiple ground control points scattered throughout the scanning site, we mitigate not only the problems associated with indirect georeferencing but also induce a more efficient set up procedure while maintaining sufficient precision. In this paper, we describe a new method for determining the 3D absolute orientation of LiDAR point cloud using GPS measurements from two antennae firmly mounted on the optical head of a stationary LiDAR system. In this paper, the general case is derived where the orientation angles are not small; this case completes the theory of stationary LiDAR direct georeferencing. Simulation and real world field experimentation of the prototype implementation suggest a precision of about 0.05 degrees (~1 milli-radian for the three orientation angles.

  15. 2011 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kittitas-Colockum Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on 6 days between September 15th and November 5th, 2010 for the Puget Sound LiDAR...

  16. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and...

  17. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  18. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  19. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  20. Aplicacin del LiDAR aerotransportado a la determinacin de la altura de grandes estructuras. Caso de estudio: Presas / Application of Airborne LiDAR to the Determination of the Height of Large Structures. Case Study: Dams

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rubn, Martnez Marn; Juan Gregorio, Rejas Ayuga; Miguel, Marchamalo Sacristn.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La mejor forma de calcular la altura de una presa es realizar una nivelacin geomtrica de precisin. No obstante, este mtodo es demandante y costoso. La precisin de los datos obtenidos ha mejorado sustancialmente, esta tecnologa puede proveer precisiones de 2 a 3 centmetros, ms que suficiente [...] para determinar la altura de presa y utilizar sta como dato de partida para cualquier actividad posterior que as lo requiera. La densidad de adquisicin de los datos LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) es importante para establecer la bondad de los resultados. Finalmente, como los sistemas LiDAR aerotransportados estn basados en alturas elipsoidales, es necesario transformarlas a ortomtricas. Este trabajo muestra los resultados obtenidos usando un LiDAR de baja densidad (0.5 pts/m) y su validacin con observaciones GPS (Global Positioning System) en postproceso. Los resultados demuestran que se puede obtener una precisin del orden de 10-25 cm, suficiente para la mayora de las actividades relacionadas con la ingeniera civil. Abstract in english The best way to determine the height of dams is to level the top of the dam applying a geometric leveling. Nevertheless this task is very demanding and expensive. The accuracy potential of LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data has significantly improved. These systems can provide accuracy of 2-3 [...] cm level, which could be enough to be applied in the determination of the height of dams. The point acquisition density is an important factor involved in the process of determining the height using LiDAR technique. Finally, since the LiDAR technique is based on ellipsoidal heights, the coordinates must be transformed to the official orthometric system. This paper shows the results obtained using low density airborne LiDAR data (0.5 pts/m) and their validation with post-processed GPS (Global Positioning System) observations. Test results have shown LiDAR can be accurate enough (10-25 cm) to determine the height and to be applied in many civil engineering activities.

  1. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik; Lund, Jens Friis; Kajembe, G.; Iddi, S.; Blomley, T.; Theilade, Ida; Chamshama, S.A.O.; Skeie, Kat; Njana, M.A.; Ngowi, S.E.; Isango, J.A.K.; Burgess, Neil David

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability of......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  2. Trapped in decline: a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru mountains Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Donge, van, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made a return visit to the area in November 1991 to look again at questions which arose during writing up. The research also reflects seven years' employment at the University of Dar es Salaam (1982-89). The Tan...

  3. A Comparison of LiDAR and Radiosonde Wind Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kumer, Valerie-Marie; Reuder, Joachim; Furevik, Birgitte Rugaard

    2014-01-01

    Doppler LiDAR measurements are already well established in the wind energy research and their accuracy has been tested against met mast data up to 100 m above ground. However, the new generation of scanning LiDAR have a much higher range and thus it is not possible to verify measurements at higher altitudes. Therefore, the LiDAR Measurement Campaign Sola (LIMECS) was conducted at the airport of Stavanger from March to August 2013 to compare LiDAR and radiosonde winds. It was a collaborativ...

  4. LiDAR Utility for Natural Resource Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Matthew Stuart Smith

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Applications of LiDAR remote sensing are exploding, while moving from the research to the operational realm. Increasingly, natural resource managers are recognizing the tremendous utility of LiDAR-derived information to make improved decisions. This review provides a cross-section of studies, many recent, that demonstrate the relevance of LiDAR across a suite of terrestrial natural resource disciplines including forestry, fire and fuels, ecology, wildlife, geology, geomorphology, and surface hydrology. We anticipate that interest in and reliance upon LiDAR for natural resource management, both alone and in concert with other remote sensing data, will continue to rapidly expand for the foreseeable future.

  5. 2004 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Portland, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The all returns ASCII files contain the X,Y,Z values of all the LiDAR returns collected during the survey mission. In addition each return also has a time stamp,...

  6. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  7. 2006 OSIP OGRIP: Upland Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  8. 2006 OSIP OGRIP Coastal Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  9. Using LiDAR to characterize logjams in lowland rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalharth, Mahdi; Hassan, Marwan A.; Klinkenberg, Brian; Leung, Vivian; McCleary, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Logjams significantly influence watershed hydrology, flow regime, channel morphology and stability, and processes in lowland rivers. Consequently, logjams play a major role in the existence and conservation of the riparian and aquatic ecosystems along major waterways. In this paper, we attempt to detect and quantify logjams in river channels using LiDAR technology in conjunction with traditional fieldwork. To the best of our knowledge, LiDAR-based analysis has not been used to characterize logjams in streams. Overall, when applied in a lowland river environment, LiDAR-based analysis demonstrates a comprehensive solution for detecting logjams in relation to the fieldwork, with a low rate of omission. A filtered approach predicted the presence of 95% of fieldwork-reported logjams (a 5% rate of omission), but also identified six logjams not identified in the field (a 10% rate of commission). A nonfiltered approach identified 87% of field-reported logjams, producing a 13% rate of omission and a 6.7% rate of commission. Dimension measurements were more consistent in the filtered LiDAR approach, showing 53%, 34%, and 90% of R2 improvements for the length, width, and height, respectively, over the unfiltered LiDAR values. As vegetation cover hindered accurate delineation of logjam boundaries by LiDAR, field and LiDAR measurements of nonvegetation-obstructed logjams were more highly correlated than the field and LiDAR measurements of partially and completely vegetation-obstructed logjams.

  10. 2006 OSIP OGRIP Coastal Counties LiDAR Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2006 OSIP digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions). The LiDAR covers the entire land area of the northern tier...

  11. Darüşşifas Where Music Threapy was Practiced During Anatolian Seljuks and Ottomans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Erdal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMusic therapy, one of the oldest treatment methods known, dates back to thousands of years. Turks’ using music therapy practices in hospitals -Ottoman and Seljuk hospitals- built with appropriate acoustic in the treatment of mental disorders, utilizing the books which included the researches done by scientists such as İbni Sina, Razî, Farabî, Hasan Şuurî and in Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi in music therapy and improving music therapy practices exemplarily in the period of Ottomans and Seljukians is assessed as the first serious music therapy practices. Darüşşifa is one of the names given to medical and educational establishments which give people health service depending on practice and observation and treated patients in Turkish and Islamic world. Turks started various reconstruction activities following their settlement in Anatolia. Within a short period, they built several types of artifacts such as; caravansaries, madrasahs, mosques, darüşşifas. In Seljukian and Ottoman darüşşifas, medical subjects were taught according to researches and scientific principals, and surgeons were educated at medical madrasahs as well. Medical health care service was provided in those places. In this study, of darüşşifas where music therapy was practised the ones surviving today and having importance have been analyzed so as to emphasize how curative power of art history and music was used by Turkish people centuries ago. From this point of view, Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (Medical madrasah (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (Mosque and Hospital (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II. Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi and Şifahanesi (Medical Madrasah and Hospital (1556 have been examined in this study as the featured ones among the institutions where music therapy was practised.ÖzetMüziğin insanlar üzerinde bıraktığı psikolojik ve fiziksel etki günümüzde açıkça bilinmektedir. Bilinen en eski tedavi yöntemlerinden biri olan Müzikle tedavinin geçmişi binlerce yıl öncesine dayanır. Türklerin, müzikle tedavide İbn Sina, Razî, Farabî, Hasan Şuurî ve Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi gibi bilim adamlarının yaptıkları araştırmaların yer aldığı kitaplardan faydalanarak, Selçuklu ve Osmanlılar döneminde, akıl hastalıklarının tedavisine uygun akustikle inşa edilen hastaneler-darüşşifalarda kullanmaları, ilk ciddi müzikle tedavi uygulamaları olarak değerlendirilir. Darüşşifa, Türk ve İslam dünyasında pratiğe ve gözleme dayalı sağlık hizmetleri veren hastaları tedavi eden sağlık ve eğitim kurumlarına verilen isimlerden birisidir. Darüşşifalar Tıp mesleğinin uygulanmasına yönelik özel mimari anlayış içeren yapıları ile de ayrıcalıklı bir yere sahiptir. Türkler Anadolu’ya yerleşmeleri ile birlikte çeşitli imar faaliyetlerine başlamışlardır. Yapılan bu faaliyetler içerisinde kervansaraylar, medreseler ve camilerle birlikte darüşşifalar da bulunmaktadır. Selçuklu ve Osmanlı darüşşifalarında tıbbi konular araştırmalara ve bilimsel esaslara bağlı kalınarak işleniyor, aynı zamanda tıp medreselerinde cerrah yetiştiriliyordu. Yapılan eğitimler dışında tatbiki uygulamaların da yaptırıldığı bilinmektedir. Darrüşşifalar, Anadolu Selçuklu ve Osmanlı medreseleri plan şemasına uygun olarak tasarlanmıştır. Genelde derslerin verildiği ana eyvan ve farklı ihtiyaçlar için düzenlenmiş avlu etrafında yer alan odalardan oluşmaktaydı.Türk sanat tarihi içerisinde sıklıkla karşılaştığımız tıp siteleri aynı zamanda günümüz tıp fakültesi mantığı ile örtüşmektedir. Buralarda tedavi edici sağlık hizmetleri sunulmaktaydı. Müzikle tedavi yapılan darüşşifalardan günümüze ulaşan ve önem teşkil edenler bu çalışmada sanat tarihi ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün yüzyıllar öncesinde Türklerde nasıl kullanıldığını vurgulamak amacıyla ele alınmıştır. Buradan hareketle Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II.Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi ve Şifahanesi (1556 Enderun Hastanesi bu çalışmada müzikle tedavinin yapıldığı kurumlar arasında öne çıkanlar olarak incelenmiştir. Böylece Türk müziği makamları ve hastalıklar arasında kurulan ilişkiler Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Sanatı içinde müzikle tedavinin gerekleri düşünülerek inşa edilen bu yapıların yaşam amaçları ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün vurgulanması amaçlanmıştır.La musicothérapie pratiquée pendant le règne des Seldjoukides d’Anatolie et des OttomansRésuméLa musicothérapie, l’une des plus anciennes méthodes de traitement connues, remonte à des milliers d’années. La musicothérapie turque pratiquée dans les hôpitaux ottomans et seldjoukides utilisait l’acoustique appropriée au traitement des troubles mentaux avec la lecture des livres des savants comme Avicenne, Râzî, Fârabî, Hasan Shuurî et Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi. Ainsi la musicothérapie et l’amélioration de la musicothérapie de manière exemplaire à l’époque des Ottomans et Seldjoukides est la première pratique sérieuse de la musicothérapie. Darüşşifa est l’un des noms donnés aux établissements médicaux et éducatifs qui confèrent au peuple des services de santé en fonction de la pratique et de l’observation et qui traitent les patients dans le monde turc et islamique. Les Turcs ont commencé à reconstruire différents bâtiments selon leurs possibilités en Anatolie. Dans une courte période, ils ont construit plusieurs types de constructions tels que caravansérails, médersas, mosquées, darüşşifas. En seldjoukide et ottoman darüşşifas, les sujets médicaux ont été acquis d’après les recherches et suivant des principes scientifiques. De plus, les chirurgiens ont été formés dans des médersas médicales. Les services médicaux de soins de santé ont été rendus dans ces lieux. Dans cette étude, on a étudié les Darüşşifas où la musicothérapie a été pratiquée. Ils survivent aujourd'hui en ayant une importance pour souligner comment le pouvoir curatif de l’histoire de l’art et de la musique a été utilisé par les Turcs il ya des siècles. De ce point de vue, dans ce travail, on a examiné les institutions suivantes où la musicothérapie a été pratiquée : la Madrasa Médicale de Kayseri Gevher Nesibe (1206, la Mosquée de Divrigi Ulu et sa Darüşşifa (1228, la Darüşşifa d’Amasya (1309, La Darüşşifa de Fatih (1470, la Darüşşifa d’Edirne Sultan II. Bayezid (1488, La Madrasa Médicale de Suleymaniye et Son Hôpital (1556.

  12. qu es la psicologa?

    OpenAIRE

    Canguilhem, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Para el psiclogo, la pregunta "Qu es la psicologa?" parece ser ms molesta que para el filsofo la pregunta "Qu es la filosofa?". Porque a la filosofa la pregunta por su sentido y por su esencia la constituye ms que lo que la define la respuesta a esta pregunta. El hecho de que la pregunta renazca incesantemente, a falta de respuesta satisfactoria, es, para quien quisiera poderse llamar filsofo, una razn de humildad, y no una causa de humillacin. Pero para la psicologa la pregunt...

  13. Lava flow texture LiDAR signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, P.; Garry, W. B.; Scheidt, S. P.; Irwin, R. P., III; Fox, J.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs) are used to investigate lava textures on the Big Island of Hawaii. An experienced geologist can distinguish fresh or degraded lava textures (e.g., blocky, a'a and pahoehoe) visually in the field. Lava texture depends significantly on eruption conditions, and it is therefore instructive, if accurately determined. In places where field investigations are prohibitive (e.g., Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Io and remote regions on Earth) lava texture must be assessed from remote sensing data. A reliable method for differentiating lava textures in remote sensing data remains elusive. We present preliminary results comparing properties of lava textures observed in airborne and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne data, in this study, were collected in 2011 by Airborne 1 Corporation and have a ~1m point spacing. The authors collected the terrestrial data during a May 2014 field season. The terrestrial scans have a heterogeneous point density. Points close to the scanner are 1 mm apart while 200 m in the distance points are 10 cm apart. Both platforms offer advantages and disadvantages beyond the differences in scale. Terrestrial scans are a quantitative representation of what a geologist sees "on the ground". Airborne scans are a point of view routinely imaged by other remote sensing tools, and can therefore be quickly compared to complimentary data sets (e.g., spectral scans or image data). Preliminary results indicate that LiDAR-derived surface roughness, from both platforms, is useful for differentiating lava textures, but at different spatial scales. As all lava types are quite rough, it is not simply roughness that is the most advantageous parameter; rather patterns in surface roughness can be used to differentiate lava surfaces of varied textures. This work will lead to faster and more reliable volcanic mapping efforts for planetary exploration as well as terrestrial geohazards.

  14. Es posible matizar el individualismo de John Locke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Fernndez Peychaux

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El interrogante del que este artculo pretende dar cuenta es si el individualismo de John Locke responde a la radicalidad con la que la corriente de interpretacin ms difundida intenta caracterizarlo. La conclusin que se alcanza luego de una amplia presentacin de pruebas textuales, es que la necesaria matizacin del individualismo se deriva de la insistencia del autor en justificar el origen divino de los derechos y deberes. De este modo, en la medida en que se niegue que los hombres disponen de un derecho irrefrenable a seguir su deseo de autopreservacin, es posible concluir que el Estado no existe para resguardar esos presuntos derechos individuales, sino para restaurar la ley de naturaleza que ya no sirve, como debera, para determinar los derechos y deberes de los hombres.

  15. Access, Use and Perceptions of Teachers and Students towards Mobile Phones as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the access, use and perceptions of teachers and students towards mobile phones as a tool for facilitating teaching and learning beyond the classroom walls. A total of 29 pre-service teachers and four college instructors from Dar es salaam University College of Education (DUCE) as well as 12 in-service teachers and 40 students

  16. Who Sinned? Parents' Knowledge of the Causes of Disability in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungaraza, Frida D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at finding out from parents what they knew to be the causes of their children's disabilities. One hundred and twenty six parents from four regions, namely Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Kilimanjaro and Morogoro were involved in this study. Data was collected through interview, narratives and observation. It was obvious from the findings…

  17. Monitoring shoreline change using remote sensing and GIS: a case study of Kunduchi area, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Makota, V.; Sallema, R.; Mahika, C.

    2004-01-01

    Data from aerial photographs taken in 1981, 1992 and 2002 of the Kunduchi shoreline off the Dar es Salaam coast were integrated in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine shoreline change in that locality. It was found that considerable changes have taken place, and that the two techniques are effective for shoreline monitoring.

  18. Access, Use and Perceptions of Teachers and Students towards Mobile Phones as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the access, use and perceptions of teachers and students towards mobile phones as a tool for facilitating teaching and learning beyond the classroom walls. A total of 29 pre-service teachers and four college instructors from Dar es salaam University College of Education (DUCE) as well as 12 in-service teachers and 40 students…

  19. Marketing of Information in the Water Sector in Tanzania: A Strategy for MAJIDOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Benedict P.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines a strategy for marketing the information products and services of the Water and Sanitation Information and Documentation Centre (MAJIDOC) of the Water Resources Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Objectives of the marketing strategy are explained, ideas for internal and external promotion are described, and a budget plan is included.…

  20. Investment Climate Assessment : Improving Enterprise Performance and Growth in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This Investment Climate Assessment is based on an analysis of data collected in the Investment Climate Survey of manufacturing firms in Tanzania. The survey was conducted between April and July 2003 by the World Bank and the Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF) in Dar es Salaam, in collaboration with the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The assessment compares measures of fir...

  1. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scale for Adolescents: Item Response Theory Analyses Based on Data from a Study in South Africa and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaro, Leif E.; Breivik, Kyrre; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Kaaya, Sylvia; Onya, Hans E.; Wubs, Annegreet; Helleve, Arnfinn; Flisher, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor…

  2. Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse--A Qualitative Interview Study with Representatives of the Socio-Legal System in Urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisanga, Felix; Mbwambo, Jessie; Hogan, Norah; Nystrom, Lennarth; Emmelin, Maria; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews, this study explored perceptions and experiences of key players handling child sexual offense cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The informants included public police investigators, magistrates, legal workers, and social workers working with nongovernmental organizations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed

  3. TALLER DE MOVIMIENTO-DANZA: DAR FORMA Y FIGURA AL MOVIMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrea Probst

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Una taller de danza es una forma de enseñar la danza, de modo que lo más importante es utilizar el movimiento como “material” de creación o crear nuevos materiales para los fines de la propia danza. Los alumnos tienen que aprender que ellos mismos son capaces de dar forma al movimiento para sus propios fines. Abstract: The most important in a motion workshop in dance is using movement like “material” for creating or creating materials for dancing. Pupils should learn that they are able to give form to their own movement in order to reach individual aims.

  4. Processing LiDAR Data to Predict Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Ian; Crabtree, Robert; Hager, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    ELF-Base and ELF-Hazards (wherein 'ELF' signifies 'Extract LiDAR Features' and 'LiDAR' signifies 'light detection and ranging') are developmental software modules for processing remote-sensing LiDAR data to identify past natural hazards (principally, landslides) and predict future ones. ELF-Base processes raw LiDAR data, including LiDAR intensity data that are often ignored in other software, to create digital terrain models (DTMs) and digital feature models (DFMs) with sub-meter accuracy. ELF-Hazards fuses raw LiDAR data, data from multispectral and hyperspectral optical images, and DTMs and DFMs generated by ELF-Base to generate hazard risk maps. Advanced algorithms in these software modules include line-enhancement and edge-detection algorithms, surface-characterization algorithms, and algorithms that implement innovative data-fusion techniques. The line-extraction and edge-detection algorithms enable users to locate such features as faults and landslide headwall scarps. Also implemented in this software are improved methodologies for identification and mapping of past landslide events by use of (1) accurate, ELF-derived surface characterizations and (2) three LiDAR/optical-data-fusion techniques: post-classification data fusion, maximum-likelihood estimation modeling, and hierarchical within-class discrimination. This software is expected to enable faster, more accurate forecasting of natural hazards than has previously been possible.

  5. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model LiDAR...... measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  6. Para perfeccionar un idioma lo ms significativo es vivirlo

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Mora, Libia Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Soy docente del Instituto Tcnico Agropecuario Jorge Elicer Gaitn de la Salina y en este corto texto pretendo dar a conocer mi experiencia en el programa de inmersin en ingls en donde compart con diferentes colegas, con mi tutora Andrea McDonald y con habitantes de la isla en la posada Kennedy Lodge. El objetivo de este escrito es invitar a los docentes a participar y aprovechar cada una de las actividades de formacin ofrecidas por el Ministerio de Educacin y las diferentes Secretaras...

  7. 2009 PSLC-USGS Topographic LiDAR: Wenatchee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Wenatchee USGS area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 1nd ? May...

  8. 2009 PSLC-USGS Topographic LiDAR: Wenatchee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Wenatchee USGS area of interest (AOI) east of Wenatchee, WA on May 1nd - May...

  9. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  10. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and...

  11. La originalidad de las influencias en Rubén Darío The originality of the influences in Rubén Darío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Solares-Larrave

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Críticos como Max Henríquez Ureña y Enrique Anderson Imbert, entre otros, consideran las influencias que recibió Rubén Darío de autores previos como explicación de su producción. Un aspecto interesante de estas influencias es que no fueron involuntarias sino deliberadas, como lo revela la famosa frase dariana de 1891: "¿A quién debo imitar para ser original?" (EI: 121. Esta afirmación debe llevarnos a reconsiderar nuestras ideas sobre el valor de las influencias como método crítico, y contextualiza el fenómeno cultural del modernismo al enfatizar su naturaleza como respuesta cultural y resultado de una transculturación. Aunque este tema haya sido tratado por la crítica (Rama, 1970; Pacheco, 1970, tanto la idea de influencia que refleja esta declaración como sus resultados en su obra literaria nos llevan a reexaminar la noción de influencia, especialmente si se considera el modernismo como una formulación hispanoamericana de respuesta cultural, resultante de un proceso de transculturación. Este acercamiento servirá como explicación posible de los actos de apropiación de parte de Darío, quien, según Noé Jitrik, consideraba la literatura como un producto. Dentro de este contexto, cabe proponer que Darío veía estas apropiaciones como procesos modernos, orientados al mejoramiento de su producción. De este modo, al insertar elementos de obras europeas que decidió "imitar para ser original", no sólo altera el concepto crítico tradicional de la influencia, sino que establece un patrón de relaciones literarias y culturales entre América Hispana y Europa, visible en la interacción de sus obras y las fuentes que la inspiraron, como son "Sonatina" ("Le chevalier double" de Théophile Gautier, y "Palabras a la satiresa" ("Les ingénus" de Paul Verlaine.Max Henríquez Ureña and Enrique Anderson Imbert, among others, have viewed the influences Rubén Darío received from other writers as a way to explain the Nicaraguan poet's work. However, a particular aspect of these influences is that they were very deliberate on Darío's part, as his famous 1891 statement "Who should I imitate in order to be original?" (EI: 121 proves. In fact, this remark of Darío's leads us to reconsider our notions of what influence means as a critical category, and also adds context to the cultural phenomenon of transculturation, that gave place to Spanish American modernismo. Even though critics such as Angel Rama (1970 and José Emilio Pacheco (1970 have examined this topic, both, the idea of influence contained in Darío's statement, and its literary results have led me to reexamine influence as a strategy within modernismo's agenda of cultural reply. This approach to influence may explain Darío's own acts of literary appropriation, which, according to Noé Jitrik, stem from the poet's concept of literature as commodity. Within this context, we want to propose that Darío saw these appropriations, now known as influences, as part of a modernization process whose goal was the improvement of his own, as well as Spanish America's cultural production. Hence, his choice to "imitate in order to be original" not only questions the traditional notions of influence, but also forges a pattern of literary and cultural relationships between Spanish America and Europe. This pattern is evident in the relationship between his own works, and those on which his poems were inspired. With these ideas in mind, my essay examines Darío's use of French literature in "Sonatina" ("Le chevalier double" de Théophile Gautier, and "Palabras a la satiresa" ("Les ingénus" de Paul Verlaine.

  12. Es imposible no comunicar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Costa y Solá-Segalés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La confusión entre "comunicar" y "significar" proviene del hecho de que la comunicación transporta significados, pero también se producen significados fuera del proceso de comunicación. Es lo que llamamos "semiosis no comunicativa".

  13. Tree filtering for high density airborne LiDAR data

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B. G. H.

    2008-01-01

    A high resolution Airborne LiDAR data creates better opportunity for an individual tree measurement and provides valuable results for more precise forest inventory. This paper presents tree filtering approach that able to separate dominant tree and undergrowth vegetation. The results can be used for a detailed individual tree measurement. This process is one of the main steps for a single tree extraction from the high resolution Airborne LiDAR data. The filtering technique lies on the fact th...

  14. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Queraltó

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth®, providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  15. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D vine plantation map generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth(®), providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes. PMID:22163952

  16. 2001-2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Clallam County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract with Clallam County. The data covers an area of approximately 524...

  17. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  18. 2007 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  19. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Chehalis River Watershed Area, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Chehalis River Watershed study area on January 28th, February 2nd-7th,...

  20. 2007 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Eastern Washington and River Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Canada in October and November,...

  1. 2012-2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Deliveries 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and...

  2. qu es arquitectura virtual ?

    OpenAIRE

    Avella, Mg. Arq. Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    La pertinencia que tiene la arquitectura de entrar en el campo virtual a proponer desde su punto de vista y con su sistema de valores, es relevante como ya lo han hecho muchas otras ramas del conocimiento. Se busca establecer una base terica e histrica de contenidos y tendencias desarrolladas desde la investigacin y la experimentacin del medio virtual, la cual puede establecerse, no solo como relectura de conceptos en la arquitectura sino tambin en la formulacin de una semntica propi...

  3. LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Griesbaum, Luisa; Kiefer, Andreas; Hämmerle, Martin; Eitel, Jan; Koma, Zsófia

    2015-04-01

    Our physical environment undergoes constant changes in space and time with strongly varying triggers, frequencies, and magnitudes. Monitoring these environmental changes is crucial to improve our scientific understanding of complex human-environmental interactions and helps us to respond to environmental change by adaptation or mitigation. The three-dimensional (3D) description of the Earth surface features and the detailed monitoring of surface processes using 3D spatial data have gained increasing attention within the last decades, such as in climate change research (e.g., glacier retreat), carbon sequestration (e.g., forest biomass monitoring), precision agriculture and natural hazard management. In all those areas, 3D data have helped to improve our process understanding by allowing quantifying the structural properties of earth surface features and their changes over time. This advancement has been fostered by technological developments and increased availability of 3D sensing systems. In particular, LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology, also referred to as laser scanning, has made significant progress and has evolved into an operational tool in environmental research and geosciences. The main result of LiDAR measurements is a highly spatially resolved 3D point cloud. Each point within the LiDAR point cloud has a XYZ coordinate associated with it and often additional information such as the strength of the returned backscatter. The point cloud provided by LiDAR contains rich geospatial, structural, and potentially biochemical information about the surveyed objects. To deal with the inherently unorganized datasets and the large data volume (frequently millions of XYZ coordinates) of LiDAR datasets, a multitude of algorithms for automatic 3D object detection (e.g., of single trees) and physical surface description (e.g., biomass) have been developed. However, so far the exchange of datasets and approaches (i.e., extraction algorithms) among LiDAR users lacks behind. We propose a novel concept, the LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA), which shall enhance sharing of i) reference datasets of single vegetation objects with rich reference data (e.g., plant species, basic plant morphometric information) and ii) approaches for information extraction (e.g., single tree detection, tree species classification based on waveform LiDAR features). We will build an extensive LiDAR data repository for supporting the development and benchmarking of LiDAR-based object information extraction. The LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA) uses international web service standards (Open Geospatial Consortium, OGC) for geospatial data access and also analysis (e.g., OGC Web Processing Services). This will allow the research community identifying plant object specific vegetation features from LiDAR data, while accounting for differences in LiDAR systems (e.g., beam divergence), settings (e.g., point spacing), and calibration techniques. It is the goal of LVISA to develop generic 3D information extraction approaches, which can be seamlessly transferred to other datasets, timestamps and also extraction tasks. The current prototype of LVISA can be visited and tested online via http://uni-heidelberg.de/lvisa. Video tutorials provide a quick overview and entry into the functionality of LVISA. We will present the current advances of LVISA and we will highlight future research and extension of LVISA, such as integrating low-cost LiDAR data and datasets acquired by highly temporal scanning of vegetation (e.g., continuous measurements). Everybody is invited to join the LVISA development and share datasets and analysis approaches in an interoperable way via the web-based LVISA geoportal.

  4. Es tiempo de cambiar el curso de la Historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franois Houtart

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La situacin extrema de pobreza, marginalidad y todas las secuelas que derivan del actual orden histrico de la economa neoliberal globalizadora, es la principal caracterstica que define a la sociedad moderna como injusta, a la vez que depredadora del hombre y de la naturaleza. Enfrentamos a una sociedad que no ha sabido, ni querido, dar respuesta a las necesidades bsicas de sus ciudadanos ya que su principal inters contina siendo la acumulacin del capital y el desarrollo de la ideologa del mercado total. Esta historia no puede continuar porque ha llegado a su fin, al crear las condiciones infrahumanas que estn destruyendo paulatinamente las vidas de un alto porcentaje de seres humanos. Para cambiar el curso de la Historia, es necesario una conciencia crtica del colectivo humano reprimido contra el status quo.

  5. La educación inclusiva es nuestra tarea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meybol Calderón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La educación inclusiva es un tema que se ha venido trabajando desde hace relativamente pocos años en el Perú, pero en otros países se viene realizando desde hace muchos años. Por ello esta investigación busca dar a conocer todos aquellos elementos que son necesarios para lograr una inclusión adecuada de los niños, tomando como centro al niño, reconociéndolo como un ser humano integral que no solo aprende conceptos, sino también aprende a convivir e interactuar con su medio. Es aquí donde debemos tomar en cuenta el respeto a la diversidad que se debe dar en el aula, ya que al convivir se comparten experiencias con personas diferentes, como pueden ser los niños con necesidades especiales o simplemente con las de un niño regular. En esta investigación hemos querido resaltar la importancia de los roles de los agentes educativos para el buen desarrollo de la inclusión de los niños, siendo estos indispensables para lograrlo.

  6. Automated Probabilistic LiDAR Swath Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, A.; Gonçalves, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    We recently developed a new point cloud registration algorithm. Compared to Iterated Closest Point (ICP) techniques, it is robust to noise and outliers, and easier to use, as it is less sensitive to initial conditions. It minimizes the entropy of the joint point cloud (including intensity attributes to help register areas with poor relief), uses a voxel space and B-Spline interpolation to accelerate computation. A natural application of registration is swath alignment in airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR). Indeed, due to uncertainty in the inertial navigation system (INS), attitude angles are subject to time-dependent errors. Such errors can be understood as a sum of three terms: 1) a global term, or boresight error, which can be addressed using several existing techniques; 2) a low-frequency term, which is modeled as a constant attitude error for regions several hundred meters along-track; 3) a high-frequency term, responsible for corduroy artifacts (not addressed here). We propose to use the new registration algorithm to correct the low-frequency attitude variations. Relative geometric errors are significantly reduced, as pairs of swaths are registered onto each other local corrections. Absolute geometric errors are reduced during a second step, by applying all the corrections together to the entire dataset. We used a test area of 200 km2 in Portugal, with a density of 3-4 pts/m2. The point clouds were derived from waveform data, and include predictive range uncertainties estimated within a Bayesian framework. The data collection was supported by FCT and FEDER as part of the AutoProbaDTM research project (2009-2012). Modeling and reducing geometric error helps build consistent uncertainty maps. After correction, residual errors are taken into account in the final 3D error budget. For gridded elevation models a vertical uncertainty map is computed. Finally, it is possible to use the inter-swath registration parameters to estimate the distribution of horizontal error, which is usually difficult to assess.

  7. El gusto es nuestro

    OpenAIRE

    Benaglia, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Un pueblo sano y bien alimentado mantiene erguida su autoestima y es fuerte, asegura Hugo Bacci. La comida comprada tiene toda el mismo gusto y, encima, el tiempo que ganás está en función del consumo, no de la producción, dice Hebe de Bonafini. ¿Cómo se construye entonces la soberanía alimentaria? En esta nota, ambos dirigentes acercan puntas y cuentan cómo volver a las fuentes. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  8. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  9. Mathematical modelling applied to LiDAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Estornell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the application of several mathematic calculations to LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging data to estimate vegetation parameters and modelling the relief of a forest area in the town of Chiva (Valencia. To represent the surface that describes the topography of the area, firstly, morphological filters were applied iteratively to select LiDAR ground points. From these data, the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN structure was applied to model the relief of the area. From LiDAR data the canopy height model (CHM was also calculated. This model allowed obtaining bare soil, shrub and tree vegetation mapping in the study area. In addition, biomass was estimated from measurements taken in the field in 39 circular plots of radius 0.5 m and the 95th percentile of the LiDAR height datanincluded in each plot. The results indicated a high relationship between the two variables (measurednbiomass and 95th percentile with a coeficient of determination (R2 of 0:73. These results reveal the importance of using mathematical modelling to obtain information of the vegetation and land relief from LiDAR data.

  10. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model LiDAR measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met, mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with RisOe/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement data is compared with the model results. The model results are acceptable and very close for one site while the more complex one is returning higher errors at higher positions and in some wind directions

  11. Gobernar es educar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arias Sánchez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen. La educación juega un papel fundamental en la reducción del enemigo más formidable de la paz, la democracia y el desarrollo humano: la pobreza. Es el instrumento catalizador de la participación constructiva en los procesos sociales y políticos de los sectores silenciados y marginados del desarrollo.

    La educación es particularmente importante en un mundo cada vez más globalizado, convirtiéndose en punto de partida y elemento clave para comprender el pluralismo de los estados y sus diferentes manifestaciones culturales, contribuyendo de esta manera, a la integración nacional y regional. La educación como responsabilidad de todos debe no solo fijarse como objetivo la capacitación y adiestramiento de las personas, sino también, educarlas, más con el ejemplo que con la prédica, en una serie de principios y valores.

    Concluye el autor puntualizando la importancia de que se asuma el hacer política como práctica pedagógica. El político debe ser un maestro capaz de generar conocimiento en sí mismo y en los pueblos y modelar en sus acciones los principios que defiende con sus palabras. Hacer política y gobernar es educar y educarse.

     

    Abstract. Education plays a critical role in the reduction of the most prominent enemy of peace, democracy, and human development: poverty. It is the catalyst of the constructive participation in the social and political processes of those groups traditionally silenced and excluded from development.

    Education is particularly important in a global society. It is a fundamental factor to understand the pluralism of the nations and their cultural diversity. It contributes to the national and regional integration. Education, viewed as everyone's responsibility, should not only be aimed at instructing and training individuals for the labor market, but also at educating them in a series of principles and values. In so doing, educating by the example should play a major role.

    The author concludes stressing the importance that participation in politics becomes a pedagogical practice. Politicians should become educators capable of generating knowledge for themselves and the people they represent. They should model with their example the principles the preach. To do politics and govern is to educate.

  12. Integrating LiDAR Data into Earth Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S. E.; Arrowsmith, R.; de Groot, R. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Whitesides, A. S.; Colunga, J.

    2010-12-01

    The use of high-resolution topography derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in the study of active tectonics is widespread and has become an indispensable tool to better understand earthquake hazards. For this reason and the spectacular representation of the phenomena the data provide, it is appropriate to integrate these data into the Earth science education curriculum. A collaboration between Arizona State University, the OpenTopography Facility, and the Southern California Earthquake Center are developing, three earth science education products to inform students and other audiences about LiDAR and its application to active tectonics research. First, a 10-minute introductory video titled LiDAR: Illuminating Earthquakes was produced and is freely available online through the OpenTopography portal and SCEC. The second product is an update and enhancement of the Wallace Creek Interpretive Trail website (www.scec.org/wallacecreek). LiDAR topography data products have been added along with the development of a virtual tour of the offset channels at Wallace Creek using the B4 LiDAR data within the Google Earth environment. The virtual tour to Wallace Creek is designed as a lab activity for introductory undergraduate geology courses to increase understanding of earthquake hazards through exploration of the dramatic offset created by the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at Wallace Creek and Global Positioning System-derived displacements spanning the SAF at Wallace Creek . This activity is currently being tested in courses at Arizona State University. The goal of the assessment is to measure student understanding of plate tectonics and earthquakes after completing the activity. Including high-resolution topography LiDAR data into the earth science education curriculum promotes understanding of plate tectonics, faults, and other topics related to earthquake hazards.

  13. Cost-effective Design Options for IsoDAR

    CERN Document Server

    Adelmann, A; Barletta, W; Barlow, R; Bartoszek, L; Bungau, A; Calabretta, L; Calanna, A; Campo, D; Conrad, J M; Djurcic, Z; Kamyshkov, Y; Owen, H; Shaevitz, M H; Shimizu, I; Smidt, T; Spitz, J; Toups, M; Wascko, M; Winslow, L A; Yang, J J

    2012-01-01

    This whitepaper reviews design options for the IsoDAR electron antineutrino source. IsoDAR is designed to produce $2.6 \\times 10^{22}$ electron antineutrinos per year with an average energy of 6.4 MeV, using isotope decay-at-rest. Aspects which must be balanced for cost-effectiveness include: overall cost; rate and energy distribution of the electron antineutrino flux and backgrounds; low technical risk; compactness; simplicity of underground construction and operation; reliability; value to future neutrino physics programs; and value to industry. We show that the baseline design outlined here is the most cost effective.

  14. Darüşşifas Where Music Threapy was Practiced During Anatolian Seljuks and Ottomans / Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Darüşşifalarında Müzikle Tedavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Erdal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Music therapy, one of the oldest treatment methods known, dates back to thousands of years. Turks’ using music therapy practices in hospitals -Ottoman and Seljuk hospitals- built with appropriate acoustic in the treatment of mental disorders, utilizing the books which included the researches done by scientists such as İbni Sina, Razî, Farabî, Hasan Şuurî and in Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi in music therapy and improving music therapy practices exemplarily in the period of Ottomans and Seljukians is assessed as the first serious music therapy practices. Darüşşifa is one of the names given to medical and educational establishments which give people health service depending on practice and observation and treated patients in Turkish and Islamic world. Turks started various reconstruction activities following their settlement in Anatolia. Within a short period, they built several types of artifacts such as; caravansaries, madrasahs, mosques, darüşşifas. In Seljukian and Ottoman darüşşifas, medical subjects were taught according to researches and scientific principals, and surgeons were educated at medical madrasahs as well. Medical health care service was provided in those places. In this study, of darüşşifas where music therapy was practised the ones surviving today and having importance have been analyzed so as to emphasize how curative power of art history and music was used by Turkish people centuries ago. From this point of view, Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (Medical madrasah (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (Mosque and Hospital (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II. Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi and Şifahanesi (Medical Madrasah and Hospital (1556 have been examined in this study as the featured ones among the institutions where music therapy was practised. Özet Müziğin insanlar üzerinde bıraktığı psikolojik ve fiziksel etki günümüzde açıkça bilinmektedir. Bilinen en eski tedavi yöntemlerinden biri olan Müzikle tedavinin geçmişi binlerce yıl öncesine dayanır. Türklerin, müzikle tedavide İbn Sina, Razî, Farabî, Hasan Şuurî ve Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi gibi bilim adamlarının yaptıkları araştırmaların yer aldığı kitaplardan faydalanarak, Selçuklu ve Osmanlılar döneminde, akıl hastalıklarının tedavisine uygun akustikle inşa edilen hastaneler-darüşşifalarda kullanmaları, ilk ciddi müzikle tedavi uygulamaları olarak değerlendirilir. Darüşşifa, Türk ve İslam dünyasında pratiğe ve gözleme dayalı sağlık hizmetleri veren hastaları tedavi eden sağlık ve eğitim kurumlarına verilen isimlerden birisidir. Darüşşifalar Tıp mesleğinin uygulanmasına yönelik özel mimari anlayış içeren yapıları ile de ayrıcalıklı bir yere sahiptir. Türkler Anadolu’ya yerleşmeleri ile birlikte çeşitli imar faaliyetlerine başlamışlardır. Yapılan bu faaliyetler içerisinde kervansaraylar, medreseler ve camilerle birlikte darüşşifalar da bulunmaktadır. Selçuklu ve Osmanlı darüşşifalarında tıbbi konular araştırmalara ve bilimsel esaslara bağlı kalınarak işleniyor, aynı zamanda tıp medreselerinde cerrah yetiştiriliyordu. Yapılan eğitimler dışında tatbiki uygulamaların da yaptırıldığı bilinmektedir. Darrüşşifalar, Anadolu Selçuklu ve Osmanlı medreseleri plan şemasına uygun olarak tasarlanmıştır. Genelde derslerin verildiği ana eyvan ve farklı ihtiyaçlar için düzenlenmiş avlu etrafında yer alan odalardan oluşmaktaydı. Türk sanat tarihi içerisinde sıklıkla karşılaştığımız tıp siteleri aynı zamanda günümüz tıp fakültesi mantığı ile örtüşmektedir. Buralarda tedavi edici sağlık hizmetleri sunulmaktaydı. Müzikle tedavi yapılan darüşşifalardan günümüze ulaşan ve önem teşkil edenler bu çalışmada sanat tarihi ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün yüzyıllar öncesinde Türklerde nasıl kullanıldığını vurgulamak amacıyla ele alınmıştır. Buradan hareketle Kayseri Gevher Nesibe Tıp Medresesi (1206, Divriği Ulu Camii ve Darüşşifası (1228, Amasya Darüşşifası (1309, Fatih Darüşşifası (1470 Edirne Sultan II.Bayezid Darüşşifası (1488, Süleymaniye Tıp Medresesi ve Şifahanesi (1556 Enderun Hastanesi bu çalışmada müzikle tedavinin yapıldığı kurumlar arasında öne çıkanlar olarak incelenmiştir. Böylece Türk müziği makamları ve hastalıklar arasında kurulan ilişkiler Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Sanatı içinde müzikle tedavinin gerekleri düşünülerek inşa edilen bu yapıların yaşam amaçları ve müziğin iyileştirici gücünün vurgulanması amaçlanmıştır. La musicothérapie pratiquée pendant le règne des Seldjoukides d’Anatolie et des Ottomans Résumé La musicothérapie, l’une des plus anciennes méthodes de traitement connues, remonte à des milliers d’années. La musicothérapie turque pratiquée dans les hôpitaux ottomans et seldjoukides utilisait l’acoustique appropriée au traitement des troubles mentaux avec la lecture des livres des savants comme Avicenne, Râzî, Fârabî, Hasan Shuurî et Gevrekzade Hasan Efendi. Ainsi la musicothérapie et l’amélioration de la musicothérapie de manière exemplaire à l’époque des Ottomans et Seldjoukides est la première pratique sérieuse de la musicothérapie. Darüşşifa est l’un des noms donnés aux établissements médicaux et éducatifs qui confèrent au peuple des services de santé en fonction de la pratique et de l’observation et qui traitent les patients dans le monde turc et islamique. Les Turcs ont commencé à reconstruire différents bâtiments selon leurs possibilités en Anatolie. Dans une courte période, ils ont construit plusieurs types de constructions tels que caravansérails, médersas, mosquées, darüşşifas. En seldjoukide et ottoman darüşşifas, les sujets médicaux ont été acquis d’après les recherches et suivant des principes scientifiques. De plus, les chirurgiens ont été formés dans des médersas médicales. Les services médicaux de soins de santé ont été rendus dans ces lieux. Dans cette étude, on a étudié les Darüşşifas où la musicothérapie a été pratiquée. Ils survivent aujourd'hui en ayant une importance pour souligner comment le pouvoir curatif de l’histoire de l’art et de la musique a été utilisé par les Turcs il ya des siècles. De ce point de vue, dans ce travail, on a examiné les institutions suivantes où la musicothérapie a été pratiquée : la Madrasa Médicale de Kayseri Gevher Nesibe (1206, la Mosquée de Divrigi Ulu et sa Darüşşifa (1228, la Darüşşifa d’Amasya (1309, La Darüşşifa de Fatih (1470, la Darüşşifa d’Edirne Sultan II. Bayezid (1488, La Madrasa Médicale de Suleymaniye et Son Hôpital (1556.

  15. 2004 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Bare Earth Topographic LiDAR: Connecticut River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce LiDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. The LiDAR files were converted from .PTS format to LAS...

  16. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 2 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany Parishes,...

  17. 2007 South Carolina LiDAR: Charleston (partial), Jasper, and Colleton Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce LiDAR data collection was performed utilizing a Leica ALS-50 sensor, collecting multiple return x, y, and z data as well as intensity data. LiDAR data was processed...

  18. 2004 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Bare Earth Topographic LiDAR: Connecticut River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. The LiDAR files were converted from .PTS format to LAS...

  19. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Louisiana Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Louisiana Region 1 LiDAR ARRA Task Order LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Vermillion, Iberia, St. Mary, Terrebonne, and Lafourche...

  20. 2007 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Jacksonville District US Virgin Islands LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) bare-earth classified LAS dataset is a topographic survey conducted for the USACE USVI LiDAR Project. These data were...

  1. Nitrogen concentration estimation with hyperspectral LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, O.; Hakala, T.; Suomalainen, J.; Kaasalainen, S.

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural lands have strong impact on global carbon dynamics and nitrogen availability. Monitoring changes in agricultural lands require more efficient and accurate methods. The first prototype of a full waveform hyperspectral Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instrument has been developed at the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI). The instrument efficiently combines the benefits of passive and active remote sensing sensors. It is able to produce 3D point clouds with spectral information included for every point which offers great potential in the field of remote sensing of environment. This study investigates the performance of the hyperspectral LiDAR instrument in nitrogen estimation. The investigation was conducted by finding vegetation indices sensitive to nitrogen concentration using hyperspectral LiDAR data and validating their performance in nitrogen estimation. The nitrogen estimation was performed by calculating 28 published vegetation indices to ten oat samples grown in different fertilization conditions. Reference data was acquired by laboratory nitrogen concentration analysis. The performance of the indices in nitrogen estimation was determined by linear regression and leave-one-out cross-validation. The results indicate that the hyperspectral LiDAR instrument holds a good capability to estimate plant biochemical parameters such as nitrogen concentration. The instrument holds much potential in various environmental applications and provides a significant improvement to the remote sensing of environment.

  2. Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...

  3. 2011 USGS Topographic LiDAR: Suwannee River Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Task Order No. G10PD00236 USGS Contract No. G10PC00093 The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River Expansion in...

  4. Forest structures retrieval from LiDAR onboard ULA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Marnas, Fabien; Sanak, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Following the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the assessment of forest carbon stock is one of the main elements for a better understanding of the carbon cycle and its evolution following the climate change. The forests sequester 80% of the continental biospheric carbon and this efficiency is a function of the tree species and the tree health. The airborne backscatter LiDAR onboard the ultra light aircraft (ULA) can provide the key information on the forest vertical structures and evolution in the time. The most important structural parameter is the tree top height, which is directly linked to the above-ground biomass using non-linear relationships. In order to test the LiDAR capability for retrieving the tree top height, the LiDAR ULICE (Ultraviolet LIdar for Canopy Experiment) has been used over different forest types, from coniferous (maritime pins) to deciduous (oaks, hornbeams ...) trees. ULICE works at the wavelength of 355 nm with a sampling along the line-of-sight between 15 and 75 cm. According to the LiDAR signal to noise ratio (SNR), two different algorithms have been used in our study. The first algorithm is a threshold method directly based on the comparison between the LiDAR signal and the noise distributions, while the second one used a low pass filter by fitting a Gaussian curve family. In this paper, we will present these two algorithms and their evolution as a function of the SNR. The main error sources will be also discussed and assessed for each algorithm. The results show that these algorithms have great potential for ground-segment of future space borne LiDAR missions dedicated to the forest survey at the global scale. Acknowledgements: the canopy LiDAR system ULICE has been developed by CEA (Commissariat l'Energie Atomique). It has been deployed with the support of CNES (Centre National d'Etude Spariales) and ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). We acknowledge the ULA pilots Franck Toussaint for logistical help during the ULA campaign.

  5. 47 CFR 25.401 - Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite DARS applications subject to...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Competitive Bidding Procedures for DARS § 25.401 Satellite DARS applications subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for...

  6. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: LiDAR for the North East

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract: G10PC00026, Task Order Number: G10PD02143 Task Order Numbers: G10PD01027 (ARRA) and G10PD02143 (non-ARRA) The LiDAR for the North East Project,...

  7. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Jefferson and Clallam Counties, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Jefferson/Clallam study area on March 23rd-25th, April 13th-15th, and May...

  8. 2005 Mississippi Merged LiDAR Data (2005 LiDAR data merged with 2005 Post-Katrina LiDAR data to create a bare-earth product for flood plain mapping in coastal Mississippi).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pre- and post-hurricane Katrina LiDAR datasets of Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties, MS, were merged into a seamless coverage by URS. The pre-Katrina LiDAR...

  9. Los vnculos de los que la familia es capaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Daza Navarrete

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available La familia es sujeto y objeto de transformaciones entretejidas en el curso de los acontecimientos que se suceden en la produccin econmica y social en el capitalismo occidental. Sin embargo, la posicin perifrica que ocupamos en l produce expresiones susceptibles de ser consideradas como constitutivas de nuestra singularidad, bien sea por el matiz especfico de su manifestacin, bien sea por su capacidad para ejercer resistencia al curso impuesto por la tendencia general. Este texto, prosiguiendo el acontecer de los cambios de lo social, describe la afectacin de los vnculos familiares en la propagacin de la normalizacin, en la generacin de los padres y de sus hijos, para dar paso, ms tarde, a una serie de prcticas afianzadas en una nueva expresin del poder, el control, cuya manifestaciones ms densas tienen lugar con la generacin de los nietos.

  10. Graph-based filtering of urban LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhouche, Yassine; Buckles, Bill; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2014-04-01

    A graph-based approach for modeling and solving the LiDAR filtering problem in urban areas is established. Our method consists of three steps. In the first step we construct a graph-based representation of the LiDAR data, Delaunay triangulation or the KNN graph can be used in this step. An algorithm is introduced to label the edges of this graph. In this second step, we defined criteria to eliminate some of the graph edges, then we used a connected components algorithm to separate the graph representation into different components. Finally, these components are classified into terrain or objects. Different datasets with different characteristics have been used to analyze the performance of our method.

  11. Volume component analysis for classification of LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Nina M.; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2015-03-01

    One of the most difficult challenges of working with LiDAR data is the large amount of data points that are produced. Analysing these large data sets is an extremely time consuming process. For this reason, automatic perception of LiDAR scenes is a growing area of research. Currently, most LiDAR feature extraction relies on geometrical features specific to the point cloud of interest. These geometrical features are scene-specific, and often rely on the scale and orientation of the object for classification. This paper proposes a robust method for reduced dimensionality feature extraction of 3D objects using a volume component analysis (VCA) approach.1 This VCA approach is based on principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is a method of reduced feature extraction that computes a covariance matrix from the original input vector. The eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues of the covariance matrix are used to describe an image. Block-based PCA is an adapted method for feature extraction in facial images because PCA, when performed in local areas of the image, can extract more significant features than can be extracted when the entire image is considered. The image space is split into several of these blocks, and PCA is computed individually for each block. This VCA proposes that a LiDAR point cloud can be represented as a series of voxels whose values correspond to the point density within that relative location. From this voxelized space, block-based PCA is used to analyze sections of the space where the sections, when combined, will represent features of the entire 3-D object. These features are then used as the input to a support vector machine which is trained to identify four classes of objects, vegetation, vehicles, buildings and barriers with an overall accuracy of 93.8%

  12. Watertight Scenes from Urban LiDAR and Planar Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lankveld, Thijs; van Kreveld, Marc; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    The demand for large geometric models is increasing, especially of urban environments. This has resulted in production of massive point cloud data from images or LiDAR. Visualization and further processing generally require a detailed, yet concise representation of the scene's surfaces. Related work generally either approximates the data with the risk of over-smoothing, or interpolates the data with excessive detail. Many surfaces in urban scenes can be modeled more concisely by planar approx...

  13. Monitoring coastal change using terrestrial LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, P; Gibson, A.; L. Jones; Poulton, C; Jenkins, G.; Pearson, S.; K. Freeborough

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes recent applications by the British Geological Survey (BGS) of the technique of mobile terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveying to monitor various geomorphological changes on English coasts and estuaries. These include cliff recession, landslides and flood defences, and are usually sited at remote locations undergoing dynamic processes with no fixed reference points. Advantages, disadvantages and some practical problems are discussed. The role of GPS in las...

  14. Rockfall hazard analysis using LiDAR and spatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hengxing; Martin, C. Derek; Zhou, Chenghu; Lim, Chang Ho

    2010-05-01

    Rockfalls have been significant geohazards along the Canadian Class 1 Railways (CN Rail and CP Rail) since their construction in the late 1800s. These rockfalls cause damage to infrastructure, interruption of business, and environmental impacts, and their occurrence varies both spatially and temporally. The proactive management of these rockfall hazards requires enabling technologies. This paper discusses a hazard assessment strategy for rockfalls along a section of a Canadian railway using LiDAR and spatial modeling. LiDAR provides accurate topographical information of the source area of rockfalls and along their paths. Spatial modeling was conducted using Rockfall Analyst, a three dimensional extension to GIS, to determine the characteristics of the rockfalls in terms of travel distance, velocity and energy. Historical rockfall records were used to calibrate the physical characteristics of the rockfall processes. The results based on a high-resolution digital elevation model from a LiDAR dataset were compared with those based on a coarse digital elevation model. A comprehensive methodology for rockfall hazard assessment is proposed which takes into account the characteristics of source areas, the physical processes of rockfalls and the spatial attribution of their frequency and energy.

  15. Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base height, but this has many potential sources of error. LiDAR may be a way forward to better characterize ladder fuels, but has only been used to address this question peripherally and in only a few instances. After establishing that landscape fuel treatments reduced canopy and ladder fuels at our site, we tested which LiDAR-derived metrics best differentiated treated from untreated areas. The percent cover between 2 and 4 m had the most explanatory power to distinguish treated from untreated pixels across a range of spatial scales. When compared to independent plot-based measures of ladder fuel classes, this metric differentiated between high and low levels of ladder fuels. These findings point to several immediate applications for land managers and suggest new avenues of study that could lead to possible improvements in the way that we model wildfire behavior across forested landscapes in the US.

  16. Segmenting tree crowns from terrestrial and mobile LiDAR data by exploring ecological theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shengli; Wu, Fangfang; Guo, Qinghua; Wang, Yongcai; Li, Wenkai; Xue, Baolin; Hu, Xueyang; Li, Peng; Tian, Di; Li, Chao; Yao, Hui; Li, Yumei; Xu, Guangcai; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-12-01

    The rapid development of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) techniques is advancing ecological and forest research. During the last decade, numerous single tree segmentation techniques have been developed using airborne LiDAR data. However, accurate crown segmentation using terrestrial or mobile LiDAR data, which is an essential prerequisite for extracting branch level forest characteristics, is still challenging mainly because of the difficulties posed by tree crown intersection and irregular crown shape. In the current work, we developed a comparative shortest-path algorithm (CSP) for segmenting tree crowns scanned using terrestrial (T)-LiDAR and mobile LiDAR. The algorithm consists of two steps, namely trunk detection and subsequent crown segmentation, with the latter inspired by the well-proved metabolic ecology theory and the ecological fact that vascular plants tend to minimize the transferring distance to the root. We tested the algorithm on mobile-LiDAR-scanned roadside trees and T-LiDAR-scanned broadleaved and coniferous forests in China. Point-level quantitative assessments of the segmentation results showed that for mobile-LiDAR-scanned roadside trees, all the points were classified to their corresponding trees correctly, and for T-LiDAR-scanned broadleaved and coniferous forests, kappa coefficients ranging from 0.83 to 0.93 were obtained. We believe that our algorithm will make a contribution to solving the problem of crown segmentation in T-LiDAR scanned-forests, and might be of interest to researchers in LiDAR data processing and to forest ecologists. In addition, our research highlights the advantages of using ecological theories as guidelines for processing LiDAR data.

  17. Measurement procedures for characterization of wind turbine wakes with scanning Doppler wind LiDARs

    OpenAIRE

    Iungo, G.V.; Port-Agel, F.

    2013-01-01

    The wake flow produced from an Enercon E-70 wind turbine is investigated through three scanning Doppler wind LiDARs. One LiDAR is deployed upwind to characterize the incoming wind, while the other two LiDARs are located downstream to carry out wake measurements. The main challenge in performing measurements of wind turbine wakes is represented by the varying wind conditions, and by the consequent adjustments of the turbine yaw angle needed to maximize power production. Co...

  18. Salih Zeki ve Darülfünun

    OpenAIRE

    Dölen, Emre

    2011-01-01

      Salih Zeki and the Darülfünun Emre Dölen Salih Zeki had a productive life in science, education and philosophy. He wrote textbooks for high schools on algebra, geometry, physics and astronomy between 1882 and 1908. This period refers also to his intensive work on history and philosophy of mathematics when he also realized his major project Kamus-i Riyaziyat, a 12-volume lexicon of mathematical sciences. Starting to lecture on mathematics and physics soon after the establishment of the ...

  19. Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Sa...

  20. Preliminary application and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP for detection of bovine theileriosis and trypanosomosis in Tanzania : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M.M. Thekisoe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of LAMP, PCR and microscopy to detect Theileria spp. and Trypanosoma congolense in field-derived bovine blood samples from Tanzania was evaluated and compared. No parasites were detected by microscopy. Furthermore, no bovine Theileria spp. were detected by LAMP and PCR from all the 24 samples collected from Arusha. Four and one out of 24 samples were positive for Theileria congolense infection by LAMP and PCR respectively while, 18 and nine out of 40 samples from Dar es Salaam were positive by LAMP and PCR for Theileria spp. Infection, respectively. Although all samples from Dar es Salaam were negative for Trypanosoma congolense infections by PCR, 12 out of 40 samples were LAMP positive. Whilst PCR is an established gene amplification method for the detection of Theileria and trypanosome parasites, this study introduces LAMP as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool that could be used in large-scale epidemiological surveys.

  1. Planning the unplanned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marian Szasz; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    and ownership, and are unable to invest in the improvement of their land, inputs and infrastructure. Although there have been several attempts by various international and foreign organizations to legitimize and institutionalize urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam, very little has changed politically...... over the past 30 years. This study focuses on the current incorporation of urban agriculture into the Dar es Salaam 2012-2032 Master Plan (still unapproved as of June 2013), and examines how local and central governments legitimize the practice of urban agriculture. It also looks at how greater...... agriculture is largely dependent on political commitment from both local and central government. Legitimization of the practice through policy and rules and regulations can facilitate the further institutionalization of urban agriculture, especially in land use planning. However, it can also further...

  2. Performance testing of LiDAR exploitation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-González, M.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-04-01

    Mobile LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the field of geoscience. One of most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing. Several software solutions for data processing are available in the market, but users are often unknown about the methodologies to verify their performance accurately. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and six different suites are studied: QT Modeler, AutoCAD Civil 3D, Mars 7, Fledermaus, Carlson and TopoDOT (all of them in x64). Results depict as QTModeler, TopoDOT and AutoCAD Civil 3D allow the loading of large datasets, while Fledermaus, Mars7 and Carlson do not achieve these powerful performance. AutoCAD Civil 3D needs large loading time in comparison with the most powerful softwares such as QTModeler and TopoDOT. Carlson suite depicts the poorest results among all the softwares under study, where point clouds larger than 5 million points cannot be loaded and loading time is very large in comparison with the other suites even for the smaller datasets. AutoCAD Civil 3D, Carlson and TopoDOT show more threads than other softwares like QTModeler, Mars7 and Fledermaus.

  3. IsoDAR - A Definitive Search for Sterile Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, William

    2013-04-01

    The steady development of high power cyclotrons, mostly in industry, is making possible a definitive, highly cost effective approach to the search for sterile neutrinos. In the proposed IsoDAR experiment a 600 kW beam of protons from a 60 MeV, H2+ cyclotron will impinge on a lithium target to generate copious Li-8. The Li-8 then decays at rest to yield a powerful source of anti-neutrinos that can be located ˜20 m from a hydrogenous detector. In particular our collaboration has been designing the accelerator / target system to be consistent with installation in the Kamioka mine to use the Kamland detector to record inverse beta decay events. We show that this source / detector combination can reveal or exclude the global-fit allowed region at 5 sigma in four months and differentiate between 1 and 2 sterile neutrinos with a few years of continued running. Our studies also show that high power cyclotrons will provide the most cost effective source for such an experiment. In addition, the 60 MeV IsoDAR cyclotron would be an ideal injector for DAEdALUS, our approach to measuring CP violation in the neutrino sector with decay-at-rest experiment.

  4. ¿Cuál es el sentido de la historia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aldama Pinedo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En este texto se hace un repaso de la constitución de la historia y la historiografía y del planteamiento de algunos filósofos (de Voltaire a Fukuyama sobre este proceso constitutivo. El hilo conductor que sigue el texto pretende dar respuesta a la pregunta: ¿cuál es el sentido de la historia?Hacia el final, el autor ensaya una respuesta a la pregunta planteada desde la perspectiva de los países periféricos. Palabras claves: Historia, historiografía, fin de la historia, Occidente.

  5. Update 2012 der ESC-Guidelines zum Management von Vorhofflimmern - Was gibt es Neues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kurzfassung: Das Guideline-Update der ESC zum Management von Vorhofflimmern betrifft vor allem die Bereiche Antikoagulation, medikamentse Rhythmuskontrolle und Katheterablation. Im Bereich der Antikoagulation stellen die Etablierung des CHADSVASc- und des HAS-BLEDScores zur Risikostratifizierung sowie die Einfhrung der neuen Antikoagulantien die wichtigsten Neuerungen dar. Hinsichtlich der medikamentsen Therapie kommt es in den Guidelines zu einer Erst- bzw. Neubewertung von Vernakalant zur medikamentsen Kardioversion und von Dronedaron zur rhythmuserhaltenden Therapie. Der Stellenwert der Katheterablation von VHF wird durch die Guidelines weiter gesteigert.

  6. Über das Trauma schreiben und es korrigieren: Eine Irritation der autoethnografischen Darstellungsweise

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Wie können wir sinnvoll und ethisch über Verlust und Trauma sprechen? Dieser Text setzt sich mit der Verwendung traumatischer Erfahrungen in der Autoethnografie auseinander. Es wird über den Einfluss unserer wirren und unvernünftigen Erlebnisse in geordneten und vernünftigen Darstellungen nachgedacht sowie darüber, ob und wie wir teilnehmende Beobachter/innen unserer eigenen Lebensvollzüge werden. Bezeugungs-Praktiken sind durch Diskurs-Normen begrenzt. Damit werden unsere Möglichkeiten besch...

  7. Malaria in patients with sickle cell anemia: burden, risk factors, and outcome at the outpatient clinic and during hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Makani, Julie; Komba, Albert N; Cox, Sharon E; Oruo, Julie; Mwamtemi, Khadija; Kitundu, Jesse; Magesa, Pius; Rwezaula, Stella; Meda, Elineema; Mgaya, Josephine; Pallangyo, Kisali; Okiro, Emelda; Muturi, David; Charles R. Newton; Fegan, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 280 000 children are born with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in Africa annually, yet few survive beyond childhood. Falciparum malaria is considered a significant cause of this mortality. We conducted a 5-year prospective surveillance study for malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria, and severe malarial anemia (SMA) in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, between 2004 and 2009. We recorded 10 491 visits to the outpatient clinic among 1808 patients with SCA and 773 visits among 679 patients without...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance among producers and non-producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in urinary isolates at a tertiary Hospital in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamuya Eligius F; Kasubi Mabula; Aboud Said; Moyo Sabrina J; Maselle Samuel Y

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Published data on the existence and magnitude of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in urinary pathogens in local setting is limited. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and ESBL production among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp from urine samples in a tertiary hospital. This was a cross sectional study conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Findings A total of 270 E.coli ...

  9. A multi-dimensional assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lise Byskov Herslund, Fatemeh Jalayer, Nathalie Jean-Baptiste, Gertrud Jørgensen, Sigrun Kabisch, Wilbard Kombe , Sarah Lindley, Patrik Karlsson Nyed, Stephan Pauleit, Andreas Printz, Trond Vedeld

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment framework for understanding the impacts of climate change-induced hazards in Sub-Saharan African cities. The research was carried out within the European/African FP7 project CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, which investigated climate change-induced risks, assessed vulnerability and proposed policy initiatives in five African cities. Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) was used as a main case with a particul...

  10. Examining tooth loss, oral impacts on daily performances and satisfaction with chewing ability:a household survey of older adults in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kida, Irene Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, extent and risk indicators of tooth loss, and how it impacts on the quality of life of older adults living in rural and urban areas of Tanzania. Methods: A cross sectional survey of older adults aged 50 years and above, residing in the two districts of Pwani region and one district of Dar es Salaam city, was conducted from November 2004 to June 2005. A stratified (disproportionate) two stage cluster sampl...

  11. Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Enju Liu; Christopher Duggan; Manji, Karim P.; Roland Kupka; Said Aboud; Bosch, Ronald J; Rodrick R Kisenge; James Okuma; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective: To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods: A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, d...

  12. The Afya Bora Consortium: an African-U.S. partnership to Train Leaders in Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Farquhar, Carey; Nathanson, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The Afya Bora Consortium is a partnership of eight academic health institutions, four in Africa and four in the United States. The Consortium members have a history of collaboration in four African-U.S. pairs: Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and the University of California in San Francisco, California, USA; the University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana, ...

  13. Supply chain challenges for sustainability: the case of waste textiles as raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Pammi; Tipi, Nicoleta S.; Day, Claire L.; Domvolgou, D.; Beverley, Katharine J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the growing problem of textile waste in the rapidly developing cities of subSaharan Africa and examines, from a supply chain perspective, the potential for waste textile materials to be transformed into the raw materials for new consumer products. Research Approach: The paper reflects on the outcomes of a field trip to Dar es Salaam in which stakeholders in a hypothesised textile waste supply chain were interviewed and waste textile materials were ...

  14. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Karimuribo, E D; Jones, B.; M.I. Matee; D. M. Kambarage; S. Mounier-Jack; Rweyemamu, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam) while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency pre...

  15. The Effects of Informational Interventions on Household Water Management, Hygiene Behaviors, Stored Drinking Water Quality, and Hand Contamination in Peri-Urban Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jennifer; Amy J. Pickering; Rogers, Kirsten; Mamuya, Simon; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2011-01-01

    Safe water storage and hand hygiene have been shown to reduce fecal contamination and improve health in experimental settings; however, triggering and sustaining such behaviors is challenging. This study investigates the extent to which personalized information about Escherichia coli contamination of stored water and hands influenced knowledge, reported behaviors, and subsequent contamination levels among 334 households with less than 5-year-old children in peri-urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania....

  16. Evaluation the Impact of a NGDO Social Entrepreneurship Course

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Tanja Lærke

    2013-01-01

    This is an evaluative study of students participating in the social entrepreneurship courses recently launched at the NDGO Action Aid Denmark’s training centre in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. As proposed by the theory of planned behaviour, attitudes and intentions were used as predictors of future social entrepreneurial venture creation among the students. Data was collected through a survey distributed immediately after the courses and a follow-up survey distributed 2½-3 months later. The follow...

  17. Sociodemographic drivers of multiple sexual partnerships among women in three rural districts of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Exavery A; Kanté AM; Tani K; Hingora A; Phillips JF

    2015-01-01

    Amon Exavery,1 Almamy Malick Kanté,1–3 Kassimu Tani,1 Ahmed Hingora,1 James F Phillips2 1Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: This study examines prevalence and correlates of multiple sexual partnerships (MSP) among women aged 15+ years in Rufi...

  18. Psychosocial Barriers to Female Leadership: Motivational Gravity in Ghana and Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Akuamoah-Boateng; Floyd H. Bolitho; Stuart C. Carr; Jane E. Chidgey; Bridie O'Reilly; Rachel Phillips; Ian P. Purcell; Robert Obadiah Rugimbana

    2003-01-01

    Women continue to be underrepresented in management globally, including the so-called "develop ing" countries, where gender diversity is especially crucial to business development. From Ghana, 120 experienced employees and 83 future managers from Tanzania's University of Dar-es-Salaam, read scenarios depicting male or female achievers, and predicted what proportions of co-workers and bosses would display encouragement, discouragement, or apathy. In Ghana, male respondents predicted encouragem...

  19. Cyanobacterial occurrence and diversity in seagrass meadows in coastal Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lyimo, T.J.; Hamisi, M.I.; Muruke, M.H.S.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the occurrence and diversity of cyanobacteria in intertidal seagrass meadows at Ocean Road and Mjimwema, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nutrients, temperature and salinity were measured as comparative environmental factors. A total of 19 different cyanobacteria taxa were encountered, out of which eight were found exclusively in Mjimwema, four exclusively in Ocean Road and seven were common to both sites. Oscillatoria, Lyngbya and Spirulina were the dominant cyanobacterial genera. Cyano...

  20. Waste is a resource:A study on the opportunities in a new solid waste management in Iringa municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Eirin

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste in a solid form, produced in the daily day life of a society such as packaging, food scrapes, grass clippings, clothing, furniture, paper, electronics and so on. It is called municipal solid waste because it is in the responsibility of the local government and comes from our homes, schools, hospitals and businesses. It is produced 108 tons municipal solid waste in Iringa each day. Iringa district is located approximately 500km from Dar Es Salaam and 263...

  1. Anti-Mycobacterial and Toxicity Activities of Some Priority Medicinal Plants from Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Magadula Joseph J.; Otieno Joseph N.; Nondo Ramadhani S.; Kirimuhuzya Claude; Kadukuli E.; Orodho John A.; Okemo Paul

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study has evaluated ethanol extracts from five medicinal plants selected through ethnobotanical study from Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against two Mycobacterium species and cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae. Study Design: Laboratory experimental tests. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, bet...

  2. Optimal Blood Mononuclear Cell Isolation Procedures for Gamma Interferon Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Testing of Healthy Swedish and Tanzanian Subjects▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, C.; Aboud, S; Karlén, K; Hejdeman, B.; Urassa, W; Biberfeld, G.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of antigen-specific T-cell responses is an important part of vaccine assessment. High levels of recovery, viability, and functionality of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are essential for reliable assessment of cell-mediated immune responses. Here, we sought to find the cell preparation technique best suited for two clinical vaccine trial sites: Stockholm, Sweden, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Standard Ficoll-Paque gradient centrifugation, BD Vacutainer cell preparatio...

  3. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mhalu, Grace; Hella, Jerry; Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Mitchell G Weiss; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. TRIAL DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. METHODS We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Ta...

  4. Household transport expenditure in Sub-Saharan African cities: measurement and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Olvera, Lourdes; Plat, Didier; Pochet, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa the cost of transport faced by city dwellers, particularly the poor, tends to add to their travel and economic difficulties. Knowledge of the burden of transport expenditure in the household budget seems essential for passenger transport policy formulation in order to improve their travel conditions and social equity. The literature review and the three case studies (Dar es Salaam, Niamey, Ouagadougou) show that estimates of travel expenditure are partially conditioned b...

  5. 2001-2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Island County and Northeast Jefferson County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 525 square miles and covers all of...

  6. Rubén Darío: Los desheredados de la suerte Rubén Darío: the less fortunate human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kraudy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la preocupación de Rubén Darío por los desheredados en la sociedad como ejemplo de su humanidad hacia los ancianos, los niños, la pobreza y hacia aquellos que tienen que enfrentar situaciones vitales difíciles. La compasión de Darío puede conectarse con la idea de la charitas cristiana.This article analyzes Rubén Darío´s concerns for those less fortunate human beings in society as an example of his humanity towards the elderly, children, poverty and other individuals who have to face difficult situations in life. Darío´s compassion can be connected to Christian charitas.

  7. Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS CONTRACT: 07CRCN0006 TASK ORDER NUMBER: G09PD00300...

  8. Dia de Dar Gracias. Modulo Nivel Primario. (Day to Give Thanks. Module Primary Level.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Delia; Lopez, Santiago, III

    Dia de Dar Gracias (Thanksgiving) is the subject of this primary level unit. The unit objectives are to: (1) know about El Dia de Dar Gracias as it is celebrated in the United States; (2) know how the Mayas celebrated it; (3) understand the context of the stories in the unit; (4) know about the main food used, the turkey; (5) distinguish other

  9. 2011-2013 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Lake Michigan Watershed Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Indiana's Statewide LiDAR data is produced at 1.5-meter average post spacing for all 92 Indiana Counties covering more than 36,420 square miles. New LiDAR data was...

  10. Jean Lafitte 2013, 1.0 Meter LiDAR, Classified point cloud

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Jean Lafitte,G13PD00214, 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area in south of New Orleans and encompasses 77...

  11. FY12 St Johns River Water Management LiDAR Survey: Putnam (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the FY12 St Johns River Water Management LiDAR Survey, project area in north-central Florida and...

  12. Absence of kdr resistance alleles in the Union of the Comoros, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoosook; Olson, Natalie; Yamasaki, Youki; Chang, Allison; Marsden, Clare; Ouledi, Ahmed; Lanzaro, Gregory; Cornel, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Knockdown resistance ( kdr) and CYP9K1 genotypes were detected by a MOLDI-TOF based SNP genotyping assay (Sequenom iPLEX) in samples of Anopheles gambiae collected at 13 sites throughout the Union of the Comoros and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during February and March 2011. All A. gambiae specimens collected in the Comoros were homozygous for the susceptible kdr alleles (+/+) while 96% of A. gambiae from Dar es Salaam were homozygous for the East African kdr resistant genotype (E/E). In contrast, all specimens from Dar es Salaam and the Comoros were homozygous for the cyp3 allele (c3/c3) at the CYP9K1 locus; the locus has been implicated in metabolic resistance against pyrethroid insecticides in West Africa. All specimens had typical A. gambiae genotypes for SNPs within the divergence Islands on all three chromosomes. Although further spatial and temporal studies are needed, the distribution of kdr genotypes between the Comoros and Tanzania further supports isolation of the Comoros populations from A. gambiae populations on mainland Africa . PMID:26339473

  13. LiDAR Analysis of Hector Mine Fault Scarp Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Sousa, F.; Stock, J. M.; Akciz, S. O.

    2014-12-01

    The Mw 7.1 right-lateral strike-slip Hector Mine earthquake occurred on 10/16/1999 and generated an approximately 48 km long surface rupture. The Lavic Lake fault and the central section of the Bullion fault and several lesser faults ruptured, characterized by maximum strike slip of 5.25 ±0.85 m [Treiman, 2002]. As a very remote and un-populated area of the Mojave Desert, southern California, the study area is highly favorable for fault degradation studies with essentially no influence from vegetation or human activity. Airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) are used to evaluate the form and rate of degradation of scarps along the Hector Mine fault rupture, California, USA. Airborne LiDAR data were acquired in 2000 and 2012 and these data were differenced using a newly developed algorithm for point cloud matching, which is improved over prior methods by accounting for scan geometry error sources. Using the bi-temporal data (scrutinizing profiles from 2000 & 2012), parameters for a fault scarp diffusion model are estimated and then a simulation result is generated to predict the evolved landform shape at the time of the 2014 TLS data set. Results are checked against TLS 2014 data collected at five key sites within the maximum slip field study area. In the past, scarp degradation has been mostly investigated using traditional survey methods (e.g., measuring elevations of points in a line perpendicular to the scarp) that require time-consuming field work and tend to introduce bias and variance due to data limitations. Airborne, mobile and terrestrial LiDAR data offer great potential to precisely document and rigorously determine morphologic degradation of fault scarps [Hilley et al., 2010]. In the present study, a unique set of data have been acquired at three points in time across several classic types of fault scarps and offset fault zone features. This allows progress in assessing the fitting of functions and estimating time constants of fault scarp degradation, with potential for widespread utility and significance in paleoseismology.

  14. Extraction of Urban Power Lines from Vehicle-Borne LiDARData

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR has been traditionally used for power line cruising. Nevertheless, data acquisition with airborne LiDAR is constrained by the complex environments in urban areas as well as the multiple parallel line structures on the same power line tower, which means it is not directly applicable to the extraction of urban power lines. Vehicle-borne LiDAR system has its advantages upon airborne LiDAR and this paper tries to utilize vehicle-borne LiDAR data for the extraction of urban power lines. First, power line points are extracted using a voxel-based hierarchical method in which geometric features of each voxel are calculated. Then, a bottom-up method for filtering the power lines belonging to each power line is proposed. The initial clustering and clustering recovery procedures are conducted iteratively to identify each power line. The final experiment demonstrates the high precision of this technique.

  15. Individual Tree Segmentation from LiDAR Point Clouds for Urban Forest Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop new algorithms for automated urban forest inventory at the individual tree level using LiDAR point cloud data. LiDAR data contain three-dimensional structure information that can be used to estimate tree height, base height, crown depth, and crown diameter. This allows precision urban forest inventory down to individual trees. Unlike most of the published algorithms that detect individual trees from a LiDAR-derived raster surface, we worked directly with the LiDAR point cloud data to separate individual trees and estimate tree metrics. Testing results in typical urban forests are encouraging. Future works will be oriented to synergize LiDAR data and optical imagery for urban tree characterization through data fusion techniques.

  16. Using a multiwavelength LiDAR for improved remote sensing of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Deric J; Anderson, John; Nelson, Jean; Edwards, Jarrod

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes research to characterize the benefits of a multiwavelength oceanographic LiDAR for various water types. Field measurements were conducted to establish endmembers representative of both typical and extremely challenging natural conditions. Laboratory tests were performed using a prototype multiwavelength LiDAR in water tanks with optical conditions simulating both sediment-laden and biologically rich water types. LiDAR models were used to simulate the LiDAR signal from both field and laboratory experiments. Our measurements and models show that using a laser wavelength of 470-490 nm in the open ocean leads to an improvement factor of 1.50-1.75 compared to a 532 nm system. In more turbid areas using a laser wavelength of 560-580 nm leads to an improvement factor of 1.25. We conclude by demonstrating how using multiple LiDAR wavelengths can help detect and characterize constituents in the water column. PMID:26560612

  17. Dynamic LiDAR-NDVI classification of fluvial landscape units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, Carolina; Parrot, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    The lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos River is a wide floodplain in which, during the wet season, local and major flooding are distinguished. Both types of floods, intermittent and regional, are important in terms of resources; the regional flood sediments enrich the soils of the plains and intermittent floods allow obtaining aquatic resources for subsistence during the heatwave. In the floodplain different abandoned meanders and intermittent streams are quickly colonized by aquatic vegetation. However, from the 1990s, the Coatzacoalcos River floodplain has important topographic changes due to mining, road and bridges construction; erosion and sedimentation requires continuous parcel boundaries along with the increasing demand of channel reparation, embankments, levees and bridges associated to tributaries. NDVI data, LiDAR point cloud and various types of flood simulations taking into account the DTM are used to classify the dynamic landscape units. These units are associated to floods in relation with water resources, agriculture and livestock. In the study area, the first returns of the point cloud allow extracting vegetation strata. The last returns correspond to the bare earth surface, especially in this area with few human settlements. The surface that is not covered by trees or by aquatic vegetation, correspond to crops, pastures and bare soils. The classification is obtained by using the NDVI index coupled with vegetation strata and water bodies. The result shows that 47.96% of the area does not present active vegetation and it includes 31.53% of bare soils. Concerning the active vegetation, pastures, bushes and trees represent respectively 25.59%, 11.14% and 13.25%. The remaining 1.25% is distributed between water bodies with aquatic vegetation, trees and shrubs. Dynamic landscape units' classification represents a tool for monitoring water resources in a fluvial plain. This approach can be also applied to forest management, environmental services and habitat analysis. Thus, the unsupervised LiDAR-NDVI approach coupled with flood simulation developed here, allows studying environmental behavior without introducing subjective considerations.

  18. LiDAR Forest Inventory with Single-Tree, Double-, and Single-Phase Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data at 0.5-2 m postings were used with double-sample, stratified procedures involving single-tree relationships in mixed, and single species stands to yield sampling errors ranging from ±2.1% to ±11.5%. LiDAR samples were selected with focal filter procedures and heights computed from interpolated canopy and DEM surfaces. Tree dbh and height data were obtained at various ratios of LiDAR, ground samples for DGPS located ground plots. Dbh-height and ground-LiDAR height models were used to predict dbh and compute Phase 2 estimates of basal area and volume. Phase 1 estimates were computed using the species probability distribution from ground plots in each strata. Phase 2 estimates were computed by randomly assigning LiDAR heights to species groups using a Monte Carlo simulation for each ground plot. There was no statistical difference between volume estimates from 0.5 m and 1 m LiDAR densities. Volume estimates from single-phase LiDAR procedures utilizing existing tree attributes and height bias relationships were obtained with sampling errors of 1.8% to 5.5%.

  19. ASTER GDEM validation using LiDAR data over coastal regions of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2011-01-01

    Elevation data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) campaigns are used in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global digital elevation model (GDEM) in Greenland. The LiDAR elevation data set is characterized...... by a high spatial resolution of about 1 m and elevation accuracy of 20–30 cm root mean square error (RMSE). The LiDAR data sets used were acquired during ice-monitoring campaigns carried out from 2003 to 2008. The study areas include ice-free regions, local ice caps and the ice sheet margin. A linear...

  20. Object-oriented Identification of Forested Landslides with Derivatives of Single Pulse LiDAR Data

    OpenAIRE

    VAN DEN EECKHAUT MIET; Kerle, Norman; Poesen, Jean; HERVAS DE DIEGO Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives for landslide mapping in forested terrain, only few studies have attempted to develop (semi-)automatic methods for extracting landslides from LiDAR derivatives. While all these studies are pixel-based, it has not yet been tested whether object-oriented analysis (OOA) could be an alternative. This study investigates the potential of OOA using only single pulse LiDAR derivatives, such as slope gradient, roughnes...

  1. Frontiers in Using LiDAR to Analyze Urban Landscape Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar Krishna Veer

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has facilitated extraordinary advances in our ability to remotely sense precise details of both built and natural environments. The inherent complexity of urban landscapes and the massive data volumes produced by LiDAR require unique methodological considerations for big data remote sensing over large metropolitan regions. The heterogeneous landscapes of the rapidly urbanizing Charlotte Metropolitan Region of North Carolina provided an ideal testing ground for developing methods of analysis for urban ecosystems over large regional extents, including: (1) fusion of LiDAR digital surface models (DSMs) with Landsat TM imagery to balance spatial resolution, data volume, and mapping accuracy of urban land covers, (2) comparison of LiDAR-derived metrics to fine grain optical imagery -- and their integration -- for detecting forest understory plant invaders, and (3) data reduction techniques for computationally efficient estimation of aboveground woody biomass in urban forests. In Chapter 1, I examined tradeoffs between potential gains in mapping accuracy and computational costs by integrating DSMs (structural and intensity) extracted from LiDAR with TM imagery and evaluating the degree to which TM, LiDAR, and LiDAR-TM fusion data discriminated land covers. I used Maximum Likelihood and Classification Tree algorithms to classify TM data, LiDAR data, and LiDAR-TM fusions. I assessed the relative contributions of LiDAR DSMs to map classification accuracy and identified an optimal spatial resolution of LiDAR DSMs for large area assessments of urban land cover. In Chapter 2, I analyzed combinations of datasets developed from categorized LiDAR-derived variables (Overstory, Understory, Topography, and Overall Vegetation Characteristics) and IKONOS imagery ( Optical) to detect and map the understory plant invader, Ligustrum sinense, using Random Forest (RF) and logistic regression (LR) algorithms, and I assessed the relative contributions of sensors and forest landscape structures. I compared the top performing models developed using RF and LR and used the best overall model to map the distribution of L. sinense occurrence across the urbanizing forest landscapes of the region. In chapter 3, I examined the effects of LiDAR point density and landscape context on the estimation of biomass (of general Urban Forest and of three specific Forest Types) using multiple linear regression. I compared biomass estimation accuracies of the Urban Forest and Forest Type models and between the top-performing models of these two Forest categories. For the effect of landscape context, I quantified the degree to which the presence of built development influenced biomass estimation, and I analyzed the effect of canopy stratification on the estimation of biomass. A unifying theme of my dissertation is to advance LiDAR analytics for accurate and detailed estimation of urban landscape heterogeneity over large regional extents. The results of the three studies suggest that establishing optimal resolution and point density for LiDAR data is a highly effective method of pursuing large area studies of urban landscape heterogeneity, and the fusion of LiDAR-derived variables and multispectral data is beneficial in some applications such as improving class discrimination of spectrally similar land cover types. Finally, the direct measurement of forest understory and overstory structure through LiDAR has proven valuable for the study of complex and heterogeneous ecosystems like urban forests.

  2. Es tracta del deute privat!

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Olive Casas, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Els principals responsables econòmics i polítics europeus i espanyols ens repeteixen incansablement, com si d'un mantra es tractés, que l'actual crisi financera prové d'una mala gestió pública. Així, segons s'afirma des dels centres de poder econòmics i polítics europeus la crisi té el seu origen en el fet que les administracions públiques s'han endeutat por damunt d'allò imaginable. Com a conseqüència lògica, per sortir de la crisi totes les polítiques que s'han de dur a terme...

  3. Religions mondialisées.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fath

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available « Dès le début de l’histoire, les croyances religieuses manifestent une tendance à ne pas se renfermer dans une société politique étroitement délimitée : il y a en elles comme une aptitude naturelle à passer par-dessus les frontières, à se diffuser, à s’internationaliser ». Ces réflexions d’Émile Durkheim, extraites des Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse , sont placées en exergue de l’ouvrage d’Ariel Colonomos consacré aux « Églises en réseau ». ...

  4. 2009 Puget Sound Lidar Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Nooksack River in Washington on February 20th - 22nd, 2009. The total area...

  5. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hernando County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management Districts FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  6. 2006-2008 PAMAP LiDAR Data of Pennsylvania (Southern Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of classified LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation points produced by the PAMAP Program. Additional information is available at the...

  7. Forest Roads Mapped Using LiDAR in Steep Forested Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A. White

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR-derived digital elevation models can reveal road networks located beneath dense forest canopy. This study tests the accuracy of forest road characteristics mapped using LiDAR in the Santa Cruz Mountains, CA. The position, gradient, and total length of a forest haul road were accurately extracted using a 1 m DEM. In comparison to a field-surveyed centerline, the LiDAR-derived road exhibited a positional accuracy of 1.5 m, road grade measurements within 0.53% mean absolute difference, and total road length within 0.2% of the field-surveyed length. Airborne LiDAR can provide thorough and accurate road inventory data to support forest management and watershed assessment activities.

  8. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hernando County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This dataset is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management Districts FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  9. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hillsborough/Little Manatee Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce EarthData International collected ADS-50 derived LiDAR over a portion of Hillsborough and Manatee Counties with a one meter post spacing. The period of collection...

  10. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  11. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square...

  12. 2012 USACE Post Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  13. 2012 USACE Post Hurricane Sandy Topographic LiDAR: Rhode Island and Massachusetts Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This topographic elevation point data derived from multiple return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) represents 354.272 square miles of coastline for Rhode Island...

  14. 2009 National Renewable Energy Labratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  15. LiDAR Elevation Data Collection - Putnam County, NY, 2008 (NYSDEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summary of the surface elevation data collection project in Putnam County, NY (NYSDEC) 2008. Products generated include LiDAR point data in LAS Binary format v1.1....

  16. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Alameda County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data set is a survey of Alameda County in Northern California. The entire survey covers approximately 868.382 square miles....

  17. 2006 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Alameda County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data set is a survey of Alameda County in Northern California. The entire survey covers approximately 868.382 square miles....

  18. 2006-2008 PAMAP LiDAR Data of Pennsylvania (Northern Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of classified LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation points produced by the PAMAP Program. PAMAP data are organized into blocks, which...

  19. 2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (Connecticut)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce The LiDAR data were processed to a bare-earth digital terrain model (DTM). Detailed breaklines and bare-earth Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were produced for the...

  20. 2009 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic LiDAR: Fort Kent, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Camp Dresser McKee Inc. contracted with Sanborn Map Company to provide LiDAR mapping services for Fort Kent, Maine. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light Detection...

  1. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin in south-central Louisiana. The entire survey area encompasses 981 square...

  2. 2009 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic LiDAR: Fort Kent, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Camp Dresser McKee Inc. contracted with Sanborn Map Company to provide LiDAR mapping services for Fort Kent, Maine. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light Detection...

  3. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for the St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve...

  4. 2006 Florida LiDAR: Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Walton Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce ESCAMBIA: The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Escambia County, Florida. These data were produced for Dewberry and...

  5. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hillsborough/Little Manatee Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EarthData International collected ADS-50 derived LiDAR over a portion of Hillsborough and Manatee Counties with a one meter post spacing. The period of collection...

  6. 2006 Florida LiDAR: Escambia, Santa Rosa, and Walton Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ESCAMBIA: The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Escambia County, Florida. These data were produced for Dewberry and...

  7. 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  8. 2008 NWFWMD (Northwest Florida Water Management District) Florida LiDAR: Inland Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of inland Okaloosa County, Florida not covered in the 2008 Florida Department of Emergency...

  9. Identification des espces d'arbres partir de donnes T-LiDAR Tree species identification using T-LiDAR data

    OpenAIRE

    Othmani, Ahlem,; Stolz, Christophe; Lew Yan Voon, Lfc.; Piboule, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    En raison de l'utilisation croissante des scanners LiDAR terrestre (T-LiDAR) dans le domaine forestier, le dveloppement d'outils logiciels pour la mesure automatique d'attributs d'inventaire forestier est devenu un domaine de recherche important. De nombreux travaux portant sur la localisation des arbres dans un nuage de points, la mesure du diamtre hauteur de poitrine (DHP) ou la mesure de la hauteur des arbres ont t dcrits dans la littrature. Cependant, le problme de l'identificati...

  10. Geospatial revolution and remote sensing LiDAR in Mesoamerican archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Arlen F.; Chase, Diane Z.; Fisher, Christopher T.; Leisz, Stephen J.; John F. Weishampel

    2012-01-01

    The application of light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a laser-based remote-sensing technology that is capable of penetrating overlying vegetation and forest canopies, is generating a fundamental shift in Mesoamerican archaeology and has the potential to transform research in forested areas world-wide. Much as radiocarbon dating that half a century ago moved archaeology forward by grounding archaeological remains in time, LiDAR is proving to be a catalyst for an improved spatial understandin...

  11. Detection of large above ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jubanski; Ballhorn, U.; Kronseder, K.; Franke, J.; Siegert, F.

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of tropical forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB) over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia) through correlating airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were ana...

  12. Detecting understory plant invasion in urban forests using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar K.; Davis, Amy J.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-06-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data are increasingly used to measure structural characteristics of urban forests but are rarely used to detect the growing problem of exotic understory plant invaders. We explored the merits of using LiDAR-derived metrics alone and through integration with spectral data to detect the spatial distribution of the exotic understory plant Ligustrum sinense, a rapidly spreading invader in the urbanizing region of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. We analyzed regional-scale L. sinense occurrence data collected over the course of three years with LiDAR-derived metrics of forest structure that were categorized into the following groups: overstory, understory, topography, and overall vegetation characteristics, and IKONOS spectral features - optical. Using random forest (RF) and logistic regression (LR) classifiers, we assessed the relative contributions of LiDAR and IKONOS derived variables to the detection of L. sinense. We compared the top performing models developed for a smaller, nested experimental extent using RF and LR classifiers, and used the best overall model to produce a predictive map of the spatial distribution of L. sinense across our country-wide study extent. RF classification of LiDAR-derived topography metrics produced the highest mapping accuracy estimates, outperforming IKONOS data by 17.5% and the integration of LiDAR and IKONOS data by 5.3%. The top performing model from the RF classifier produced the highest kappa of 64.8%, improving on the parsimonious LR model kappa by 31.1% with a moderate gain of 6.2% over the county extent model. Our results demonstrate the superiority of LiDAR-derived metrics over spectral data and fusion of LiDAR and spectral data for accurately mapping the spatial distribution of the forest understory invader L. sinense.

  13. Retrieval of Forest Aboveground Biomass and Stem Volume with Airborne Scanning LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Petteri Alho; Hannu Hyyppä; Juha Hyyppä; Xiaowei Yu; Minna Räty; Markus Holopainen; Mikko Vastaranta; Ville Kankare; Risto Viitala

    2013-01-01

    Airborne scanning LiDAR is a promising technique for efficient and accuratebiomass mapping due to its capacity for direct measurement of the three-dimensionalstructure of vegetation. A combination of individual tree detection (ITD) and an area-basedapproach (ABA) introduced in Vastaranta et al. [1] to map forest aboveground biomass(AGB) and stem volume (VOL) was investigated. The main objective of this study was totest the usability and accuracy of LiDAR in biomass mapping. The nearest neighb...

  14. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar Uni...

  15. Airborne LiDAR Detects Selectively Logged Tropical Forest Even in an Advanced Stage of Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi Kent

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying historical forest disturbances is difficult, especially in selectively logged areas. LiDAR is able to measure fine-scale variations in forest structure over multiple kilometers. We use LiDAR data from ca. 16 km2 of forest in Sierra Leone, West Africa, to discriminate areas of old-growth from areas recovering from selective logging for 23 years. We examined canopy height variation and gap size distributions. We found that though recovering blocks of forest differed little in height from old-growth forest (up to 3 m, they had a greater area of canopy gaps (average 10.2% gap fraction in logged areas, compared to 5.6% in unlogged area; and greater numbers of gaps penetrating to the forest floor (162 gaps at 2 m height in logged blocks, and 101 in an unlogged block. Comparison of LiDAR measurements with field data demonstrated that LiDAR delivered accurate results. We found that gap size distributions deviated from power-laws reported previously, with substantially fewer large gaps than predicted by power-law functions. Our analyses demonstrate that LiDAR is a useful tool for distinguishing structural differences between old-growth and old-secondary forests. That makes LiDAR a powerful tool for REDD+ (Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation programs implementation and conservation planning.

  16. Airborne Dual-Wavelength LiDAR Data for Classifying Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Kai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the potential of using dual-wavelength airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data to classify land cover. Dual-wavelength LiDAR data were acquired from two airborne LiDAR systems that emitted pulses of light in near-infrared (NIR and middle-infrared (MIR lasers. The major features of the LiDAR data, such as surface height, echo width, and dual-wavelength amplitude, were used to represent the characteristics of land cover. Based on the major features of land cover, a support vector machine was used to classify six types of suburban land cover: road and gravel, bare soil, low vegetation, high vegetation, roofs, and water bodies. Results show that using dual-wavelength LiDAR-derived information (e.g., amplitudes at NIR and MIR wavelengths could compensate for the limitations of using single-wavelength LiDAR information (i.e., poor discrimination of low vegetation when classifying land cover.

  17. The first genetic map of pigeon pea based on diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi Ying Yang; Rachit A. Saxena; Pawan L. Kulwal; Gavin J. Ash; Anuja Dubey; John D. I. Harper; Hari D. Upadhyaya; Ragini Gothalwal; Andrzej Kilian; Rajeev K. Varshney

    2011-04-01

    With an objective to develop a genetic map in pigeon pea (Cajanus spp.), a total of 554 diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers showed polymorphism in a pigeon pea F2 mapping population of 72 progenies derived from an interspecific cross of ICP 28 (Cajanus cajan) and ICPW 94 (Cajanus scarabaeoides). Approximately 13% of markers did not conform to expected segregation ratio. The total number of DArT marker loci segregating in Mendelian manner was 405 with 73.1% ($P \\gt 0.001$) of DArT markers having unique segregation patterns. Two groups of genetic maps were generated using DArT markers. While the maternal genetic linkage map had 122 unique DArT maternal marker loci, the paternal genetic linkage map has a total of 172 unique DArT paternal marker loci. The length of these two maps covered 270.0 cM and 451.6 cM, respectively. These are the first genetic linkage maps developed for pigeon pea, and this is the first report of genetic mapping in any grain legume using diversity arrays technology.

  18. Area-Based Mapping of Defoliation of Scots Pine Stands Using Airborne Scanning LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Hyyppä

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mapping of changes in the distribution of insect-caused forest damage remains an important forest monitoring application and challenge. Efficient and accurate methods are required for mapping and monitoring changes in insect defoliation to inform forest management and reporting activities. In this research, we develop and evaluate a LiDAR-driven (Light Detection And Ranging approach for mapping defoliation caused by the Common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.. Our method requires plot-level training data and airborne scanning LiDAR data. The approach is predicated on a forest canopy mask created by detecting forest canopy cover using LiDAR. The LiDAR returns that are reflected from the canopy (that is, returns > half of maximum plot tree height are used in the prediction of the defoliation. Predictions of defoliation are made at plot-level, which enables a direct integration of the method to operational forest management planning while also providing additional value-added from inventory-focused LiDAR datasets. In addition to the method development, we evaluated the prediction accuracy and investigated the required pulse density for operational LiDAR-based mapping of defoliation. Our method proved to be suitable for the mapping of defoliated stands, resulting in an overall mapping accuracy of 84.3% and a Cohen’s kappa coefficient of 0.68.

  19. Mapping tree genera using discrete LiDAR and geometric tree metrics Mapeo del género de árboles usando LiDAR y métricas geométricas para árboles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps of tree genera are useful in applications including forest inventory, urban planning, and the maintenance of utility transmission line infrastructure. We present a case study of using high density airborne LiDAR data for tree genera mapping along the right of way (ROW of a utility transmission line corridor. Our goal was to identify single trees that showed or posed potential threats to transmission line infrastructure. Using the three dimensional mapping capability of LiDAR, we derived tree metrics that are related to the geometry of the trees (tree forms. For example, the dominant growth direction of trees is useful in identifying trees that are leaning towards transmission lines. We also derived other geometric indices that are useful in determining tree genera; these metrics included their height, crown shape, size, and branching structures. Our pilot study was situated north of Thessalon, Ontario, Canada along a major utility corridor ROW and surrounding woodlots. The geometric features used for general classification could be categorized into five broad categories related to: 1 lines, 2 clusters, 3 volumes, 4 3D buffers of points, and 5 overall tree shape that provide parameters as an input for the Random Forest classifier.Los mapas de géneros de árboles son útiles para el inventario forestal, planificación urbana y el mantenimiento de la infraestructura de líneas de transmisión. Se presenta un estudio de caso de uso de datos LiDAR de alta densidad para el mapeo de géneros de árboles a lo largo del derecho de paso (ROW de un corredor de línea de transmisión. El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar árboles individuales que mostraban o poseían una amenaza potencial a la infraestructura de la línea de transmisión. Mediante el uso de mapas tridimensionales de LiDAR se derivaron métricas de árboles que están relacionadas con la geometría de éstos (formas del árbol. Por ejemplo, la dirección del crecimiento dominante de los árboles es útil para identificar árboles que crecen inclinados hacia las líneas de transmisión. También se derivaron otras métricas geométricas que son útiles para determinar los géneros de los árboles, tales como altura, forma de la copa, tamaño y estructura de ramas. El área de estudio se ubicó al norte de Thessalon, Ontario, Canadá, a lo largo de los principales corredores de ROW y en los bosques aledaños. Los atributos geométricos usados para la clasificación de los géneros fueron categorizados en cinco amplias clases: 1 líneas, 2 agrupamiento, 3 volúmenes, 4 amortiguamiento en 3D de puntos, y 5 forma general del árbol que provee parámetros como una entrada para el clasificador forestal aleatorio.

  20. A Cyberinfrastructure Platform for Distribution of GeoEarthScope LiDAR Topography Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Balakrishnan, S.; Alex, N.; Baru, C.

    2008-12-01

    The recently completed GeoEarthScope airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) topography acquisition will provide unprecedented data adjacent to active faults throughout the plate boundary region of western North America. Totaling more than 5000 square kilometers, these community-oriented data offer an high-resolution representation of fault zone topography and should be a revolutionary resource for researchers studying earthquake hazards, active faulting, landscape processes, and ground deformation. Since spring of 2007, the NSF-funded GeoEarthScope LiDAR project has acquired data for the San Andreas fault system in northern California, faults in southern California, the Yakima Fold and Thrust Belt in Washington, Yellowstone National Park, the Tetons, the Wasatch Front, and Alaska. These data will be made available via the OpenTopography Portal (www.opentopography.org), a domain-specific component of the GEON project, as they are processed and delivered by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping. The OpenTopography Portal (OpenToPo) provides access to a variety of GeoEarthScope LiDAR data products and uses several cyberinfrastructure components developed by the GEON project. These products range from simple Google Earth visualizations of LiDAR hillshades to standard digital elevation model (DEM) products as well as LiDAR point cloud data. The wide spectrum of LiDAR users have variable scientific applications, computing resources and technical experience and thus require a data distribution system that provides various levels of access to the data. Standard DEM products in OpenToPo are accessed via a Google Map and/or Google Earth-based interface that allow users to browse and download the data products. For users who wish to explore the full potential of the LiDAR data, we provide access to the raw LiDAR point data and a suite of DEM generation tools to enable users to create custom DEMs to best fit their science applications. Storage and management of these multi-billion point LiDAR datasets is done via a partitioned spatial database that is deployed across a multi node cluster. The innovative database architecture allows for high performance as well as high scalability. Once a subset of data is defined in the Google Map interface, users are able to define their processing parameters and submit jobs to run on OpenToPo computing resources. By using cyberinfrastructure-based resources to provide access to the large volumes of GeoEarthScope LiDAR topography, OpenToPo democratizes access to these exciting but often challenging datasets.

  1. LiDAR Applications in Resource Geology and Benefits for Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulovsky, R. P.; De La Fuente, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The US Forest Service (US Department of Agriculture) manages a broad range of geologic resources and hazards on National Forests and Grass Lands throughout the United States. Resources include rock and earth materials, groundwater, caves and paleontological resources, minerals, energy resources, and unique geologic areas. Hazards include landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and naturally hazardous materials (e.g., asbestos, radon). Forest Service Geologists who address these issues are Resource Geologists. They have been exploring LiDAR as a revolutionary tool to efficiently manage all of these hazards and resources. However, most LiDAR applications for management have focused on timber and fuels management, rather than landforms. This study shows the applications and preliminary results of using LiDAR for managing geologic resources and hazards on public lands. Applications shown include calculating sediment budgets, mapping and monitoring landslides, mapping and characterizing borrow pits or mines, determining landslide potential, mapping faults, and characterizing groundwater dependent ecosystems. LiDAR can be used to model potential locations of groundwater dependent ecosystems with threatened or endangered plant species such as Howellia aquatilis. This difficult to locate species typically exists on the Mendocino National Forest within sag ponds on landslide benches. LiDAR metrics of known sites are used to model potential habitat. Thus LiDAR can link the disciplines of geology, hydrology, botany, archaeology and others for enhanced land management. As LiDAR acquisition costs decrease and it becomes more accessible, land management organizations will find a wealth of applications with potential far-reaching benefits for managing geologic resources and hazards.

  2. Es la marihuana una droga maldita?

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Con curiosidad hemos observado que en el último año han aparecido numerosas publicaciones en revistas de reconocido prestigio médico científico en la que se hacen planteamientos acerca de un posible papel terapéutico de la Cannabis sativa, más conocida como marihuana. Parece que esta polémica planta, famosa en Colombia por ocupar un lugar destacado entre las "exportaciones no tradicionales", está reuniendo argumentos para dar el gran salto al privilegiado grupo de las "Plantas Medicinales"....

  3. Geotechnical applications of LiDAR pertaining to geomechanical evaluation and hazard identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lato, Matthew J.

    Natural hazards related to ground movement that directly affect the safety of motorists and highway infrastructure include, but are not limited to, rockfalls, rockslides, debris flows, and landslides. This thesis specifically deals with the evaluation of rockfall hazards through the evaluation of LiDAR data. Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is an imaging technology that can be used to delineate and evaluate geomechanically-controlled hazards. LiDAR has been adopted to conduct hazard evaluations pertaining to rockfall, rock-avalanches, debris flows, and landslides. Characteristics of LiDAR surveying, such as rapid data acquisition rates, mobile data collection, and high data densities, pose problems to traditional CAD or GIS-based mapping methods. New analyses methods, including tools specifically oriented to geomechanical analyses, are needed. The research completed in this thesis supports development of new methods, including improved survey techniques, innovative software workflows, and processing algorithms to aid in the detection and evaluation of geomechanically controlled rockfall hazards. The scientific research conducted between the years of 2006-2010, as presented in this thesis, are divided into five chapters, each of which has been published by or is under review by an international journal. The five research foci are: (i) geomechanical feature extraction and analysis using LiDAR data in active mining environments; (ii) engineered monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR; (iii) optimization of LiDAR scanning and processing for automated structural evaluation of discontinuities in rockmasses; (iv) location orientation bias when using static LiDAR data for geomechanical analysis; and (v) evaluating roadside rockmasses for rockfall hazards from LiDAR data: optimizing data collection and processing protocols. The research conducted pertaining to this thesis has direct and significant implications with respect to numerous engineering projects that are affected by geomechanical stability issues. The ability to efficiently and accurately map discontinuities, detect changes, and standardize roadside geomechanical stability analyses from remote locations will fundamentally change the state-of-practice of geotechnical investigation workflows and repeatable monitoring. This, in turn, will lead to earlier detection and definition of potential zones of instability, will allow for progressive monitoring and risk analysis, and will indicate the need for pro-active slope improvement and stabilization.

  4. Extraction of Mangrove Biophysical Parameters Using Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsak Miphokasap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tree parameter determinations using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR have been conducted in many forest types, including coniferous, boreal, and deciduous. However, there are only a few scientific articles discussing the application of LiDAR to mangrove biophysical parameter extraction at an individual tree level. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using LiDAR data to estimate the biophysical parameters of mangrove trees at an individual tree scale. The Variable Window Filtering (VWF and Inverse Watershed Segmentation (IWS methods were investigated by comparing their performance in individual tree detection and in deriving tree position, crown diameter, and tree height using the LiDAR-derived Canopy Height Model (CHM. The results demonstrated that each method performed well in mangrove forests with a low percentage of crown overlap conditions. The VWF method yielded a slightly higher accuracy for mangrove parameter extractions from LiDAR data compared with the IWS method. This is because the VWF method uses an adaptive circular filtering window size based on an allometric relationship. As a result of the VWF method, the position measurements of individual tree indicated a mean distance error value of 1.10 m. The individual tree detection showed a kappa coefficient of agreement (K value of 0.78. The estimation of crown diameter produced a coefficient of determination (R2 value of 0.75, a Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 1.65 m, and a Relative Error (RE value of 19.7%. Tree height determination from LiDAR yielded an R2 value of 0.80, an RMSE value of 1.42 m, and an RE value of 19.2%. However, there are some limitations in the mangrove parameters derived from LiDAR. The results indicated that an increase in the percentage of crown overlap (COL results in an accuracy decrease of the mangrove parameters extracted from the LiDAR-derived CHM, particularly for crown measurements. In this study, the accuracy of LiDAR-derived biophysical parameters in mangrove forests using the VWF and IWS methods is lower than in coniferous, boreal, pine, and deciduous forests. An adaptive allometric equation that is specific for the level of tree density and percentage of crown overlap is a solution for improving the predictive accuracy of the VWF method.

  5. Specular and diffuse object extraction from a LiDAR derived Digital Surface Model (DSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, N. M.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Kamaruddin, M. H.

    2014-02-01

    This paper intents to investigate the indifferent behaviour quantitatively of target objects of interest due to specular and diffuse reflectivity based on generated LiDAR DSM of the study site in Ampang, Kuala Lumpur. The LiDAR data to be used was initially checked for its reliability and accuracy. The point cloud LiDAR data was converted to raster to allow grid analysis of the next process of generating the DSM and DTM. Filtering and masking were made removing the features of interest (i.e. building and tree) and other unwanted above surface features. A normalised DSM and object segmentation approach were conducted on the trees and buildings separately. Error assessment and findings attained were highlighted and documented. The result of LiDAR verification certified that the data is reliable and useable. The RMSE obtained is within the tolerance value of horizontal and vertical accuracy (x, y, z) i.e. 0.159 m, 0.211 m 0.091 m respectively. Building extraction inclusive of roof top based on slope and contour analysis undertaken indicate the capability of the approach while single tree extraction through aspect analysis appears to preserve the accuracy of the extraction accordingly. The paper has evaluated the suitable methods of extracting non-ground features and the effective segmentation of the LiDAR data.

  6. Accuracy Assessment of LiDAR-Derived Digital Elevation Models Based on Approximation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoHang Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative error at a point in a LiDAR-derived DEM consists of three components: propagated LiDAR-sensor error, propagated ground error, and interpolation error. To combine these error components so as to assess the vertical accuracy of a LiDAR-derived DEM, statistical methods based on the error propagation theory are often used. Due to the existence of systematic error, statistical methods are only effective if a large number of checkpoints are available, which may not be affordable in many practical applications. This paper presents approximation theory as an alternative methodology that departs from error propagation theory in fundamental ways. Using approximation theory, an error bound of the cumulative error at any point in the study site can be obtained, thus informing users conservatively of the spatial variation of DEM accuracy and pointing out the weakly determined areas. The new method is illustrated from DEM users perspective by assessing whether a publicly available LiDAR-derived DEM meets FEMAs accuracy standard for flood risk mapping. The paper calls for a change in the existing methods of assessing and reporting the errors in a LiDAR-derived DEM, in particular those introduced during the ground filtering process.

  7. Detection of fault structures with airborne LiDAR point-cloud data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Du, Lei

    2015-08-01

    The airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) technology is a new type of aerial earth observation method which can be used to produce high-precision DEM (Digital Elevation Model) quickly and reflect ground surface information directly. Fault structure is one of the key forms of crustal movement, and its quantitative description is the key to the research of crustal movement. The airborne LiDAR point-cloud data is used to detect and extract fault structures automatically based on linear extension, elevation mutation and slope abnormal characteristics. Firstly, the LiDAR point-cloud data is processed to filter out buildings, vegetation and other non-surface information with the TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) filtering method and Burman model calibration method. TIN and DEM are made from the processed data sequentially. Secondly, linear fault structures are extracted based on dual-threshold method. Finally, high-precision DOM (Digital Orthophoto Map) and other geological knowledge are used to check the accuracy of fault structure extraction. An experiment is carried out in Beiya Village of Yunnan Province, China. With LiDAR technology, results reveal that: the airborne LiDAR point-cloud data can be utilized to extract linear fault structures accurately and automatically, measure information such as height, width and slope of fault structures with high precision, and detect faults in areas with vegetation coverage effectively.

  8. Development of LiDAR measurements for the German offshore test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper introduces the content of the recently started joint research project 'Development of LiDAR measurements for the German Offshore Test Site' which has the objective to support other research projects at the German offshore test site 'alpha ventus'. The project has started before the erection of the offshore wind farm and one aim is to give recommendations concerning LiDAR technology useable for offshore measurement campaigns and data analysis. The work is organized in four work packages. The work package LiDAR technology deals with the specification, acquisition and calibration of a commercial LiDAR system for the measurement campaigns. Power curve measurements are dedicated to power curve assessment with ground-based LiDAR using standard statistical methods. Additionally, it deals with the development of new methods for the measurement of non-steady short-term power curves. Wind field research aims at the development of wake loading simulation methods of wind turbines and the exploration of loading control strategies and nacelle-based wind field measurement techniques. Finally, dissemination of results to the industry takes place in work package Technology transfer

  9. Development of LiDAR measurements for the German offshore test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmeier, A.; Kühn, M.; Wächter, M.; Rahm, S.; Mellinghoff, H.; Siegmeier, B.; Reeder, L.

    2008-05-01

    The paper introduces the content of the recently started joint research project 'Development of LiDAR measurements for the German Offshore Test Site' which has the objective to support other research projects at the German offshore test site 'alpha ventus'. The project has started before the erection of the offshore wind farm and one aim is to give recommendations concerning LiDAR technology useable for offshore measurement campaigns and data analysis. The work is organized in four work packages. The work package LiDAR technology deals with the specification, acquisition and calibration of a commercial LiDAR system for the measurement campaigns. Power curve measurements are dedicated to power curve assessment with ground-based LiDAR using standard statistical methods. Additionally, it deals with the development of new methods for the measurement of non-steady short-term power curves. Wind field research aims at the development of wake loading simulation methods of wind turbines and the exploration of loading control strategies and nacelle-based wind field measurement techniques. Finally, dissemination of results to the industry takes place in work package Technology transfer.

  10. Correlation analysis between Patlack plot and DAR using 11C-methionine PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven patients were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) using 11C-methionine. All had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but one, who had Hodgkin's disease. By assuming a simple three-compartment model for dynamic data analysis, we used the graphic method proposed by Patlak et al., where Ki (K2K3/(K1+K3)) was compared with DAR (differential absorption ratio). Trichloroacetate was added to each plasma sample, and the activity of the acid-soluble fraction was counted to eliminate the influence of the protein-bound fraction of injected activity. Patlak data plots, using this acid-soluble fraction as an input factor, showed good linearity over the time of data collection. All tumors showed clear 11C-methionine accumulation. Tumor activity reached almost a plateau within 10 min and was kept at the same level for at least 30 min. Ki and DAR were 0.0700.035 and 4.641.85 (meanSD), respectively. There was no apparent correlation between histological type and Ki or DAR, while the correlation efficient between Ki and DAR was 0.875. Our conclusion is that DAR will give almost the same result as dynamic data in the analysis of methionine metabolism using PET. (author)

  11. Specular and diffuse object extraction from a LiDAR derived Digital Surface Model (DSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper intents to investigate the indifferent behaviour quantitatively of target objects of interest due to specular and diffuse reflectivity based on generated LiDAR DSM of the study site in Ampang, Kuala Lumpur. The LiDAR data to be used was initially checked for its reliability and accuracy. The point cloud LiDAR data was converted to raster to allow grid analysis of the next process of generating the DSM and DTM. Filtering and masking were made removing the features of interest (i.e. building and tree) and other unwanted above surface features. A normalised DSM and object segmentation approach were conducted on the trees and buildings separately. Error assessment and findings attained were highlighted and documented. The result of LiDAR verification certified that the data is reliable and useable. The RMSE obtained is within the tolerance value of horizontal and vertical accuracy (x, y, z) i.e. 0.159 m, 0.211 m 0.091 m respectively. Building extraction inclusive of roof top based on slope and contour analysis undertaken indicate the capability of the approach while single tree extraction through aspect analysis appears to preserve the accuracy of the extraction accordingly. The paper has evaluated the suitable methods of extracting non-ground features and the effective segmentation of the LiDAR data

  12. Presin media de llenado sistmico: es el parmetro ideal para evaluar precarga ptima? / Mean systemic filling pressure: Is the ideal parameter to evaluate optimal preload?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo, Garca-Domnguez; Enrique, Monarez-Zepeda; Pedro, Barriga-Ferreyra.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los retos para el cardilogo es conseguir una volemia ptima, es decir, mejorar el gasto cardiaco, evitando un exceso de volemia que pudiera favorecer un pronstico negativo. Actualmente se sabe que el balance positivo se asocia con un incremento en la mortalidad; en la actualidad contamos co [...] n diversos parmetros para evaluar la precarga; sin embargo, ninguno es altamente fidedigno. El objetivo del presente artculo de revisin es dar un recordatorio de este concepto fisiolgico as como sus utilidades en el monitoreo del paciente. Abstract in english One challenge for the cardiologist is to achieve optimal blood volume for to improve cardiac output, and avoid excessive blood volume that could favor a negative prognosis. Now is known that the positive balance is associated with increased mortality; today we have different standards for assessing [...] preload yet none is highly reliable; the objective of this review is to give a reminder of its physiological concept and profits in patient monitoring.

  13. Los rostros de Ana: Tres comentarios sobre Darío Morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marcelo Velázquez Sabogal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito es una aproximación a la obra del artista colombiano Darío Morales desde la perspectiva dialéctica “vida-muerte”, alentada por el acontecimiento de lo ambiguo y sus implicaciones en la deconstrucción de una corporeidad estable regida por parámetros sociales, jurídicos y biológicos que desembocan en la caracterización de un “otro” en el cual se encuentran figuras como el anormal, el incorregible, el monstruo. Desde ellos pretendo trazar un punto de vista sobre aquellos Rostros de Ana donde se manifiestan figuras como el onanista y la vampira, para desembocar en un comentario que amplíe el espectro de sentido alrededor la obra del artista cartagenero. Palabras claves Cuerpo ambiguo, vida-muerte, sagrado-profano, onanismo. Ñawekuna kai warmi Ana Sutipa: Kimsa pariai ksi runa Dario Morales Sugllapi Kai kilkai kame ñalla regcha kai tacha runa colombiano Dario Morales Kilkakasina rimangapa “ kausai- wamui” aida chingapa kaikuna Mana allilla llugsichu tukuikunamanda icharichu llanga “sug manda” Kaipe turrerreme ¡ kauancheme man aillakaska, man allilla rurasla! Kirú. Kaipi pudenchi kauanga imasami kauacheca kai warme Ana paipa ñawekuna Kai ruraikuna sutikame onanista Chasallata vampira, Kaiwa munakume Allilla intendechengapa imasame parlaku sug iacha Cartagenero. Ima suti Rimai Simi: Cuerpo ambiguo, kaugsai, muerte, sagrado - profano, onanismo. The Faces of Ana: Three Comments on Dario Morales Abstract This paper is an approach to the work of Colombian artist Dario Morales from the perspective of the dialectic of “life and death”, encouraged by the occurrence of the ambiguous and its implications for the deconstruction of a stable corporeality governed by social, legal and biological parameters that lead to the characterization of an “other”, in which figures such as the abnormal, the incorrigible, the monster are to be found. From them, I intend to plot a point of view on those faces of Ana where figures like the masturbator and the vampire make their appearance, in order, at last, to broaden the spectrum of meaning around the work of the Cartagena-born artist. Keywords Ambiguous body, life-death, sacred-profane, onanism.

  14. GPU-based roofs' solar potential estimation using LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukač, Niko; Žalik, Borut

    2013-03-01

    Solar potential estimation using LiDAR data is an efficient approach for finding suitable roofs for photovoltaic systems' installations. As the amount of LiDAR data increases, the non-parallel methods take considerable time to accurately estimate the solar potential. Although supercomputing provides a possible solution, it is still too expensive and thus infeasible for general usage. Fortunately, the recent graphics processing units (GPUs) can now be utilized to ensure fast computations. This paper proposes a novel method for fast solar potential estimation using GPU-based CUDA technology. This method employs LiDAR data, irradiance measurements, multiresolutional shadowing from solid objects, and heuristic shadowing from vegetation. Experimental results demonstrate the method's effectiveness, in comparison with a multi-core CPU-based approach.

  15. Octree-based segmentation for terrestrial LiDAR point cloud data in industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Ting; Bethel, James; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-03-01

    Automated and efficient algorithms to perform segmentation of terrestrial LiDAR data is critical for exploitation of 3D point clouds, where the ultimate goal is CAD modeling of the segmented data. In this work, a novel segmentation technique is proposed, starting with octree decomposition to recursively divide the scene into octants or voxels, followed by a novel split and merge framework that uses graph theory and a series of connectivity analyses to intelligently merge components into larger connected components. The connectivity analysis, based on a combination of proximity, orientation, and curvature connectivity criteria, is designed for the segmentation of pipes, vessels, and walls from terrestrial LiDAR data of piping systems at industrial sites, such as oil refineries, chemical plants, and steel mills. The proposed segmentation method is exercised on two terrestrial LiDAR datasets of a steel mill and a chemical plant, demonstrating its ability to correctly reassemble and segregate features of interest.

  16. Using 3D visual tools with LiDAR for environmental outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, N. F.; Mannel, S.; Ehinger, S.; Moore, C.

    2009-12-01

    The project objective is to develop visualizations using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and other data sources to increase community understanding of remote sensing data for earth science. These data are visualized using Google Earth and other visualization methods. Final products are delivered to K-12, state, and federal agencies to share with their students and community constituents. Once our partner agencies were identified, we utilized a survey method to better understand their technological abilities and use of visualization products. The final multimedia products include a visualization of LiDAR and well data for water quality mapping in a southeastern Idaho watershed; a tour of hydrologic points of interest in southeastern Idaho visited by thousands of people each year, and post-earthquake features near Borah Peak, Idaho. In addition to the customized multimedia materials, we developed tutorials to encourage our partners to utilize these tools with their own LiDAR and other scientific data.

  17. The IsoDAR High Intensity H$_2^+$ Transport and Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Jose; Calabretta, Luciano; Campo, Daniela; Celona, Luigi; Conrad, Janet M; Day, Alexandra; Castro, Giuseppe; Labrecque, Francis; Winklehner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This technical report reviews the tests performed at the Best Cyclotron Systems, Inc. facility in regards to developing a cost effective ion source, beam line transport system, and acceleration system capable of high H$_2^+$ current output for the IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment. We begin by outlining the requirements for the IsoDAR experiment then provide overview of the Versatile Ion Source, Low Energy Beam Transport system, spiral inflector, and cyclotron. The experimental measurements are then discussed and the results are compared with a thorough set of simulation studies. Of particular importance we note that the Versatile Ion Source (VIS) proved to be a reliable ion source capable of generating a large amount of H$_2^+$ current. The results suggest that with further upgrades, the VIS could potentially be a suitable candidate for IsoDAR. The conclusion outlines the key results from our tests and introduces the forthcoming work this technical report has motivated.

  18. Clasificación de las masas vegetales en los mapas de orientación a través de imágenes LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández García, Luis Carlos

    2014-01-01

    [ES]Este trabajo plantea la posibilidad de clasificar las masas vegetales de la España peninsular en las distintas categorías de penetrabilidad empleando para ello datos PNOA - LiDAR del Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Tras recopilar la información sobre el estado de la cuestión se diseña una metodología que parte de la definición de áreas de estudio representativas de la gran diversidad forestal de nuestro país. Para cada una de ellas se selecciona un mapa de orientación que tras el oportuno ...

  19. Detection of large above ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jubanski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of tropical forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia through correlating airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52. Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square meter of 2–4 resulted in the best cost-benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC showed an overestimation of 46%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong GHG emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  20. Detection of large above ground biomass variability in lowland forest ecosystems by airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubanski, J.; Ballhorn, U.; Kronseder, K.; Franke, J.; Siegert, F.

    2012-08-01

    Quantification of tropical forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB) over large areas as input for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) projects and climate change models is challenging. This is the first study which attempts to estimate AGB and its variability across large areas of tropical lowland forests in Central Kalimantan (Indonesia) through correlating airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to forest inventory data. Two LiDAR height metrics were analysed and regression models could be improved through the use of LiDAR point densities as input (R2 = 0.88; n = 52). Surveying with a LiDAR point density per square meter of 2-4 resulted in the best cost-benefit ratio. We estimated AGB for 600 km of LiDAR tracks and showed that there exists a considerable variability of up to 140% within the same forest type due to varying environmental conditions. Impact from logging operations and the associated AGB losses dating back more than 10 yr could be assessed by LiDAR but not by multispectral satellite imagery. Comparison with a Landsat classification for a 1 million ha study area where AGB values were based on site specific field inventory data, regional literature estimates, and default values by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) showed an overestimation of 46%, 102%, and 137%, respectively. The results show that AGB overestimation may lead to wrong GHG emission estimates due to deforestation in climate models. For REDD+ projects this leads to inaccurate carbon stock estimates and consequently to significantly wrong REDD+ based compensation payments.

  1. Detailed Hydrographic Feature Extraction from High-Resolution LiDAR Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny L. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Detailed hydrographic feature extraction from high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data is investigated. Methods for quantitatively evaluating and comparing such extractions are presented, including the use of sinuosity and longitudinal root-mean-square-error (LRMSE). These metrics are then used to quantitatively compare stream networks in two studies. The first study examines the effect of raster cell size on watershed boundaries and stream networks delineated from LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs). The study confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes generally yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE. The second study demonstrates a new method of delineating a stream directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM. Direct use of LiDAR point clouds could improve efficiency and accuracy of hydrographic feature extractions. The direct delineation method developed herein and termed “mDn”, is an extension of the D8 method that has been used for several decades with gridded raster data. The method divides the region around a starting point into sectors, using the LiDAR data points within each sector to determine an average slope, and selecting the sector with the greatest downward slope to determine the direction of flow. An mDn delineation was compared with a traditional grid-based delineation, using TauDEM, and other readily available, common stream data sets. Although, the TauDEM delineation yielded a sinuosity that more closely matches the reference, the mDn delineation yielded a sinuosity that was higher than either the TauDEM method or the existing published stream delineations. Furthermore, stream delineation using the mDn method yielded the smallest LRMSE.

  2. Investigating the spatial distribution of water levels in the Mackenzie Delta using airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Crasto, N.; Marsh, P.; Forbes, D.; Lesack, L.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data were used to map water level (WL) and hydraulic gradients (??H/??x) in the Mackenzie Delta. The LiDAR WL data were validated against eight independent hydrometric gauge measurements and demonstrated mean offsets from - 0??22 to + 0??04 m (??LiDAR-based WL gradients could be estimated with confidence over channel lengths exceeding 5-10 km where the WL change exceeded local noise levels in the LiDAR data. For the entire Delta, the LiDAR sample coverage indicated a rate of change in longitudinal gradient (??2H/??x) of 5??5 ?? 10-10 m m-2; therefore offering a potential means to estimate average flood stage hydraulic gradient for areas of the Delta not sampled or monitored. In the Outer Delta, within-channel and terrain gradient measurements all returned a consistent estimate of - 1 ?? 10-5 m m-1, suggesting that this is a typical hydraulic gradient for the downstream end of the Delta. For short reaches ( 0??1 m was observed at a channel constriction entering a meander bend, suggesting a localized modification of the channel hydraulics. Furthermore, water levels in the anabranch channels of the Peel River were almost 1 m higher than in Middle Channel of the Mackenzie River. This suggests: (i) the channels are elevated and have shallower bank heights in this part of the delta, leading to increased cross-delta and along-channel hydraulic gradients; and/or (ii) a proportion of the Peel River flow is lost to Middle Channel due to drainage across the delta through anastamosing channels. This study has demonstrated that airborne LiDAR data contain valuable information describing Arctic river delta water surface and hydraulic attributes that would be challenging to acquire by other means. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. High-Density LiDAR Mapping of the Ancient City of Mayapán

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Hare; Marilyn Masson; Bradley Russell

    2014-01-01

    A 2013 survey of a 40 square kilometer area surrounding Mayapán, Yucatan, Mexico used high-density LiDAR data to map prehispanic architecture and related natural features. Most of the area is covered by low canopy dense forest vegetation over karstic hilly terrain that impedes full coverage archaeological survey. We used LiDAR at 40 laser points per square meter to generate a bare earth digital elevation model (DEM). Results were evaluated with comparisons to previously mapped areas and with ...

  4. LiDAR-derived morphological changes of gravel-bed rivers in the French Prealps

    OpenAIRE

    Tacon, S.; Libault, F.; Pigay, H.

    2011-01-01

    The recent development of innovative topographic survey technologies offers new opportunities for investigating spatial and temporal patterns of gravel-bed rivers morphological responses to flow events. In this study, multidate airborne LiDAR surveys were used to reconstruct reach-scale morphological changes in two gravel-bed rivers following important floods. LiDAR surveys were acquired simultaneously for a 7 km reach of the Bs River and a 3.1 km reach of the Bouinenc Torrent, which are two...

  5. Direct injection into the IsoDAR Cyclotron using a RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, Spencer; IsoDAR Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, the use of Radio Frequency Quadrupoles (RFQs) has been pervasive in linear accelerators in order to accelerate, bunch, and separate ion species. Current research suggests this may be an ideal way to inject a low energy H2+ beam axially into a cyclotron. The IsoDAR (Isotope Decay At Rest) experiment aims to implement this injection system in order to achieve higher Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) efficiencies and ultimately construct a novel compact neutrino factory to test the hypothesis of sterile neutrinos. This talk will focus on the research and development needed to implement a RFQ into the IsoDAR experiment.

  6. Numerical modeling of the airflow around a forest edge using LiDAR-derived forest heigths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Etienne; Dellwik, Ebba; Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Sogachev, Andrey

    A 3D methodology to quantify the effect of forests on the mean wind flow field is presented. The methodology is based on the treatment of forest raw data of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) scans, and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method based on a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (Ra......NS) approach using the k−e turbulence model with a corresponding canopy model. The example site investigated is a forest edge located on the Falster island in Denmark, where a measurement campaign was conducted. The LiDAR scans are used in order to obtain the forest heights, which served as input to the...

  7. White paper On the use of LiDAR data at AmeriFlux sites

    OpenAIRE

    Beland, Martin; Parker, Geoffrey; Harding, David; Hopkinson, Chris; Chasmer, Laura; Antonarakis, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to inform the AmeriFlux community on existing and upcoming LiDAR technologies (atmospheric Doppler or Raman LiDAR often deployed at flux sites are not considered here), how it is currently used at flux sites, and how we believe it could, in the future, further contribute to the AmeriFlux vision. Heterogeneity in vegetation and ground properties at various spatial scales is omnipresent at flux sites, and 3D mapping of canopy, understory, and ground surface can help move ...

  8. MKENO-DAR: a direct angular representation Monte Carlo code for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the Monte Carlo code MULTI-KENO, the MKENO-DAR (Direct Angular Representation) code has been developed for criticality safety analysis in detail. A function was added to MULTI-KENO for representing anisotropic scattering strictly. With this function, the scattering angle of neutron is determined not by the average scattering angle μ-bar of the Pl Legendre polynomial but by the random work operation using probability distribution function produced with the higher order Legendre polynomials. This code is avilable for the FACOM-M380 computer. This report is a computer code manual for MKENO-DAR. (author)

  9. Un pas pobre podr dar Bienestar a sus Animales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrilla, Guillermo.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa verdad absoluta es que los animales de produccin y especialmente los perros y gatos en los pases en desarrollo estn propensos a sufrir actos de negligencia humana. Las mascotas padecen de la pobreza del mismo modo que lo hacen sus dueos. En un Pas como Bolivia con grandes zonas empobrecidas y extensos barrios periurbanos que se debaten en la miseria, los animales estn vulnerables a la desnutricin,enfermedades y sobre todo al abandono.El bienestar animal ha sido definido por la Organizacin Mundial de Sanidad Animal(OIE como la manera en que los animales se enfrentan con el medio ambiente y que incluye su sanidad, sus percepciones, su estado anmico y otros efectos positivos o negativos que influyen sobre los mecanismos fsicos y psquicos del animal .Lamentablemente en pases del llamado Tercer Mundo esta definicin cae en saco roto.

  10. Dar casa a las voces infantiles, reflexiones desde la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANA SOSENSKI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available (analítico: En este artículo reflexiono sobre algunas paradojas que surgen al rescatar las voces de las niñas y los niños en las investigaciones académicas. Analizo qué se hace desde la academia con las voces infantiles una vez que las investigaciones o proyectos llegan a su fin. Aquí planteo que es necesario pensar en la voz infantil como un documento que puede enmarcarse en diversos géneros discursivos. En tanto se sostiene que las niñas y los niños son autores de discursos y de documentos, en este texto propongo que las voces infantiles sean preservadas y compartidas, con la finalidad de que puedan ser reutilizadas y reinterpretadas. Para ello sugiero la construcción de archivos con documentos infantiles.

  11. SRTM DEM Correction in Vegetated Mountain Areas through the Integration of Spaceborne LiDAR, Airborne LiDAR, and Optical Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Su

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM is one of the most complete and frequently used global-scale DEM products in various applications. However, previous studies have shown that the SRTM DEM is systematically higher than the actual land surface in vegetated mountain areas. The objective of this study is to propose a procedure to calibrate the SRTM DEM over large vegetated mountain areas. Firstly, we developed methods to estimate canopy cover from aerial imagery and tree height from multi-source datasets (i.e., field observations, airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data, Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS data, Landsat TM imagery, climate surfaces, and topographic data. Then, the airborne LiDAR derived DEM, covering ~5% of the study area, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the SRTM DEM. Finally, a regression model of the SRTM DEM error depending on tree height, canopy cover, and terrain slope was developed to calibrate the SRTM DEM. Our results show that the proposed procedure can significantly improve the accuracy of the SRTM DEM over vegetated mountain areas. The mean difference between the SRTM DEM and the LiDAR DEM decreased from 12.15 m to −0.82 m, and the standard deviation dropped by 2 m.

  12. KML-Based Access and Visualization of High Resolution LiDAR Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Blair, J. L.; Nandigam, V.; Memon, A.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been dramatic growth in the acquisition of LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) high-resolution topographic data for earth science studies. Capable of providing digital elevation models (DEMs) more than an order of magnitude higher resolution than those currently available, LiDAR data allow earth scientists to study the processes that contribute to landscape evolution at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. These datasets also have significant implications for earth science education and outreach because they provide an accurate representation of landforms and geologic hazards. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To make these data available to a larger user community, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to provide access to LiDAR data products and visualizations. LiDAR digital elevation models are typically delivered in a tiled format that lends itself well to a KML-based distribution system. For LiDAR datasets hosted in the GEON OpenTopography Portal (www.opentopography.org) we have developed KML files that show the extent of available LiDAR DEMs and provide direct access to the data products. Users interact with these KML files to explore the extent of the available data and are able to select DEMs that correspond to their area of interest. Selection of a tile loads a download that the user can then save locally for analysis in their software of choice. The GEON topography system also has tools available that allow users to generate custom DEMs from LiDAR point cloud data. This system is powerful because it enables users to access massive volumes of raw LiDAR data and to produce DEM products that are optimized to their science applications. We have developed a web service that converts the custom DEM models produced by the system to a hillshade that is delivered to the user as a KML groundoverlay. The KML product enables users to quickly and easily visualize the DEMs in Google Earth. By combining internet-based LiDAR data processing with KML visualization products, users are able to execute computationally intensive data sub-setting, processing and visualization without having local access to computing resources, GIS software, or data processing expertise. Finally, GEON has partnered with the US Geological Survey to generate region-dependant network linked KML visualizations for large volumes of LiDAR derived hillshades of the Northern San Andreas fault system. These data, acquired by the NSF-funded GeoEarthScope project, offer an unprecedented look at active faults in the northern portion of the San Andreas system. Through the region-dependant network linked KML, users can seamlessly access 1 meter hillshades (both 315 and 45 degree sun angles) for the full 1400 square kilometer dataset, without downloading huge volumes of data. This type of data access has great utility for users ranging from earthquake scientists to K-12 educators who wish to introduce cutting edge real world data into their earth science lessons.

  13. Visualization of High-Resolution LiDAR Topography in Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Arrowsmith, R.; Blair, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    The growing availability of high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) topographic data has proven to be revolutionary for Earth science research. These data allow scientists to study the processes acting on the Earth’s surfaces at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. In addition to their utility for research, the data have also been recognized as powerful tools for communicating earth science concepts for education and outreach purposes. Unfortunately, the massive volume of data produced by LiDAR mapping technology can be a barrier to their use. To facilitate access to these powerful data for research and educational purposes, we have been exploring the use of Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth to deliver LiDAR-derived visualizations. The OpenTopography Portal (http://www.opentopography.org/) is a National Science Foundation-funded facility designed to provide access to Earth science-oriented LiDAR data. OpenTopography hosts a growing collection of LiDAR data for a variety of geologic domains, including many of the active faults in the western United States. We have found that the wide spectrum of LiDAR users have variable scientific applications, computing resources, and technical experience and thus require a data distribution system that provides various levels of access to the data. For users seeking a synoptic view of the data, and for education and outreach purposes, delivering full-resolution images derived from LiDAR topography into the Google Earth virtual globe is powerful. The virtual globe environment provides a freely available and easily navigated viewer and enables quick integration of the LiDAR visualizations with imagery, geographic layers, and other relevant data available in KML format. Through region-dependant network linked KML, OpenTopography currently delivers over 20 GB of LiDAR-derived imagery to users via simple, easily downloaded KMZ files hosted at the Portal. This method provides seamlessly access to hillshaded imagery for both bare earth and first return terrain models with various angles of illumination. Seamless access to LiDAR-derived imagery in Google Earth has proven to be the most popular product available in the OpenTopography Portal. The hillshade KMZ files have been downloaded over 3000 times by users ranging from earthquake scientists to K-12 educators who wish to introduce cutting edge real world data into their earth science lessons. OpenTopography also provides dynamically generated KMZ visualizations of LiDAR data products produced when users choose to use the OpenTopography point cloud access and processing system. These Google Earth compatible products allow users to quickly visualize the custom terrain products they have generated without the burden of loading the data into a GIS environment. For users who have installed the Google Earth browser plug-in, these visualizations can be launched directly from the OpenTopography results page and viewed directly in the browser.

  14. Remote Sensing of Sonoran Desert Vegetation Structure and Phenology with Ground-Based LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel B. Sankey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  15. Validating LiDAR Derived Estimates of Canopy Height, Structure and Fractional Cover in Riparian Areas: A Comparison of Leaf-on and Leaf-off LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Chasmer, L. E.; Taylor, A.; Day, R.

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of riparian buffers is integral to understanding the landscape scale impacts of disturbance on wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. Riparian buffers may be characterized using in situ plot sampling or via high resolution remote sensing. Field measurements are time-consuming and may not cover a broad range of ecosystem types. Further, spectral remote sensing methods introduce a compromise between spatial resolution (grain) and area extent. Airborne LiDAR can be used to continuously map and characterize riparian vegetation structure and composition due to the three-dimensional reflectance of laser pulses within and below the canopy, understory and at the ground surface. The distance between reflections (or ‘returns’) allows for detection of narrow buffer corridors at the landscape scale. There is a need to compare leaf-off and leaf-on surveyed LiDAR data with in situ measurements to assess accuracy in landscape scale analysis. These comparisons are particularly important considering increased availability of leaf-off surveyed LiDAR datasets. And given this increased availability, differences between leaf-on and leaf-off derived LiDAR metrics are largely unknown for riparian vegetation of varying composition and structure. This study compares the effectiveness of leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR in characterizing riparian buffers of varying structure and composition as compared to field measurements. Field measurements were used to validate LiDAR derived metrics. Vegetation height, canopy cover, density and overstory and understory species composition were recorded in 80 random plots of varying vegetation type, density and structure within a Pennsylvania watershed (-77.841, 40.818). Plot data were compared with LiDAR data collected during leaf on and leaf off conditions to determine 1) accuracy of LiDAR derived metrics compared to field measures and 2) differences between leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR metrics. Results illustrate that differences exist between metrics derived from leaf on and leaf-off surveyed LiDAR. There is greater variability between the two datasets within taller deciduous and mixed (conifer and deciduous) vegetation compared to shorter deciduous and mixed vegetation. Differences decrease as stand density increases for both mixed and deciduous forests. LiDAR derived canopy height is more sensitive to understory vegetation as stand density decreases making measurement of understory vegetation in the field important in the validation process. Finally, while leaf-on LiDAR is often preferred for vegetation analysis, results suggest that leaf-off LiDAR may be sufficient to categorize vegetation into height classes to be used for landscape scale habitat models.

  16. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis strain DAR 81934, which exhibits molluscicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aisuo; Pattemore, Julie; Ash, Gavin; Williams, Angela; Hane, James

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as a biopesticide for a long time. Its molluscicidal activity, however, is rarely realized. Here, we report the genome sequence of B. thuringiensis strain DAR 81934, a strain with molluscicidal activity against the pest snail Cernuella virgata. PMID:23516227

  17. Habitat Classification of Temperate Marine Macroalgal Communities Using Bathymetric LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Zavalas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the potential of using bathymetric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to characterise shallow water (<30 m benthic habitats of high energy subtidal coastal environments. Habitat classification, quantifying benthic substrata and macroalgal communities, was achieved in this study with the application of LiDAR and underwater video groundtruth data using automated classification techniques. Bathymetry and reflectance datasets were used to produce secondary terrain derivative surfaces (e.g., rugosity, aspect that were assumed to influence benthic patterns observed. An automated decision tree classification approach using the Quick Unbiased Efficient Statistical Tree (QUEST was applied to produce substrata, biological and canopy structure habitat maps of the study area. Error assessment indicated that habitat maps produced were primarily accurate (>70%, with varying results for the classification of individual habitat classes; for instance, producer accuracy for mixed brown algae and sediment substrata, was 74% and 93%, respectively. LiDAR was also successful for differentiating canopy structure of macroalgae communities (i.e., canopy structure classification, such as canopy forming kelp versus erect fine branching algae. In conclusion, habitat characterisation using bathymetric LiDAR provides a unique potential to collect baseline information about biological assemblages and, hence, potential reef connectivity over large areas beyond the range of direct observation. This research contributes a new perspective for assessing the structure of subtidal coastal ecosystems, providing a novel tool for the research and management of such highly dynamic marine environments.

  18. Genetic Essentialism, Neuroessentialism, and Stigma: Commentary on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) presented a masterfully broad review of the implications of genetic essentialism for understandings of human diversity. This commentary clarifies the reasons that essentialist thinking has problematic social consequences and links genetic forms of essentialism to those invoking neural essences. The mounting evidence…

  19. 2012-2013 U.S. Geological Survey LiDAR: Territory of Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Territory of Guam, LiDAR Task G11PD01189 This task order is for production of surface model products of The Territory of Guam. The models are produced from data...

  20. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Mobile Bay, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD00578 LiDAR was collected at a nominal pulse spacing of 2.0 meters for a 700 square mile area to the east of...

  1. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ARRA Topographic LiDAR: Coastal Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD02143 Task Order Number: G10PD01027 LiDAR was collected at a 2.0 meter nominal post spacing (2.0m GSD) for...

  2. 2002 Maryland Department of Natural Resources LiDAR: Worcester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a method of locating objects on the ground using aerial-borne equipment. It is similar to RADAR or SONAR in that the two-way...

  3. Registration of optical imagery and LiDAR data using an inherent geometrical constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wuming; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Mei; Chen, Yiming; Yan, Kai; Li, Linyuan; Qi, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Luo, Jinghui; Chu, Qing

    2015-03-23

    A novel method for registering imagery with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data is proposed. It is based on the phenomenon that the back-projection of LiDAR point cloud of an object should be located within the object boundary in the image. Using this inherent geometrical constraint, the registration parameters computation of both data sets only requires LiDAR point clouds of several objects and their corresponding boundaries in the image. The proposed registration method comprises of four steps: point clouds extraction, boundary extraction, back-projection computation and registration parameters computation. There are not any limitations on the geometrical and spectral properties of the object. So it is suitable not only for structured scenes with man-made objects but also for natural scenes. Moreover, the proposed method based on the inherent geometrical constraint can register two data sets derived from different parts of an object. It can be used to co-register TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) LiDAR point cloud and UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle) image, which are obtaining more attention in the forest survey application. Using initial registration parameters comparable to POS (position and orientation system) accuracy, the performed experiments validated the feasibility of the proposed registration method. PMID:25837107

  4. Genetic Essentialism, Neuroessentialism, and Stigma: Commentary on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) presented a masterfully broad review of the implications of genetic essentialism for understandings of human diversity. This commentary clarifies the reasons that essentialist thinking has problematic social consequences and links genetic forms of essentialism to those invoking neural essences. The mounting evidence

  5. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Mobile Bay, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce USGS Contract: G10PC00026 Task Order Number: G10PD00578 LiDAR was collected at a nominal pulse spacing of 2.0 meters for a 700 square mile area to the east of...

  6. Errors in LiDAR-derived shrub height and crown area on sloped terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study developed and tested four methodologies for determining shrub height measurements with LiDAR data in a semiarid shrub-steppe in southwestern Idaho, USA. Unique to this study was the focus of sagebrush height measurements on sloped terrain. The study also developed one of the first metho...

  7. A LiDAR method of canopy structure retrieval for wind modeling of heterogeneous forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Etienne; Bechmann, Andreas; Taryainen, Lasse; Klemedtsson, Leif; Shendryk, Iurii; Dellwik, Ebba

    2015-01-01

    information is required for each grid point in the three-dimensional computational domain. By using raw data from aerial LiDAR scans together with the Beer-Lambert law, we propose and test a method to calculate and grid highly variable and realistic frontal area density input. An extensive comparison with...

  8. Quantification of tidal inlet morphodynamics using high-resolution MBES and LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice; Fraccascia, Serena; Winter, Christian; Bartholdy, Jesper; Kroon, Aart

    -bathymetric surveys using high-resolution red and green Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR). Detailed digital elevation models with a grid cell size of 1 m x 1 m were generated and analysed geomorphometrically. The analyses reveal a main ebb-directed net sand transport in the main channel; however, due to the...

  9. 2011 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic LiDAR: Suwannee River Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Task Order No. G10PD00236 USGS Contract No. G10PC00093 The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River Expansion in...

  10. 2002 Maryland Department of Natural Resources LiDAR: Worcester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a method of locating objects on the ground using aerial-borne equipment. It is similar to RADAR or SONAR in that the two-way...

  11. Genetics and Human Agency: Comment on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) decried genetic essentialism without denying the importance of genetics in the genesis of human behavior, and although I agree on both counts, a deeper issue remains unaddressed: how should we adjust our cognitions about our own behavior in light of genetic influence, or is it perhaps not necessary to take genetics into…

  12. Assessment of Ploidy and Genome Constitution of Some Musa balbisiana Cultivars using DArT Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sales, E. K.; Butardo, N. G.; Paniagua, H. G.; Jansen, H.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2011), s. 11-18. ISSN 0115-463X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : DArT * genome * Musa balbisiana Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.075, year: 2011 http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2011_Sales_PHILIPPINE_JOURNAL_OF_CROP_SCIENCE_11.pdf

  13. 2009 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic LiDAR: Androscoggin County, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS Contract Number: G10PC00026 USGS Task Order: G10PD01737 LiDAR was collected at a 1.0 points per square meter (1.0m GSD) for the county of Androscoggin, Maine...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain DAR 81934, Which Exhibits Molluscicidal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Aisuo; Pattemore, Julie; Ash, Gavin; Williams, Angela; Hane, James

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as a biopesticide for a long time. Its molluscicidal activity, however, is rarely realized. Here, we report the genome sequence of B. thuringiensis strain DAR 81934, a strain with molluscicidal activity against the pest snail Cernuella virgata.

  15. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S....

  16. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S....

  17. Engineering monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lato, M.; Hutchinson, J.; Diederichs, M.; Ball, D.; Harrap, R.

    2009-06-01

    Geotechnical hazards along linear transportation corridors are challenging to identify and often require constant monitoring. Inspecting corridors using traditional, manual methods requires the engineer to be unnecessarily exposed to the hazard. It also requires closure of the corridor to ensure safety of the worker from passing vehicles. This paper identifies the use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data as a compliment to traditional field methods. Mobile terrestrial LiDAR is an emerging remote data collection technique capable of generating accurate fully three-dimensional virtual models while driving at speeds up to 100 km/h. Data is collected from a truck that causes no delays to active traffic nor does it impede corridor use. These resultant georeferenced data can be used for geomechanical structural feature identification and kinematic analysis, rockfall path identification and differential monitoring of rock movement or failure over time. Comparisons between mobile terrestrial and static LiDAR data collection and analysis are presented. As well, detailed discussions on workflow procedures for possible implementation are discussed. Future use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data for corridor analysis will focus on repeated surveys and developing dynamic four-dimensional models, higher resolution data collection. As well, computationally advanced, spatially accurate, geomechanically controlled three-dimensional rockfall simulations should be investigated.

  18. A DATA DRIVEN METHOD FOR BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION FROM LiDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajadian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning, commonly referred to as LiDAR, is a superior technology for three-dimensional data acquisition from Earth's surface with high speed and density. Building reconstruction is one of the main applications of LiDAR system which is considered in this study. For a 3D reconstruction of the buildings, the buildings points should be first separated from the other points such as; ground and vegetation. In this paper, a multi-agent strategy has been proposed for simultaneous extraction and segmentation of buildings from LiDAR point clouds. Height values, number of returned pulse, length of triangles, direction of normal vectors, and area are five criteria which have been utilized in this step. Next, the building edge points are detected using a new method named "Grid Erosion". A RANSAC based technique has been employed for edge line extraction. Regularization constraints are performed to achieve the final lines. Finally, by modelling of the roofs and walls, 3D building model is reconstructed. The results indicate that the proposed method could successfully extract the building from LiDAR data and generate the building models automatically. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the proposed method is then provided.

  19. 2006 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Topographic LiDAR: Cumberland and York Counties, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the fall of 2006, Sanborn Map Company was contracted by Camp Dresser McKee, Inc (CDM) to execute a LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey campaign in the...

  20. Aboveground biomass estimation with airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data in Tesinske Beskydy Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brovkina, Olga; Zemek, František; Fabiánek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2015), s. 35-46. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk OC09001 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest aboveground biomass * hyperspectral data * airborne LiDAR * Beskydy Mountains Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data integration for weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, János; Lehoczky, Éva; Fehér, János; Fórián, Tünde; Nagy, Attila; Bozsik, Éva; Gálya, Bernadett; Riczu, Péter

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture uses 70% of global available fresh water. However, ca. 50-70% of water used by cultivated plants, the rest of water transpirated by the weeds. Thus, to define the distribution of weeds is very important in precision agriculture and horticulture as well. To survey weeds on larger fields by traditional methods is often time consuming. Remote sensing instruments are useful to detect weeds in larger area. In our investigation a 3D airborne laser scanner (RIEGL LMS-Q680i) was used in agricultural field near Sopron to scouting weeds. Beside the airborne LiDAR, hyperspectral imaging system (AISA DUAL) and air photos helped to investigate weed coverage. The LiDAR survey was carried out at early April, 2012, before sprouting of cultivated plants. Thus, there could be detected emerging of weeds and direction of cultivation. However airborne LiDAR system was ideal to detect weeds, identification of weeds at species level was infeasible. Higher point density LiDAR - Terrestrial laser scanning - systems are appropriate to distinguish weed species. Based on the results, laser scanner is an effective tool to scouting of weeds. Appropriate weed detection and mapping systems could contribute to elaborate water and herbicide saving management technique. This publication was supported by the OTKA project K 105789.

  2. Object-oriented identification of forested landslides with derivatives of single pulse LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Kerle, Norman; Poesen, Jean; Hervás, Javier

    2012-11-01

    In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives for landslide mapping in forested terrain, only few studies have attempted to develop (semi-)automatic methods for extracting landslides from LiDAR derivatives. While all these studies are pixel-based, it has not yet been tested whether object-oriented analysis (OOA) could be an alternative. This study investigates the potential of OOA using only single-pulse LiDAR derivatives, such as slope gradient, roughness and curvature to map landslides. More specifically, the focus is on both LiDAR data segmentation and classification of slow-moving landslides in densely vegetated areas, where spectral data do not allow accurate landslide identification. A multistage procedure has been developed and tested in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). The procedure consists of (1) image binarization and multiresolution segmentation, (2) classification of landslide parts (main scarps and landslide body segments) and non-landslide features (i.e. earth banks and cropland fields) with supervised support vector machines at the appropriate scale, (3) delineation of landslide flanks, (4) growing of a landslide body starting from its main scarp, and (5) final cleaning of the inventory map. The results obtained show that OOA using LiDAR derivatives allows recognition and characterization of profound morphologic properties of forested deep-seated landslides on soil-covered hillslopes, because more than 90% of the main scarps and 70% of the landslide bodies of an expert-based inventory were accurately identified with OOA. For mountainous areas with bedrock, on the other hand, creation of a transferable model is expected to be more difficult.

  3. BUILDING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AFTER EARTHQUAKE USING POST-EVENT LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rastiveis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After an earthquake, damage assessment plays an important role in leading rescue team to help people and decrease the number of mortality. Damage map is a map that demonstrates collapsed buildings with their degree of damage. With this map, finding destructive buildings can be quickly possible. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for automatic damage map generation after an earthquake using post-event LiDAR Data and pre-event vector map. The framework of the proposed approach has four main steps. To find the location of all buildings on LiDAR data, in the first step, LiDAR data and vector map are registered by using a few number of ground control points. Then, building layer, selected from vector map, are mapped on the LiDAR data and all pixels which belong to the buildings are extracted. After that, through a powerful classifier all the extracted pixels are classified into three classes of “debris”, “intact building” and “unclassified”. Since textural information make better difference between “debris” and “intact building” classes, different textural features are applied during the classification. After that, damage degree for each candidate building is estimated based on the relation between the numbers of pixels labelled as “debris” class to the whole building area. Calculating the damage degree for each candidate building, finally, building damage map is generated. To evaluate the ability proposed method in generating damage map, a data set from Port-au-Prince, Haiti’s capital after the 2010 Haiti earthquake was used. In this case, after calculating of all buildings in the test area using the proposed method, the results were compared to the damage degree which estimated through visual interpretation of post-event satellite image. Obtained results were proved the reliability of the proposed method in damage map generation using LiDAR data.

  4. Building Damage Assessment after Earthquake Using Post-Event LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastiveis, H.; Eslamizade, F.; Hosseini-Zirdoo, E.

    2015-12-01

    After an earthquake, damage assessment plays an important role in leading rescue team to help people and decrease the number of mortality. Damage map is a map that demonstrates collapsed buildings with their degree of damage. With this map, finding destructive buildings can be quickly possible. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for automatic damage map generation after an earthquake using post-event LiDAR Data and pre-event vector map. The framework of the proposed approach has four main steps. To find the location of all buildings on LiDAR data, in the first step, LiDAR data and vector map are registered by using a few number of ground control points. Then, building layer, selected from vector map, are mapped on the LiDAR data and all pixels which belong to the buildings are extracted. After that, through a powerful classifier all the extracted pixels are classified into three classes of "debris", "intact building" and "unclassified". Since textural information make better difference between "debris" and "intact building" classes, different textural features are applied during the classification. After that, damage degree for each candidate building is estimated based on the relation between the numbers of pixels labelled as "debris" class to the whole building area. Calculating the damage degree for each candidate building, finally, building damage map is generated. To evaluate the ability proposed method in generating damage map, a data set from Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital after the 2010 Haiti earthquake was used. In this case, after calculating of all buildings in the test area using the proposed method, the results were compared to the damage degree which estimated through visual interpretation of post-event satellite image. Obtained results were proved the reliability of the proposed method in damage map generation using LiDAR data.

  5. Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studer Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on Earth. They provide high quality fodder for livestock, are used for turf and amenity purposes, and play a fundamental role in environment protection. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex predominate, especially in temperate regions. To facilitate high-throughput genome profiling and genetic mapping within the complex, we have developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT array for five grass species: F. pratensis, F. arundinacea, F. glaucescens, L. perenne and L. multiflorum. Results The DArTFest array contains 7680 probes derived from methyl-filtered genomic representations. In a first marker discovery experiment performed on 40 genotypes from each species (with the exception of F. glaucescens for which only 7 genotypes were used, we identified 3884 polymorphic markers. The number of DArT markers identified in every single genotype varied from 821 to 1852. To test the usefulness of DArTFest array for physical mapping, DArT markers were assigned to each of the seven chromosomes of F. pratensis using single chromosome substitution lines while recombinants of F. pratensis chromosome 3 were used to allocate the markers to seven chromosome bins. Conclusion The resources developed in this project will facilitate the development of genetic maps in Festuca and Lolium, the analysis on genetic diversity, and the monitoring of the genomic constitution of the Festuca Lolium hybrids. They will also enable marker-assisted selection for multiple traits or for specific genome regions.

  6. LiDAR Segmentation using Suitable Seed Points for 3D Building Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S. M.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2014-08-01

    Effective building detection and roof reconstruction has an influential demand over the remote sensing research community. In this paper, we present a new automatic LiDAR point cloud segmentation method using suitable seed points for building detection and roof plane extraction. Firstly, the LiDAR point cloud is separated into "ground" and "non-ground" points based on the analysis of DEM with a height threshold. Each of the non-ground point is marked as coplanar or non-coplanar based on a coplanarity analysis. Commencing from the maximum LiDAR point height towards the minimum, all the LiDAR points on each height level are extracted and separated into several groups based on 2D distance. From each group, lines are extracted and a coplanar point which is the nearest to the midpoint of each line is considered as a seed point. This seed point and its neighbouring points are utilised to generate the plane equation. The plane is grown in a region growing fashion until no new points can be added. A robust rule-based tree removal method is applied subsequently to remove planar segments on trees. Four different rules are applied in this method. Finally, the boundary of each object is extracted from the segmented LiDAR point cloud. The method is evaluated with six different data sets consisting hilly and densely vegetated areas. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method offers a high building detection and roof plane extraction rates while compared to a recently proposed method.

  7. Estimating Stand Volume and Above-Ground Biomass of Urban Forests Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Giannico

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing forest stand conditions in urban and peri-urban areas is essential to support ecosystem service planning and management, as most of the ecosystem services provided are a consequence of forest stand characteristics. However, collecting data for assessing forest stand conditions is time consuming and labor intensive. A plausible approach for addressing this issue is to establish a relationship between in situ measurements of stand characteristics and data from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR. In this study we assessed forest stand volume and above-ground biomass (AGB in a broadleaved urban forest, using a combination of LiDAR-derived metrics, which takes the form of a forest allometric model. We tested various methods for extracting proxies of basal area (BA and mean stand height (H from the LiDAR point-cloud distribution and evaluated the performance of different models in estimating forest stand volume and AGB. The best predictors for both models were the scale parameters of the Weibull distribution of all returns (except the first (proxy of BA and the 95th percentile of the distribution of all first returns (proxy of H. The R2 were 0.81 (p < 0.01 for the stand volume model and 0.77 (p < 0.01 for the AGB model with a RMSE of 23.66 m3·ha−1 (23.3% and 19.59 Mg·ha−1 (23.9%, respectively. We found that a combination of two LiDAR-derived variables (i.e., proxy of BA and proxy of H, which take the form of a forest allometric model, can be used to estimate stand volume and above-ground biomass in broadleaved urban forest areas. Our results can be compared to other studies conducted using LiDAR in broadleaved forests with similar methods.

  8. Estimating Above Ground Biomass using LiDAR in the Northcoast Redwood Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M.; Stewart, E.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, LiDAR (Light Intensity Detection Amplification and Ranging) is increasingly being used in estimating biophysical parameters related to forested environments. The main goal of the project is to estimate long-term biomass accumulation and carbon sequestration potential of the redwoods ecosystem. The project objectives are aimed at providing an assessment of carbon pools within the redwood ecosystem. Specifically, we intend to develop a relational model based on LiDAR-based canopy estimates and extensive ground-based measurements available for the old-growth redwood forest located within the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, CA. Our preliminary analysis involved developing a geospatial database, including LiDAR data collected in 2007 for the study site, and analyzing the data using USFS Fusion software. The study area comprised of a 12-acres section of coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) in the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, located in Orick, CA. A series of analytical steps were executed using the USFS FUSION software to produce some intermediate data such as bare earth model, canopy height model, canopy coverage model, and canopy maxima treelist. Canopy maxima tree tops were compared to ground layer to determine height of tree tops. A total of over 1000 trees were estimated, and then with thinning (to eliminate errors due to low vegetation > 3 meters tall), a total of 950 trees were delineated. Ground measurements were imported as a point based shapefile and then compared to the treetop heights created from LiDAR data to the actual ground referenced data. The results were promising as most estimated treetops were within 1-3 meters of the ground measurements and generally within 3-5m of the actual tree height. Finally, we are in the process of applying some allometric equations to estimate above ground biomass using some of the LiDAR-derived canopy metrics.

  9. Mapping the Risk of Forest Wind Damage Using Airborne Scanning LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, N.; Vastaranta, M.; Honkavaara, E.; Wulder, M. A.; White, J. C.; Litkey, P.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppä, J.

    2015-03-01

    Wind damage is known for causing threats to sustainable forest management and yield value in boreal forests. Information about wind damage risk can aid forest managers in understanding and possibly mitigating damage impacts. The objective of this research was to better understand and quantify drivers of wind damage, and to map the probability of wind damage. To accomplish this, we used open-access airborne scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The probability of wind-induced forest damage (PDAM) in southern Finland (61°N, 23°E) was modelled for a 173 km2 study area of mainly managed boreal forests (dominated by Norway spruce and Scots pine) and agricultural fields. Wind damage occurred in the study area in December 2011. LiDAR data were acquired prior to the damage in 2008. High spatial resolution aerial imagery, acquired after the damage event (January, 2012) provided a source of model calibration via expert interpretation. A systematic grid (16 m x 16 m) was established and 430 sample grid cells were identified systematically and classified as damaged or undamaged based on visual interpretation using the aerial images. Potential drivers associated with PDAM were examined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Risk model predictors were extracted from the LiDAR-derived surface models. Geographic information systems (GIS) supported spatial mapping and identification of areas of high PDAM across the study area. The risk model based on LiDAR data provided good agreement with detected risk areas (73 % with kappa-value 0,47). The strongest predictors in the risk model were mean canopy height and mean elevation. Our results indicate that open-access LiDAR data sets can be used to map the probability of wind damage risk without field data, providing valuable information for forest management planning.

  10. Applying a weighted random forests method to extract karst sinkholes from LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Pierskalla, William P.

    2016-02-01

    Detailed mapping of sinkholes provides critical information for mitigating sinkhole hazards and understanding groundwater and surface water interactions in karst terrains. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measures the earth's surface in high-resolution and high-density and has shown great potentials to drastically improve locating and delineating sinkholes. However, processing LiDAR data to extract sinkholes requires separating sinkholes from other depressions, which can be laborious because of the sheer number of the depressions commonly generated from LiDAR data. In this study, we applied the random forests, a machine learning method, to automatically separate sinkholes from other depressions in a karst region in central Kentucky. The sinkhole-extraction random forest was grown on a training dataset built from an area where LiDAR-derived depressions were manually classified through a visual inspection and field verification process. Based on the geometry of depressions, as well as natural and human factors related to sinkholes, 11 parameters were selected as predictive variables to form the dataset. Because the training dataset was imbalanced with the majority of depressions being non-sinkholes, a weighted random forests method was used to improve the accuracy of predicting sinkholes. The weighted random forest achieved an average accuracy of 89.95% for the training dataset, demonstrating that the random forest can be an effective sinkhole classifier. Testing of the random forest in another area, however, resulted in moderate success with an average accuracy rate of 73.96%. This study suggests that an automatic sinkhole extraction procedure like the random forest classifier can significantly reduce time and labor costs and makes its more tractable to map sinkholes using LiDAR data for large areas. However, the random forests method cannot totally replace manual procedures, such as visual inspection and field verification.

  11. A universal airborne LiDAR approach for tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Mascaro, Joseph; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Vaudry, Romuald; Rasamoelina, Maminiaina; Hall, Jefferson S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2012-04-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is fast turning the corner from demonstration technology to a key tool for assessing carbon stocks in tropical forests. With its ability to penetrate tropical forest canopies and detect three-dimensional forest structure, LiDAR may prove to be a major component of international strategies to measure and account for carbon emissions from and uptake by tropical forests. To date, however, basic ecological information such as height-diameter allometry and stand-level wood density have not been mechanistically incorporated into methods for mapping forest carbon at regional and global scales. A better incorporation of these structural patterns in forests may reduce the considerable time needed to calibrate airborne data with ground-based forest inventory plots, which presently necessitate exhaustive measurements of tree diameters and heights, as well as tree identifications for wood density estimation. Here, we develop a new approach that can facilitate rapid LiDAR calibration with minimal field data. Throughout four tropical regions (Panama, Peru, Madagascar, and Hawaii), we were able to predict aboveground carbon density estimated in field inventory plots using a single universal LiDAR model (r ( 2 )=0.80, RMSE=27.6MgCha(-1)). This model is comparable in predictive power to locally calibrated models, but relies on limited inputs of basal area and wood density information for a given region, rather than on traditional plot inventories. With this approach, we propose to radically decrease the time required to calibrate airborne LiDAR data and thus increase the output of high-resolution carbon maps, supporting tropical forest conservation and climate mitigation policy. PMID:22033763

  12. Gibt es eine Rehabilitation der Cartesischen Psychologie?

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, Boris

    2000-01-01

    Exzerpt: Zu Beginn dieser Arbeit wird es beinahe ausschließlich um die Auslegung der Texte von Descartes gehen. Ich werde zunächst, beginnend mit eher philosophiehistorischen Bemerkungen, einige Grundbegriffe der cartesischen Philosophie gemäß der Reihenfolge ihres Auftretens erläutern. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb nötig, da es mir darum geht, Möglichkeiten der Anerkennung und Weiterverfolgung cartesischer Grundsätze aufzuzeigen, die üblicherweise nicht herausgestellt werden. Die eigentliche...

  13. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS. PMID:26250147

  14. An example for the application of music therapy in the medical history: Divrigi Darüssifa

    OpenAIRE

    Benek, Selim Bedri; BAYRAM, Recep; Şakar, Hakan; Gümüştekin, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    The Seljuks built up so many medical buildings and darüssifas in lots of cities, and gave importance to medicina as well as the other branches of science. They provided great contributions to the development of modern medicine with darüssifas and medical centers by the treatment they applied as well as health care. Music therapy was applied with certain methods in these health centers where mental and spiritual diseases were tried to be treated. Sivas Divrigi Darüssifa, amongst the first ones...

  15. DArT markers: diversity analyses, genomes comparison, mapping and integration with SSR markers in Triticum monococcum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huttner Eric

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triticum monococcum (2n = 2x = 14 is an ancient diploid wheat with many useful traits and is used as a model for wheat gene discovery. DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology employs a hybridisation-based approach to type thousands of genomic loci in parallel. DArT markers were developed for T. monococcum to assess genetic diversity, compare relationships with hexaploid genomes, and construct a genetic linkage map integrating DArT and microsatellite markers. Results A DArT array, consisting of 2304 hexaploid wheat, 1536 tetraploid wheat, 1536 T. monococcum as well as 1536 T. boeoticum representative genomic clones, was used to fingerprint 16 T. monococcum accessions of diverse geographical origins. In total, 846 polymorphic DArT markers were identified, of which 317 were of T. monococcum origin, 246 of hexaploid, 157 of tetraploid, and 126 of T. boeoticum genomes. The fingerprinting data indicated that the geographic origin of T. monococcum accessions was partially correlated with their genetic variation. DArT markers could also well distinguish the genetic differences amongst a panel of 23 hexaploid wheat and nine T. monococcum genomes. For the first time, 274 DArT markers were integrated with 82 simple sequence repeat (SSR and two morphological trait loci in a genetic map spanning 1062.72 cM in T. monococcum. Six chromosomes were represented by single linkage groups, and chromosome 4Am was formed by three linkage groups. The DArT and SSR genetic loci tended to form independent clusters along the chromosomes. Segregation distortion was observed for one third of the DArT loci. The Ba (black awn locus was refined to a 23.2 cM region between the DArT marker locus wPt-2584 and the microsatellite locus Xgwmd33 on 1Am; and the Hl (hairy leaf locus to a 4.0 cM region between DArT loci 376589 and 469591 on 5Am. Conclusion DArT is a rapid and efficient approach to develop many new molecular markers for genetic studies in T. monococcum. The constructed genetic linkage map will facilitate localisation and map-based cloning of genes of interest, comparative mapping as well as genome organisation and evolution studies between this ancient diploid species and other crops.

  16. Analysis of the Influence of Plot Size and LiDAR Density on Forest Structure Attribute Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Ruiz; Txomin Hermosilla; Francisco Mauro; Miguel Godino

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the combined effect of field plot size and LiDAR density on the estimation of four forest structure attributes: volume, total biomass, basal area and canopy cover. A total of 21 different plot sizes were considered, obtained by decreasing the field measured plot radius value from 25 to 5 m with regular intervals of 1 m. LiDAR data densities were simulated by randomly removing LiDAR pulses until reaching nine different density values. In order to avoid influe...

  17. Seagrass Identification Using High-Resolution 532nm Bathymetric LiDAR and Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Prasad, S.; Starek, M. J.; Fernandez Diaz, J. C.; Glennie, C. L.; Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Singhania, A.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass provides vital habitat for marine fisheries and is a key indicator species of coastal ecosystem vitality. Monitoring seagrass is therefore an important environmental initiative, but measuring details of seagrass distribution over large areas via remote sensing has proved challenging. Developments in airborne bathymetric light detection and ranging (LiDAR) provide great potential in this regard. Traditional bathymetric LiDAR systems have been limited in their ability to map within the shallow water zone (Mapping (NCALM) at the University of Houston (UH) and the Coastal and Marine Geospatial Sciences Lab (CMGL) of the Harte Research Institute at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi conducted a coordinated airborne and boat-based survey of the Redfish Bay State Scientific Area as part of a collaborative study to investigate the capabilities of bathymetric LiDAR and hyperspectral imaging for seagrass mapping. Redfish Bay, located along the middle Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico, is a state scientific area designated for the purpose of protecting and studying native seagrasses. Redfish Bay is part of the broader Coastal Bend Bays estuary system recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a national estuary of significance. For this survey, UH acquired high-resolution discrete-return and full-waveform bathymetric data using their Optech Aquarius 532 nm green LiDAR. In a separate flight, UH collected 2 sets of hyperspectral imaging data (1.2-m pixel resolution and 72 bands, and 0.6m pixel resolution and 36 bands) with their CASI 1500 hyperspectral sensor. The ground survey was conducted by CMGL. The team used an airboat to collect in-situ radiometer measurements of sky irradiance and surface water reflectance at different locations in the bay. The team also collected water samples, GPS position, and depth. A follow-up survey was conducted to acquire ground-truth data of benthic type at over 80 locations within the bay. Two complementary approaches were developed to detect and map the seagrass cover over the study area - automated classification algorithms were validated with high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery, and a continuous wavelet based signal processing and pulse broadening analysis of the digitized returns was performed with the full waveform of the bathymetric LiDAR. The two approaches were compared to the collected ground truth data of seagrass type, height, and location. Results of the evaluation will be presented, along with a preliminary discussion of the fusion of the LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery for improved overall classification accuracy.

  18. Petrology, chemistry, and isotopic compositions of the Lunar highland regolith breccia Dar AL Gani 262

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, A.; Weber, D.; Clayton, R. N.; Faestermann, T.; Franchi, I. A.; Herpers, U.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Kubik, P. W.; Mayeda, T. K.; Merchel, S.; Michel, R.; Neumann, S.; Palme, H.; Pillinger, C. T.; Schultz, L.; Sexton, A. S.; Spettel, B.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Weber, H. W.; Weckwerth, G.; Wolf, D.

    1998-11-01

    Lunar meteorite Dar al Gani 262 (DG 262) found in the Libyan part of the Sahara is a mature, anorthositic regolith breccia with highland affinities. The origin from the Moon is undoubtedly indicated by its bulk chemical composition, radionuclide concentrations, noble gas, nitrogen, and oxygen isotopic compositions and petrographic features. Dar al Gani 262 is a typical anorthositic highland breccia similar in mineralogy and chemical composition to QUE93069. About 52 vol% of the studied thin sections of Dar al Gani 262 consist of fine-grained (smaller than ?100 microns) constituents, and 48 vol% is mineral and lithic clasts and impact melt veins. The most abundant clast types are feldspathic fine-grained to microporphyritic crystalline melt breccias (50.2 vol%; includes recrystallized melt breccias), whereas mafic crystalline melt breccias are extremely rare (1.4 vol%). Granulitic lithologies are 12.8 vol%, intragranularly recrystallized anorthosites and cataclastic anorthosites are 8.8 and 8.2 vol%, respectively, and (devitrified) glasses are 2.7 vol%. Impact melt veins (5.5 vol% of the whole thin sections) cutting across the entire thin section were probably formed subsequent to the lithification process of the bulk rock at pressures below 20 GPa, because the bulk rock never experienced a higher peak shock pressure. Mafic crystalline melt breccias are very rare in Dar al Gani 262 and similar in abundance to those in QUE93069. The extremely low abundance of mafic components and the bulk composition may constrain possible areas of the Moon from which the breccia was derived. The source area of Dar al Gani 262 must be a highland terrain lacking significant mafic impact melts or mare components. Based on radionuclide activities an irradiation position of DG 262 on the Moon at a depth of 55-85 g/cm3 and a maximum transit time to Earth less than 0.15 Ma is suggested. Dar al Gani 262 contains high concentrations of solar wind implanted noble gases. The isotopic abundance ratio 40Ar/36Ar concentrations of Ca, Ba, Cs, Br, and As. There is also a large amount of terrestrial carbon and some nitrogen in the sample, released at low temperatures during stepped heating. High concentrations of Ni, Co, and Ir indicate a significant meteoritic component in the lunar surface regolith from which DG 262 was derived.

  19. Recherche exploratoire basée sur des données liées

    OpenAIRE

    Marie, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Cette thèse s’intéresse à l’exploitation de la sémantique de données pour la recherche exploratoire. La recherche exploratoire se réfère à des tâches de recherche qui sont très ouvertes, avec de multiples facettes, et itératives. Les données sémantiques et les données liées en particulier, offrent de nouvelles possibilités pour répondre à des requêtes de recherche et des besoins d’information complexes. Dans ce contexte, le nuage de données ouvertes liées (LOD) joue un rôle important en perme...

  20. Transit timing analysis of the exoplanets TrES-1 and TrES-2

    OpenAIRE

    Rabus, M.; Deeg, H J; Alonso, R.; Belmonte, J. A.; Almenara, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is a detailed analysis of transit light curves from TrES-1 and TrES-2, obtained over a period of three to four years, in order to search for variabilities in observed mid-transit times and to set limits for the presence of additional third bodies. Using the IAC 80cm telescope, we observed transits of TrES-1 and TrES-2 over several years. Based on these new data and previously published work, we studied the observed light curves and searched for variations in the differenc...

  1. Injecting External Solutions Into CMA-ES

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    This report considers how to inject external candidate solutions into the CMA-ES algorithm. The injected solutions might stem from a gradient or a Newton step, a surrogate model optimizer or any other oracle or search mechanism. They can also be the result of a repair mechanism, for example to render infeasible solutions feasible. Only small modifications to the CMA-ES are necessary to turn injection into a reliable and effective method: too long steps need to be tightly renormalized. The mai...

  2. Mapping tree genera using discrete LiDAR and geometric tree metrics Mapeo del género de árboles usando LiDAR y métricas geométricas para árboles

    OpenAIRE

    Connie Ko; Remmel, Tarmo K.; Gunho Sohn

    2012-01-01

    Maps of tree genera are useful in applications including forest inventory, urban planning, and the maintenance of utility transmission line infrastructure. We present a case study of using high density airborne LiDAR data for tree genera mapping along the right of way (ROW) of a utility transmission line corridor. Our goal was to identify single trees that showed or posed potential threats to transmission line infrastructure. Using the three dimensional mapping capability of LiDAR, we derived...

  3. IsoDAR@KamLAND: A Conceptual Design Report for the Technical Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Abs, M; Alonso, J R; Axani, S; Barletta, W A; Barlow, R; Bartoszek, L; Bungau, A; Calabretta, L; Calanna, A; Campo, D; Castro, G; Celona, L; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Gammino, S; Johnson, R; Karagiorgi, G; Kayser, S; Kleeven, W; Kolano, A; Labrecque, F; Loinaz, W A; Minervini, J; Moulai, M H; Okuno, H; Owen, H; Papavassiliou, V; Shaevitz, M H; Shimizu, I; Shokair, T M; Sorensen, K F; Spitz, J; Toups, M; Vagins, M; Van Bibber, K; Wascko, M O; Winklehner, D; Winslow, L A; Yang, J J

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual design report describes the technical facility for the IsoDAR electron-antineutrino source at KamLAND. The IsoDAR source will allow an impressive program of neutrino oscillation and electroweak physics to be performed at KamLAND. This report provides information on the physics case, the conceptual design for the subsystems, alternative designs considered, specifics of installation at KamLAND, and identified needs for future development. We discuss the risks we have identified and our approach to mitigating those risks with this design. A substantial portion of the conceptual design is based on three years of experimental efforts and on industry experience. This report also includes information on the conventional facilities.

  4. Contour Cluster Shape Analysis for Building Damage Detection from Post-earthquake Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Meizhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of the damaged building is the obligatory step prior to evaluate earthquake casualty and economic losses. It's very difficult to detect damaged buildings accurately based on the assumption that intact roofs appear in laser data as large planar segments whereas collapsed roofs are characterized by many small segments. This paper presents a contour cluster shape similarity analysis algorithm for reliable building damage detection from the post-earthquake airborne LiDAR point cloud. First we evaluate the entropies of shape similarities between all the combinations of two contour lines within a building cluster, which quantitatively describe the shape diversity. Then the maximum entropy model is employed to divide all the clusters into intact and damaged classes. The tests on the LiDAR data at El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake rupture prove the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method.

  5. Exclusive DD¯${m{Dar D}}$ meson pair production in peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luszczak Marta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross sections for exclusive D+D- and DD¯${D^0ar D^0}$ meson pair production in peripheral nucleus - nucleus collisions are calculated and several differential distributions are presented. The calculation of the elementary γγ → DD¯${m{Dar D}}$ cross section is done within the heavy-quark approximation and in the Brodsky- Lapage formalism with distribution amplitudes describing recent CLEO data on leptonic D+ decay. Absorption effects are discussed and quantified. The cross sections of a few nb are predicted for RHIC and of a few hundreds of nb for LHC with details depending on the approximation made in calculating elementary γγ → DD¯${m{Dar D}}$ cross sections.

  6. Clustering and visualization of non-classified points from LiDAR data for helicopter navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkeil, Ferdinand; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Kühne, Uwe; Deussen, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a dynamic DBSCAN-based method to cluster and visualize unclassified and potential dangerous obstacles in data sets recorded by a LiDAR sensor. The sensor delivers data sets in a short time interval, so a spatial superposition of multiple data sets is created. We use this superposition to create clusters incrementally. Knowledge about the position and size of each cluster is used to fuse clusters and the stabilization of clusters within multiple time frames. Cluster stability is a key feature to provide a smooth and un-distracting visualization for the pilot. Only a few lines are indicating the position of threatening unclassified points, where a hazardous situation for the helicopter could happen, if it comes too close. Clustering and visualization form a part of an entire synthetic vision processing chain, in which the LiDAR points support the generation of a real-time synthetic view of the environment.

  7. NASA Goddards LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) Airborne Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Nelson, Ross F.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Morton, Douglas C.; McCorkel, Joel T.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Ly, Vuong; Montesano, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of LiDAR and optical remotely sensed data provides unique information about ecosystem structure and function. Here, we describe the development, validation and application of a new airborne system that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR hyperspectral and thermal components in a compact, lightweight and portable system. Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) airborne imager is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation structure, foliar spectra and surface temperatures at very high spatial resolution (approximately 1 m) on a wide range of airborne platforms. The complementary nature of LiDAR, optical and thermal data provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms to map plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass and carbon stocks, and plant growth. In addition, G-LiHT data enhance our ability to validate data from existing satellite missions and support NASA Earth Science research. G-LiHT's data processing and distribution system is designed to give scientists open access to both low- and high-level data products (http://gliht.gsfc.nasa.gov), which will stimulate the community development of synergistic data fusion algorithms. G-LiHT has been used to collect more than 6,500 km2 of data for NASA-sponsored studies across a broad range of ecoregions in the USA and Mexico. In this paper, we document G-LiHT design considerations, physical specifications, instrument performance and calibration and acquisition parameters. In addition, we describe the data processing system and higher-level data products that are freely distributed under NASA's Data and Information policy.

  8. Drainage Structure Datasets and Effects on LiDAR-Derived Surface Flow Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ruopu Li; Zhenghong Tang; Xu Li; Jessie Winter

    2013-01-01

    With extraordinary resolution and accuracy, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) have been increasingly used for watershed analyses and modeling by hydrologists, planners and engineers. Such high-accuracy DEMs have demonstrated their effectiveness in delineating watershed and drainage patterns at fine scales in low-relief terrains. However, these high-resolution datasets are usually only available as topographic DEMs rather than hydrologic DEMs, present...

  9. Identification of four Drosophila allatostatins as the cognate ligands for the Drosophila orphan receptor DAR-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, C; Williamson, M; Hansen, G N; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2001-01-01

    -Pro-Gln-Pro-Phe-Asn-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH(2)) is the most effective in causing a second messenger cascade (measured as bioluminescence; threshold, 10(-9) M; EC(50), 10(-8) M), whereas the others are less effective and about equally potent (EC(50), 8 x 10(-8) M). Northern blots showed that the DAR-2 gene is expressed in embryos, larvae...

  10. NASA Goddard’s LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT Airborne Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuong Ly

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of LiDAR and optical remotely sensed data provides unique information about ecosystem structure and function. Here, we describe the development, validation and application of a new airborne system that integrates commercial off the shelf LiDAR hyperspectral and thermal components in a compact, lightweight and portable system. Goddard’s LiDAR, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT airborne imager is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation structure, foliar spectra and surface temperatures at very high spatial resolution (~1 m on a wide range of airborne platforms. The complementary nature of LiDAR, optical and thermal data provide an analytical framework for the development of new algorithms to map plant species composition, plant functional types, biodiversity, biomass and carbon stocks, and plant growth. In addition, G-LiHT data enhance our ability to validate data from existing satellite missions and support NASA Earth Science research. G-LiHT’s data processing and distribution system is designed to give scientists open access to both low- and high-level data products (http://gliht.gsfc.nasa.gov, which will stimulate the community development of synergistic data fusion algorithms. G-LiHT has been used to collect more than 6,500 km2 of data for NASA-sponsored studies across a broad range of ecoregions in the USA and Mexico. In this paper, we document G-LiHT design considerations, physical specifications, instrument performance and calibration and acquisition parameters. In addition, we describe the data processing system and higher-level data products that are freely distributed under NASA’s Data and Information policy.

  11. Evaluation of Landslide Mapping Techniques and LiDAR-based Conditioning Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, R.; Olsen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides are a major geohazard, which result in significant human, infrastructure, and economic losses. Landslide susceptibility mapping can help communities to plan and prepare for these damaging events. Mapping landslide susceptible locations using GIS and remote sensing techniques is gaining popularity in the past three decades. These efforts use a wide variety of procedures and consider a wide range of factors. Unfortunately, each study is often completed differently and independently of others. Further, the quality of the datasets used varies in terms of source, data collection, and generation, which can propagate errors or inconsistencies into the resulting output maps. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has proved to have higher accuracy in representing the continuous topographic surface, which can help minimize this uncertainty. The primary objectives of this paper are to investigate the applicability and performance of terrain factors in landslide hazard mapping, determine if LiDAR-derived datasets (slope, slope roughness, terrain roughness, stream power index and compound topographic index) can be used for predictive mapping without data representing other common landslide conditioning factors, and evaluate the differences in landslide susceptibility mapping using widely-used statistical approaches. The aforementioned factors were used to produce landslide susceptibility maps for a 140 km2 study area in northwest Oregon using six representative techniques: frequency ratio, weights of evidence, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, artificial neural network, and support vector machine. Most notably, the research showed an advantage in selecting fewer critical conditioning factors. The most reliable factors all could be derived from a single LiDAR DEM, reducing the need for laborious and costly data gathering. Most of the six techniques showed similar statistical results; however, ANN showed less accuracy for predictive mapping. Keywords : LiDAR, Landslides, Oregon, Inventory, Hazard

  12. Estimating Volume, Biomass, and Carbon in Hedmark County, Norway Using a Profiling LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross; Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, T.; Gregoire, T.; Stahl, G.

    2009-01-01

    A profiling airborne LiDAR is used to estimate the forest resources of Hedmark County, Norway, a 27390 square kilometer area in southeastern Norway on the Swedish border. One hundred five profiling flight lines totaling 9166 km were flown over the entire county; east-west. The lines, spaced 3 km apart north-south, duplicate the systematic pattern of the Norwegian Forest Inventory (NFI) ground plot arrangement, enabling the profiler to transit 1290 circular, 250 square meter fixed-area NFI ground plots while collecting the systematic LiDAR sample. Seven hundred sixty-three plots of the 1290 plots were overflown within 17.8 m of plot center. Laser measurements of canopy height and crown density are extracted along fixed-length, 17.8 m segments closest to the center of the ground plot and related to basal area, timber volume and above- and belowground dry biomass. Linear, nonstratified equations that estimate ground-measured total aboveground dry biomass report an R(sup 2) = 0.63, with an regression RMSE = 35.2 t/ha. Nonstratified model results for the other biomass components, volume, and basal area are similar, with R(sup 2) values for all models ranging from 0.58 (belowground biomass, RMSE = 8.6 t/ha) to 0.63. Consistently, the most useful single profiling LiDAR variable is quadratic mean canopy height, h (sup bar)(sub qa). Two-variable models typically include h (sup bar)(sub qa) or mean canopy height, h(sup bar)(sub a), with a canopy density or a canopy height standard deviation measure. Stratification by productivity class did not improve the nonstratified models, nor did stratification by pine/spruce/hardwood. County-wide profiling LiDAR estimates are reported, by land cover type, and compared to NFI estimates.

  13. Clustering and visualization of non-classified points from LiDAR data for helicopter navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenkeil, Ferdinand; Schafhitzel, Tobias; Kühne, Uwe; Deussen, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a dynamic DBSCAN-based method to cluster and visualize unclassified and potential dangerous obstacles in data sets recorded by a LiDAR sensor. The sensor delivers data sets in a short time interval, so a spatial superposition of multiple data sets is created. We use this superposition to create clusters incrementally. Knowledge about the position and size of each cluster is used to fuse clusters and the stabilization of clusters within multiple time frames. Cluster st...

  14. Strategies for minimizing sample size for use in airborne LiDAR-based forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Virpi; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.; Kauranne, Tuomo

    2013-01-01

    Recently airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) has emerged as a highly accurate remote sensing modality to be used in operational scale forest inventories. Inventories conducted with the help of LiDAR are most often model-based, i.e. they use variables derived from LiDAR point clouds as the predictive variables that are to be calibrated using field plots. The measurement of the necessary field plots is a time-consuming and statistically sensitive process. Because of this, current practice often presumes hundreds of plots to be collected. But since these plots are only used to calibrate regression models, it should be possible to minimize the number of plots needed by carefully selecting the plots to be measured. In the current study, we compare several systematic and random methods for calibration plot selection, with the specific aim that they be used in LiDAR based regression models for forest parameters, especially above-ground biomass. The primary criteria compared are based on both spatial representativity as well as on their coverage of the variability of the forest features measured. In the former case, it is important also to take into account spatial auto-correlation between the plots. The results indicate that choosing the plots in a way that ensures ample coverage of both spatial and feature space variability improves the performance of the corresponding models, and that adequate coverage of the variability in the feature space is the most important condition that should be met by the set of plots collected.

  15. Quantifying Dynamics in Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Biomass with Multi-Temporal LiDAR Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Siegert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat swamp forests in Indonesia store huge amounts of carbon and are responsible for enormous carbon emissions every year due to forest degradation and deforestation. These forest areas are in the focus of REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks projects, which require an accurate monitoring of their carbon stocks or aboveground biomass (AGB. Our study objective was to evaluate multi-temporal LiDAR measurements of a tropical forested peatland area in Central Kalimantan on Borneo. Canopy height and AGB dynamics were quantified with a special focus on unaffected, selective logged and burned forests. More than 11,000ha were surveyed with airborne LiDAR in 2007 and 2011. In a first step, the comparability of these datasets was examined and canopy height models were created. Novel AGB regression models were developed on the basis of field inventory measurements and LiDAR derived height histograms for 2007 (r2 = 0.77, n = 79 and 2011 (r2 = 0.81, n = 53, taking the different point densities into account. Changes in peat swamp forests were identified by analyzing multispectral imagery. Unaffected forests accumulated on average 20 t/ha AGB with a canopy height increase of 2.3 m over the four year time period. Selective logged forests experienced an average AGB loss of 55 t/ha within 30 m and 42 t/ha within 50 m of detected logging trails, although the mean canopy height increased by 0.5 m and 1.0 m, respectively. Burned forests lost 92% of the initial biomass. These results demonstrate the great potential of repetitive airborne LiDAR surveys to precisely quantify even small scale AGB and canopy height dynamics in remote tropical forests, thereby featuring the needs ofREDD+.

  16. LiDAR Sampling Density for Forest Resource Inventories in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Etheridge; Dave Nesbitt; Doug Pitt; Paul Treitz; Kevin Lim; Murray Woods

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been an abundance of research demonstrating the utility of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) for predicting forest biophysical/inventory variables at the plot and stand levels. However, to date there has been little effort to develop a set of protocols for data acquisition and processing that would move governments or the forest industry towards cost-effective implementation of this technology for strategic and tactical (i.e., operational) forest...

  17. Structural effects of liana presence in secondary tropical dry forests using ground LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, A.; Portillo-Quintero, C.; S. M. Durán

    2015-01-01

    Lianas, woody vines, are a key component of tropical forest because they may reduce carbon storage potential. Lianas are increasing in density and biomass in tropical forests, but it is unknown what the potential consequences of these increases are for forest dynamics. Lianas may proliferate in disturbed areas, such as regenerating forests, but little is known about the role of lianas in secondary succession. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the ground LiDAR to d...

  18. Area-Based Mapping of Defoliation of Scots Pine Stands Using Airborne Scanning LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Hyyppä; Michael A. Wulder; Juha Hyyppä; Ville Kankare; Markus Holopainen; Mikko Vastaranta; Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa; Tuula Kantola

    2013-01-01

    The mapping of changes in the distribution of insect-caused forest damage remains an important forest monitoring application and challenge. Efficient and accurate methods are required for mapping and monitoring changes in insect defoliation to inform forest management and reporting activities. In this research, we develop and evaluate a LiDAR-driven (Light Detection And Ranging) approach for mapping defoliation caused by the Common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.). Our method requires plot-level...

  19. 2007 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) LiDAR: Northwest Oregon and Portland Metro Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) and the Oregon...

  20. 2006 US Army Corps of Engineers(USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program, Great Lakes Topo/Bathy LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collects and maintains LiDAR data including orthophotos in coastal areas of the United States and its territories. The Corps...

  1. High-Density LiDAR Mapping of the Ancient City of Mayapán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Hare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2013 survey of a 40 square kilometer area surrounding Mayapán, Yucatan, Mexico used high-density LiDAR data to map prehispanic architecture and related natural features. Most of the area is covered by low canopy dense forest vegetation over karstic hilly terrain that impedes full coverage archaeological survey. We used LiDAR at 40 laser points per square meter to generate a bare earth digital elevation model (DEM. Results were evaluated with comparisons to previously mapped areas and with traditional archaeological survey methods for 38 settlement clusters outside of the city wall. Ground checking employed full coverage survey of selected 500 m grid squares, as well as documentation of the chronology and detail of new public and domestic settlement features and cenotes. Results identify the full extent of continued, contemporary Postclassic settlement (A.D. 1150–1450 outside of the city wall to at least 500 meters to the east, north, and west. New data also reveal an extensive modified landscape of terraformed residential hills, rejolladas, and dense settlement dating from Preclassic through Classic Periods. The LiDAR data also allow for the identification of rooms, benches, and stone property walls and lanes within the city.

  2. Phylogenetic Relationships between Four Salix L. Species Based on DArT Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Przyborowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of DArT markers in genotypic identification of willow species and describe genetic relationships between four willow species: Salix viminalis, S. purpurea, S. alba and S. triandra. The experimental plant material comprised 53 willow genotypes of these four species, which are popularly grown in Poland. DArT markers seem to identify Salix species with a high degree of accuracy. As a result, the examined species were divided into four distinct groups which corresponded to the four analyzed species. In our study, we observed that S. triandra was very different genetically from the other species, including S. alba which is generally classified into the same subgenus of Salix. The above corroborates the findings of other authors who relied on molecular methods to reveal that the classification of S. triandra to the subgenus Salix was erroneous. The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA and the neighbor-joining dendrogram also confirmed the clear division of the studied willow genotypes into four clusters corresponding to individual species. This confirmed the usefulness of DArT markers in taxonomic analyses and identification of willow species.

  3. Data-Driven Approach to Benthic Cover Type Classification Using Bathymetric LiDAR Waveform Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Kumpumki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A data-driven method for describing the benthic cover type based on full-waveform bathymetric LiDAR data analysis is presented. The waveform of the bathymetric LiDAR return pulse is first modeled as a sum of three functions: a Gaussian pulse representing the surface return, a function modeling the backscatter and another Gaussian pulse modeling the return from the bottom surface. Two sets of variables are formed: one containing features describing the bottom return and the other describing various conditions, such as water quality and the depth of the seabed. Regression analysis is used to eliminate the effect of the condition variables on the features, after which the features are mapped onto a cell lattice using a self-organizing map (SOM. The cells of the SOM are grouped into seven clusters using the neighborhood distance matrix method. The clustering result is evaluated using the seabed substrate map based on sonar measurements, as well as delineation of photic zones in the study area. High correspondence between the clusters and the substrate type/photic zone has been obtained indicating that the proposed clustering method adequately describes the benthic cover in the study area. The bottom return pulse waveforms corresponding to the clusters and a cluster map of the study area are also presented. The method can be used for clustering full waveform bathymetric LiDAR data acquired from large areas to discover the structure of benthic cover types and to focus the field studies accordingly.

  4. The Effect of Lava Texture on LiDAR Attributes and Full Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. W.; Finnegan, D. C.; LeWinter, A.

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of glassy, vesicular, and crystalline textures on lava flow and dome surfaces provides insights regarding the physical and chemical processes occurring during emplacement. For silicic flows, these textures may reflect variations in the volatile content of lava upon eruption. To assess the efficacy of texture detection with our terrestrial full waveform LiDAR system capable of measuring ~125,000 topographic points/second, we analyzed attribute and full waveform data from a variety of lava textures displayed on recent rhyolitic obsidian flows of the Inyo Dome chain (California) and pahoehoe and aa flows at Kilauea volcano (Hawaii). We find that attributes such as intensity, amplitude and deviation of the returned 1550nm laser pulse fall into discrete ranges associated with glassy, pumiceous and crystalline textures on both the rhyolitic and basaltic surfaces. This enables detection of vesicularity at ranges in excess of 500 m, making LiDAR a useful tool for remotely determining lava texture. Scan times using our Riegl VZ1000 and VZ400 systems require only minutes, allowing for repeated scans over a short time period, and processing times are signatures related to texture. We therefore suggest that LiDAR can provide reliable information on lava texture during eruption, aiding in the interpretation of eruption hazards from increasing volatile contents.

  5. Automatic extraction of highway light poles and towers from mobile LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Morsy, Salem; Shaker, Ahmed; Tulloch, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Mobile LiDAR has been recently demonstrated as a viable technique for pole-like object detection and classification. Despite that a desirable accuracy (around 80%) has been reported in the existing studies, majority of them were presented in the street level with relatively flat ground and very few of them addressed how to extract the entire pole structure from the ground or curb surface. Therefore, this paper attempts to fill the research gap by presenting a workflow for automatic extraction of light poles and towers from mobile LiDAR data point cloud, with a particular focus on municipal highway. The data processing workflow includes (1) an automatic ground filtering mechanism to separate aboveground and ground features, (2) an unsupervised clustering algorithm to cluster the aboveground data point cloud, (3) a set of decision rules to identify and classify potential light poles and towers, and (4) a least-squares circle fitting algorithm to fit the circular pole structure so as to remove the ground points. The workflow was tested with a set of mobile LiDAR data collected for a section of highway 401 located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The results showed that the proposed method can achieve an over 91% of detection rate for five types of light poles and towers along the study area.

  6. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively. PMID:25207868

  7. Algorithm for Extracting Digital Terrain Models under Forest Canopy from Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasi S. Maguya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracting digital elevationmodels (DTMs from LiDAR data under forest canopy is a challenging task. This is because the forest canopy tends to block a portion of the LiDAR pulses from reaching the ground, hence introducing gaps in the data. This paper presents an algorithm for DTM extraction from LiDAR data under forest canopy. The algorithm copes with the challenge of low data density by generating a series of coarse DTMs by using the few ground points available and using trend surfaces to interpolate missing elevation values in the vicinity of the available points. This process generates a cloud of ground points from which the final DTM is generated. The algorithm has been compared to two other algorithms proposed in the literature in three different test sites with varying degrees of difficulty. Results show that the algorithm presented in this paper is more tolerant to low data density compared to the other two algorithms. The results further show that with decreasing point density, the differences between the three algorithms dramatically increased from about 0.5m to over 10m.

  8. Characterisation of the surface morphology of an alpine alluvial fan using airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cavalli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial fans of alpine torrents are both natural deposition areas for sediment discharged by floods and debris flows, and preferred sites for agriculture and settlements. Hazard assessment on alluvial fans depends on proper identification of flow processes and their potential intensity. This study used LiDAR data to examine the morphology of the alluvial fan of a small alpine stream (Moscardo Torrent, Eastern Italian Alps. A high-resolution DTM from LiDAR data was used to calculate a shaded relief map, plan curvature and an index of topographic roughness based on the standard deviation of elevation within a moving window. The surface complexity of the alluvial fan, also influenced by human activities, clearly arose from the analysis. The surface roughness, defined here as the local topography variability, is compared with a previous classification of the fan surface based on field surveys. The results demonstrate that topographic analysis of ground based LiDAR DTM can be a useful tool to objectively investigate fan morphology and hence alluvial fan hazard assessment.

  9. Mutations in DARS Cause Hypomyelination with Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Involvement and Leg Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Ryan J.; Vanderver, Adeline; Leventer, Richard J.; Damiani, Stephen A.; Simons, Cas; Grimmond, Sean M.; Miller, David; Schmidt, Johanna; Lockhart, Paul J.; Pope, Kate; Ru, Kelin; Crawford, Joanna; Rosser, Tena; de Coo, Irenaeus F.M.; Juneja, Monica; Verma, Ishwar C.; Prabhakar, Prab; Blaser, Susan; Raiman, Julian; Pouwels, Petra J.W.; Bevova, Marianna R.; Abbink, Truus E.M.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Wolf, Nicole I.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited white-matter disorders are a broad class of diseases for which treatment and classification are both challenging. Indeed, nearly half of the children presenting with a leukoencephalopathy remain without a specific diagnosis. Here, we report on the application of high-throughput genome and exome sequencing to a cohort of ten individuals with a leukoencephalopathy of unknown etiology and clinically characterized by hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL), as well as the identification of compound-heterozygous and homozygous mutations in cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DARS). These mutations cause nonsynonymous changes to seven highly conserved amino acids, five of which are unchanged between yeast and man, in the DARS C-terminal lobe adjacent to, or within, the active-site pocket. Intriguingly, HBSL bears a striking resemblance to leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and elevated lactate (LBSL), which is caused by mutations in the mitochondria-specific DARS2, suggesting that these two diseases might share a common underlying molecular pathology. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that mutations in tRNA synthetases can cause a broad range of neurologic disorders. PMID:23643384

  10. DARS-associated leukoencephalopathy can mimic a steroid-responsive neuroinflammatory disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Camilo; Kister, Ilya; Latif, Kartikasalwah Abd; Leventer, Richard; Pizzino, Amy; Simons, Cas; Abbink, Truus E.M.; Taft, Ryan J.; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Vanderver, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the expanding clinical spectrum of a recently described hereditary leukoencephalopathy, hypomyelination with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity, which is caused by mutations in the aspartyl tRNA-synthetase encoding gene DARS, including patients with an adolescent onset. Methods: Three patients with mutations in DARS were identified by combining MRI pattern recognition and genetic analysis. Results: One patient had the typical infantile presentation, but 2 patients with onset in late adolescence had a disease mimicking an acquired inflammatory CNS disorder. Adolescent-onset patients presented with subacute spastic paraplegia and had positive response to steroids. They had only minor focal supratentorial white matter abnormalities, but identical spinal cord changes involving dorsal columns and corticospinal tracts. Clinical presentation included subacute spastic paraplegia with partial improvement on steroids. Conclusions: Focal T2 hyperintense white matter changes on brain MRI in combination with spinal cord signal abnormalities usually suggest acquired inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, especially in the context of relapsing course and a positive response to steroid treatment. Adolescents with mutations in DARS can present with a comparable clinical picture, broadening the clinical spectrum of hypomyelination with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity. PMID:25527264

  11. Downstream hydraulic geometry relationships: Gathering reference reach-scale width values from LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, G.; Tarolli, P.; Cazorzi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the ability of LiDAR topography to provide reach-scale width values for the analysis of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships along some streams in the Dolomites (northern Italy). Multiple reach-scale dimensions can provide representative geometries and statistics characterising the longitudinal variability in the channel, improving the understanding of geomorphic processes across networks. Starting from the minimum curvature derived from a LiDAR DTM, the proposed algorithm uses a statistical approach for the identification of the scale of analysis, and for the automatic characterisation of reach-scale bankfull widths. The downstream adjustment in channel morphology is then related to flow parameters (drainage area and stream power). With the correct planning of a LiDAR survey, uncertainties in the procedure are principally due to the resolution of the DTM. The outputs are in general comparable in quality to field survey measurements, and the procedure allows the quick comparison among different watersheds. The proposed automatic approach could improve knowledge about river systems with highly variable widths, and about systems in areas covered by vegetation or inaccessible to field surveys. With proven effectiveness, this research could offer an interesting starting point for the analysis of differences between watersheds, and to improve knowledge about downstream channel adjustment in relation, for example, to scale and landscape forcing (e.g. sediment transport, tectonics, lithology, climate, geomorphology, and anthropic pressure).

  12. A Comparison of Two Open Source LiDAR Surface Classification Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny G Marks

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the progression of LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging towards a mainstream resource management tool, it has become necessary to understand how best to process and analyze the data. While most ground surface identification algorithms remain proprietary and have high purchase costs; a few are openly available, free to use, and are supported by published results. Two of the latter are the multiscale curvature classification and the Boise Center Aerospace Laboratory LiDAR (BCAL algorithms. This study investigated the accuracy of these two algorithms (and a combination of the two to create a digital terrain model from a raw LiDAR point cloud in a semi-arid landscape. Accuracy of each algorithm was assessed via comparison with >7,000 high precision survey points stratified across six different cover types. The overall performance of both algorithms differed by only 2%; however, within specific cover types significant differences were observed in accuracy. The results highlight the accuracy of both algorithms across a variety of vegetation types, and ultimately suggest specific scenarios where one approach may outperform the other. Each algorithm produced similar results except in the ceanothus and conifer cover types where BCAL produced lower errors.

  13. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively. PMID:25207868

  14. Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth's surface revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past decade has seen an explosive increase in the number of peer reviewed papers reporting new scientific findings in geomorphology (including fans, channels, floodplains and landscape evolution), geologic mapping, tectonics and faulting, coastal processes, lava flows, hydrology (especially snow and runoff routing), glaciers and geo-archaeology. A common genesis of such findings is often newly available decimeter resolution ‘bare Earth’ geodetic images, derived from airborne laser swath mapping, a.k.a. airborne LiDAR, observations. In this paper we trace nearly a half century of advances in geodetic science made possible by space age technology, such as the invention of short-pulse-length high-pulse-rate lasers, solid state inertial measurement units, chip-based high speed electronics and the GPS satellite navigation system, that today make it possible to map hundreds of square kilometers of terrain in hours, even in areas covered with dense vegetation or shallow water. To illustrate the impact of the LiDAR observations we present examples of geodetic images that are not only stunning to the eye, but help researchers to develop quantitative models explaining how terrain evolved to its present form, and how it will likely change with time. Airborne LiDAR technology continues to develop quickly, promising ever more scientific discoveries in the years ahead. (review article)

  15. Measuring and mapping forest wildlife habitat characteristics using LiDAR remote sensing and multi-sensor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Peter

    Managing forests for multiple, often competing uses is challenging; managing Sierra National Forest's fire regime and California spotted owl habitat is difficult and compounded by lack of information about habitat quality. Consistent and accurate measurements of forest structure will reduce uncertainties regarding the amount of habitat reduction or alteration that spotted owls can tolerate. Current methods of measuring spotted owl habitat are mostly field-based and emphasize the important of canopy cover. However, this is more because of convenience than because canopy cover is a definitive predictor of owl presence or fecundity. Canopy cover is consistently and accurately measured in the field using a moosehorn densitometer; comparable measurements can be made using airphoto interpretation or from examining satellite imagery, but the results are not consistent. LiDAR remote sensing can produce consistent and accurate measurements of canopy cover, as well as other aspects of forest structure (such as canopy height and biomass) that are known or thought to be at least as predictive as canopy cover. Moreover, LiDAR can be used to produce maps of forest structure rather than the point samples available from field measurements. However, LiDAR data sets are expensive and not available everywhere. Combining LiDAR with other, remote sensing data sets with less expensive, wall-to-wall coverage will result in broader scale maps of forest structure than have heretofore been possible; these maps can then be used to analyze spotted owl habitat. My work consists of three parts: comparison of LiDAR estimates of forest structure with field measurements, statistical fusion of LiDAR and other remote sensing data sets to produce broad scale maps of forest structure, and analysis of California spotted owl presence and fecundity as a function of LiDAR-derived canopy structure. I found that LiDAR was able to replicate field measurements accurately. Additionally, I was able to statistically combine LiDAR with passive optical and RaDAR (SAR backscatter and InSAR range) data to produce broad scale maps of forest structure that are consistent and accurate relative to field data and LiDAR data alone. Finally, I was able to demonstrate that these forest structural attributes predict spotted owl presence and absence as well as productivity.

  16. Injecting External Solutions Into CMA-ES

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    This report considers how to inject external candidate solutions into the CMA-ES algorithm. The injected solutions might stem from a gradient or a Newton step, a surrogate model optimizer or any other oracle or search mechanism. They can also be the result of a repair mechanism, for example to render infeasible solutions feasible. Only small modifications to the CMA-ES are necessary to turn injection into a reliable and effective method: too long steps need to be tightly renormalized. The main objective of this report is to reveal this simple mechanism. Depending on the source of the injected solutions, interesting variants of CMA-ES arise. When the best-ever solution is always (re-)injected, an elitist variant of CMA-ES with weighted multi-recombination arises. When \\emph{all} solutions are injected from an \\emph{external} source, the resulting algorithm might be viewed as \\emph{adaptive encoding} with step-size control. In first experiments, injected solutions of very good quality lead to a convergence spee...

  17. ES Review: Selections from 2009 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, some of the best work from 2009-10. It features: (1) Teacher Quality (Teachers at Work: Improving Teacher Quality Through School Design (Elena Silva); Understanding Teachers Contracts (Andrew J. Rotherham); How Teachers Unions Lost the Media (Richard Whitmire and Andrew J.

  18. The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Food Handlers in Bahir Dar Town

    OpenAIRE

    Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh

    2012-01-01

    Background Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on e...

  19. LiDAR-Based Solar Mapping for Distributed Solar Plant Design and Grid Integration in San Antonio, Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan B. Le; Danial Kholdi; Hongjie Xie; Bing Dong; Rolando E. Vega

    2016-01-01

    This study represents advancements in the state-of-the-art of the solar energy industry by leveraging LiDAR-based building characterization for city-wide, distributed solar photovoltaics, solar maps, highlighting the distribution of solar energy across the city of San Antonio. A methodology is implemented to systematically derive the tilt and azimuth angles of each rooftop and to quantify solar direct, diffuse, and global horizontal irradiance for hundreds of buildings in a LiDAR tile scale, ...

  20. Above-Ground Biomass and Biomass Components Estimation Using LiDAR Data in a Coniferous Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Qisheng He; Erxue Chen; Ru An; Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to estimate forest above-ground biomass and biomass components in a stand of Picea crassifolia (a coniferous tree) located on Qilian Mountain, western China via low density small-footprint airborne LiDAR data. LiDAR points were first classified into ground points and vegetation points. After, vegetation statistics, including height quantiles, mean height, and fractional cover were calculated. Stepwise multiple regression models were used to develop equations that relate the ve...